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Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014
KDN PP5476/10/2012 (030203) ISSN 0126-513X

Majlis Bagi Sesi 2014/2015 (IEM Council Session 2014/2015)
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Dato’ Ir. Lim Chow Hock
Timbalan Yang Dipertua / Deputy President:
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Naib Yang Dipertua / Vice Presidents:
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Y.Bhg. Dato Ir. Dr Andy Seo Kian Haw, Ir., Prof. Dr. Lee Teang Shui, Ir. David Lai Kong Phooi,
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bekas yang dipertua / Past Presidents:
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Laidin, Y.Bhg. Dato’ Ir. Dr Gue See Sew, Y.Bhg. Datuk Ir. Prof. Dr Ow Chee Sheng,
CONTENTS
Y.Bhg. Academician Dato’ Ir. Prof. Dr Chuah Hean Teik
Wakil Am / Civil Representative:
Ir. Prof. Dr Mohd Zamin bin Jumaat
1 Exploring the Barriers and Driven Factors in Implementing
Wakil mekanikal / Mechanical Representative:
Ir. Dr Kannan M. Munisamy Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian
Wakil Elektik / Electrical Representative: Construction Industry: A Preliminary Study
Ir. Ali Askar bin Sher Mohamad by Zahriza Zakaria, Nasly Mohamed Ali, Ahmad Tarmizi Haron,
Wakil Struktur / Structural Representative: Amanda Marshall Ponting and Zuhairi Abd Hamid
Ir. Hooi Wing Chuen
Wakil Kimia / Chemical Representative: 11 Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter
Ir. Prof. Dr Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Raman
by Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and
wakil lain-lain displin / Representative to Other Disciplines:
Ir. S. Kumar a/l Subramaniam Dr Michelle Tan Tien Tien
wakil multimedia / Multimedia Representative:
Engr. Abdul Fattah bin Mohd. Yatim, M.I.E.M. 24 Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube
ahli majlis / Council Members: Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties
Ir. Dr Tan Kuang Leong, Ir. June Lau Yuk Ma, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Norlida bt. Buniyamin, Ir. by Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim and Dr Chuang Peng
Ishak bin Abdul Rahman, Y.Bhg. Dato’ Ir. Abdul Rashid bin Maidin, Ir. Lee Cheng Pay, Y.Bhg.
Dato’ Ir. Samsuddin bin Ismail, Ir. Lee Boon Chong, Ir. Tu Yong Eng, Ir. Lai Sze Ching, Ir. Lee
Weng Onn, Ir. Yap Soon Hoe, Ir. Li Thang Fai, Ir. Juares Rizal bin Abd. Hamid, Ir. Norazman 40 Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated
bin Mohamad Nor, Ir. Ellias bin Saidin, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Jimmy Mok Vee Hoong, Ir. Dr. Turbulence in a Shock Tube
Tan Chee Fai, Ir. Kok Hee Poh, Ir. Tiong Ngo Pu, Ir. Yau Chau Fong, Ir. Teh Piaw Ngi, Ir.
Tay Yuh Her, Ir. Chong Chin Meow, Ir. Chin Kuan Hwa, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Vigna Kumaran by Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Ramachandaramurthy
pengerusi cawangan / branch chairman: 49 Guideline for Authors
1. Pulau Pinang – Ir. Paul Phor Chi Wei
2. Selatan – Ir. David Lee Loke Hai
3. Perak – Ir. Dr Perumal Nallagownden
51 Referees Form
4. Kedah-Perlis – Ir. Chua Teik Seng
5. Negeri Sembilan – Ir. Hj. Baharuddin bin Ahmad Nasir
6. Kelantan – Ir. Hj. Syed Abdul Rahman bin Syed Abdullah
7. Terengganu – Ir. Mohd. Azmi bin Ali
8. Melaka – Ir. Vellan a/l Vengo @ Perumal
9. Sarawak – Ir. Haidell Heli
10. Sabah – Ir. Tan Koh Yon
11. Miri – Ir. Goh Soon Boon
12. Pahang – Ir. Tuan Haji Ahmad Kamal bin Kunji

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Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing
Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian
Construction Industry: A Preliminary Study
(Date received: 02.05.13/Date accepted: 20.12.2013)

Z., Zahrizan1; Nasly, Mohamed Ali1; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron1; Amanda Marshall-Ponting2; and Zuhairi, Abd. Hamid3
1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan
2
School of Build Environment, University of Salford Manchester, Salford, United Kingdom
3
Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM),
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), Cheras, Kuala Lumpur

E-mail: 1zahrizan@ump.edu.my; 1nasly@ump.edu.my; 1ahmadtarmizi@ump.edu.my;
2
A.J.Marshall-Ponting@salford.ac.uk; 3zuhairi@cidb.gov.my

ABSTRACT
In Malaysia, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has recently gained attraction from construction players and
some of them have applied it to several projects. By utilising the BIM process, the construction players have the
opportunity to plan, coordinate and design in an integrated approach. This is one of the many benefits that they could
gain and resulting in increased productivity. Despite these benefits, the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian
construction industry is still lagging behind Singapore, for instance. Thus, it warrants a study such as the present to
determine what are the actual barriers that hamper its implementation and what are the driving factors that could
enhance its pace of implementation in the Malaysian construction industry. In this study, a questionnaire survey
based on Convenience Sampling Method was carried out to gather the possible barriers and driving factors for
BIM implementation among the Malaysian construction players. Additionally, Relative Importance Indices (RII)
were used to analyse the data obtained and to identify those barriers and driving factors for the implementation of
BIM in this country. Consequently, results of this study revealed that the main barriers for implementing the BIM
are: 1) Lack of knowledge about BIM, 2) Reluctance and/or no insistence shown by the Malaysian construction
industry players (Clients, Contractors and Consultants alike) on the use or implementation of BIM. The driving
factors, on the other hand, that could lead to the speeding up of the implementation of BIM are: 1) Support and
enforcing the implementation of BIM by the Government, 2) promote BIM training program and 3) Initiatives of
senior management of the related industry players. In conclusion, for successful wide spread application of BIM
in Malaysia, a good push from the government alone is far from enough. All other construction industry players
mentioned must assume their roles well in promoting the use of BIM in their construction projects.
Keywords: Building Information Modelling, BIM, Malaysian Construction Industry, Barriers, Driving Factors

1.0 Introduction construction industry needs to evolve. The Malaysian
In Malaysia, the construction industry has been identified construction industry must upgrade the current construction
as an area that plays an important part in contributing to the approach, whether in terms of practice, management or
Malaysian economy and contributes to approximately 3 to technology in order to be globally competitive because
5 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually since the 1960’s, construction industry has not transformed
[1]. Although the Malaysian construction industry plays a much in terms of technology or construction approach and
significant role contributing to the growth of Malaysia’s still depends on traditional approaches and relies heavily
economy, in the era of globalisation the Malaysian on foreign labour [1 and 2].

Journal – The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014) 1

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;
Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

In order to improve the traditional approach in construction projects. In general, BIM can be viewed as
the construction industry, Information Technology/ a single respiratory system that supplies and receives any
Information System (IT/IS) can be utilised to increase the information in digital form related to construction projects.
productivities and transforms the Malaysian construction
industry. Researchers [3, 4 and 5] have discussed the
benefits of IT/IS applications. The benefits that could 3.0 The Challenges in implementing
be gained by implementing IT/IS are enhancing the Building Information Modelling
communication between parties, assisting in the decision (BIM)
making process, sharing updated information and There are many benefits that BIM can offer to the
accessing the information with ease [3, 4 and 5]. Realising Malaysian construction industry, especially in enhancing
these benefits, the government of Malaysia has been the communication between different parties in
promoting and pushing the industry to adopt and utilise IT/ construction projects. BIM is able to streamline and
IS in order to achieve the developed country status by the aids clear communication between client, consultant and
year 2020 [6]. Despite the numerous benefits that could be contractor in construction projects by providing a single
gained by the construction industry, Stewart & Mohamed respiratory system for exchanging digital information in
[7] found that the construction industry in Malaysia still one or more agreed format. Khanzode & Fisher [13] and
lags behind other industries in terms of implementing IT/ Azhar et al. [14] believe that, this approach can reduce
IS. This happens because the return in IT investments errors associated with inconsistent and uncoordinated
does not seem to be attractive. There are numerous factors project documents because BIM is capable of carrying
to this and the objective of this paper is to explore the information which are related to the building either
barriers and the driving factors that could contribute to its physical or functional characteristics. Furthermore,
implementing the new information technology especially Kymmell [12] and Taylor & Bernstein [11] believed
Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian that visualisation is one of the benefits gained when
construction industry. implementing BIM. The visualisation could help parties
that are involved in the construction projects to gain better
understanding of what they construct by creating detailed
2.0 Building Information Modelling 3D view. Kymmell [12] added that one of the critical tasks
(BIM): An Overview in Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) design
BIM can be viewed as a combination of advanced process is clash detection and without having good visualisation
and technology that offers a platform for collaboration tools, this task will consume time. Traditionally, in 2D
between different parties in the construction project by drawing, clash detection process is done by overlaying
exploiting the uses of Information Technology (IT). In 2D plan drawings to visualize the location of the system
the Malaysian construction industry, many construction components in 3D space. However, by the exploitations of
players regard BIM as a new technology because it is 3D parametric modelling between architect and structural
not widely used. Traditionally, a 2D design that has been engineer, this task can be done within a short time and
approved for construction will be checked manually. This is more accurate compared to traditional method. Other
method will consume time especially for complex designs. benefits that are gained by the utilisation of BIM are in
This traditional method involves manually checking for terms of cost estimating and planning and scheduling
discrepancies in designs depending on the complexity when the information on BIM incorporated time and cost.
of the designs. BIM can be referred as the process of In terms of cost estimating, BIM can facilitate quantity
creating and using 3D parametric computer-aided-design surveyor quantifying the cost and the material of the
(CAD) technologies for design that allows the exchanges projects in shorter time which can be reduced up to 80%
of information within a construction project team in a compared to traditional methods [14].
digital format [8, 9, 10 and 11]. This model can be passed Despite the numerous benefits from the utilisation of
digitally between consultants in the construction projects BIM, review of literature also has identified the factors
and the more important thing is that the model that is impeded the pace in implementing BIM in construction
created using BIM has a pool of information and is enabled industry. Griffith et al. [15], O’Brien [16] and Whyte &
with clash detection software to ensure coordination Bouchlaghem [17] believe that, the failure to implement
[12]. This approach is not only faster, but can reduce the new information technology (IT) in construction industry
chance of human error to a minimum. This model can be happens because of technical issues rather than social
passed to the contractor for estimating and planning the issues such as lack of technical expertise, the complexity

2 Journal – The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information
Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study

of the system and lack of support system. However, guarantee that each person participating in the organisation
Ruikar et al. [18] and Rojas & Locsin [19] have a different has the required technology and skill, therefore, the
view where they believe that people also play a part as the organisation could establish a technical support group
major barrier to implementing new IT in the construction to cater these problems and to solve any problems that
industry. Martinko et al. [20] added that, the failure in arise. This technical support group could disseminate their
changing people behaviour to handle new tools is the knowledge among the staff within an organisation and
most prominent factor of why people are reluctant to this activity could spread the spirit of knowledge sharing
adopt new technology. A survey done by Khemlani [21] among them. Support from the authority also plays a
revealed that the primary obstacles in implementing BIM significant role to promote the implementation of new IT.
is the resistance from employees who are reluctant to learn The authority could come out with an interactive package
something new and challenges because of their beliefs and to any construction players who are willing to implement
complacency with current status. new IT [26; 21 and 27].
Meanwhile, Stephenson, P. & Blaza, S. [22] and Love On top of cost, compatibility and complexity of the
et al. [23] added, besides the factors of technology and technology are also the factors that influence the adoption
people, the failure in implementing new technology is of new technology. Cost is a more subjective issue because
because of organisational problems. Some organisations it requires external factors such as regulations imposed by
are reluctant to change their business process because the government or clients. To increase the pace of adoption
they are afraid that by changing their business process, of new IT, higher compatibility and more user-friendly
it involves cost and jeopardises their established process technology are the characteristics that the technology
because they cannot accept the uncertainty. Some people must have [28] because, it is easy for people to accept and
in that organisation feel that the technology will take over use new technology if they are familiar with it. Besides,
their roles and feel anxiety towards changes especially the time required for training can be reduced.
when new technology is involved and this happens
because not many managers understand how to manage
technological change. Many organisations believe that 4.0 Methodology
implementing BIM will affect their established business In this study, an exploratory survey was used to discover
processes because implementing new technology will and identify the relative importance of the barriers and
reshape their business processes and during this process, the driven factors in implementing Building Information
productivity will suffer because the transition process from Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry
fragmented to collaborative in nature will put the project from the perception of clients, consultants and contractors.
outcomes and clients’ expectations at risk [24]. The survey questionnaire consists of three sections. The
To reduce the resistance from people to change, first section was to identify the respondents’ profile.
support from top management is very crucial [25] because The second section of the questionnaire focused on the
during the migration to a new technology, the role of barriers factors in implementing BIM and the last section
top management is very important to formulate the of the questionnaire was designed to identify the relative
strategies and direction of the organisation in adopting importance of the driving factors in implementing BIM.
new technology. This action shows the commitment of In order to identify the relative importance of the
the organisation in adopting new technology and it will barriers in implementing BIM, there was a total of 15
motivate their workers to implement new technology. variables used while to identify the relative importance
Motivation of the organisation is one of the approaches of the driving factors in implementing BIM, there was a
to reduce the resistance from people. Motivation by the total of 19 variables used and these variables were grouped
organisation could be one of the factors to build up self- into two categories: External Push and Internal Push. All
confidence to motivate individuals to use IT applications these variables were selected from the literature. The
[16]. According to Stewart & Mohamed [7] lack of respondents were asked to select their choices through
knowledge and skill in using the new technology could open-ended questions by ticking a column of the relative
lead to a hindrance of implementing new technology importance of each of the question. A five-point Likert
besides contributing to low self-confidence, therefore, a scale ranging from 1 which represented the least important
proper training provided by the organisation could reduce to 5 which represented the most important was being used
the resistance from people in the implementation. Training to capture the importance of the barriers and the driving
is one of the factors that could increase the pace in adopting factors in implementing Building Information Modelling
new IT, but according to Eastman et al. [9], it is hard to (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry.

Journal – The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014) 3

Therefore. a board of architects and engineers.650). Ahmad. June 2014) . No. Amanda Marshall-Ponting. The respondents also believed that Ui = Number of respondents placing an identical in the Malaysian construction industry.. the response to use BIM because they believe that new technology such rate gathered from the clients. especially for clients (response rate of clients. Nasly. (4) BIM is not required by other team members As shown in Table 1. Tarmizi Haron. giving a response rate of BIM (RII = 0. Abd Hamid Convenience sampling method was used although 5. after 5.1 Barriers in Implementing Building considering that this is a preliminary study. 50 sets of questionnaire request/enforce BIM (RII = 0.875). n = The highest attainable score (in this study n is 5) lacking in BIM training is not a factor that could hinder The value for RII ranges from 0 to 1 and the factors which the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction scored the highest value of RII are the most important industry. the operating cost. Mohamed Ali. Malaysia (Vol. Without about 30 to 40 percent since the middle of 1990. organisations are weighting/rating willing to send their staff to undergo related training in N = Sample size order to enhance their knowledge and skills. 48 firms responded. the respondents 4. out of the 150 questionnaires that (RII = 0. significant knowledge about BIM. The lack of knowledge about BIM in The low response from the respondents happened due terms of benefit to the operation and maintenance phase to their unawareness or they did not know of the existence in the project’s life cycle has a significant role on why or the term.950). consultants. convenience Information Modelling (BIM) sampling was considered appropriate [29]. They found out that creating a RII = Relative Importance Indices 3D model is easier using BIM technology compared to Pi = Respondents’ rating the traditional 3D [8]. (3) Reluctance from were sent to clients.950). each party is reluctant considering that this is a preliminary study. 1. the normal to the resistance in implementing BIM because in the average response rates for an organisational survey are construction industry it involves various parties. 4 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. For the weakest factors.592). The sample’s Table 2 illustrates the relative importance indices and the addresses were obtained from the company which rank for factors that hinder the implementation of BIM in registered with Construction Industry and Development the Malaysian construction industry by all respondents. and Zuhairi. The From Table 2.1 Method of Data Analysis believe that the cost to purchase the BIM technology is not so expensive compared to the benefits that can be The RII was calculated using the following formula: gained by utilising the BIM technology.608) and (3) BIM lacks features TOTAL 150 48 32% or flexibility to create a building model/drawing (RII = 0. therefore. lack of measurable data to measure the benefits and return from Respondents Questionnaire Responses Percentage the investments in information technologies also plays a distributed returned of major role to their reluctance. Z. In addition. Σ Pi Ui the respondents do not believe that BIM technology is RII = (1) N(n) lacking the flexibility to create a building model/drawing compared to the traditional 3 dimensional modelling Where: (3D) such as AutoCAD. The response rate was considered average and Lack of knowledge about BIM could contribute acceptable because according to Frohlich [30]. 75.833). However. contractors or consultants to implement BIM (RII consultants. Out of knowledge about BIM (RII = 0. Board (CIDB). the three least important factors Clients 50 4 8% that could hinder the implementation of BIM are (1) BIM Consultants 50 37 74% is too expensive (RII = 0. On top of that. are involved in construction projects are reluctant to use Table 1: Respondents’ Profile and Response Rate BIM in their construction projects. Zahrizan. factors. (2) Lack of training of Contractors 50 7 14% BIM software (RII = 0. contractors and consultants as BIM technology is difficult to learn and could increase which was 32% was considered appropriate. 50 sets to contractors and 50 set to clients. the top five most important factors that questionnaire was distributed via email to the 150 potential hinder the implementation of BIM are (1) Lack of respondents at all levels in their organisations. BIM. responses On the other hand. of 32%.0 Findings and Discussion this approach has its potential for bias. (2) Clients do not the 150 potential respondents. contractors and others parties that 8%) and contractors (response rate of 14%). thus. = 0.838) and (5) Lack of data of Return on Investment were sent.

675 11 0.925) 0.817 6 0. Contractors or Consultant to 0.761438 implement BIM 14 Lack of data of Return on Investment of BIM 0. government push is a must to implementing new 4) Provide a grant scheme for training BIM approaches.: ease of use) 0.792) Table 3 shows a summary of the relative importance From the different categories of the factors that could indices and the rank of the variables that could increase the increase the pace of implementation of BIM in the pace of implementing BIM identified by the respondents.437595 2 Existing CAD system fulfils our need to design and draft 0.808 7 0.668106 3 BIM is too expensive 0.905) is vital and without the enforcement from the government 5) Promotion and awareness road show about BIM in the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian (RII = 0. In 7) Incentive given by client such as tax reduction the UK for instance. 9) Technical support (RII = 0. it can be found that the top ten BIM compared to the Internal Push (RII = 0.838 4 0. Malaysian construction industry.831292 10 Application of BIM will affect the current productivity 0. Malaysia (Vol.2 Driving Factors in Implementing Building 10) Clients demand the application of BIM in their Information Modelling (BIM) project (RII = 0. 75.733869 9 Application of BIM will affect the current process practice 0.866025 13 Reluctance from Client.753244 15 Software related (i.800) Journal – The Institution of Engineers.950 2 0.950) and 2) BIM training program where both scored RII = 3) Leadership of senior management (RII = 0. (RII = 0.755).842) BIM as part of their policy and terms of contract and Hong Kong is assisting BIM [26. Singapore enforces the use of 8) Outsourcing BIM specialist (RII = 0. the respondents generally Table 3 also shows the relative importance indices of the agreed that External Push (RII = 0. it will be slow or stagnant.650 12 0.842) Australia is supporting BIM. most important factors that could increase the pace of The most important factors that could be the implementing BIM are: driving factors in implementing BIM in the Malaysian 1) Support and enforcement in the implementation of construction industry are 1) Support and enforcement BIM by the government (RII = 0. Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study Table 2: Rank for Factors of Barriers Factors why BIM is not being implemented in Malaysia RII Overall Rank SD 1 Lack of knowledge about BIM 0. 21 and 27]. Australia. the government is mandating BIM.437595 8 BIM is not required by other team members 0.e. No. Having a strong support from the government (RII = 0.779 9 0.650 13 0.950) in the implementation of BIM by the Government 2) BIM training program (RII = 0.988408 4 Lack of training on BIM software 0.918679 12 Lack of working procedures and standards 0.804 8 0.831292 11 Legal or contract issue 0. From Table 3.592 15 0.437595 drawing 7 Clients do not request/enforce BIM 0. June 2014) 5 .879) their construction industry through their governments.608 14 0.950. Other 6) Collaboration with universities (Research countries like the United Kingdom (UK). This indicates that in the Malaysian construction industry.892) construction industry.875 3 0.833 5 0. Hong collaboration and curriculum design for students) Kong and Singapore have implemented the use of BIM in (RII = 0.805) has a more categories that could increase the pace of implementing significant role to speed up the pace of implementation of BIM. 1.950 1 0.988408 5.668437 with the current drawing approach 6 BIM lacks features or flexibility to create a building model/ 0.898186 5 BIM does not reduce the time used on drafting compared 0.779 10 0.

925) has a significant Industrial Building System (IBS) in their construction impact to accelerate the pace of BIM implementation in projects [1] and this approach can also be used for those the Malaysian construction industry.950 2 1 0.742576 4 Outsourcing BIM specialist 0.646869 10 Leadership of senior management 0.952786 Internal Push 0. 1.989305 organisation to monitor the application of BIM 2 Require/hire BIM specialist 0. Mohamed Ali.437595 BIM by the government 6 Clients provide pilot project for BIM 0. Z.905). leadership of senior management (the third implemented this approach for contractors who implement most important factor with RII = 0.805 1 Clients willing to pay extra for BIM implementation 0.437595 9 Continuous investment in BIM 0.842 8 3 0. to implement new technology they need such as CIDB could conduct awareness roadshow about to change their current organisational structure and process BIM and promote the benefits of BIM. are reluctant to utilise information technologies.711793 2 Promotion and awareness road show about BIM 0.733 14 6 0. Abd Hamid Table 3: Rank of Driving Factors Factors that could increase the pace of RII Overall Rank Rank in SD implementing BIM in Malaysia Group External Push 0.71459 8 BIM training program 0.703336 Other roles that the government should do according players. Previously. 75.983688 3 Requirement for staff to be BIM competent 0.842 7 5 0.842).950 1 1 0.892 5 3 0. Nasly. Malaysia (Vol.733 13 8 0. No.92157 4 Provide a grant scheme for BIM training 0.925 3 2 0. Ahmad. Besides the push from the government and BIM training the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has program.952786 7 Technical support 0.608 18 10 0. This promotion and it could jeopardise their productivities. By having a series of awareness programme to to the respondents are providing a grant scheme for BIM disseminate the knowledge of BIM. Gilligan & Kunz who are implementing BIM in their construction projects. This happens could spark the curiosity about BIM among construction because the senior management do not really understand 6 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. it can convey the training (the fourth most important factor with RII = 0. can increase the pace of implementing BIM.797825 6 Standardise work procedure for BIM 0.981884 7 Collaboration with universities (Research 0. benefits that can be gained by implementing BIM to the conducting promotion and awareness road show about construction players.683 17 9 0.800 9 4 0.850271 5 Support and enforcement in the implementation of 0.721 15 7 0. Tarmizi Haron.792 11 5 0.824062 3 Incentive given by client such as a tax reduction 0.892) and in this promotion roadshow because involvements from giving tax reduction (the seventh most important factor private sector also play a significant role in speeding up with RII = 0.488 19 9 0. June 2014) . The respondents believe that by having a the process of adoption and implementation of BIM in the grant scheme for training and by giving tax reduction.792 10 6 0.92157 5 An organisational structure that supports BIM 0. Among The government through its representative bodies their excuses are.700 16 8 0.879 6 4 0. and Zuhairi.763 12 7 0.916505 collaboration and curriculum design for students) 8 Clients demand the application of BIM in their 0. they Malaysian construction industry. The private sector could take part BIM (the fifth most important factor with RII = 0.797825 project 9 BIM required by other project team members 0.. Zahrizan.775 1 Development of BIM department within an 0. [25] found that the resistance to change from the senior This approach could attract the attention of construction management is one of the factors why some organisations players. Amanda Marshall-Ponting.904 4 2 0.

2000 in Abdul Razak in adopting new Information Technology (IT). Malaysia (Vol. REFERENCES Fox & Hietanen [31] added. “An investigation of the status of the person participating in the organisation has the required Malaysian construction industry”. Benchmarking: An technology and skill. Roy.. 75. Betts. 2. Irani Z. Malaysia. [9] found out. it is hard to guarantee that each Imtiaz. K. It researchers to conduct research related to BIM and they can be concluded that the construction industry in Malaysia could collaborate with the industry to identifying the needs to evolve by upgrading the current construction needs and the area for exploration. O’Brien [16] revealed that. (2010). by just This is why collaboration with universities (Research having a strong support from the government alone is not collaboration and curriculum designed for students) is practical. Strategic management of IT in construction. T. done through research grants which are provided by the government such as Exploratory Research Grant (ERGS) or Science Fund. “Benchmarking and to solve any problems arise. Collaboration with approach. the organisations fail to realise about the benefit of Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia. contractors motivation by the senior management could be one of the or consultants to implement BIM. for example.800). D. some people have low self. management or local universities in research and development can be technology in order to meet the global standard. within an organisation and this activity could spread the Vol. Benchmarking: An International Journal.. A. because this action shows (BIM) can enhance the construction performance but the rate the commitment of the organisation in adopting new of implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction technology and it will motivate their workers to implement industry has been at a slow pace. 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In addition. therefore there are many opportunities for university ensure the success in implementing BIM in Malaysia. whether in terms of practice. Construction Industry Review 1980-2009 (Q1). Having a strong 6. in M (RII = 0.. BIM technology in Malaysia is really the government and the industry players work together to new. These issues need to be factors to build up self-confidence to motivate individuals addressed accordingly if the government wants to see the to use new technology applications. Bin Ibrahim. Having their own role by shifting the paradigm from using the a curriculum or course related to BIM could give the traditional approach into a more innovative approach. 4. 414-423. Zafar Ahmed and Ghaffar Eastman et al. Kuala Lumpur. and Baldwin L. M. pp.0 Conclusion support from senior management could ease the process of Many evidence show that Building Information Modelling migration at any organisation. implementing new technology is the lack of training Kuala Lumpur. Therefore. Malaysian construction industry: challenges and type of training should be based on the needs of and demands. Measuring the benefits of IT innovation. 0..842) and having technical support team (RII = Betts (ed. (2) Clients do not request/ technology because the lack of knowledge. However.). therefore enforce BIM and (3) Reluctance from clients. 10. Malaysian construction industry able to compete globally.. the [4] Baldwin. Oxford. 2000 in 3rd Annual Convention of Malaysian Structural Training is one of the factors that could increase the pace Steel Association. Key note address delivered on July 11 the organisation or individuals within an organisation. provided by the organisation for their staff. it can complement the training program provided Blackwell Science. No. that contributes to this situation are identified such as (1) confidence especially related with implementing new Lack of knowledge about BIM. Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study how to manage technological change. 288-310. Hansen. and respondents believe that by outsourcing BIM specialist Thorpe. To students an idea of what BIM is in the early stage and do this. and the level [2] Zaini. Blundell. establish a technical support group to cater these problems [3] Alshawi S. 2010. supports from the government also play a could play a major role in promoting BIM by providing significant role to increase the pace of BIM implementation curriculum or course related to BIM. spirit of knowledge sharing among them.

Rankin.. W. 3. P.. Amanda Marshall-Ponting. 34-39. R. [6] Mastura Jaafar. Vol. 2nd buildingthefuture/2005/CORENETePlanCheck. Proceedings of the 2011... 2008 Tse. No. Tarmizi Haron.. Vol.. pp. Managers. 38.sg/pdf/5_BIM. L. Maupin. and Zmud. “An [7] Steward. R. J.. J. P. No. New York.. 5 No. University of New South Wales. Sacks. 771-8. B.. No. L.. S. B. Proceedings of the 44th ASC Annual Conference. Zammuto.. Z. and Aiman-Smith. CA: Stanford University. L.L. 2. Palo Alto. Synthesis Journal Singapore. A. 2007. Architectural Management. 2000. Australia”. 75.. P. Vol.. 1. W. D. Vol. pp.G. D. 2008. and Yu. South Africa. 1. 29. REVIT [21] Khemlani. Research Methods. Mpumalunga. (2005). “Technology readiness among [19] Rojas. T. 3. S. Vol. “Project management [18] Ruikar.. L.. C.. 1. Teicholz. April 2-5.. New Jersey. L. Malaysia (Vol. S. J. Vol. Construction and Information Technology.. 1991. and New York. 2. 41. J. “Integrated practice: the road managers of Malaysian construction firms.E. F. Y. simulations. Irahi. Vol. dramatic growth. H. T. R. “Innovation alignment and project network dynamics: An integrative model for [12] Kymmell. and apparent business opportunity. 2000. (2000). M. [22] Stephenson. and Mohamed. June 2014) .G. CORENET e-plan check: INC. 29-34. change in construction organisations”. E.... 2003. J.pp. [27] Teo Ai Lin. E. K. pp. “IT G. 1. 39-62.aecbytes. P. L. pp. Modeling (BIM): Benefits. 69-76. AECbytes. 25. No 121. pp. 3. Hein.. 2001. [29] Frey. M. and Zuhairi. J. “Potential savings value.itsc. S. Anumba. CA: Stanford study for the steel structure of a medical office building”.R. 2008. C. No TR171. [26] Succar. Construction. E. ahead”. [24] Taylor. No..html Edition BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modelling for Owner.A.. 2010. Research Congress.. “Paradigm trajectories construction contractors in the state of Victoria. Automation in Construction. Decision Support Systems.. McGraw-Hill. 2007.org. Botan. W. Vol. CIFE Technical Report. and Thorpe. of Implementation”. 3. VDC Use in 2007: Significant [13] Khanzode. and Liston. Friedman. 222-35. Investigating Communication: An introduction to implementation in the construction organization”.. & Bernstein. Palo Alto. Building information modeling: Planning change”. R. 357-375.... 2007. Ramayah and Abdul-Rashid Abdul- Aziz and Basri Saad. in Engineering.J. 12 No. pp.E. of building information modelling practice in project Construction Innovation. “An empirical analysis of the barriers to implementing e-commerce in small-medium sized [11] Taylor. 5.. No. White Paper: The Five Fallacies of BIM. and Carrillo. 2008. 16. W. 3. Li.. 2006 available at: http:// “Why New Technologies Fail: Overcoming the Invisibility www. 31-41. A. and Blaza. No. [28] Lederer. “Building Smart – A Strategy for Implementing BIM Solution in Singapore”. T.. Alabama. Singapore’s automated code checking system. Industrial Management. Designers. Z. pp. “Building information modelling framework: A research and delivery foundation for industry [14] Azhar. John Wiley and Sons. & Levitt.. Evelyn and Cheng Tai Fatt. 2002.pdf. and managing construction projects with 4D CAD and 22-35. 14 No. 2005. “Implementation Issues In Project Web Web”. Australian Centre for Construction Behaviour & Information Technology. [25] Giligan. Integrated Information attributional explanation of individual resistance to the Resources: Impediments and Coping Strategies in introduction of information technologies in the workplace”. Abd Hamid [5] Froese. models and computer assisted construction perspectives on use of project extranets in construction planning in total project systems”. J. available at: http://www. R. Nasly. “Implementing technological and Contractors. ASCE Journal of Management in Engineering. 2007. Vol. Proceedings of the 2007 ASCE Construction Construction and Architectural Management. K. Sena. Henry. W. Building Information Modeling Trends Smart Market Report.. pp. Project Management Journal. R. [23] Love. Zahrizan. and Locsin. IT in Construction in Africa conference. Engineering. D. and Fisher. 8 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Auburn. Ahmad. P.. 9 (5-6). Y. & Kunz. C. Vol. 313-330. 371-377. 2001. “End-user applications. and Sketo. and Kreps. No. T. 15.. Cheng. C. Risks and Challenges”. J. Vol.. [15] Griffith. networks”. 180-191. pp. Bouchlaghem... P. [20] Martinko. 1997. [8] Revit.. Journal of Management 282. “The technology acceptance model and the World Wide [16] O’Brien. pp. [10] McGraw-Hill Construction. Engineering Construction and Architectural Management. “Building Information stakeholders”. Inc. J. 1996.com/ [9] Eastman. Journal of Construction organisations”. K. Engineers. Prentice Hall. Mohamed Ali. McGraw-Hill. M. 2008. and Zhuang.. No3.H. Engineerin”. P.M. pp. 18.M. pp. [17] Whyte. B.. M. No. Vol. 1999. 269- Sites: A Practitioner’s Viewpoint”. Innovation. University. from standardized electronic information exchange: A case CIFE Technical Rep.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) since 2003. 25. Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) as a senior lecturer. J. In 1980. pp. pp. “Inter-organizational use of in Operations Management Survey Research”. He obtained his PhD in Building Information Modelling from University of Salford in 2013. No. Currently he was continuing his study at UMP at PhD level in the field of IT in construction focusing on Building Information Modelling. After graduated from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. M. Because of her passion in information system. He actives in involving with local construction working committee such as appointed by CIDB Malaysia as External Independent Reviewer for CIDB BIM Access Portal and as Research and Technical Committee for Building Information Modelling for Industrialised Building System which is appointed by CREAM CIDB Malaysia. June 2014) 9 . After graduated she appointed as Assistant Lecturer UTM. 289-296. 2007. Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) since then. Operations Management. She was being offered to continue her study in PhD majoring in structural at University of Strathclyde and obtain her PhD in 1986. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Finite Elements. 20.. Social aspects of urban regeneration and sustainability. Her research interest and expertise are within the area of application of information systems for the construction application. She obtained her Diploma in Civil Engineering from UTM in 1977. Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies. he serves as lecturer at Universiti Malaysia Pahang from 2005 until 2007 before continue his study in PhD at University of Salford. His research interest is within the area of Strategic Management of IT in Construction. & Hietanen. she gained her first class BSc (Hons) Civil Engineering from University of Strathclyde. Managing change and IT implementation. Construction Management and Economics. His research interest and expertise are within the area of IT in construction.. He obtained her first degree in BEng (Hons) in Civil Engineering majoring in Construction Management from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2003. Nasly Mohamed Ali was appointed as a Professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources. construction management. After that he is pursuing his Master in Construction Management at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and gained his Master Degree in 2005. “Techniques for improving response rates [31] Fox. 75. S. Structural dynamic (wind engineering and earthquake engineering) and prefabricated building construction. she was a professor at Faculty of Civil Engineering. Before she joins UMP. Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies. managing change and IT implementation. He gained his Master Degree in Civil from Universiti Malaysia Pahang in 2007 and appointed as a lecturer at Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources. Vol. Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study [30] Frohlich.. Vol. informational and transformational effects”. she enrols as a Master Degree student majoring in Information Technology Management at UTM and obtained her master degree in 2002. 53-62. profiles Zahrizan Zakaria started his career as an Engineer for a contractor company for 5 years after obtaining his BEng (Hons) in Civil Engineering from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in 1999. 1. T. Journal of building information models: Potential for automation. Managing change and IT implementation. Malaysia (Vol. Ahmad Tarmizi Haron currently attached at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources. 2002.

He is a Professional Engineer (P. Zuhairi Abd. assistant director of planning. in 1998 he joined CIDB as a senior manager at the Technology Development Division and was then appointed to his current post at CREAM. Malaysia (FIEM) and also sits as a Board Member in the United Nation support International Research Council. Hamid is the Executive Director of the Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM). a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers. building and district engineer. Managing change and IT implementation. Amanda Marshall-Ponting. Malaysia (Vol. 10 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. bridge. 2006. UTHM. a research institute established under the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) which he joined in January. He holds a B. UNITEN. He has worked under various capacities such as a road. 1. Her actives in many international working committees such developing Intel-City Roadmap Project and developing research links between the USA and the EU and funded by the NSF (National Science Foundation. She obtained her first degree in BSc (Hons) in Applied Psychology from Liverpool John Moores University in 1999. and Zuhairi. planning participation systems. University of Salford as a senior lecturer. Z. VR. Abd Hamid Amanda Marshall Ponting currently attached at the School of Built Environment. Mohamed Ali. Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies. Later. Ahmad. Nasly. She then gained her Master in Resources Informatics from University of Manchester in 2000 and her PhD in nD modelling from University of Salford in 2006.) Civil from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (Hons. multi- dimensional modelling). Her research interest and expertise are within the area of application of information systems in the Built Environment (GIS. Japan and a PhD in IT Construction majoring in Healthcare Facilities Management from the University of Salford. Tarmizi Haron. Zahrizan.. and a forensic and structural design engineer. Social aspects of urban regeneration and sustainability.Eng. No. UPNM and UiTM. June 2014) .Eng. United Kingdom. a Masters Degree in Structural Dynamic Engineering from the Kanazawa University. the internet. USA).) in the Board of Engineers Malaysia. 75. He also serves as construction industry advisor to UTM. He has over 27 years of experience in the construction industry and started his professional career as a civil and structural engineer with the Public Works Department of Malaysia in 1984. CIB “Conseil International du Bâtiment” (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction).

all feedback controlled power converters exhibit certain non-linear phenomena over a specific breadth of parameter values. Malaysia *Corresponding author: kokchiang. Thus. Even basic DC/DC converters exhibit bifurcation and chaos phenomena as well as parallel-connected DC/DC converters and PFC system.2013) Ir. Bhd. The main source of such non-linearity is the switching mechanism of the converters. No. Hopf bifurcations are normally attained when the value of some bifurcation may be present when a road vehicle under characteristic parameter is increased. For certain values of the input voltage.ng@leonghing.. Selangor. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. 43000 Kajang. It time. when stress on the system is increased. 43500 Semenyih. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin2. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter (Date received: 11. Dr Michelle Tan Tien Tien3 1 Leong Hing Sdn. The analysis and conclusion presented in this paper will provide an overview of the bifurcation behaviour of the DC-to-DC buck converter. This paper examines the bifurcation behaviour of the buck converter in an ideal case when the input voltage is varied. Voltage collapse would probably be unavoidable.12. Selangor. 75.05. Dr Ng Kok Chiang*1. Keywords: Bifurcation. 1. Seksyen 4. Knowledge of the paths taken or not taken would be Bifurcation is also known as the emergence of a further required to identify the state of the system at any point in pattern of behaviour or string of states for a system. bifurcation establishes history. Successive Bifurcations exist in mechanical systems too [1-5]. In the worst case. An analogy would steering control loses its stability. the territory of circuitry.com ABSTRACT The bifurcation and chaos phenomena appeared in power system have become a focus subject at present. Non-linear components of the converter circuit and control scheme such as the use of naturally-sampled. these non-linear phenomena are by and large not thoroughly understood by engineers. It has become apparent about a decade ago that power converters exhibit various types of non-linear behaviour which includes all kinds of bifurcations and chaos. Chaos. Jalan Broga. Semenyih. Selangor. the be that of a person walking down the road. The computer simulation scheme. 43500 Kajang. that there is not a unified criterion to identify them. and a periodic attractor that might boundary when the user demand for power arrives at its become unstable and be replaced with a chaotic attractor peaks. June 2014) 11 . Malaysia 3 The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus.13/Date accepted: 20. In other words. Buck Converter 1. Non-linear Behaviour. 1. Rich bifurcation phenomena can The qualitative change is followed by a change of the be found in power systems. the more side streets or other routes The mechanisms of bifurcation and chaos are so complex appear. A simple example oscillations and bifurcations due to the movement of the would be that of a fixed attractor that might cave in to a dynamics of an electric power network towards its stability periodic oscillation. The existence of bifurcations is unavoidable in the can be thought of as a qualitative change in an attractor’s realm of nonlinear dynamical systems. No. constant-frequency PWM further contribute to the non-linear behaviour of converters such as a DC-to-DC buck converter. Despite being commonly encountered by power electronics engineers. which is beyond structure when a control parameter is smoothly changed. Jalan P4/7. An example would be the stability in the attractor too [1]. aspiring to draw attention of the power electronics and the circuits and systems communities to a field that is not often researched and examined. Malaysia 2 Universiti Tenaga Nasional. PSPICE is employed to model the behaviour of the ideal buck converter. Bandar Teknologi Kajang. Vin instability occurs. Malaysia (Vol. Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN.0 Introduction distance he travels. The longer the development of chaos and hyperchaos might take place.

infinite off resistance. the inductor L. As the switches turn off and may exist a number of control parameters for which fine turn on in a complementary way. from the discussion above. It is surprising the error amplifier and an infinite gain comparator. Bifurcations are also observed in various fields very similar to that proposed by Fossas and Olivar [6]. 8-10]. Ir. instantaneously allowing tuning is necessary to obtain the bifurcations intended. such as chemistry. 5]. The three the frequency of the sawtooth generator to be of constant typical types of bifurcation which are known as the co. The that local instability and complex dynamical behaviour PWM controls the ideal switch. 1. The imaginary part of the crossing Behaviour – The value of Vin as the bifurcation parameter pair gives the angular frequency of the bifurcations. this part of the switched regulator of the buck converter [6]. switching frequency and by altering the on-interval of the dimension-one bifurcations are the stationary. vehicles and The PSPICE Model for this study – The PSPICE schematic ships. the other hand. and a difference comparator which forms the bifurcations are ever-present in most physical systems error amplifier circuit of the buck converter. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. 2.4 in the Fossas and Olivar’s paper with an ideal Thus. crossed by a real eigenvalue at period-1. The simulations carried out in this study seek to it is just a simple two-degree-of-freedom. Michelle Tan Tien Tien Period-doubling bifurcations which would ultimately lead orbit bifurcates at a period-doubling bifurcation point to chaos may be experienced by a hopping robot even if [6-10]. the border of stability is Vref. 5]. A limit cycle bifurcates in the Procedures in Obtaining the Waveforms for Bifurcation time-continuous case. Both the switches S1 and S2 have zero on and feedback means of the system is not robust enough [1]. No. Malaysia (Vol. This could also lead to disasters if the oscillations of the closed-loop voltage feedback buck converter and chaotic motions created by the bifurcations are not used in this study is depicted in Figure 1. 3-5]. Such mechanisms of eigenvalue over the border of stability.0 Methodology in the dynamics of aero-engine compressors. the discontinuous conduction A stationary bifurcation involves the crossing of a single mode can be assumed to be avoided. while a period-2 switching frequency f of the ramp generator. and can switch instantaneously. of 8. 3. S1 and is the most complex exist in such controlled systems but in actual fact. Hopf bifurcations the switches also cater for the existence of light load levels on the other hand involve the crossing of a conjugate pair [6. On and even chaos instead of a global unboundedness. flexible. Hopf and switch. 75. The bifurcation which is to obtain the bifurcation waveforms. (for example. The output voltage is controlled by setting complex behaviour can be observed [1. to be below a critical speed happens while in flight [1. The the continuous systems is known as the period doubling fixed value parameters which include the reference voltage bifurcation. do exhibit all types of bifurcation. In many nonlinear systems. The PWM circuit consists of the wave generator. When S1 is on. controls. the capacitor C. Bifurcations may also occur when an aircraft stalls border of stability occurs and the type of bifurcations that due to over a critical angle-of-attack. and the ramp 12 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. in chemical reaction The changes made in this PSPICE circuit however are and fluid dynamics). over the border of stability. Vibration or wave frequencies that approximate to the natural frequency of the machine can cause bifurcations 2. bifurcations supplies energy to the load resistance and the inductor. The signal divergence caused due to the movement of Both the S1 and S2 switches work in a complementary poles when the control progress continues may eventually manner. or reduction of speed occur in the buck converter. a quasiperiodic bifurcation is varied throughout the series of simulations carried out orbit is normally obtained [1]. S2 will be off and the input voltage lead to some local self-excited oscillations. The circuit is controlled. The switch ratio which can be characterised as the period doubling bifurcations. when S2 is off and S1 is on. In in the PSPICE model of the buck converter in Figure 1 the discrete case however. Such bifurcations are termed ratio of the on-time to the switching period is changed co-dimension-one bifurcation due to the fact that there through the PWM switching. In this bifurcation. robot identify the bifurcation points where the crossing of the arm. the inductor The popular automatic gain control loops and all other current decays while flowing through the switch S2 and at types of controlled and uncontrolled pendula would be the same time transfers some of the stored energy to the among others examples of controlled systems where load resistor. buck converter circuit in this study uses a PWM integrator including some closed-loop systems which have feedback circuit. can happen due to the poles movement of the closed. All the components used in this PSPICE model are ideal loop transfer function over the stability border when the components. bi-directional current flow. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. The switched even when subject to controls. the load resistor R. it can be said that multiplier. The simulations are possible in the discrete dynamical systems and absent in carried out with other circuit parameters held constant. weather dynamics and biological the replacement of one of the comparators with a gain population dynamics [1. June 2014) .

switch S1 is v) Switching Frequency. A comparator then compares the error integrator output voltage with iii) Inductor.3 V then input into the multiplier which would amplify the ii) Load Resistor. the output voltage is fed into an error Table 1: Values of Fixed Circuit Parameters integrator. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter Figure 1: PSPICE Schematic of a Closed-loop Voltage Feedback DC-to-DC Buck Converter upper and lower voltages are as summarised in the Table 3. 3. 75. a of Vin. The difference between the two is i) Reference Voltage. switch S1 will be turned off and S2 turned on [6]. VL 8. The switches S1 and S2 are controlled by the output of the comparator.2 V of 8. and trajectories (phase portrait diagrams) different differential equations can be used to represent are shown in the Discussion and Results section for all the buck converter modelled as in equations 2. The corresponding voltage and current waveforms piecewise-linear vector field described by two sets of FFT spectrum. 1. June 2014) 13 .0 Discussions and Results 1 below. C 47 μF magnitude of the sawtooth wave voltage is greater than that of the error integrator output voltage. f 2.4 would be: vco (t) = 8. The difference comparator in the integrator of the Buck Converter compares the output voltage with a reference voltage which is chosen to be 11. when the sawtooth wave voltage is less than the integrator vi) Ramp Upper Voltage.5 kHz (Period = 400 μs) turned on and switch S2 is turned off. In the present case.4. and thereafter to chaos via routes of period-doubling bifurcation. Malaysia (Vol. No. R 22 ohm output of the difference comparator by 8. Vref 11. Vu 3. The output of the error integrator which has a gain vii) Ramp Lower Voltage. and progressed through to period-1. If the iv) Capacitor.3V.8 V output voltage. L 20 mH the output of the sawtooth generator. and cases from when the circuit started out in stable state 5 [11-15]. period-4. On the other hand.4(v(t) – Vref) Equation 1 The input voltage Vin is varied from 20V to 40V and the buck converter circuit is simulated at the different values The discontinuous conduction mode does not occur. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. 4. period-2.

S1 is on and S2 is off): Equation 2 Equation 8 Equation 3 where I is the identity matrix. Since the bifurcate into a period-2 domain.e. As for the trajectory or the phase where VL and VU are the lower and upper voltages of the portrait when Vin is equal 20V in Figure 5. where little hiccups can be seen the number of triangular ramp wave cycles in a period in the voltage output and the inductor current waveforms. and the inductor current and Equation 5 Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum are presented as follows in their respective graphs. The operation of the The system continues to show period-1 behaviour buck converter can be seen from both points of view: until Vin reaches 28V. From the output Let and and given that: voltage waveform and the inductor current waveform that are depicted in Figures 10 and 11. the inductor current is essentially a nonautonomous system. The PSPICE model of the buck converter is simulated for Vin being varied from 20V to 40V in steps Equation 4 of 1V with the critical waveforms when changes occur. Malaysia (Vol.e.e.35V can be seen in Figures 14 to 17. Crucial information about the output voltage (which is also the capacitor voltage).e. Period-8 bifurcation waveforms which is observed when Vin is set to be 32. The input voltage Vin is chosen as the bifurcation parameter for the study of the bifurcation behaviour of the buck When vco (t) < vramp (t) (i. However. S1 is on and S2 is off): converter. respectively. the trajectory or the phase portrait when Vin is equations is linear. a period-4 bifurcation occurs. Since the system of differential Moreover. Period-8 bifurcation lasts for the smallest range of Vin values from Vin = 32. the system starts to autonomous system and nonautonomous system. are set to be vo = v(to) and io = i(to). a normal sawtooth wave which are of the value 3. 23]. as can be seen from Figures 2 and where v is the voltage through the capacitor and I is the 3.2V period-1 loop is noticed [16-24]. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. and T is its period. show the hiccups when Vin = 28V to be worse here. demonstrating The sawtooth voltage is given by equation 6 below: the period-1 stable operation of the buck converter. It can be clearly observed sawtooth wave has an externally determined periodicity. Beyond and including the threshold of Vin = 32V. of the output waveform. At Vin = 28V. it from the output voltage waveform. and 8 respectively. 1. When Vin = 20V. This observation is further strengthened by its Fast Fourier vramp (t) = VL + (VU – VL) t/T Equation 6 Transform (FFT) Spectrum shown in Figure 4 where narrowband. The trajectory The solution for the differential equations above would be has now bifurcated into a period-4 portrait where a double equations 7 and 8: image of the period-2 trajectory is observed as in Figure When vco (t) > vramp (t) (i. waveform and the FFT spectrum waveforms in Figures The periodicity in this case would then be determined by 6. 7. Michelle Tan Tien Tien When vco (t) > vramp (t) (i. the exact solution for each of the equal to 28V shown in Figure 9 shows a two-branch loop differential equation is obtainable if the initial conditions of a period-2 attractor [21. discontinuous and isolated frequency harmonics can be seen. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. No. Ir. 75. the waveforms still follow a general form of repetition [22]. S1 is off and S2 is on): When vco (t) < vramp (t) (i. S1 is off and S2 is on): 13.8V and 8.35V to Vin = 33V. the output voltage and the inductor current waveforms intensity of the current in the inductor. Equation 7 14 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. June 2014) . The period-2 bifurcation only lasted for a narrow range of Vin value up to 32V. in time domain are both periodic in nature.

1. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter Figure 2: Output Voltage. IL at Vin = 20V Figure 4: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 20V Figure 5: Trajectory when Vin = 20V Journal – The Institution of Engineers. 75. No. June 2014) 15 . VC at Vin = 20V Figure 3: Inductor Current. Malaysia (Vol.

No. 75. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. Malaysia (Vol. VC at Vin = 28V Figure 7: Inductor Current. IL at Vin = 28V Figure 8: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 28V Figure 9: Trajectory when Vin = 28V 16 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Michelle Tan Tien Tien Figure 6: Output Voltage. Ir. 1. June 2014) .

VC at Vin = 32V Figure 11: Inductor Current. June 2014) 17 . IL at Vin = 32V Figure 12: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 32V Figure 13: Trajectory when Vin = 32V Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Malaysia (Vol. 75. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter Figure 10: Output Voltage. No. 1.

1. Michelle Tan Tien Tien Figure 14: Output Voltage.35V Figure 16: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 32. Malaysia (Vol. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. VC at Vin = 32. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr.35V Figure 15: Inductor Current.35V Figure 17: Trajectory when Vin = 32. Ir. 75. IL at Vin = 32. No. June 2014) .35V 18 Journal – The Institution of Engineers.

VC at Vin = 33V Figure 19: Inductor Current. June 2014) 19 . 1. 75. Malaysia (Vol. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter Figure 18: Output Voltage. IL at Vin = 33V Figure 20: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 33V Figure 21: Trajectory when Vin = 33V Journal – The Institution of Engineers. No.

June 2014) . Malaysia (Vol. Michelle Tan Tien Tien Figure 22: Output Voltage. IL at Vin = 40V Figure 24: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 40V Figure 25: Trajectory when Vin = 40V 20 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. 1. Ir. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. No. 75. VC at Vin = 40V Figure 23: Inductor Current.

di Bernardo. pp. To confirm that the buck voltage should be varied so as to enable the study of non- converter continues to operate in the chaotic region after linear effects they might have on buck converter operation. Vin = 33V. simulations when Vin = 40V was carried out The ultimate goal of all these studies on the non-linear and as expected. reliability and performance of the converters when operating in unstable modes or even chaotically. Jan. orbit and subsequently into period-4 and period-8 orbits 990-997. 4.” Proceedings of IEEE. the knowledge of the system behaviour in 4-31.” IEEE Transactions on Circuits Systems I. Jefferies. Moiola and H. The output voltage and There are still much to be pursued both in the study the inductor current waveforms do not follow a specific of the non-linear behaviour of power electronics and the form of repetition and are of random structures [24-28]. The trajectory however. Chen. November 1980. Figures 5. IEEE Circuits converter in PSPICE in this study. Also. and lastly to chaotic operation of the buck converter pp. 13-25. doubling bifurcations leading to a stepwise transition from [4] C. When border [6] E. 90.” IEEE Circuits and Systems its extensive applications in industrial and engineering Society Newsletter. 10. R. future Figure 20. the results obtained as depicted in Figures behaviour of the DC-to-DC converters is to gain adequate 22 to 25 point to operation of the buck converter in the information and understanding of the system behaviour for chaotic domain. pp. work needs to be done on investigating the bifurcation further emphasises that the buck converter is now operating behaviour of the buck converter when other parameters in the chaotic region. different behaviour when a parameter of the circuit is Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Fossas and G. “Study of chaos in the buck collision occurs at a much higher input voltage. the inductance. no. June 2014) 21 .C. Electronic and Information Engineering. better design. R. Brockett. no. the system converter. development of more effective control strategies for these Furthermore. “Complex Behavior in period-1 behaviour to chaos. pathway that is observed involves that of smooth period doubling. they can be both important and of the output voltage and the inductor current of the buck beneficial. exhibits a besides Vin are varied. 18-20.K. Figure 21 shows the chaotic waveform the switching frequency. The bifurcation 43. No. f and the amplitude of the ramp corresponding to Vin = 33V. J. Rashid. vol. “Recent Development in the Study of Nonlinear investigated with the modelling and simulation of the buck Phenomena in Power Electronics Circuits”. period-4. It has been found that and Systems Society Newsletter. no. different regions of parameter space should be crucial. Olivar. pp.” IEEE of symmetry as can be seen in the trajectory waveforms. pp. June/July 1999. when the input voltage is increased further.0 Conclusion Being one of the simplest of the DC-to-DC converters. 14-48. Power Electronics Circuits. vol.K. 27. 2004. Other parameters in the circuit such strange attractor which signifies chaotic behaviour [16. are phase portrait diagrams which show the progression of Special Issue on Application of Nonlinear Dynamics to the change from period-1 to period-2. [2] M. the operation of the buck converter changed. 17.” IEEE voltage is increased the system bifurcates into period-2 Transactions on Circuits and Systems. as the load resistance. Devices. May 2002. pp.O. converter as in Figures 18 and 19. vol. the Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum in behaviours. March Issue. 1996.B. and 21 Switching Power Converters. Random. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter At Vin = 33V. and especially in designing the buck converter for sensitive Applications. applications.H. Tse. Tse and M. Baillieul. 5. Washburn. Following this study for example. the voltage mode controlled buck converter has been [3] C. vol. Wang “Bifurcations: to many practical DC-to-DC converters. an infinite period moves into the chaotic region. (Third Edition) University of West Florida: equipment.W. due to Control and Anti-Control. 35. 25-27]. the buck converter system experiences the normal period 2000. The bifurcation phenomenon and chaos in Pearson – Prentice Hall International Edition. vol. the input voltage. Hamill and D. the capacitor C. If bifurcations are under disjoint and aperiodic nature is evident in the waveforms appropriate control. but as the input “Chaotic Motion in Nonlinear Feedback Systems.768-781. and R. 11.L. Period doubling bifurcation concerns the break [7] D. 1059-1061. unsymmetrical will ultimately lead to chaos. For low values of [5] J. “Subharmonics and Chaos in a Controlled Switched-mode Power Converter. 2. period-8. is also known as the sudden appearance of a qualitatively August 1988. 1. which has a continuous and broadband nature. when Vin is varied from 20V to 33V. functionality. When period doubling recurs. 13. L. the system is periodic. Malaysia (Vol. 75. It Transactions on Circuit Systems I. the buck converter is chosen to be the subject of this study References because of its widespread representation of the circuit [1] G.J. inevitably moves into the chaotic region. 9.

M. [18] R. IEEE 36th.M.” IEEE Bifurcation and Chaos. American Applied Research. Ir. Gavagsaz-Ghoachani. June 2014) .C.” Phys. A.K. August 1995.” IEEE [9] J. Wu Jun- Converter. vol. 1129-1142. Mirus and J. Rev. March 2012.G. “Experimental Control of Chaotic Behavior of a Buck [24] Lu Wei-Guo. “Bifurcation 268.B.C. 43. S. Luo Quan-Ming. subharmonics [19] K.C..” in IEEE Power high dimensional system with periodic parametric Electronics Specialists Conference Record. 1314 2003. Chakrabarty. Chakrabarty and S. Lett. PESC chaos by weak periodic perturbations. pp. A. [20] G. 2001. Michelle Tan Tien Tien [8] J. S. 191-194. 395- on Circuits and Systems I. B. 75. Goldhirsch “Taming chaotic dynamics Help_periodicals.” International Journal of Unloading Transient Response of Buck Converters. 1. converter. and S. 262-273. Bass. 1993. “Analysis and Control [17] P.” IEEE Transactions a digital dynamic time-delayed control. 1990. Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. “Non-invasive chaos control of DC-DC converter and vol.C. 66. [27] Karama Kaoubaâ. “Improved static and dynamic Current-Programmed DC/DC Boost Converters: From performances of a two-cell DC-DC buck converter using Quasi-Periodicity to Period-Doubling. 502-504. 3459-3471. behavior in buck converter.” Control Engineering [12] Poddar. Transactions on Power Electronics. Deane and D. and stability study of a hybrid current controller for a boost 1990. 13. 3. Practice. Pelaez-Restrepo.” International Journal of Latin Phys. B. vol. [26] El Aroudi. April 2012. “Applying and Applications. pp.” IEEE 1998.B. vol. no. 275-278. Jul.” Using Harmonic Balance. 8.” [15] R. K. II. Banerjee. vol. vol. E. May 1996. “Types of Instability Electronics.” Phys. Gautam. 31. 1989. M. Colet and Y.” IEEE Transactions on Power [10] P. C. Feki. “Stability Analysis of a Voltage 2545-2548. vol.C. Braiman “Control of chaos in multimode of Period-Doubling Bifurcation in Buck Converters solid state lasers by the use of small periodic perturbations. Feb 2011. Hamill. Tse. pp. perturbations. 11. A254. pp. 1990. 1996.” International Journal of Circuit Theory [13] Y. 5. Chattering.K. Krein and R.491-498. 1990. [11] J.M. Pettini “Suppression of chaos by resonant parametric perturbations. Podder. Chan and C. No. vol. 439-447. no. 11. Deane and D. http://ieeexplore.” vol 40. Phattanasak. Chacón and J. John PESC’90.B.” in APEC’90. and Chaos. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Cortés-Romero. “Study of Bifurcations in Robert. Unboundedness.M. pp. pp. 22 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Lima and M. pp.C. 1991 Mode Controlled Two-Cells DC-DC Buck Converter. 39. Chen. “Robust input–output sliding mode Record. pp. 27. Simulation vol. Hamill. control of the buck converter. J. subharmonics Circuits and Systems Society Newsletter.” [23] Hebertt Sira-Ramírez. pp 159–174.A. vol. Martin.ieee. Banerjee. Encountered in Simple Power Electronics Circuits: [22] R. 2005. Pierfederici. Rev. Malaysia (Vol. pp. “Analysis. A41. Rev. 1999. Lett.” Phys. 71. May 2013. Alberto Luviano-Juárez. E53. “Chaos: Control and Anti-Control. pp. Braiman and I. ‘05. Hamill.P. Zhou Luo-Wei. Tse.” Phys. Davat “Predicting the onset of bifurcation IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference Proceedings. 407. and Experimental Study of Chaos in the Buck Converter. pp. Lau. no. El Aroudi. Qiu and F. pp. “Instability.” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I. [16] W. Díaz Bejarano “Routes to suppressing Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Deane and D. 1-5. May 2013. Sprott “Controlling chaos a and chaos in power electronics systems. 149-156.html with weak periodic perturbations. no.T. Ke. 44. Eyad H. “Digital Buck DC/DC Converter with Phase Shift and Frequency Charge Balance Controller to Improve the Loading/ Mismatch Consideration. its optimization. Vol.H. June 2005. Transactions on Power Electronics.260- [21] K. pp. December 1997... March and chaos in power electronics systems. Rev. Zhou. Zhiliang Zhang. 42. Resonant Parametric Perturbation to Control Chaos in the [25] Meyer. 726-733. -1326. Robert. 200-206.H. 12. 91. 1057-1061.34. pp.” Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. G. 3103-3106. [28] Chung-Chieh Fang. B. “Instability. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. Lett.org/Xplorehelp/ [14] Y.H.Y. 21. Abed. Yan-Fei Liu. pp 671-678. J.

Among the prominent solutions founded were the advanced switching mechanism in the Nexcap storage to efficiently capture minuscule trickle of charges. Tokyo. with emphasis on graphene. Her current research interests include power conversion systems and bidirectional isolated dc-dc converters. Wales.D. and the advanced Sunopy solar system. degree in Electrical & Electronic Engineering at Swansea University. Malaysia.. and a Professional Engineer with the R&D Centre at Leong Hing Sdn. degree from Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Ir. intelligent control systems incorporating power electronics device. in 2010. He is currently the Chief Technology Officer of MyBig Sdn. metal oxide and graphene/metal oxide composites. and MOSTI (Fabrication of Advanced Supercapacitors). involved in research and prototyping projects in collaboration with various Malaysian Government Agencies and research bodies. UK where she also completed her PhD on using one dimensional Zinc Oxide nanowires for bio-sensing application. Since October 2010. Malaysia Rubber Board (energy management. control. Dr Tan is a Graduate Member of the Institution of Engineers. She received the B. Dr Ng Kok Chiang in his course of research and work had liaised with various organisations such as E. of which is currently funded by the Ministry of Science Technology & Innovation (MOSTI). a Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). 75. Japan. Kajang.ON (Power and Gas). artificial intelligent. degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology. Malaysia. NADIA TAN MEI LIN was born in Kuala Lumpur. Jaguar/Land Rover (supercapacitors in automotive industry/electric cars).K. and the Ph. June 2014) 23 . her research also focuses on incorporating graphene composites for application in critical and hard environments. 1. Lockheed Martin. such as aerospace applications. UK and graduated with a PhD in Engineering having worked in the area of renewable energy and its storage for three and a half years. (Hons.Eng. she has been a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Power Engineering. No. Michelle’s current research focuses on the synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials for bio-sensing applications. Malaysia. Malaysia (IEM). Investment Finance (Derivatives). all in electrical engineering. the M. Besides that. Sheffield. and a Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). and Managerial Accounting. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. He then furthered his studies to the University of Nottingham. U. She received her BEng. in 2007. MICHELLE TAN TIEN TIEN is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter profiles NG KOK CHIANG graduated from the University of Western Australia with first class honours in Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical & Electronics and Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Accounting. Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Bhd. Bhd.Eng. Malaysia (Vol.) degree from the University of Sheffield. and electronics). in 2002. Battelle (lab management and commercialisation).

Cornwall Campus. 1. Dr Ng Kok Chiang*1. Keywords: Energy Storage. Malaysia (Vol. The interconnected nanoporous structure been put for developing more sustainable energy storage of CNTs specifically opened mesopores allows better devices such as supercapacitors. No. University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. Dr Chuang Peng3 R&D Centre. Penryn. Selangor. 24 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. These conducting polymer [3] and carbon-based supercapacitors sectors heavily rely on the use of supercapacitors as energy [4]. Bandar Teknologi Kajang. Siew Shee Lim2. Additionally. Subsequently. The reducing presence of SnCl2 accelerated the deposition of MnO2 from 7 days to a day. The superior electrochemical performance ease of functionalization. Semenyih. Malaysia 3 Renewable Energy Research Group. Jalan Broga. CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites were characterised by X-ray diffraction. University of Exeter. They provide than activated carbon in term of conductivity.2013/Date accepted: 05. Jalan P4/7. Selangor. Faculty of Engineering. Supercapacitors 1. corrosion higher power densities. higher energy densities and longer resistance. Due to those forementioned of supercapacitors is mainly attributed to the electrode properties of CNTs. Leong Hing Sdn. Malaysia 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. No. charge storage capacities and exceptional cycling stability. Seksyen 4. temperature stability and cycle life [1]. increased utilisation of co-deposited cassiterite-type SnO2 nanoparticulates and birnessite MnO2 monolayer. All these enhanced electrochemical properties were attributed to increased surface area. mechanical strength. Manganese Oxide.1.0 Introduction In the case of carbon-based supercapacitors. CNTs are much better by showing best power characteristics. Three main materials for fabricating based (CNTs) supercapacitors was first adopted in supercapacitors are metal oxide [2]. the development of carbon nanotube- materials used. June 2014) . Cornwall. 1 43500. scanning and transmission electron microscopy. 43500 Semenyih. carbon- The depletion of fossil fuel has urged the development of nanotubes (CNTs) have been heavily used as electrode more sustainable energy sources. electronically American aerospace and military application. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties (Date received: 20.09.05. Nanocomposites. These microstructure and electrochemical results indicated that this nanocomposite showed synergetic effect in term of specific capacitance. storage devices in their light weight hybrid system such as electric satellite. Moreover. their improved electronic conductivity facilitated better mass transport of ions during charging and discharging process. and galvanostatic charge-discharge. cyclic voltammetry. Ms.ng@leonghing. Mathematics and Physical Sciences. Extensive efforts have materials. Bhd. Supercapacitors fill in mass transport of ions during charging and discharging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries than activated carbon. Cassiterite. 75. pulse power and propulsion systems [5]. CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite will be served as promising and affordable positive electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors.com ABSTRACT The synthesis of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites were first attempted through combining the hydro-oxidation of SnCl2 to SnO2 and the reduction of KMnO4 to MnO2 onto CNTs in this work.. UK TR 10 9EZ *Corresponding author: kokchiang. Based on the findings above.2014) Ir. College of Engineering.

exhibited. Fe2O3 [27. SnO2 has also been reported to synthesised MnO2 embedded in PPy besides improving its be inserted in various different transition metal oxides charge-discharge stability by Sharma et al. 102 to 103 RuO2 has very high specific capacitance but is low S/cm [35. cycle life. In the recent [6]. 36] of SnO2 is also higher than that of MnO2 (10- in conductivity [10. to date. Hu [15]. Remarkably high specific with SnO2 prepared via potentiodynamic deposition at capacitance was achieved with the electrochemically a scan rate of 200 mV/s. [32]. capacitive reactions. PbO2 [26]. Such composites The tendency to form nanoparticulate. The high conductivity.5 mA/cm2. even in the hydrous have resulted in the reduction of the overall cost of the form. In this work. In particular. in some complicated oxides with RuO2. SnO2 is supercapacitor have emphasized on the deposition also known to have lower toxicity as compared to some of transition metal oxides which have higher specific other transition metal compounds used in supercapacitors capacitance onto CNTs to enhance the pseudocapacitance [12. and PPy [32]. [14]. June 2014) 25 . showed F/g can be achieved at scan rates of 10 and 200 mV/s significant reversible electrochemical capacity at high respectively on SnO2 prepared by cathodic deposition at discharge rate (up to 70 mAh/g at I = 70 mA/cm2) [33. NiO. there have not been any studies to supercapacitor applications due to its pseudo-capacitive combine the MnO2 with SnO2. This drawback of RuO2 may be overcome by and SnO2 was attempted and the deposition of MnO4 was introducing a more conducting oxide such as SnO2 which accelerated due to the reducing presence of SnCl2. which would in turn improve its usages are only limited to thin film applications in the electrochemical utilisation of MnO2 when combined consumer products such as mobile phone and portable with the SnO2. This material has traditionally been investigated metal oxides and conducting polymers combined with for lithium ion battery applications but gained light in the MnO2 for the improvement of the specific capacitance recent years with the growing demand for greater power include NiO [22]. They successfully demonstrated the deposition of years. can increase the specific area available for pseudo- synthesis due to the known high cost of the RuO2 oxides. For instance. MnO2. [16]. SnO2 has also been combined with other different deposition methods and studied in term of metal oxides such as Al2O3 [17]. SnO2 has below. 28]. two Manganese dioxide. V2O5 [18]. [7] MoO2 [29]. [23-25] also Miura [8] on the other hand also reported a maximum reported improvement with the addition of Co2O3 in the specific capacitance of 285 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s specific capacitance of MnO2. in applications utilising supercapacitors. 38-40]. No. hydrothermal synthesis by Wang and than CNTs. Transition metal oxides such as MnO2. 13]. i. MnO2 has been extensively reported in a wide MnO2 and SnO2 onto CNTs through simple redox and range of journals as a promising electrode material for hydro-oxidation reactions separately. Malaysia (Vol. This is due to the fact that transition composites include the DC reactive sputtering carried out metal oxides exhibit fairly higher electronic conductivity by Kim et al. Both CNTs/MnO2 the electrochemical capacitors. The has shown that specific capacitances of 298 F/g and 125 Ni-Mn hydroxide reported by Shlyakhtin et al. effect of combining the oxide with other transition metal capacitance behaviour with long cycle life in aqueous oxides or conducting polymers [21]. There have been attempts to further adsorption and fast redox reactions. improve the performance of MnO2 by seeking synergetic SnO2 has recently been reported to exhibit pseudo. co-annealing by Hu et al. Rajendra Prasad and 34]. on-going researches on CNT-based devices as transparent conducting materials [12]. Wu et al. Among the transition solutions. The various synthesis methods for the Ru-Sn performance of CNTs. 75. PANI [31]. despite the high specific and other encouraging properties as will be discussed capacitance achievable by both oxides [6]. This is due to its low cost and CNTs/SnO2 nanocomposites served as positive and and the environmental consideration when compared to negative electrode respectively and showed superior other oxides besides the fairly high pseudo-capacitance charge-storage capacity. The investigation on this oxide started with only and electrochemical kinetics. and In2O3 [19]. Co2O3 have been introduced onto CNTs through by Wu et al. Prasad and Miura [26] and Zhao et al. 11]. V2O5 [30]. 1. SnO2 has been extensively studied properties which are complementary to those of MnO2. their electrochemical performance.e. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties Recently. or conducting polymers [9] as mixed composites for However. The is traditionally used in many semiconductor and electronic synergetic effects of the combined metal oxides in term Journal – The Institution of Engineers. the co-deposition of MnO2 electronics. on the other hand has separate nanocomposites namely CNTs/MnO2 and CNTs/ always been utilised in many electrochemical power SnO2 were synthesized and reported to show improved sources dating back to the work of Leclanché in the 1980s pseudo-capacitance in the work by Ng and co-workers in his work with alkaline batteries [20]. [16] and sol gel process SnO2. a constant current of 2. Co2O3 [22]. high cell voltage. Because of this very reason 3 to 10-4 S/cm) [37. The improved capacitance 6 papers from the year 1999-2000 to more than 75 papers was observed as these nanomaterials combined both ion from 2004-2007.

t. Ir. 5-15 μm in length.t. electrode for electrochemical studies – 95% w. Thus. 98%) was dissolved in 50. MWNTs-1030. 26 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. In Figure 1. No. the CNTs substrate Nitrogen sorption isotherms and textural properties of the has actually provided a synergetic effect with its structure materials were determined at 77 K using liquid nitrogen in improving the overall surface area of the nanocomposite. >95%. The (Sn+Mn)Ox on their of the nanocomposites powders. but a decreasing trend thereafter. This would also CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites – The ground elucidate the reason behind the maximum surface area nanocomposites were characterised by an Environmental achieved at 60% w. formed would have higher porosity than that of the pure Preparation of nanocomposite thin-films on mixed-oxides. hence in desiccators overnight before electrochemical studies the decrease in the BET surface area. Dr Chuang Peng of electrochemical performance will be further discussed. would be associated with the radiation).01 H BET CNTs providing a three-dimensional nanostructure for the surface area analyser was used to evaluate the surface area deposition of the mixed-oxides. 107. the BET surface area of the 30 nm in diameter. solution to synthesise nanocomposites with the mixed. in a conventional volumetric method. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. oxides. the corrosion phenomenon by KMnO4 on (Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite of different oxide loading the CNTs at high loading of MnO2 which was previously and 5% w. Ms. The seen from the declining rate of decrease in surface area dried products were ground using an agate and pestle.0 μl of the mixture decrease in surface area as the mixed-oxides loadings was cast onto epoxy-sheathed graphite electrode (0.0 mL of HCl (30% w. amorphous carbon < nanocomposites shows an increasing trend up to a mixed- 3%). agglomerates with low porosity.t. 75. of the nanocomposites as the loading of the mixed-oxides Chemical and structural characterisation of increases beyond the 60% w. The initial increase in surface area can be attributed to oxide loadings of 60% w. Hiltonbrooks DG3 than that of the acid-treated CNTs. This is because if the surface Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. (AUTOLAB PGSTAT30) in a one-compartment three- The nanocomposite synthesised is denoted as CNTs/ electrode cell with the Ag/AgCl (2M KCl) reference (Sn+Mn) Ox.05-0.75 m2/g.0 Results and Discussions of SnCl2 salt (Sigma-Aldrich. Malaysia (Vol.21 g of KMnO4 the fact that the mixed-oxides by themselves may have a was added to obtain a Sn:Mn ratio of 1:1 in the deposited higher surface area as compared to the CNTs.) and of different (Sn+Mn)Ox loadings. may also be associated in diameter) to form a very thin nanocomposite film using with the destruction of porous structure provided by the electronic micropipette (EDP3 Rainin LTS 10-100 μL CNTs substrate due to the corrosion by KMnO4.t.t. PTFE binder (60% w. electrode and a graphite counter electrode at room temperature. However.0 Figure 1 shows the BET surface area of the nanocomposites mL of deionised H2O with 1. As stated before. The dispersed in 4ml of deionised water. 10mg of acid-treated CNTs were immersed in SnCl2 oxides loading of 60% w.t.t. a low resolution TEM (LR-TEM.t. the nanocomposites in the partial pressure (P/P0) range of 0. brown precipitate was settled at the would be expected to be slightly less than the surface bottom of the flask. oxides loading but higher 2000FX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The mixtures were stirred at 200 rpm for 24 hours. June 2014) . 1. Aldrich) were thoroughly CNTs substrate in the CNTs/MnO2 nanocomposite. The surface areas of With the mixed-oxides depositing onto the CNT substrate the nanocomposites were calculated using the Brunauer.0 Methodology Synthesis of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites – 1. 10. aqueous emulsion reported [29] shortened and destroyed the structure of the of polytetrafluroethylene.t.t.0g 3. the maximum achieved generator plus Philips PW1050/25 goniometer. CNTs/ In addition. CuKα at the loading of 60% w. All samples were dried own may not be able to achieve as high BET surface area thoroughly in the conventional oven before the degassing without the acid-treated CNTs because they may exist as and further heating at 100 °C for 60 minutes in the machine. The products were filtered and washed area recorded for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 80% as can be with deionised H2O prior to 24-hour drying at 60°C. JEOL the nanocomposite with 80% w. When with wide orifice tips). 10. Subsequently. 2. A Micromeritics ASAP 2020 V3. Philips FEI XL30 area of the mixed-oxides on their own is slightly less than FEG-ESEM). Siew Shee Lim.35. loading. the continuously stirred for 1 hour before the addition of acid surface area of the acid-treated CNTs was found to be treated multi-walled CNTs (L. Thin nanocomposite films (65μm this happens. instead of forming agglomerates together with the nature Emmett-Teller (BET) technique based on adsorption data of the random packing of the CNTs. the synergetic effect provided by the long on average thickness) on graphite electrodes were dried entangled framework of the CNTs would be lost. 1.25cm are increased beyond 60% w. the surface area of the mixed-oxides by themselves only After 24-hr stirring. loading.t.

SEM images of the CNTs/ (Sn+Mn)Ox high surface area due to the size and it is also because 60% w. The deposition mechanism of MnO2 on of nanocomposite. The structural destruction of CNTs was caused by the reduction co-deposited oxides on CNTs at the metal oxide loading of reaction of KMnO4 to MnO2 in which the carbon in CNTs 60% w.t. The deposition of (Sn+Mn)Ox agglomerates at nanoscale.t. No. This is because the nanoparticulates themselves have very Figures 2 (a) and (b). Figures 3 (a) to (e) show TEM images of the CNTs/ Figures 2 (a) and (b) show the SEM images of the (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t caused an overall increase in the fibril diameter was consumed. This would allow a better kinetic reversibility and improve the capacitance of the nanocomposite. The co-deposition of metal oxides. The consumption of carbon however.000 times morphology of the nanocomposites as viewed under the SEM machine. thus. Thus. (Sn+Mn)Ox in 10% increments) As the co-deposition of the mixed-oxides is uneven on (b) 60% w. did not cause opening blocking to the randomly in the reduction reaction resulted in the formation of packed CNTs bundles.t. nanocomposites at different (f) and (g) depict the darkfield images of the fibrils of magnifications. co-deposition of metal oxide was formed on the surface Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Broken CNT fibrils heavily coated CNTs clearly shown in Figures 2 (a-b) were caused by the with (Sn+Mn)Ox were observed in Figures 3 (a-b). CNTs is shown as below [6]. nanocomposites at magnifications of 80. the porous three-dimensional structure of CNTs was still retained.t. Uniform coating of oxides on the surface CNTs without jagged texture as in our case of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn) Ox would increase the diameter of the nanocomposite fibrils uniformly. June 2014) 27 .t. Such porous structure was necessary for the ease of intercalations and deintercalations of cations from the electrolyte during the charge and discharge cycles.e. nanocomposite. (a) 60% w. the surface of the CNTs. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties of CNT substrate. from 20% to 60% w. These SEM images indicated that shorter fibrils. Jagged and consistent coarse surfaces of the nanocomposites.000 of these nano-agglomerates which promotes the jagged and 160. Figure 1: BET surface area of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites at different loadings of (Sn+Mn)Ox (i. would be expected to show lower surface area as compared to the acid-treated CNTs.t. The nanocrystalline particulates of 4 nm in diameter of the SnO2 which are enveloped by the amorphous MnO2 as seen in the HR-TEM images have certainly contributed to the increase in surface area of the nanocomposites. 75. the mixed-oxides would in effect introduce more overall surface area to the nanocomposite as compared to oxides which uniformly coat the CNTs. Malaysia (Vol. while Figures 3 CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. 1.

1. Dr Chuang Peng Figure 3: TEM images of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. Ir. Siew Shee Lim. This was believed that those agglomerates of CNTs was confirmed by the darkfield images in Figures were mixture of nanoparticulates of SnO2 and MnO2 28 Journal – The Institution of Engineers.t. No. June 2014) . Ms. The bright spots on the darker fibrils were K2CO3 (aq) + 2KHCO3 (aq) the deposited metal oxides through redox reaction. 75. Agglomerates with thickness of 5-10 nm were observed The distribution of the metal oxide across the surface in Figure 3 (e). nanocomposite at different magnifications 4KMnO4 (aq) + 3C (s) + H2O g 4MnO2 (s) + (1) 3 (f) and (g). Malaysia (Vol.

The thin coating of both metal oxides led to reduced electron transport lengths and ion diffusion distances. Malaysia (Vol. it was found that CNTs were still instrumental in the co- deposition. one nanocomposite surface.t. subsequent in situ oxidisation to measured d-spacing for the fringes found in the crystalline SnO2 nanoparticulates by O2 dissolved in the solution. rapid co-deposition of MnO2 and SnO2 prevented the formation of thick coatings of MnO2. The grains and the outer coating of the crystalline grains were exact deposition mechanism of SnO2 is shown below: approximately 0. The value of 0.7 nm respectively.3 nm and 0. while 0. This uneven deposition of was enlarged for determining the interplanar spacing of nano agglomerates was also initiated by the adsorption fringes exhibited by the dark crystalline grains and outer of tin ions onto the surface of acid-treated CNTs due to coating of the dark crystalline grains in Figure 3-1 (d). The improvement of electron kinetic was thus expected. nanocomposite (b) CNTs/MnO 60% w. as well as embedding SnO2 nanocrystals in the structure.t. 2 2 To further verify the types of metal nanocomposite. Further deposition of the SnO2 on the as heterogeneous sites for the nucleation and growth of CNTs greatly depends on the adsorption of tin ions on MnO2 nanomaterials. oxide in those nano agglomerates. SnO2 nanoparticulates were formed via the oxidation of the Sn2+ ions on CNTs. No. Additionally.3 nm corresponds to the d(110) of the cassiterite-SnO2 2SnCl2 (aq) + 2H2O + O2 g 2SnO2 (s) + (2) in the JCPDS data of 41-1445.t. These TEM images evidently demonstrate This controlled deposition of SnO2 on the CNTs that CNTs were not the only nucleation sites for MnO2. and (d) the d-spacing values of the fringes observed of agglomerates shown in Figure 3-1 (c) from the enlarged portion of image (c) Journal – The Institution of Engineers. which is a slow crystalisation route. 75. Instead of just CNTs acting as the reducing agent for the deposition of MnO2. it can be seen that the formation of the MnO2 solid involved the reduction of MnO4ˉ ions. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties from the results of the XRD. the acceleration of such deposition to a day was also due to the reducing presence of SnCl2 solution which was acidic in nature. while in the controlled hydro-oxidation reaction. as they provided nucleation sites for the deposition of SnO2 nanoparticulates. June 2014) 29 . Figure 3-1 (a) CNTs/SnO 60% w. (c) the nano-agglomerates on the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. This substantiates the claim that the as-originated SnO2 coating. 1. the formation of SnO2 on CNTs did not require the active participation of the carbon according to the hydro-oxidation reaction above. From the reactions (1) and (2). This work demonstrated that the reduction of KMnO4 was much preferably under acidic condition. On the other hand.7 nm corresponds 4HCl (aq) to the d(001) of the monoclinic-MnO2 in the JCPDS data of 65-1798. resulted in a thinly and dispersedly coated SnO2 based SnO2 nanoparticulate clusters simultaneously served nanocomposite. uneven distribution of SnO2 nano aggloramates was observed and contributed to the jagged surface of CNTs observed in Figures 3 (a-b). The electrostatic attraction. Following such deposition mechanism.

. 75. [44].159Å. The metal the alkali metal cation (K+) on the SnO2 and MnO2 in this oxides deposited on CNTs caused the broadening of the work can be expressed as the following equations. b = 2. oxidation from Mn(III) to Mn(IV) took Oxidation: place together with the protons and cations intercalations and adsorptions (for both SnO2 and MnO2). [46] had Figure 5 depicts the cyclic voltammogram of the demonstrated that there is a change in the state of MnO2 CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. there exist facile = 3.. [45] proposed the following reactions for the SnO2 and MnO2 respectively. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. while the birnessite-type MnO2 was monoclinic diffusion of protons into the hydrous structure of both with a = 5. Siew Shee Lim. Ms.t. and Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite involving surface adsorption of nanocomposites of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox of 60%. CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t. [6]. the reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) occurred. while the MnO2 to the birnessite-type MnO2 and (MnO2)surface + xK+ + xeˉ (MnO2ˉ Kx+)surface (4) both match the JCPDS data of 41-1445 and 42-1317 respectively. OOKxHy g Sn(IV)O2 + Mn(IV)O2 + (a+x)K+ + (b+y)H+ + (a+b+x+y)eˉ 30 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. (SnO2)surface + aK+ + aeˉ (SnO2ˉ Ka+)surface (3) The SnO2 presence corresponds to the cassiterite-type SnO2. CNT peaks and made those peaks become less distinctive. SnO2 + bH+ + beˉ SnOOHb (7) MnO2 + yH+ + yeˉ MnOOHy (8) The simultaneous occurrence of the intercalation/ Figure 4: X-ray diffraction patterns of the acid-treated CNTs. In addition. mechanism of MnO2 by Lee and Goodenough et al. Malaysia (Vol. June 2014) .64˚ in oxides. In (Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite in this study. b = 4.t. [46] using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. and CNTs/ have been confirmed in the recent studies by Toupin et (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. nanocomposites of CNTs/SnO2 60% w. Ir. Dr Chuang Peng MnO2 layers were blanketing the agglomerates of the coupled with the proton and cations deintercalations SnO2 nanoparticulates which together formed the lumps and desorptions. Combining the transfer into the wide range of energy states closely simultaneous reactions would give the following equations located near the redox active sites on the surface of the for the pseudo-capacitive storage mechanism of the CNTs/ electrode in semiconductors such as SnO2 and MnO2.844. the charge storage mechanism of the CNTs/( nanocomposites of CNTs/MnO2 60% w. The cassiterite-type SnO2 deposited had a structure which corresponds to a = 4.187 Å. SnO2 + aK+ + aeˉ SnOOKa (5) MnO2 + xK+ + xeˉ MnOOKx (6) The second pseudo-capacitive mechanism includes the intercalation of protons (H+) in the bulk of the nanocomposite during reduction and deintercalations in the oxidation cycle. [6]. No. the anodic sweep. [44] and Pang et al.150. Wu et al. the cation (K+) would be able to intercalate and accordance with the XRD data obtained. Figure 4 shows the XRD patterns of the acid-treated [43] and electrochemical performance of SnO2 by Wu CNTs.t.0 M KCl during the charge and discharge cycle. et al. Toupin et al.t. c = 7. where there exist which is relatively rectangular in shape similar to that of components in the XPS results which correspond to the the pure double-layer storage by carbon. deintercalation of the protons and alkali metal cations CNTs/SnO2 60% w. and c In the amorphous SnO2 and MnO2. nanocomposites al. nanocomposite in a 2.738. while in the Sn(IV)(a+b)OOKaHb + Mn(III)(x+y)Mn(IV)1-(x+y) (9) cathodic scan.738. deintercalate into the hydrous layer and lattice of the thin deposition of the oxides on the CNTs during the redox reaction corresponding to the following equations.t. 1. Based on the findings of charge storage observed. The rectangular manganese oxidation state of 4 and 3 for the oxidised shaped voltammogram is due to the continuous electron and reduced film electrodes respectively. and β = 100.

Ag/AgCl) of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. No. Arrow indicates increasing scan rates Journal – The Institution of Engineers. a potential window of 1V can be achieved with no oxygen evolution observed Figure 5: The cyclic voltammogram of the in the potential range selected as can be seen in the cyclic CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. potential (vs.6V vs. 50. The cyclic voltammogram of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite at different sweep rates of 5. 70 and 100 mV/s) in 2. 1.9 V (oxygen evolution occurs at 0. nanocomposite at a scan rate voltammogram where there are no fast current leaps of a of 5 mV/s in 2. June 2014) 31 .t. For a neutral pH value of 6. 50. 10. 20.0 M KCl. Ag/ AgCl in neutral solution [47]).t. nanocomposite at various scan rates (5. 10. Malaysia (Vol. The shapes of voltage dependent normalised an almost rectangular shape and mirror-image symmetry capacitance curves are similar to that of the cyclic of the current responses about the zero-current line can be Figure 6: (a) Cyclic voltammograms and (b) mass-normalised capacitance vs.67 in the aqueous KCl electrolyte. Figure 6 shows the cyclic voltammograms and the voltammograms. mV/s. thus enabling a better examination of the corresponding voltage dependent normalised capacitance cyclic voltammograms of the lower scan rates such as 5 of the thin casted film of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. 20. a voltammogram having Ag/AgCl. i.0 M KCl electrolyte gas evolution present [47]. nanocomposite approximates to an ideal behaviour at the and 100 mV/s at a potential range of -0.9 V against lowest sweep-rate of 5 mV/s. 70.1 to 0.e. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties Reduction: Sn(IV)O2 + Mn(IV)O2 +(a+x)K+ + (b+y)H+ + (10) (a+b+x+y)eˉ g Sn(IV)(a+b)OOKaHb + Mn(III)(x+y) Mn(IV)1-(x+y)OOKxHy Redox: SnO2 + MnO2 + (a+x)K+ + (b+y)H+ + (11) (a+b+x+y)eˉ SnOOKaHb + MnOOKxHy Figure 5 also shows that the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite has very good positive polarisation up to a value of 0. 75.

3. Ag/ completely (redox reactions) to give the pseudo-capacitive AgCl) with respect to time in the potential range of -0.74 F/g to 71.t. the specific capacitance obtained The resulted higher specific capacitance of nanocomposite at the lowest scan rate was of the highest utilisation of the was due to the increased surface area of the electrodes by pseudo-capacitive material in the nanocomposite among both SnO2 and MnO2 nanoparticulates.4 A/g. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. Figure 7: Potential-time plots from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. and SnO2 were found to be 534. 3.t.4 A/g) in 2. The active site workers [6].69 F/g as the scan rate mass specific capacitance of 337. The co-deposited all the scan rates examined.0 M KCl. the specific SnO2 nanoparticulates serving as a more conductive metal capacitance at the lowest scan rate of this nanocomposite oxide also enhanced the electronic conductivity of such was much higher than those reported in the CNTs-MnO2 nanocomposite by preventing the formation of thick nano- and CNTs-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by Ng and co. These inaccessible Assuming proportional contributions from the oxide/oxides parts were likely the inner active sites that could not sustain and CNTs in each of the three different nanocomposites. (Sn+Mn)Ox [49]. the redox transitions completely at higher sweep rates as a the values of the specific capacitance. 0. Malaysia (Vol. 1.8.4 A/g which was much higher than those of the surface of the nanocomposite in the electrode were CNTs/MnO2 and CNTs/SnO2 by Ng and co-workers [6]. and 6.t.8. June 2014) . 32 Journal – The Institution of Engineers.44 F/g. Thus.t.1 effect which results in a more rectangular curve such as to 0.2 and 6. CM. 75. No. nanocomposite.9V for this nanocomposite. All the potential- the scan rates enables the ions to reach deeper into the time plots from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test electrode whilst interacting with active materials more show good linear variations of the potential (vs.4. inaccessible at high sweep rates [48-50]. resulting properties of the nanocomposites of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn) in more extensive mass transport processes. layer of MnO2 under acidic condition. This was an indication the one observed at the scan rate of 5 mV/s. indicated that parts of current of 0. This clearly indicated the synergetic effect of utilisation of the co-deposited oxides was much higher and the co-deposition of SnO2 and MnO2 onto CNTs in term of the complete utilisation of those sites would be possible specific capacitance. with the reduction of the normalised currents due to the slower rate of intercalation and deintercalation of the ions Figure 7 shows the galvanostatic charge-discharge into or from the structure of the nanocomposite. the voltammograms Ox 60% w. nanocomposites at different normalised currents (0. 0. MnO2.10 mg. Specifically. 1.oxide(s) of the result of the diffusion effect of protons within the deposited (Sn+Mn)Ox.15 F/g at the normalised increased from 5 to 100 mV/s. 1. which (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.4. nanocomposite exhibited the largest decreased from 222.6. Ir. With increasing scan rates. Dr Chuang Peng observed. Mass of nanocomposites on each of the electrode: 0. Siew Shee Lim. Additionally. against Ag/AgCl at different normalised become deformed from the rectangular shape. CNTs/ CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.2. Ms. Decreasing currents of 0.6. of excellent capacitive behaviour by the nanocomposite The mass specific capacitance for the at all normalised currents applied.

15 306.2.0290 Discharge Slope (V/s) -0.0 V operating active site utilisation would be possible with the reduction potential range.t.03 266. from 30. from charge slope (F/g) 373.t. Journal – The Institution of Engineers.0150 0.4 A/g.2 was a high loading of the mixed-oxides.32 Ave. which is equivalent to 0. recorded an iR drop of only 9.0023 0. nanocomposite as compared to the charges within the pores.6. Malaysia (Vol. nanocomposite with the lower mixed-oxides loading.t.0484 Specific cap. 3.4 Charge Slope (V/s) 0. and 6. As expected.0 M KCl. nanocomposite at different charge/ discharge normalised currents (0. 75.61 228.2 6.0174 -0. it should be to the porous structure of the nanocomposites and active noted that at the normalised current of 0. thus the lower capacitance.32 316.18 132. Especially when there (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. a more complete mV.92% of the 1. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties Figure 8: (a) Mass and (b) electrode specific capacitance of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. At higher normalised and this was especially obvious in the case of the CNTs/ currents the iR drop was higher due to the distribution of (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. Ag/AgCl) in 2.0586 Table 1: The parameters measured from the potential-time curves from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test and the calculated values of the capacitance and iR drop for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. the CNTs/ site utilisation of the mixed-oxides.8 1.0441 0.10 mg. 0.8.47 272. The acid-treated CNTs showed the smallest increase Table 1 shows the properties and the calculation of among the three materials examined.t.0051 0. 1. from the discharge slope (F/g) 301. of the normalised currents because of the slower rate of the intercalation or deintercalations of the ions into or Normalised Currents (A/g) Parameters 0.0116 0. nanocomposite for the potential range from -0.10mg.0013 -0.t.13 to the charge-discharge of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.0070 -0. (F/g) 337.97 176.0296 0.4 0.6 3. The increase in specific capacitance followed an from the structure of the nanocomposite.e.60 184. resulting in more increasing rate with the decreasing normalised current extensive mass transport processes. Mass of active material on each of the electrode: 0. Nonetheless.1 to 0.21 F/g when the normalised currents were decreased. i. nanocomposite on the electrode: 0. in the case of both nanocomposites could be attributed increasing specific capacitance). specific cap. June 2014) 33 .0030 -0.33 Specific cap.t.14 275.0092 0.0011 0. 41.9 V (vs. Mass of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. the iR drop decreases increasing rate at lower normalised currents especially with decreasing normalised currents applied (thus. No.27 346. 1.4 A/g).77 220.33 iR Drop (V) 0. nanocomposite at the different normalised currents and the The significant increase in the specific capacitance at an associated iR drops.4.37 229.

t.t. (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. 75. Malaysia (Vol. at different scans by showing rectangular shaped voltammogram. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. Mass of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.0 M KCl. No. and 1000th where results demonstrated that the long cycle life of the CNTs/ notable changes in the specific capacitance occurred. 350th. nanocomposite retained 95. 1. Its pseudo capacitive property of corresponding potential dependent normalised capacitance this nanocomposite was still retained even after intensive plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. Ms. 350th and 1000th cycle for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. nanocomposite which deemed the On the whole.10mg. on the electrode: 0. 40th.t.92% of Figure 9: The changes in (a-c) cyclic voltammograms and (d-f) the corresponding normalised capacitance vs. the CNTs/ material suitable for the supercapacitor application. Ag/ AgCl) plots of the 3rd. Ir. nanocomposite at a scan rate of 20 mV/s in 2. Siew Shee Lim. namely 3rd. after 1000 cycles at 20 mV/s. Dr Chuang Peng Figure 9 shows the cyclic voltammograms and the its initial capacitance.t. 40th. June 2014) . 34 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. The cycles. potential (vs.

June 2014) 35 . From the potential-time curves.21 F/g for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. and CNTs/MnO2 60% w. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties capacitance contributed by the mixed-oxides as compared to the single oxides in the different nanocomposites.10 mg. The capacitance of the nanocomposite can be a synergistic effect of combining MnO2 and SnO2. Examining the impedance plots. CNTs/MnO2 60% w. As can be seen. and SnO2 were found to be 534. CNTs/SnO2 60% w.36.89. it was found that the average specific capacitance values were 337.t. different nanocomposites and the acid-treated CNTs in the same potential range as that used for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn) Figure 12 shows the Nyquist plots of the CNTs/ Ox 60% w. nanocomposite showed larger frequency range of 10 mHz to 100 kHz at different biased currents on the cyclic voltammogram as compared to both potential (vs. and 131. Although the loadings of these oxides were the same in each of the nanocomposite.8 V showed an almost straight line in the lower frequencies indicating ideal capacitive behaviour. nanocomposite demonstrated a slight departure from the ideal straight vertical line of the capacitive behaviour Figure 11: Potential-time curves from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. This material on each of the electrode: 0.t.t.t. 95. Mass of active material on each of the electrode: 0. nanocomposite in comparison to the acid-treated terms of their specific capacitance contribution to the CNTs. Assuming proportional contributions from the oxide/oxides and CNTs in each of the three different nanocomposites.46 F/g respectively. the values of the specific capacitance of the (Sn+Mn)Ox. Ag/AgCl) within the working potential range CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t. also indicates that by combining the SnO2 and the MnO2 Figure 10 shows the cyclic voltammograms of the oxides. better evaluate the improvement in terms of specific Both Nyquist plots of the nanocomposites indicated that the maximum specific capacitance was found at a bias potential of 0.t.t. the effect is synergistic in terms of capacitance. CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite as compared to the nanocomposites at the scan rate of 5 mV/s.t.e.9 V as defined earlier in other electrochemical nanocomposite indicating that the mixed-oxides possessed techniques.. nanocomposite in comparison to the acid-treated CNTs. To derived from the linear part of the Z” vs. i.t. and CNTs/SnO2 60% w.. the one for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 30% w. 236.62. CNTs/MnO2 60% w.1 and 0. nanocomposite at a bias potential of 0.8 V. 60% w.. nanocomposite at the normalised current 0. 1. of -0.t. and the CNTs/MnO2 60% w. and 41.t. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. The Nyquist plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w..15. MnO2. No.t.t.t. the potential-time curves from the galvanostatic charge- discharge test would be used. Malaysia (Vol.t. 1/(2πf) plots.10 mg.44. 75.4 A/g.t.t. and 60% w.t.. nanocomposites in the (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. Mass of active single oxides to their respective nanocomposites. CNTs/SnO2 60% w. Figure 10: Cyclic voltammograms of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox the mixed-oxides showed an excellent improvement in 60% w. nanocomposite. and acid-treated CNTs respectively. the CNTs/ (Sn+Mn)Ox 30% w.. 366.

Mass of nanocomposite on each of the electrode: 0.0 Conclusion rate of 20 mV/s which deemed the material suitable for the In conclusion. Endo.t. the synthesis of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. However.10 mg. Siew Shee Lim. (JCPDS 42-1317) was confirmed in the determination 36 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. 0.2. Ag/AgCl) of 0. Ir. 1. et al. Malaysia (Vol. surface and the porous structure of the nanocomposite film The highest mass specific capacitance achieved by CNTs/ would have also played a part in the divergence in the ideal (Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w. the was further demonstrated by showing rectangular shape distributed capacitance along the inhomogeneous electrode during charge-discharge process at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.5 and 0. nanocomposite through combining the hydro-oxidation of SnCl2 to SnO2 and the reduction of KMnO4 to MnO2 was successfully achieved in a day due to the reducing presence of SnCl2. Ruthenium Oxide Film Electrodes Prepared of SnO2 and MnO2 nanoparticulates. because of existence of a constant phase element.15 F/g at normalised current capacitive behaviour. increase in their fibril diameter by the uneven co-deposition [2] Q. In addition. Ideal contribute towards the deviation from the ideal 90˚ straight cyclic voltammogram behavior of this nanocomposite line behaviour of the nanocomposite. et al. No.1 to 0.8 V. The structural destruction of Capacitors (EDLC’s) Form Operating Principle to Pore CNT was observed in SEM and TEM images.0 References from 7 days to a day was caused by the acidic condition [1] M. Dr Chuang Peng Figure 12: Complex plane impedance plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox (a) 30% and (b) 60% w. nanocomposite at various bias potentials (vs. The acceleration of MnO2 deposition 5.44 F/g.9V against Ag/AgCl. Pseudocapacitance of this nanocomposite was still retained at least 95% even after long cycle life at scan 4.t. High Power Electric Double Layer facilitated by SnCl2 solution. Ms. p117-128. June 2014) . This result was in regards to the oxidation and reduction between the Mn(III) accordance with the crystallinity of both metal oxides and Mn(IV) species in the working potential range and the determined in XRD patterns.t.L. The formation of at Low Temperature for Electrochemical Capacitors. supercapacitor application. Fang. 2001. was 337. Size Control in Advanced Carbons. this length reduction of CNTs was compensated with the 2001. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. 148J: pA833-A837. 75. The of interplanar spacing of fringes for both metal oxides delay caused by electrochemical changes especially with in the high resolution TEM images.4 A/g which correspond to the specific capacitance (CM-oxide) of (assuming proportional contribution) 534. 0. of 0. 2 Carbon Science. Electrochemically. cassiterite SnO2 (JCPDS 41-1445) and monoclinic MnO2 Electrochemical Society. this surface adsorption of the electrolyte cation of K+ for both nanocomposite exhibited a good positive polarization at oxides would cause Faradic resistance which would in turn potential range of -0.

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Zhitomirsky. derived and electrodeposited manganese dioxide.K. storage mechanism of MnO2 electrode used in aqueous 2008. 666-673. 3184-3190. Electrochemically deposited nanograin [36] Bélanger. 3(9): p. 1999. Coating of multi-walled carbon nanotube with SnO2 films of controlled thickness and its application for Li-ion battery.. Journal of Power Sources. and C. 2008: p 49. Desu. Manganese 16(16): p. 2008. T. et al. et al. 1966. supercapacitors. 2008. H. 2006. June 2014) .. Small. Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in electrochemical supercapacitor. Electrochimica Acta. Brousse. Z. Anderson. Morehouse. 53(7): p. J. aqueous solutions.. Xia. p. Journal of Power Sources. M. Manganese ruthenium oxide as a pseudocapacitive electrode. Electrodeposited hybrid films of of The Electrochemical Society.. and J.-L. 5907-5913. Zetti. M.W. Enhanced performance and molybdenum mixed oxide thin films and their charge of SnO2 xerogel electrochemical capacitor prepared by storage properties. et al. et al. 38 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. and I. Charge for electrochemical supercapacitor.-H. Goodenough. 3036-3042.A.P.. and S. 109-112. et al. 104 (1): p of Power Sources. Dr Chuang Peng [29] Lee.P. D... 1..L. A. O. 1550-1556. N. 109(2): p. 62-65. [38] Li. 2005. 2002. 2009. 2004.B. 147(2): p.. Belanger. and S. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2000. Chapman. Journal of Materials Research. Annealed Mn-Fe binary oxides for [43] Lee. New York. 161(2): p. Resistivity studies of various Leclanché cathode materials. X..-H. et al. 432-436. Pergamon Press. [30] Nakayama. 2007.B. 2003. et al. the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of a [45] Pang... M. 184 (2): p. 75. electrochemical capacitor. and M.W.xH2O/CRF composite electrode for supercapacitors. and A.Y. et al. et al. Preparation and [49] Gujar.-C.. Electrosynthesis of Bi2O3 thin films optimization of RuO2-impregnated SnO2 xerogel and their use in electrochemical supercapacitors. [40] Jin. 681-683.Q. Electrochemical Society Interface... 2004. 3 (5): p. polyaniline and manganese oxide in nanofibrous structures [46] Toupin.. Nagarajan. Kuo. 144(1): p. Effects of heat-treatment on 2002. 63(1): p. [33] Sharma. Comparison of electrochemical properties of sol-gel- 19(5): p. Chemistry of Materials. Ir. and D. Rastogi. L. A958-A964. M. oxides: Battery materials make the leap to electrochemical International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 1479-1485. Journal supercapacitor. T. N. C. Long. Nanoscale microelectrochemical cells on carbon nanotubes. oxide embedded polypyrrole nanocomposites for [47] Pourbaix. Siew Shee Lim. with KCl electrolyte. K.Y. R.. [50] Gujar. 2004. Ms. S. 160 (2): p 1501-1505. 151(7): p. 1956.. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Journal of Power Sources. 1513-1517. Electrodeposition of manganese [44] Wu.. Journal of Solid State Chemistry. and C.. Malaysia (Vol.-C. 220-223.. [37] Glicksman.K.. Brousse and J. 186 (1-3): p 356- 361. 2008. Kuo. M. S. T. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. Coating singled-walled carbon nanotubes with tin oxide. Journal of Power Sources. [42] Wang..Lee.. [41] Han.A. Dr Ng Kok Chiang. N. Manganese oxide films for electrochemical supercapacitors. and D. 2006. Hu. [39] Wei. R. [35] Wu. Chen. Journal of Power Sources. T. Oxidative synthesis of [34] Shlyakhtin. Ni-Mn hydroxides as new high RuOx∙nH2O with ideal capacitive characteristics for power electrode materials for supercapacitor applications. M. [31] Nakayama. Supercapacitor behavior supercapacitor applications. 2: capacitors. A new type of MnO2.-J. W. Journal [32] Sun. Electrochimica Acta.-L. 2007. mixed manganese/vanadium oxide film prepared by Novel electrode materials for thin-film ultracapacitors: electrodeposition.. 103 (3): p 149-153.G. 21(13): p. 53(26): p.C. [48] Chang. and T. Langmuir. Han. Nano Letters.. J. 418-421. 444-450. Materials Letters.-T. 1509-1515. 2007. 185(2): p. No. novel crystallization process. 7690-7695.L.

and the advanced Sunopy solar system. She is co-author of 2 scientific. After obtaining his MSc (2004) and PhD (2007) in Environmental Engineering and Chemical Engineering respectively. involved in research and prototyping projects in collaboration with various Malaysian Government Agencies and research bodies. NG KOK CHIANG graduated from the University of Western Australia with first class honours in Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical & Electronics and Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Accounting. New York (USA) in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Ir. and Managerial Accounting. and a Professional Engineer with the R&D Centre at Leong Hing Sdn. No.ON (Power and Gas). He is currently the Chief Technology Officer of MyBig Sdn. She managed to secure a MOSTI eScience Fund in 2007 and worked on the synthesis of nanoscaffolds for bone regeneration. Dr. testing and optimisation of supercapacitor units and high voltage stacks. Bhd. he worked as a research associate for another three years in the University of Nottingham. MS. Ng Kok Chiang is also a certified Green Building Facilitator and a Professional Member of the Malaysia Green Building Confederation. He is the author/co-author of 16 scientific journal papers. After her attainment of MEng degree. After joining the CSM in September 2011. Jaguar/Land Rover (supercapacitors in automotive industry/electric cars). He then furthered his studies to the University of Nottingham. 1. Ng Kok Chiang in his course of research and work had liaised with various organisations such as E. and electronics). DR. Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties profiles IR. SIEW SHEE LIM obtained her BSc and MEng in Chemical Engineering at University at Buffalo. control. particularly. He is currently serving as one of the committee in the Electrical Engineering Technical Division and the Secretary/Treasurer of the Consulting Engineering Special Interest Group at the Institution of Engineers. with accumulated citations in excess of 260. Investment Finance (Derivatives). the development of supercapacitors for energy storage with high power demands. UK and graduated with a PhD in Engineering having worked in the area of renewable energy and its storage for three and a half years. Malaysia (Vol. Malaysia. Dr. Peng has also undertaken researches on photo-electro-catalysis and electro-Fenton process for decontamination of water. June 2014) 39 . Dr. Chuang has broadened his research interests to include various applications of materials electrochemistry in renewable energy and environmental technologies. Ir. Peng is specialised in materials electrochemistry. and the design. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Bhd. She successfully completed this eScience Project in 2009 and is currently working her part time PHD study on the fabrication and functionalisation of nanocomposite scaffolds using cost effective bioactive compounds. This includes the synthesis and characterisation of new electrode materials. Lockheed Martin. Dr. DR. Malaysia Rubber Board (energy management. Battelle (lab management and commercialisation). 75. she worked as an Assistant Professor in University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus since 2006. intelligent control systems incorporating power electronics device. Among the prominent solutions founded were the advanced switching mechanism in the Nexcap storage to efficiently capture minuscule trickle of charges. CHUANG PENG did his BEng in China before coming to the UK in 2003. and MOSTI (Fabrication of Advanced Supercapacitors). 1 education journal papers and a few others in the pipeline. artificial intelligent.

Email address: jinnah@iut-dhaka. Due to stronger compressibility effects on decaying turbulent field. the strength of the is still under debate. as well as turbulence decay in shock induced turbulent it was later shown by Batchelor and Proudman [4] that the field are the important phenomena. Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated Turbulence in a Shock Tube (Date received: 09.2014) Mohammad Ali Jinnah MCE Department. 40 Journal – The Institution of Engineers.07. All turbulent fluctuations are computed along the longitudinal distance in the wake of the grid plate in the shock tube and it is observed that the decay of the turbulence and the decay of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) level are accelerated along the downstream direction and the percentage of decay depends on the strength of incident shock wave. No. isotropic turbulence. For designing aero. However. Furthermore. The effect of the initial conditions and it is one of the innovative works on grid-generated on the decay of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence turbulence. at low wave numbers. The decay of dissipation rate of TKE is observed along the downstream direction for gradually decreasing the turbulence intensity in the wake of the grid plate. Keywords: Shock wave. Turbulent region. and there is a substantial body of turbulence in the wake of the grid plate gradually decreases experimental evidence which would seem to suggest which may create problems in interaction of reflected that the initial conditions and the slope of the spectrum. turbulence fluctuations. the shock/turbulence interaction of the flow field found earlier by Loitsianski [3]. Malaysia (Vol. Islamic University of Technology (IUT). Turbulence grids are placed in the shock tube to generate shock induced turbulence in the wake of the grid plate. Turbulence model. all length scales are decreased along the downstream direction. June 2014) . in fact. For this Saffman flow.05. 1. After computing the Loitsianski integral is. turbulence at high Reynolds numbers was predicted by mechanism systems such as transport aircraft of supersonic Kolmogorov [2] based on a supposed dynamical invariant and hypersonic speed. Board Bazar. Turbulence decay. 75. 1.0 Introduction reflected shock wave and it was found that the strength of In this paper. the turbulence was also changed during interaction with generated turbulence in the shock tube are conducted reflected shock wave. aeromechanical systems and in combustion processes as An asymptotic similarity state of decaying isotropic well as in high-speed rotor flows. Turbulence grids. the investigations on the decay of grid. shock with homogeneous. not invariant. It is observed that the actual decay rate of great practical importance in engineering applications. a numerical simulation was carried Saffman [5] proposed a mean of turbulence generation out by Jinnah and Takayama [1] at different strengths of for which this integral diverges.edu ABSTRACT The decay of the grid-generated turbulence has been investigated numerically by solving the time-dependent three- dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with k-e turbulence model for a compressible fluid. determine the value of the decay The turbulence decay in turbulent flow fields is of exponents. Due to turbulence decay. Bangladesh. but also by the small scale properties. Gazipur-1704.2013/Date accepted: 06. the isotropic turbulence is not only affected by the large These types of phenomena are commonly seen in scale properties.

He considered have confirmed the existence of this exact similarity state the asymptotic statistical evolution of the flow field to within a few percent. 1. The direct numerical simulations turbulence research. the turbulence was simulations of two-dimensional turbulence permitted a passively generated by square-mesh biplane grids placed study of two-dimensional decay at relatively high Reynolds at the test section entry. G and H are the three inviscid flux vectors in x-. depended on inflow conditions and persisted far downstream. e. In this previous study. Malaysia (Vol. Without external forces and heat sources. to present some new direct numerical simulation results for F. Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated Turbulence in a Shock Tube a new invariant was discovered. equation in 3D Cartesian coordinate system is generated turbulence and which revealed the possibility of a decaying turbulence without the expected high Reynolds number dissipation scaling. rv and rw per unit volume. of anisotropy which was. No. the three-dimensional grids were chosen from one of the three design families of numerical code is developed to determine the decay of the multi-scale grids introduced by Hurst and Vassilicos [9]. Particular emphasis of decaying homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds was placed on determining the long-time asymptotic numbers was postulated based on this invariant. These grids of the present 3D code has been performed by Jinnah and are very different in design from the low-blockage space. Recent evolution of the energy and entropy as a function of the large-eddy simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence initial Reynolds number of the flow field. Previous closure calculations and without specifically confronting the existence of coherent numerical simulations have studied the decay of an initially vortices or their intermittent distribution in the fluid. A careful study of the dependence of performed in the latter two works were necessarily limited the decay statistics on the initial Reynolds number of the to low Reynolds numbers. rw. A particular aspect of the potential numbers by direct numerical simulations without the need dependence on inflow conditions was whether the power. They did not find any significant effect of to determine the turbulence decay in the wake of the inflow conditions on the decay exponent other than that turbulence grids. Lavoie et al. e.0 Numerical Methods with two multi-scale grids and one conventional grid. and Journal – The Institution of Engineers. and a similarity state decaying two-dimensional turbulence. [7] investigated potential simulations were used to confirm theoretical predictions of effects of inflow conditions on the decay of approximately asymptotic decay laws for the energy and the self-similar homogeneous isotropic turbulence. are solved by shock capturing passive grids (with square or with round bars with/without method where for more accurate solutions. The higher resolutions obtainable in tunnel experiments of these authors. ru. re]. momentum turbulence was its computational simplicity with respect and energy. the vector of extent. r is taken as the mass per unit volume. Chasnova [10] contribution was the energy terms per unit volume in these computations. filling fractal square grids which have been used in the the conservative form of non-dimensionalized governing vast majority of subsequent works on multi-scale/fractal. Three momentum Nevertheless. numerical simulations are still non-trivial. June 2014) 41 .1 Governing Equations Their grids were all mono-planar and their two multi-scale For the present computations. Krogstad and Davidson [8] carried out a similar wind tunnel study but 2. itself. Total energy. rk and turbulent dissipative energy. the three-dimensional Navier-stokes equations them. This axisymmetric turbulence [6] in the context of the return. Previously. shock induced turbulence in the shock tube and the validity specifically the family of fractal cross grids. Takayama [11]. 2. All variables are calculated in per unit volume. large-eddy 323. for sub-grid scale modeling. rk. y-. Inflow conditions decay of the energy spectrum based on low wave number refer to the way the turbulence was generated. One of the attractions of studying two-dimensional conservative variables which contains mass. the grid a small helical wire) and two different test sections (one adaptation technique is used. In the wind spectral invariants. and are ru. Many researchers considered the decay of a two- dimensional homogeneous turbulence in a fluid of infinite where Q = [r. 75. For the present numerical law decay of the far downstream turbulence depends on simulation. rv. re are remains an open problem. was counter to most current trends in two-dimensional to-isotropy problem. [7] tried four different conventional using k-e turbulence model. to fully developed three-dimensional turbulence. turbulent the asymptotic behavior of the statistics during the decay kinetic energy. terms in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates system requiring high resolution and long-time integrations. Grid adaptation techniques with and one without a secondary contraction to improve with k-e turbulence model are the improved techniques isotropy). Lavoie et al. and the computer resources turbulence may yield some useful information about the available at those times allowed only a resolution of physics of the decay.

0. The refinement and coarsening cμ = 0. ce1 = 1.09. is left cell and right cell providing all faces of a cell are vectorized by the position and coordinate in the grid system. 75. The physical size of each cell before adaptation is equal to 5x5x5 (mm) and the S(Q)= [ 0.09. The downstream inflow boundary condition and wall surface are used as solid boundary conditions where the center distance between cell i and j. In this grid system. μt viscous flux vectors in x-.92. generating grids is shown in Fig.45. pressure p can be expressed Three dimensional hexahedral cells with adaptive grids by the following state equation for ideal gas. Also is set to zero. Gv and Hv are the three two-equation k-e turbulence model on solid boundaries. 0. The grid adaptation is performed by listed as follows: two procedures. ce2 = 1. Similarly Fv. Pk – re – Dk . 0. Central differencing scheme is used =max in discretizing the viscous flux terms. ct = 0. 1.30 operations are handled separately in computation. r is the fluid density and u. A second-order. i and j the gradients normal to the surface are taken zero. Malaysia (Vol. All solid are the density gradient for cell i and j. The compressible viscous flow are discretised by the finite truncation error indicator is defined for every face of a volume method. The criterion used for grid adaptation is based on the truncation The governing equations described above for error ( ) of the Taylor series expansion of density. the properties and velocities of which are calculated from where c represent the location of any face of a cell and Rankine-Hugoniot conditions with incident shock Mach i and j represent left cell and right cell of that face.rT ke The mass average turbulent kinetic energy and homogeneous component of turbulent kinetic energy Figure 1: Three-dimensional grids and the position of the dissipation rate are defined by as turbulence-generating grids are shown. which is used in The various constants in the k-e turbulence model are these computations. one is refinement procedure and another is coarsening procedure. are used for these computations. 0. No. dl is number. While e is the 2. sk = 1. Mohammad Ali Jinnah z-axis respectively. and z-axis respectively. lc = (ri-rj)/dl. where the production term Pk is given in Cartesian coordinates as and the destruction term Dk is given as Dk = g2.2 Grid Systems and Grid Adaptation total energy per unit volume. k= 1 ct2 (u2+v2+w2) and e = cm k2 2 The grid adaptation is one of the improved and computational time saving techniques. upwind Godunov cell and given by the ratio of the second-order derivative scheme of Flux vector splitting method is used to term to the first order one of the Taylor series of density so discretize the inviscid flux terms and MUSCL-Hancock that scheme with k-e turbulence model is used for interpolation of variables where HLL Reimann solver is used for shock capturing in the flow. walls are treated as viscous solid wall boundary.00. (ce1 Pk – ce2 re) ek ] initial number of cell is 2876. The upstream of incident shock wave is set as inflow boundary condition.v and w are velocity components in each direction of Cartesian coordinates. y-.03. For the rc is the density at the interface of right cell and left cell and af is the constant which is initially designed to prevent 42 Journal – The Institution of Engineers.1. June 2014) . cm = 0. se = 1. the cell-edge data structures are arranged in such a way that p = (g –1)[e – 12 (u2+ v2+ w2)] each cell contains six faces which are sequence in one to six and each face indicates two neighboring cells that where g is the ratio of specific heats. The source term S(Q) of the k-e turbulence model is The initial three-dimensional grid system with turbulence- written by.

are region.6 % and the configuration of the grid plate is turbulent parameters (velocity fluctuations. the value of er is used Figure 3: Sectional view of zx-plane where the location of as 0. wall of the shock tube. cut off Figure 2: The configuration of the turbulence-generating by the grid-data plane where the grids near the boundary grids in the grid plate. In these computations. No. the eight etc. which are generated from the primary cell. isotropic of any point on the centerline of the turbulent region are turbulence and at the same time. refinement is 2. The longitudinal distances (x/d) generate a compressible flow of homogeneous. June 2014) 43 . Turbulence grids are uniform in size and fluctuations etc. <p> = Where the average pressure. In the coarsening procedure. pressure fluctuations in the data-structure. are calculated from the computed numerical data where the RMS value of wall pressure fluctuation.40 and the level of selected turbulent region is shown. the turbulence decay determined from the grid plate where d is the maximum phenomena happened along the longitudinal direction in dimensional length of the grids. In the refinement procedure. ∆P is the To compute turbulent parameters in the turbulent pressure difference between upstream and downstream of region. of the grid plate.3 longitudinal velocity fluctuation in x-axis.02 and it is problem-independent parameter. The lateral planes intersect these 30 points and restored into the primary cell.44 and the value of ec is used as 0. Pav is (1/n) . so the shock wave and the gas flow. 75. are not taken into account due to viscous effect. the is taken as the selected turbulent region as shown in Fig. a selected turbulent region is taken in the wake the shock wave. The refinement and coarsening operation for any cell depends on value and the value of is determined for each face of a cell. parallel to the yz-plane are treated as grid-data planes and the grids cut by the grid-data planes (lateral planes on 30 points) are the grids on the grid-data planes.2. which is shown in Fig. The value of 3 Results and Discussion any turbulent parameter on the centerline of the turbulent For the numerical simulation. and the centerline along the longitudinal direction (x-axis) Journal – The Institution of Engineers. following of the turbulent region for the shock position at the end the shock wave after passing through turbulence grids. Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated Turbulence in a Shock Tube a zero denominator. <u>/∆ U are between lateral plane AA and BB (parallel to the yz-plane) calculated from the measured numerical data where. The wall pressure fluctuations <p>/∆P.) are computed on these 30 points for the turbulent sub cells.3.) are determined along the centerline spacing. the cells are selected of the turbulent region is treated as the centerline of the for refinement in which every cell is divided into eight turbulent region. Malaysia (Vol. The region Similarly the turbulence intensities. All the relevant plate is 50. 30 points of equal spacing are taken on the new sub cells and these new sub cells are arranged in a centerline of the selected turbulent region and all turbulent particular sequence so that these sub cells are used suitably parameters (velocity fluctuations. The criterion for adaptation for any cell is Refinement=maximum of six faces of a cell >er Coarsening=maximum of six faces of a cell <ec where er and ec are the threshold values for refinement and coarsening. The total open area of grid taken into account due to viscous effect. 1. The value of af is used as 0. the wake of the grid plate. turbulence grids are placed region is the average value of all the grid values on the in the shock tube parallel to yz-plane and the position of grid-data plane where the grids near the boundary are not the grid plate is shown in Fig. pi is the instantaneous pressure and n is the number of grids. pressure shown in Fig.1.

v´ = The RMS lateral velocity fluctuation in y-axis. Malaysia (Vol. Su. 1. region in the wake of the turbulence grids. at all downstream positions where the value of Su is always less than 0. The decay phenomena in 3D turbulent field are observed along the longitudinal direction and the variations of turbulence decay are determined along the longitudinal direction by taking the reference value as an initial value. recommendation. The RMS longitudinal turbulence intensity variations are determined along the centerline of the selected turbulent region in the wake of the turbulence grids. 75. From the results of Mohamed and Larue [12]. Uav is (1/n) where ui is the instantaneous longitudinal velocity. ∆U is the velocity difference between upstream and downstream of the shock wave. It is observed Similarly. Mohammad Ali Jinnah plate is lower and the percentage of longitudinal decay is u´= accelerated as increasing the longitudinal distance from the grid plate. Wav is (1/n) where. No.4 that the decay rate at the near region of the grid along the centerline of the turbulent region. Vav is (1/n) The RMS lateral turbulence intensity variations are determined along the centerline of the selected turbulent where. these authors concluded that the position where Su = ±0.01 in the turbulent region. According to this Skewness of velocity fluctuation.01 is taken for isotropic flow. June 2014) . the present flow appears to be isotropic The average longitudinal velocity. vi is the instantaneous lateral velocity in y-direction. The lateral velocity fluctuation in y-axis. Figure 4: The longitudinal turbulence intensity decay along the centerline of the turbulent region. Su= . it is observed that the uncertainty in their measurement of Su <u> = and is 0. The approach to isotropy of the flow was assessed The RMS value of longitudinal velocity fluctuation in by considering the skewness of the velocity fluctuations x-axis. <w> = The average lateral velocity in z-direction. <v> = The average lateral velocity in y-direction. 44 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. in Fig. It is observed Figure 5: The lateral (y-axis) turbulence intensity decay in Fig.5-6 that the decay of lateral turbulence intensities along the longitudinal direction are more fluctuating w´= and the lateral turbulence decay phenomena along the The RMS lateral velocity fluctuation in z-axis.01. the lateral velocity fluctuation in z-axis. wi is the instantaneous lateral velocity in z-direction.

The decay of pressure fluctuations are determined The velocity length scale is defined by the expression. June 2014) 45 . centerline of the turbulent region.9. The DNS results of Lee et al. Malaysia (Vol.8. k3/2/e where the turbulent kinetic energy. k= and ki is the instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy for any grid on the grid-data plane and n is the number of grid on the grid-data plane where the grids adjacent to the boundary are not taken into account due to viscous effect. It is observed that longitudinal direction in the 3D turbulent region. The decay of velocity length scale is determined along the wake of the turbulence grids and it is observed that no the centerline of the turbulent region in the wake of the substantial pressure fluctuations variations occur along the grid plate which is shown in Fig. [16] had indicated region which is shown in Fig. Due to stronger compressibility effects. The decay of the dissipative- length scale is determined along the centerline of the turbulent region in the wake of the grid plate which is shown in Fig. scale increases. the dissipative length direction in the turbulent region. It is observed that no substantial change of the dissipative length scale decay occurs at the near region of the grid plate and the percentage of decay increases Figure 8: The decay of velocity length scale along the gradually as increasing the longitudinal distance.7. along the centerline of the selected turbulent region in k1/2. data of Lee et al. 75. by Barre et al. gradually as increasing the longitudinal distance [17]. Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated Turbulence in a Shock Tube Figure 6: The lateral (z-axis) turbulence intensity decay Figure 7: The decay of dissipative length scale along the along the centerline of the turbulent region. longitudinal direction are identical which was explained shock interactions. [14] and the DNS data of Hannappel and Friedrich [15] indicated that the velocity length scale and The decay of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is the dissipative length scale increased during expansion determined along the centerline of the selected turbulent process. The DNS centerline of the turbulent region. e= where ei is the instantaneous TKE dissipation rate for any grid on the grid-data plane. no substantial velocity length scale decay occurs at the The dissipative-length scale is defined by the near region of the grid plate and the decay rate increases expression. [13] and confirmed that the <v> and <w> the turbulent dissipative length scale decreases and as the components behave in the same way along the lateral compressibility effects decrease. 1. Similarly the dissipation rate. It is observed that the a small increase of dissipative length scales through weak TKE variations are reasonable for the present turbulent Journal – The Institution of Engineers. No.

the TKE is obtained from the solution of two 4 Conclusions equations of k-e turbulence model and the accuracy of A numerical simulation has been conducted to determine the TKE value depends on the modeling equations. The solution of Navier.10. and increasing the longitudinal distance from the turbulence grids. the dissipation rate is decreased The dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy depends more and so more dissipation energy converts to thermal on the turbulence strength and due to turbulence decay energy or internal energy of the flow. Malaysia (Vol. It is observed from the decaying value vanishes for incompressible flow. the dissipation rate of 46 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. reflected equations are not ideal and it must have some deviations from the end wall of the shock tube. The decay of along the longitudinal direction. fields where the intensity of the turbulence varies along Stokes equations and the solution of turbulence model are the downstream direction of the shock wave. centerline of the turbulent region. Mohammad Ali Jinnah Figure 9: The decay of TKE along the centerline of the Figure 10: The decay of dissipation rate of TKE along the turbulent region. Even kinetic energy (TKE) level in the flow field where the TKE though change of compressibility is very low but due to weaker turbulence fields. Even though the present strengths and the interaction results provide the important deviation is more due to unsteady state condition but their information on shock wave interaction with different decaying characteristics are almost similar. On the other hand. It is observed that the decay of dissipation rate is Stokes equations provides the information of turbulent accelerated as increasing the longitudinal distance. No. The the decay of the 3D turbulence in the wake of the values of TKE obtained from the velocity fluctuations of turbulence grids along the centerline of the shock tube. So due to determined along the centerline of the turbulent region the turbulence decay. The use of the present between these results. flow with an initial TKE. Due to shock phenomena that all turbulent length scales decrease and wave interaction with the turbulent field of stronger this result agrees with other existing computational results. the dissipation rate decreases as is computed from the equation. The comparisons between the decay technique has the advantage to get the different turbulence of TKE values obtained from the solution of Navier. The TKE evolves towards outlet dissipation rate is characterized along the centerline of the of the nozzle divergent and it represents the turbulence turbulent region and the characteristic curve is shown in intensity of the turbulent region. 75. 1. The behavior of turbulence The dissipation rate of TKE is changed depending on properties are analyzed due to turbulence decay in the wake the compressibility level of the turbulent field and this of the turbulence grids. Fig. compressibility level. June 2014) . it is possible to get the outcomes of and the comparisons are shown in Fig. in this case. The the fluid particles in the flow field are compared with the present computational results indicate that the turbulence values of TKE obtained from the solution of two equations decaying phenomena in the wake of the turbulence grids of k-e turbulence model because all turbulence modeling are the key factors during interaction with shock. strengths of turbulent fields. the values of TKE are directly related to the velocity fluctuations of the fluid particles.9 and the deviations the shock wave interaction with turbulence of different between these results are 10-20 %.

[5] Saffman PG. 417–434. pp. 505-515 Turbulence Interaction. Computational Methods and [17] Jinnah MA and K. Aero. 585. Inst. 75. 72. Mech. (1994) Interaction of isotropic References turbulence with a strong shock wave. Fluid Mech. simulation of a Mach 2 shock interacting with isotropic turbulence. Phys. (1993) Direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence interacting with a weak shock wave. Fluids 9 (1). Sot. CA. (2011) Freely decaying. Eng. No. 27. Vol. Physics of Fluids 19. (1956) The large-scale structure of homogeneous turbulence. AIAA J. [9] Hurst DJ and Vassilicos JC. Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Djenidi L and Antonia R. Giedrodin. 533-62. June 2014) 47 . Vol. Malaysia (Vol. Dept. Fluid Mech. Fluid Mech. 395–420. (2011) Numerical and Experimental Study of Shock/Turbulent Flow Interaction – A Code Validation Test. 369. res.” Dokl. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. [10] Chasnov JR. [2] Kolmogorov AN. 31. AIAA paper 94- [1] Jinnah MA. (1974) Approach of axisymmetric turbulence to isotropy.. 219: p-195. pp. 1. Appl. (2003) Numerical simulation 0311. 54. (1939) Some basic laws for isotropic turbulent flow. 34. [7] Lavoie P. of shock Mach effect on normal shock/homogeneous turbulence interaction. Journal of Fluid Mechanics.4: 37-46. [14] Lee S. [13] Barre S. [12] Mohamed MS and LaRue JC. J. (2012) Numerical Experimental Measurements XI (Proc. [8] Krogstad PR and Davidson PA. 859. Trans. (1995) Direct numerical the turbulence grids increases. Philos. Phys. pp.. J. Fluids 17. Nauk. (2007) Scalings and decay of fractal-generated turbulence. (1997) On the decay of two-dimensional homogeneous turbulence. Allem D and Bonnet JP. Sci. homogenous turbulence generated by multi-scale grids. J. 968-74. Journal IEM. Lele SK and Moin P. Takayama K. (1967) The large-scale structure of homogeneous turbulence. pp. pp. 538. 205-21. Stanford Univ. [6] Herring JR. (1941) On degeneration of isotropic turbulence in an incompressible viscous liquid.171-80. Lele SK and Moin P. 440. (1996) Experimental study of a normal shock/homogeneous turbulence interaction. [4] Batchelor GK and Proudman I. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): C93(1):75–81. (1990) The decay of power law in grid-generated turbulence. 581. [11] Jinnah MA and Takayama K. [16] Lee S. [3] Loitsianski LG. SSSR 31. London 248. 251. Trudy Tsentr.. 680. R. Akad. of the eleventh Measurements of Turbulent Length Scales in Shock/ international CMEM-2003 conference). (2007) Effects of initial conditions in decaying turbulence generated by passive grids. Takayama K. Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated Turbulence in a Shock Tube TKE is decreased more as the longitudinal distance from [15] Hannappel R and Friedrich R. No. 035103.

D. Bangladesh. He obtained his Ph. from Tohoku University. Islamic University of Technology (An Organ of the OIC). Malaysia (Vol. Japan in 2005 specialising in Shock Wave interaction with turbulent flow. No. 1. Mohammad Ali Jinnah profiles Dr. 48 Journal – The Institution of Engineers. Sendai. Mohammad Ali Jinnah is an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. 75. June 2014) .

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