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This extract from an ar:ticle in an engineering journirl is irbout different types of steel.

Steel is the most ividely used engineering material.
Technically, though, this well-known alloy of iron
and carbon is not as simple as one might think. Steel
comes in a huge range of different grades, each with
difl'erent characteristics. For the inexperienced, it can
be difficult to know where to begin.
A good place to start is with the two main types of steel.
The first, carbon steels, consist of iron and carbon, and
contain no significant quantities of other metals. Carbon
steels can be divided into three main grades:
r Mild steel - the most widely used grade - is a low carbon steel which contains up
to approximately 0.3% carbon.
I Medium carbon steel contains between approximately 0.3% and 0.6% carbon.
I High carhon steel contains between approximately 0.6% and 1.4"/" carbon.

llote: The chemical symbol for iron = Fe, and carbon: C.

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The article goes on to look at alloy steels.
The second main category of steel is alloy steels, which consist of iron, carbon and
one or more alloying metals. Specific grades of alloy steel include:
r low alloy steels, which contain 90"/" or more iron, and up to approximately 10% of
alloying metals such as chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum and vanadium
r high strength low alloy steels (HSIA), which contain smaller quantities of the
above metals (typically less than 2%)
r stainless steels, which contain chromium as well as other metals - such as nickel -
and which do not rust.
r tool steels, which are extremely hard, and are used in cutting tools. They contain
tungstcn and,/or cobalt. A widely used grade of tool steel is high-speed steel,
which is used in cutting tools that operate at high temperatures, such as drill bits.

Notesl The terms carbon steel and alloy steel can cause confusion, as carbon steels are also alloys,
and alloy steels also contain carbon.
The chemical symbol for chromium = Cr, cobalt = Co, nickel = Ni, manganese = lvln,
molybdenum : Mo, tunqsten : W, and vanadium : V.

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Otre u,eakness of mild steel is thilt it corrodes - its suriace plogressir,ell.
deteriorates dr-re to a chemical reaction. This re:rction take s pla.ce betu'een
the iron in the steel and the oxygen (Or) in the air:. to iolm iron oride. \\r'hen
iron cor:rodes, we say that it rusts. In some metals. such .rs .rluminiLrn.r lA1),
the presence of corrosion is not a problem, as the laver oi oridc aronnd the
metal remains hard, which prevents it from oridizing .rnr i11f ili;-y, Hou ever-.
when mild steel goes rusty, the rust on the surface corli: (,j;. ---, { Lr\l\.
and a new rusty layer forms, progressively'eating into' I.r- ::'-.:-, .

30 Professiono/ English in Use Engineering

..-. ...... Generally...-...114.. oxide andrust... using words from A.. :l-r '! 2... often..... Look at C opposite to help you.. 3 Alloy steels contain carbon.........-. 5 Low alloy steels contain more chromiurn than iron.".. of steel that ts reststant to the (4) .t* :t!:...". 't t s.--. But rather than being completely protected fiom corrosion......the most well known being (5) . . an alternative solution So-called weathering steel is a special al1oy suitable for outdoor use..iit ?t."....".... ......-.. :i The perennral problem with mild (1) .'l Decide whether the sentences below are true or false....-..::1..-. 8 High-speed steel is suitable for making cutting tools that get very hot..". the surface of the steel rs allowed to go (7) Once a layer of (B) ... 2 A brown/red material on the surface of steel is called 3 The strength of steel is reduced if it is ... nickel. 1 Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon..... oxide. B and C opposire. 6 Stainless steel is an alloy steel. Ls that it (2) ..........".... / go rusty 1 \When steel is erposed to air and water.".. and. however...... This layet dlffers fiom ordinary (9) .........." has formed on the surface.....". .'---- :.-"..."..... ........ it ... when exposed to air and water... steel...3 Complete the article about a special type of steel.. 2 Mild steel is a high carbon stee1. Professional English in Use Engineering 3t .:4. There is more than one possible answer.::r... or to use anolher (3) ......:::::. it stabilizes and forms a hard protectrve layer.". 7 Tungsten is added to steel to make it softer........ weathering steel has been wldely used in architectural applicatrons and outdoor sculptures...". 4 Chromium and nickel are used as alloying metals in steel..... which contains significant quantrlies of (6) . Look at A and B opposite to help you..Then use the words to complete the sentences below.... ::i: ::11...... and correct the false sentences.""....... process . the oniy solutron is either to apply a protective coatrng."....".......".".. nt! !!e ..... t ?. ....... as it does not continue to eat rnto the metal Whlle not everyone may I1ke the'rusty look'.:... 12"2 Complete the table with words related to corrode..".q . There is..