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CL351: Chemical Engineering Lab-II

Semester 1, 2014-2015
IIT Gandhinagar

Pradeep Diwakar (Group G)
Roll no. 12110063

Heat transfer in turbulent flow
Heat transfer in turbulent flow
Objective:
The objective of this experiment is determine the overall heat transfer
coefficient in a double pipe heat exchanger for turbulent flow of internal fluid
and to study the effect of fluid velocity on the heat transfer efficient.

Theory:
At high Reynolds number (Re > 2100) the flow pattern is said to be turbulent
and the fluid flows in a very unordered manner. Heat transfer in turbulent
flow is calculated by using film theory and Nusselt number using Dittus-
Boelter equation.

In a scenario where the cold fluid and the hot fluid are separated by a wall of
mentioned properties, the overall heat transfer coefficient is given by:
1 1 x 1 1
= + w + =
U i Ai hi A i k w A w ho A o U o A o

The middle term is neglected. And in our case we assume that Ai = Ao.

Hence,
1 1 1
= +
U i hi ho

Now, for a very small hi inside resistance becomes the controller which is
expressed by equation
1 1
=
U i hi

Dittus-Boelter equation which is used for determining hi for laminar flow is
given by:

Nu=0.023∗( ℜ)0.8∗( Pr )n

Where, n where n= 0.3 for cooling and 0.4 for heating.

Procedure:
Switch was turned on and cold fluid was allowed to flow through the outer
pipe. Constant flow rate is maintained for cold fluid whereas a regulator was
used for changing the flow rate of hot fluid. Now for a certain value of hot
fluid flow rate temperature readings for hot and cold fluids were noted, also
the flow rate was measured by noting the time taken by the oil to reach up to
a certain level in container. 10 sets of readings were noted assuring the
steady state every time.

Observations and Calculations:
 Inside diameter of inner tube =0.7cm
 Length of heat exchanger = 100cm
 Flow rate of cold fluid =450 lpm
 Heat capacity of water = 1.0g/cm3
 Thermal conductivity of water = 0.5kcal/hr
 Specific heat of water(Cp-w)= 1.0 kCal/Kg- 0C
 Density of water(ρw)= 1.0 gm/cm3
 Thermal conductivity of water(Kw)= 0.53 kCal/hr-m-0C
 Viscosity of water(μw)= 0.836 cp

Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Vol.
Obs Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Corrected Flow Q Mass flow
. no tem temp. temp temp. Outlet rate (kcal/h rate (hot)
p. 0C 0C . 0C 0
C Temp. 0C (c.c/t) ) (kg/hr)
1252.8
1 59.8 54 36.5 -35.4 36.55 216 0 0.060
1368.0
2 60.8 55.1 37.2 -34.6 37.25 240 0 0.067
1388.8
3 61.2 55.6 37.8 -34.2 37.85 248 0 0.069
1399.2
4 61.4 56.1 38.4 -18 38.45 264 0 0.073
1404.0
5 60.7 56.2 38.8 -17.9 38.85 312 0 0.087
1444.8
6 60.7 56.4 39.3 -23.7 39.35 336 0 0.093
1566.0
7 60.8 56.3 39.6 -43.8 39.66 348 0 0.097
1636.8
8 60.6 56.2 40 -70 40.06 372 0 0.103
1821.6
9 60.5 55.9 40.5 -73 40.57 396 0 0.110
2448.0
10 60.7 55.6 40.8 -94 40.89 480 0 0.133
Table 1: Measured values:

Obs. vel. Hot LMTD U Re Pr Nu hi pred hi
(kcal/hr (kCal/hr-
No. 0
fluid (m/s) C -m2-oC) m2-0C)
2813.4 23271.2 103.
1 1.56 20.24 8 8 3.43 66 7404.28 4088.84
3019.2 25856.9 112.
2 1.74 20.60 4 7 3.43 78 8055.44 3720.37
3087.1 26718.8 115.
3 1.79 20.45 4 7 3.43 77 8269.54 3622.20
3146.9 28442.6 121.
4 1.91 20.21 4 7 3.43 71 8693.67 3543.20
3266.1 33614.0 139.
5 2.26 19.54 7 7 3.43 11 9936.74 3403.32
3430.4 36199.7 147. 10543.6
6 2.43 19.14 2 6 3.43 61 6 3241.59
3779.6 37492.6 151. 10843.8
7 2.52 18.83 0 1 3.43 81 5 2981.32
4069.2 40078.3 160. 11438.1
8 2.69 18.28 9 1 3.43 13 1 2822.81
4713.0 42664.0 168. 12024.7
9 2.86 17.57 5 1 3.43 35 5 2578.49
6476.0 51713.9 196. 14025.3
10 3.47 17.18 4 5 3.43 35 3 2244.24
Table.2 Calculations

logm
2.65
f(x) = 1.21x - 1.82
2.6

2.55

2.5
log
2.45

2.4

2.35

2.3

2.25

2.2
3.4 3.45 3.5 3.55 3.6 3.65 3.7

Figure1. Plot of Log U vs Log m
Using slope of the above best fit line in the graph we get,
1/m1.2142
0

0

0

0 f(x) = 5.45x - 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Figure 2. Plot of 1/U vs 1/m1.2142
Sample Calculation (for reading no.1):
 Volumetric flow rate of hot fluid (v) = (V/t) = 216 cm3/s
 Vel. of hot fluid (u) = (v/S) = 1.56 cm/s
 Mass flow rate of hot fluid ( m ´ ) = 0.060 kg/hr

 Amount of heat transferred (Q) = m
´ Cp(T1-T2) = 1252.80 kCal/hr

(
( T 1−t1 ) −(T 2−t 2)
 LMTD =
(
ln ⁡
T 1−t 1
T 2 −t 2 ) ) = 20.24 oC

 Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) = 2813.18 kCal/h-m2-oC
ρud
 Reynolds number (Re) = μ = 23271.28

 Prandtl No. (Pr) = 3.43
 Nusselt’s number (Nu) = 103.66
Nu K
 (hi)pred = D = 7404.28 kCal/h-m2-oC

 From graph, intercept (1/ho) = 0.0006
 ho = 1666.67 kCal/h-m2-oC
 (hi)observed= 1/(1/Ui – 1/ho)= 4089.47 kCal/h-m2-oC

Results:
Overall heat transfer coefficient = 2780.14 kcal/hr-m2-0C
hi observed = 3224.64 kcal/hr-m2-0C
hi predicted = 10123.54 kcal/hr-m2-0C

Conclusion and Discussion:
The heat transfer coefficient continuously increases with increase in flow
rate. And from the experiment we can easily say that Dittus-Boelter equation
is best for calculating the heat transfer coefficient in case of Reynolds
number.

In the observations we saw a significant difference in the observed values of
hi and calculated values of hi. Even in the graph we saw that the readings
were not accurate and because of that best fit option was used to eliminate
the points that were away from the line. The reason for this inaccuracy was
the errors in instrument and some human errors, such that we assumed
steady state and the temperature indicators may also have some error. So to
reduce such errors the instruments are needed to be calibrated before use.