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Semester 1, 2014-2015

IIT Gandhinagar

Pradeep Diwakar (Group G)

Roll no. 12110063

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

**PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
**

Abstract:

**The aim of this experiment is to determine the overall and individual heat
**

transfer coefficients in a plate heat exchanger. We were provided with a

stainless steel plate heat exchanger with the facility to measure inlet and

outlet temperatures of both hot and cold fluids. The flow rate was

measured for the hot fluid using the glass section. Six set of readings were

taken after keeping the cold fluid flow rate constant and decreasing the

hot fluid rate in each set.

The heat transfer coefficient of hot fluid was found to be 803.87 kCal/ hr-

m2-0C which has some significant error as compared to the theoretical

value of 645 kCal/hr-m2--oC.

Introduction:

**The conventional PHE consists of a stack of cold pressed, corrugated
**

metal plates clamped together in a frame. Sealing of gaps between plates

is accomplished by means of gaskets. These gaskets are designed with a

double seal that prevents the intermixing of the fluids.

**The corrugated patterns produce a three dimensional flow passage of
**

almost constant cross-sectional flow area. The corrugations increase the

plate rigidity, increase effective surface area and promote turbulence.

**Heat exchange takes place between the hot fluid and cold fluid through
**

convection.

Standard correlations for the heat transfer coefficient like Seider-Tate and

Dittus-Bolter for circular pipes are not available for non-corrugated PHE’s

however we used a similar correlation for determining the heat transfer

coefficient here.

The following formulae were used:

1. Q = �̇ Cp (T1-T2)

Where,

Q = Amount of heat transferred

2. log(ℎ)=log(�′′)+� ���(�̇)

Where,

�̇ = mass flow rate

Cp= Specific heat

h=heat rate coefficient

Procedure:

**We were provided with a stainless steel plate heat exchanger, an
**

insulated steel tank with a heater at the bottom, and temperature

indicator cum controller for controlling the hot fluid temperature in the

heater. The power supply was switched on after all the necessary

connections were made. The suction line of the cold fluid circulation was

then connected to the cold water supply line. The cooling water flow rate

was then adjusted to the maximum in order to make the cooling water

side resistance to heat transfer negligible. This flow rate was kept

constant throughout the experiment. We then started the hot fluid

circulation pump and slowly increased its speed. Now, we set the flow rate

initially to high value and then waited for the flow to reach steady state.

The inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluid was noted down.

We measured the flow rate by noting the time taken by the hot fluid to fill

up a certain volume in glass section. We then decreased the flow rate of

hot fluid and took the next set of readings when it was steady. Total 6

readings were taken down in the experiment.

Results:

1. Number of channels (N) = 6

2. Number of parallel channels for test fluid flow (Nh) = 3

3. Number of parallel channels for cooling water flow (Ne) = 4

4. Height of plate = 12.8 cm

5. Width of plate (w) =4.4 cm

6. Gap between the plates (b) = 0.09 cm

7. Volume of liquid collected each time = 416 cc (small) and 778 cc

(large)

8. Density of test fluid = 0.835 g/cc

9. Specific heat (Cp) = 0.626 kCal/kg-oC

10. Thermal conductivity (K) = 0.113 kCal/hr-m-oC

Table 1: Calculation of flow rate and inlet and outlet temperatures of hot

and cold fluids:

Mass

Volumet

Ob Time Flow

ric Flow

s. Requir Hot Fluid Cold Fluid rate

rate

No. ed (s) (kg/h

(cm3/s)

r)

Outl Outl

Inlet Inlet

et et

Tem Tem

Tem Tem

p. T1 p. T1

p. T2 p. T2

1 10.38 40.08 58.5 52.7 29.9 31.5 41.60

31.7

2 5.37 77.47 58.2 54.4 30.0 80.41

5

31.9 101.3

3 4.26 97.65 58.3 55.0 30.2

5 6

32.2 119.6

4 3.61 115.24 58.4 55.2 30.4

0 1

32.4 137.8

5 5.86 132.76 58.5 55.6 30.6

5 1

32.7 152.0

6 5.31 146.52 58.7 55.9 30.8

5 8

Table. 1

Log(U)

3

2.95 f(x) = 0.42x + 2.06

R² = 0.97

2.9

2.85

2.8

2.75

2.7

2.65

2.6

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3

Figure 1-Plot of log(U) vs log(�̇).

**Since this was an approximate graph so we used the best line fitting
**

function to get the equation of best fit line.

**The Equation of line in Figure 1 comes out as y = 0.4155x-2.058
**

The Slop of plot Log (Ui) vs Log (m) gives, a=0.4155

Using this a=0.4155, we get figure 2

1/U

0.0020

0.0018

f(x) = 0.01x + 0

0.0016 R² = 0.97

0.0014

0.0012

0.0010

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0.0000

0.1000 0.1200 0.1400 0.1600 0.1800 0.2000 0.2200

Figure 2. Plot of 1/U vs 1/ma

**Now, the Equation of line in Figure 2 comes out as y = 0.0085x-0.00004
**

Which gives the intercept as 0.00004

Now, ho = 1/intercept =1/0.00004 = 25000 kCal/hr-m2-0C

Using ho value we calculate the average of hi values using Table. 2.

**Amount of Overall heat
**

Obs. heat 0

C, transfer hi, (Kcal/hr-m2-

No. transferred LMTD coefficent(Ui), 0

C)

(Q), Kcal/hr Kcal/ hr-m2-0C

1 461.81 24.72 552.81 565.31

2 584.85 25.32 683.28 702.48

3 640.23 25.49 743.06 765.82

4 732.61 25.42 852.74 882.85

5 764.93 25.45 889.19 921.98

6 815.05 25.45 947.45 984.77

Table. 2

hi = 803.87 kCal/ hr-m2-0C

**The heat transfer coefficient on the oil side is found to be 803.87 kCal/hr-
**

m2-0C which has some significant error as compared to the theoretical

value of 645 kCal/hr-m2--oC.

Conclusions:

**Plate heat exchangers are called compact heat exchangers as they occupy
**

less space compared to the conventional shell and tube heat exchanger.

Though PHE’s are flexible, compact, thermal efficient and have low

investment cost still they suffer from some limitations like high pressure

drop plugging in the case of services involving slurries and maximum

permissible temperature which is indicated by the gasket material. With

the increase in hot fluid flow rate the amount of heat transfer was

increased as the heat transfer coefficient is directly proportional to the

velocity of fluid. LMTD and Overall heat transfer coefficient were increased

with the increase in mass flow rate.

Discussion

**We can say that the Plot of log(U) vs log(�̇) must be linear from the
**

definition but we came to know that from experimental data it was not

completely linear. There were some errors that make this difference like

the instrumental and human errors as we know the temperature of the

fluids is indicated by using temperature indicators and the flow was

assumed to be at steady state. So the apparatus is needed to be

calibrated and we should take each readings only after the steady state is

achieved. The Rate of hot fluid measure was also not accurate as the flow

of the fluid was not steady.

Appendix:

Sample Calculations for Set 1:

**1. Volumetric flow rate of hot fluid = 416/10.38 = 40.08 cc/s
**

2. Mass flow rate per plate (�̇) = 40.08*(3600/1000)*0.865/3 = 41.60

kg/hr

3. Amount of heat transferred (Q) = �̇* Nh*Cp*(T1-T2)

= 41.60*3*0.638*(58.5-52.7)

= 461.81 kCal/hr

**4. Logarithmic mean temperature difference
**

(Thi−Tci)−(Tho−Tco)

(Δ�lm) = Thi−Tci = 24.72

ln

Th 0−Tco

5. Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) = Q/(Ai (Δ���))

= 461.81/(0.0338*24.72)

U = 552.81 kCal/hr-m2-oC

6. 1/hi = 1/Ui - 1/ho

1/hi = 0.001769

hi = 565.31 kCal/hr-m2-oC

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