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Great Mosque at Cordoba

 8th-10th centuries AD
 Spain
 Expanded 4 times
 As the base was expanded outward the roof was raised to allow
more air flow and make it seem less stuffy
 Double arches supported the higher roof
 The stripes on the arches made them ‘pop’
 As the walls expanded the mihrab moved to stay in the center of
the quibla wall
 The new mihrab design used intertwining scalloped arches
 Christians remodeled the shrine as a church when the recaptured
the city from the Muslims
 A cathedral can be seen in the center of the mosque
 Both conforms to the basic principles of mosque design and
incorporates distinctive regional forms

Dome of the Rock

 AD 687-692
 Jerusalem
 Believed to be the place of the Al-Aqsa Mosque where
Muhammad went on his Night Journey
 In the night journey Muhammad was transported to the
mosque where a Buraq (horse with a woman’s head)
descended and took Muhammad to heaven where he met the
old prophets
 Place of original creation
 Is a shrine NOT a mosque
 Modeled after the Church of the Holy Sepulche where it is believed
that Christ was resurrected
 2 major meanings
 Visual symbol of Islam’s superiority in monotheism
 Asserts an Islamic presence in Jerusalem over the Christians
 Tells the Christians that they are wrong
 An inscription in the ceiling addresses the Christian population
to tell them that Jesus is no more than a prophet
 The plain exterior serves as a contrast to the elaborate interior
 The pillars in the dome were recycled from an old church
(crosses can be seen)
 Spolia: Using parts from an old building in a new one
 Mosaics

Great Mosque at Damascus  AD 706-715  Syria  Built on the site of a Christian church  Architecture ideas borrowed from the Roman/Byzantine Empire  Arcade: Row of arches  Dome  Façade  Includes many features that were later added to most mosques  Hypostyle Hall: A hall with a roof supported by a forest of columns  Mihrab: A niche in the quibla wall that points to Mecca  Minaret: A tower attached to a mosque complex  Signal of dominance. presence. power  Similar to Christian bell tower  Sometimes used as call to prayer but not the intended purpose .

Great Mosque at Kairouan  AD 836-875  Tunisia  Most closely resemble Mohammad’s home  Stone wall with sturdy buttresses  Impressive minaret and two domes. one over entrance bay and one over mihrab .

 Hypostyle mosque .

Malwiya Minaret  AD 848-852  Found at the Mosque at Samarra in Iraq  Mawiya means ‘snail shell’  Serves to announce the presence of Islam in the Tigris valley  Design based on Mesopotamian ziggurat .

Friday Mosque at Isfahan  AD 11th-17th centuries  Iran  Friday is the holy day of Islam  Large vaulted openings for madrasa(religious school)  4 iwans  Iwan: A large vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side .

 The quibla has the larges iwan containing elaborate blue tiles and a dome Surah 18 from a Koran  9th-10th centuries AD  Ink and gold on vellum  Written in Kufic script form  Chapter title is in gold with palm tree finial (crowning ornament)  Red dots indicate vowels .

Turkey  Commissioned by Sultan Selim II  Artist/Architect: Sinan the Great  Serves as a response to the Hagia Sofias large dome  The dome sits over the center instead of the mihrab to crown the structure  Perfectly proportionate (1:2)  The 4 minarets symbolize the Ottomans power .Mosque of Selim II  AD 1568-1575  Edirne.

Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami .

 AD 1354  Isfahan. Iran  Great work of calligraphy  White writing on dark background is balanced by dark writing on a light background  Bears an inscription from the Koran  Arabesque: Complicated. flowing design of stylized floral and plant motifs  Masterful mosaics  Architectural surface transformed into a textile surface . intertwined.

Maqsud of Kashan. Funerary Carpet of Shaykh Safi al- Din  AD 1540  Iran  Wool and silk interwoven with gold and gems  Reflects the promise of Islamic paradise  Bowls of fruit and flowers would enhance the experience by adding scent  Is a woven reflecting pool with floating flowers  The pool reflects the dome and lanterns of the mosque  The larger lantern may point to the qibla or may be to give perspective .

Bihzad. Seduction of Yusuf  AD 1488  Afghanistan  Ink and color on paper  Illustrated copy of Bustan owned by the sultan  The seduction of Yusuf is a story in both the Bible and the Koran  Yusuf(Joseph) is seduced by Potiphar’s wife Zulaykha .

intricate detailing. and gold on paper . balance between two dimensional patterns and perspective elements Sultan-Muhammad. watercolor. Shahnama: Court of Gayumars  AD 1525-1535  Iran  Ink.  Zulaykha lured Yusuf into her palace where she led him through 7 rooms and threw herself at him in the last room where he resisted and fled  The text is dispersed throughout the page in a series of panels written in elegant script  Vivid color.

 Illustration in Shahnama (Book of kings)  The king of Persia Gayumars sits top center with his son and grandson with his dynasty as a symbol of prosperity  They wear cat pelts as a symbol of power  His subjects surround him on the lower side  The work spills out of the frame showing that Gayumars is beyond limits  The work is off center to give it a light. otherworldly quality  The background is speckled with gold .

Muhammad ibn al-Zayn. Baptistery of Saint Louis  AD 1300  Brass basin inlaid with gold and silver  Egypt  Signed six times by the artist  Central band depicts Mamluk hunters and Mongol enemies  Doesn’t actually relate to Louis IX but has been used to baptize many in the French royal family .

Allegiance & Wakefulness  AD 1994  Iran  Photograph .Canteen with Scenes from the Life of Jesus  AD 1240-1250  Syria  Brass with silver and copper inlay  Souvenir from the crusades  Has design features similar to those of stained glass  Made through the commission of a Christian  Each panel depicts a different scene  Center  Madonna and child scene of Jesus enthroned in heaven  2 o’clock  Nativity  10 o’clock  Presentation in the temple  6 o’clock  Entry into Jerusalem  Inscriptions rim the outside Shirin Neshat.

tradition  Writing on feet is militant Farsi poetry  Sense of rebellion Zaha Hadid. Vitra Fire Station  AD 1989-1993  Iraq  Concrete and reinforced concrete . veiled Islamic woman  Modern vs. Militant fundamentalist vs. militant feminist (the riffle represents the clash of these)  Modern woman vs.

 Unframed window panes  Reduces imagery to a basic form  Represents the life of a fireman  It is calm and then suddenly chaotic just as the building is flat and the suddenly upright and pointy  Burst of energy upon a call Shroud of Saint Josse  AD 961  Central Asia/Khurasan .

 Silk textile  Contains an inscription on the bottom and camels on the sides  The Indian elephants are the main feature but they are depicted in a Persian way  The shroud was used to wrap a relic of Saint Josse so like the relic it too became holy Mahmoud Mukhtar. Egyptian Awakening  AS 1919-1928  Egypt .

 Mix of western and Egyptian ideas  Unlike other sphinxes this sphinx is trying to stand as if awakening  The woman is Egypta and serves as an allegorical personification of Egypt  She embraces the sphinx and removes her veil as she too awakens  Sphinx=symbol of royal power  Built from the same stone as early Egyptian monuments  Message of Egyptian nationalism .

People are Equal Like Teeth on a Comb  AD 1976  Iraq  The title is a quote from Mohammad  Uses calligraphy to show the ideas of Islam  The words are surrounded abstractly by geometric shapes  ABSTRACT .Jamil Hamoudi.

The Prisoner  AD 1988  Palestinian Territiories  Bird  Black to contrast with white shirt  Symbol of freedom but not allowed to be free  5 other women are present in traditional Islamic garb  They merge with the leaves  Have no eyes…no life  Flowers=beauty  One woman has a flower for her eye  Are woman beautiful traditionally or modernly? . Leila Shawa.

Terms and Concepts: Syncretism: Borrowing and adapting styles. Died in 632 and was buried at Medina. Is the final revelation of Allah that is believed to be a flawless copy of the eternal word in . Was called upon by the angel Gabriel in 610 to serve as the messenger of the Gods. Ex: Image of Hercules borrowed from Greeks by Indians and Japanese Muhammad (AD 570-632): The last and greatest of the Islamic prophets. and/or techniques from another culture. The Koran: Literally means ‘the recitation’. imagery.

Designed after Muhammad’s house which becomes the first mosque. Qibla: The direction towards Mecca. Is the highest form of art in Islam because it brings beauty to the words of Allah. but is dived into 114 chapters called surahs which are arranged in descending order of length except for the first surah. One of the features that were later added to most mosques. It has been destroyed and rebuilt many times by Muslims. Is the fleeing of Muhammad and other Muslims from Mecca to Medina due to violent resistance to Muhammad’s message. built in Medina Saudi Arabia in the 7th century AD. and power. Mihrab: Niche in qibla wall that points the direction to Mecca. courtyard. and is covered in black cloth embroidered with gold thread. Calligraphy: The decorative art of hand lettering in an ornamental style using brushes or pens. The Kaaba: Structure at the center of Mecca that predates Islam and is believed to be built by Abraham.heaven. flowing design of stylized floral and plant motifs. Arabesque: Complicated. Here a Buraq (woman with a horses body) descended and took Muhammad to heaven where he met all the old prophets. Features include: Covered roof on qibla side. It serves as the prototype for mosques. Hijra (AD 622): Year 1 of Islamic calendar. Mosque: Islamic place of prayer. The House of the Prophet: Muhammad’s house. It is the holiest place in Islam. intertwined. Served as a signal of dominance. Is not divided into books. and walls and gates that represent safety. Iwan: A large vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. that became the first mosque. Minaret: Tower attached to a mosque complex. presence. Literally means ‘beautiful writing’. The Night Journey to al-Aqsa Mosque: Story in which Muhammad was transported from his home in his sleep to al-Aqsa mosque. Eventually he was transported back to his home to tell the story. . Muhammad later reclaims Mecca which becomes the first holiest city followed by Medina. Are sometimes used for call to prayer.

Pilgrimage to Mecca The Silk Road: Started in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC 1st Major Period o Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty o 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD o Silk becomes a status symbol in Rome o ‘Celestial horses’ travel east to China 2 Major Period nd o Early Islamic Caliphates and the Sui and Tang dynasties o 6th-10th century AD o Golden age of the silk road o Beginning of sea routes o Explosion of Buddhism o WEST: Number concepts o EAST: Silver. bubonic. Fasting during Ramadan 5. tea . printing press. blue. Statement of faith 2.The 5 Pillars of Islam: 1. Prayer five times a day facing Mecca 3. Alms giving to the poor 4. grapes. Christianity and Islam 3 Major Period rd o The Mongol Empire controls the entire silk road o 13th century AD o Marco Polo’s travels o WEST: Gunpowder. lions.