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**Semester 1, 2014-2015
**

IIT Gandhinagar

**Pradeep Diwakar (Group G)
**

Roll no. 12110063

**Heat transfer in turbulent flow
**

Heat transfer in turbulent flow

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is determine the overall heat transfer

coefficient in a double pipe heat exchanger for turbulent flow of internal fluid

and to study the effect of fluid velocity on the heat transfer efficient.

Theory:

At high Reynolds number (Re > 2100) the flow pattern is said to be turbulent

and the fluid flows in a very unordered manner. Heat transfer in turbulent

flow is calculated by using film theory and Nusselt number using Dittus-

Boelter equation.

**In a scenario where the cold fluid and the hot fluid are separated by a wall of
**

mentioned properties, the overall heat transfer coefficient is given by:

1 1 x 1 1

= + w + =

U i Ai hi A i k w A w ho A o U o A o

The middle term is neglected. And in our case we assume that Ai = Ao.

Hence,

1 1 1

= +

U i hi ho

**Now, for a very small hi inside resistance becomes the controller which is
**

expressed by equation

1 1

=

U i hi

**Dittus-Boelter equation which is used for determining hi for laminar flow is
**

given by:

Nu=0.023∗( ℜ)0.8∗( Pr )n

Where, n where n= 0.3 for cooling and 0.4 for heating.

Procedure:

Switch was turned on and cold fluid was allowed to flow through the outer

pipe. Constant flow rate is maintained for cold fluid whereas a regulator was

used for changing the flow rate of hot fluid. Now for a certain value of hot

fluid flow rate temperature readings for hot and cold fluids were noted, also

the flow rate was measured by noting the time taken by the oil to reach up to

a certain level in container. 10 sets of readings were noted assuring the

steady state every time.

**Observations and Calculations:
**

Inside diameter of inner tube =0.7cm

Length of heat exchanger = 100cm

Flow rate of cold fluid =450 lpm

Heat capacity of water = 1.0g/cm3

Thermal conductivity of water = 0.5kcal/hr

Specific heat of water(Cp-w)= 1.0 kCal/Kg- 0C

Density of water(ρw)= 1.0 gm/cm3

Thermal conductivity of water(Kw)= 0.53 kCal/hr-m-0C

Viscosity of water(μw)= 0.836 cp

**Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Vol.
**

Obs Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Corrected Flow Q Mass flow

. no tem temp. temp temp. Outlet rate (kcal/h rate (hot)

p. 0C 0C . 0C 0

C Temp. 0C (c.c/t) ) (kg/hr)

1252.8

1 59.8 54 36.5 -35.4 36.55 216 0 0.060

1368.0

2 60.8 55.1 37.2 -34.6 37.25 240 0 0.067

1388.8

3 61.2 55.6 37.8 -34.2 37.85 248 0 0.069

1399.2

4 61.4 56.1 38.4 -18 38.45 264 0 0.073

1404.0

5 60.7 56.2 38.8 -17.9 38.85 312 0 0.087

1444.8

6 60.7 56.4 39.3 -23.7 39.35 336 0 0.093

1566.0

7 60.8 56.3 39.6 -43.8 39.66 348 0 0.097

1636.8

8 60.6 56.2 40 -70 40.06 372 0 0.103

1821.6

9 60.5 55.9 40.5 -73 40.57 396 0 0.110

2448.0

10 60.7 55.6 40.8 -94 40.89 480 0 0.133

Table 1: Measured values:

**Obs. vel. Hot LMTD U Re Pr Nu hi pred hi
**

(kcal/hr (kCal/hr-

No. 0

fluid (m/s) C -m2-oC) m2-0C)

2813.4 23271.2 103.

1 1.56 20.24 8 8 3.43 66 7404.28 4088.84

3019.2 25856.9 112.

2 1.74 20.60 4 7 3.43 78 8055.44 3720.37

3087.1 26718.8 115.

3 1.79 20.45 4 7 3.43 77 8269.54 3622.20

3146.9 28442.6 121.

4 1.91 20.21 4 7 3.43 71 8693.67 3543.20

3266.1 33614.0 139.

5 2.26 19.54 7 7 3.43 11 9936.74 3403.32

3430.4 36199.7 147. 10543.6

6 2.43 19.14 2 6 3.43 61 6 3241.59

3779.6 37492.6 151. 10843.8

7 2.52 18.83 0 1 3.43 81 5 2981.32

4069.2 40078.3 160. 11438.1

8 2.69 18.28 9 1 3.43 13 1 2822.81

4713.0 42664.0 168. 12024.7

9 2.86 17.57 5 1 3.43 35 5 2578.49

6476.0 51713.9 196. 14025.3

10 3.47 17.18 4 5 3.43 35 3 2244.24

Table.2 Calculations

logm

2.65

f(x) = 1.21x - 1.82

2.6

2.55

2.5

log

2.45

2.4

2.35

2.3

2.25

2.2

3.4 3.45 3.5 3.55 3.6 3.65 3.7

**Figure1. Plot of Log U vs Log m
**

Using slope of the above best fit line in the graph we get,

1/m1.2142

0

0

0

0 f(x) = 5.45x - 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

**Figure 2. Plot of 1/U vs 1/m1.2142
**

Sample Calculation (for reading no.1):

Volumetric flow rate of hot fluid (v) = (V/t) = 216 cm3/s

Vel. of hot fluid (u) = (v/S) = 1.56 cm/s

Mass flow rate of hot fluid ( m ´ ) = 0.060 kg/hr

** Amount of heat transferred (Q) = m
**

´ Cp(T1-T2) = 1252.80 kCal/hr

(

( T 1−t1 ) −(T 2−t 2)

LMTD =

(

ln

T 1−t 1

T 2 −t 2 ) ) = 20.24 oC

** Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) = 2813.18 kCal/h-m2-oC
**

ρud

Reynolds number (Re) = μ = 23271.28

Prandtl No. (Pr) = 3.43

Nusselt’s number (Nu) = 103.66

Nu K

(hi)pred = D = 7404.28 kCal/h-m2-oC

** From graph, intercept (1/ho) = 0.0006
**

ho = 1666.67 kCal/h-m2-oC

(hi)observed= 1/(1/Ui – 1/ho)= 4089.47 kCal/h-m2-oC

Results:

Overall heat transfer coefficient = 2780.14 kcal/hr-m2-0C

hi observed = 3224.64 kcal/hr-m2-0C

hi predicted = 10123.54 kcal/hr-m2-0C

**Conclusion and Discussion:
**

The heat transfer coefficient continuously increases with increase in flow

rate. And from the experiment we can easily say that Dittus-Boelter equation

is best for calculating the heat transfer coefficient in case of Reynolds

number.

**In the observations we saw a significant difference in the observed values of
**

hi and calculated values of hi. Even in the graph we saw that the readings

were not accurate and because of that best fit option was used to eliminate

the points that were away from the line. The reason for this inaccuracy was

the errors in instrument and some human errors, such that we assumed

steady state and the temperature indicators may also have some error. So to

reduce such errors the instruments are needed to be calibrated before use.

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