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PSA-T108: Musical Styles & Genres

September 14, 2015

-Need big events, big meaning, no dates like when born or died.

What makes a pop song, a pop song?
-Easily accessible
-Repetitive, not overly complicated
-Need to balance accessibility vs. artistry
-Makes you feel good (at least in the end)
-Generally basic instrument pallet
-Hooks, more is better

A hook is a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a
song appealing and to "catch the ear of the listener". The term generally applies to popular music…

Evolution of Pop Music:
-African Rhythms, Chants and Drumming (brought over with slaves)
-Journey of Classical from Monophonic to Harmony and Church-inspired to secular
-Church only ones who could write
-Classical Music – Bach (1685-1750), Mozart (1756 – 1791), Beethoven (1770-1827)
-Guitar/Banjo Music: Folk Music, Minstrel shows (1812-1900s)
-Development of Recorded music late 1800s, phonograph, etc. huge advancement music
-Jazz (Big Band, Sinatra – precursors to Pop)
-Rock and Roll
-Soul/Rhythm and Blues

*Traditional pop, Vocal, Easy listening
*Traditional pop refers to Big Band and pre-rock & roll pop music
-Traditional pop drew from a repertoire of songs written by professional song
writers and were performed by a vocalist that was supported by either an
orchestra or a small combo.
-In traditional pop, the song is key – although the singer is the focal point,
the style of singing doesn’t rely on vocal improvisations like jazz singing
does. Traditional pop can also refer to the orchestra leaders and
arrangements that provided the instrumental settings for vocalists

-Many of the important artists of this genre were also actors or dancers that
appeared in film versions of popular musicals.

Bing Crosby
-One of biggest pop stars in history
*Swinging on a Star (1944)
-White Christmas (1942)

-Born Harry Lillis Crosby on May 3, 1903 (died 1977)
*Grew up to become one of Americas most popular entertainers of all time
-1931, launched hugely popular radio show. Soon started starring in films,
winning academy award for Going My Way
*Dominated music charts most of his career, with nearly 300 hit singles
-One of most popular entertainers 30s/40s
*Laid back persona, smooth vocal style
-Earned famous nickname around age 7 “Bing” from comic strip

Early career/Big screen:
-skilled at scat-singing and showed talent for Jazz-styled phrasing
**Lasted 30 years on airwaves, really became famous through his radio show
-Early 30s signed contract with Paramount Pictures
-Starred in a number musical comedies
**Peaked in 1940s, pioneering with Bob Hope in wildly popular series of Road

*Cab Calloway – Minnie The Moocher (1930s)
**First African American Jazz record to sell 1 million copies
-About prostitute, heroin, etc.
-Most people (white) didn’t know what lyrics were about at the time
-Not music your parents would have wanted you listening to

*Louis Armstrong (Satchmo)
-Jazz (What a Wonderful World - 1968)
*One of most important music figures of 20th century, or ever.
**First improvisation with ease, solos, could play trumpet like no other
*Set bar
-Prominence in 20s/30s
*Charismatic stage presence, highly imaginative
**Introduced the Character Voice, might not have range or beauty, but has
-Oxford Encyclopedia of Music cited him as one of most influential musicians
of all time
-Represents an entire genre/culture to many
-Also in movies
-Marijuana in trumpet case, asked president to hold while boarding plane
*Scored a pop hit, What a Wonderful World (1968)

Frank Sinatra (1915-1998)
**Seen as the first modern pop star
-Voice, looks, movies, bad boy appeal
-All his songs written for him
**First single of his own, Night and Day (1943)
-I Get a Kick Out of You
-Master of Back Phrasing
-Survived through eras
-32 Gold record, 10 Platinum, 3 Double platinum, 1 Triple platinum
-400 million records sold
-Professional career lasted 60 years, demonstrated remarkable ability to
maintain appeal
*Arguably the most important popular music figure of 20th century
*Was able to take work of great theatre composers of that period, and
reinterpret their songs for later audiences in a way that led to their
rediscovery and their permanent enshrinement as classics.
-Discovered 1939 heard over radio by Harry James
**Joined Tommy Dorsey’s band in 1940
*1942 recorded 4 song session including first recording under his own name
“Night and Day”
-Big breakthrough came as a support act to Benny Goodman at Paramount
Theatre in New York
-1943 recording strike, Singers not considered musicians (loophole)
*Frank Sinatra recorded a cappella, backed by only vocals, resulted in 4 Top
10 hits in 1943
**Sammy Cahn was Frank Sinatra’s lyricist for most of his career (wrote most
his songs)
*Successful in film, Anchors Aweigh, paired with Gene Kelly (1945)
-Left Columbia Records, didn’t want to be famous for cheesy songs.
-1950s and early 60s Sinatra had career revival, with Rat Pack

W.C. Handy and the first Blues
*W.C. Handy known as father of Blues
**Credited with writing and publishing the first Blues song (Memphis Blues)
-Approached in Memphis, TN while leading a minstrel band, political handlers
for a Mayoral candidate asked Handy to write a song to promote the
candidate (Mr. Crump)
-Mr. Crump became a hit, but the politician got elected, so Handy published
the song as the Memphis Blues (First published blues song) 1912
**Recorded by Victor Military Band (white), became first Blues
-Started musical trend, Blues became hot new music style

The Blues (Cont.)
-Country Blues, acoustic, one man with guitar, slower tempo
-Urban Blues (Chicago) more band driven, electric guitar, drums, etc. more
**The difference in structure is in Urban Blues (Chicago Blues) changes to
Four Chord in 2nd bar and Five Chord in 12th (last) bar

Charlie Patton (blues Cont.)
-“A Spoonful Blues”
-Father of Delta blues, where it all started, Delta, Mississippi
*First person on record anyone hears playing blues in authentic way
-first male guitar player and vocalist recorded
-Could play guitar well, behind back, rhythm tapping, etc. later shown by
jimmy Hendrix, etc.
*Influenced Robert Johnson
**First real male guitarist and vocalist superstar of the early blues.

Muddy Waters (blues Cont.)
-Birth of urban blues/electric blues
**The urban blues revolution began in 1948 with the release of Muddy
Waters “I can’t be Satisfied” began history of modern Chicago Blues.
*The Rolling Stones chose their name from one of his songs “Mannish Boy”
-Influenced by Robert Johnson, Charlie Patton, etc.
**Muddy Waters band became legendary with Little Walter (harmonica),
Jimmy Rogers (second guitar), Willie Dixon (Bass), Otis Spann (Piano),
rotating cast of drummers.

Robert Johnson (Blues Cont.)
*Songs covered by Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Red Hot Chili Peppers, etc.
Rock and Roll
-Rumored poisoned by husband of jealous lover (1911-1938)
-Itinerant blues singer and guitarist (traveled)
-recorded 29 songs for the American Record Corporation on Vocalion label
during life, 1 after
*Decades after death, became known as King of Delta Blues Singers
*Most of his tunes attained iconic status. Cross Road Blues, Love in Vain,
Sweet Home Chicago…
-Plies his craft on street corners
**Became legend due to unprecedented guitar mastery and popularization of
techniques previously only thought possible on piano along with vocal
-Very little is known about him. Myths surrounding his life took over. Sold soul
to devil

*1990 Sony Legacy produced and released 2-CD box set re-release of his recordings. *Test may ask who is original composer. etc. *First hit record. very different than any other white performer. lots controversy **Hired “Colonel” Tom Parker as manager as popularity grew *Parker steered Elvis to mega-star -Parker put Elvis on television. -Moved his body a lot. Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats -In reality was Ike Turner and his King of Rhythm with saxophonist Jackie Brenston on vocal.000 to RCA Scotty Moore **First non-jazz guitar player heard on mass scale. recorded That’s All Right (Mama). -considered pioneer of rock guitar First Rock and Roll Song (1951) *Rocket 88.*Became one of first Blues musicians to combine styles. -Quickly rose to stardom -Began appearances on radio shows such as Grand Ole Opry. (1954) **Phillips set Elvis up with guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black. Jeff Beck. Widespread critical acclaim and unprecedented sales. went places other white people wouldn’t go -Could sing variety of styles **Sam Phillips at Sun Records (Memphis) saw potential and put out first Elvis record. . played more of a rock style *inspired a generation of guitar players like Jimmy Page. was able to heard others through travel and listening to other recordings. with finger-picking and single note runs. Originally composed by Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup -Phillips convinced friend to play on radio. instant hit. may ask who is performing *The Big 5 of Early Rock and Roll (50s) *Buddy Holly *Elvis Presley *Little Richard *Jerry Lee Lewis *Chuck Berry *Rock and Roll combines Blues (Harmony) and Country (Rhythm) Elvis Presley -First Rock and Roll star -Crossed the color line. and in movies *Label sold for $35.

at same time revered by Country establishment -Influenced not only fellow country musicians. including ‘Ring of Fire” -Began relationship with June Carter (wrote Ring of Fire). 1959) -Immortalized in Don McLean’s “American Pie” as “the day the music died” *Made Fender Stratocaster iconic . Bass. -Career came crashing down when married 13 year old cousin Johnny Cash (The Man in Black) *Defined Outlaw Country. and R&B Top 5 simultaneously. **With the Tennessee Two (guitarist Luther Perkins and bassist Marshall Grant) began recording for Sun label in 1955. sold 100. over 6 million nationally -“Great Balls of Fire” (1957) sold more than 5 million copies -Both songs were in pop. by 1967 helped him kick drug habbit and concerted to fundamental Christianity. crossed him to a new generation. but also rockers from Bono to Bob Dylan -Versatile performer covering songs by Soundgarden and Nine Inch Nails. -Released a number of successful country and pop hits. Drums **Between 1957-1958 Holly and the Crickets charted seven Top 40 singles -Died at 22 in plane crash with Ritchie Valens and Big Bopper (Feb 3. very aggressive -Hard-edged personality -“Whole Lotta Shakin’ Going On” (1957) broke through. country.**First song feature a distorted electric guitar. wrote own material *Among the first to exploit advanced studio techniques like double-tracking **Pioneered and popularized the now standard rock band lineup of Two Guitars. played by Willie Kizart *First person on record to play a distorted electric guitar Jerry Lee Lewis (*The Killer) **Played piano like no one seen before.000 copies in south. -After career fully established. began nine-year period of alcohol and drug abuse. 1959) *The Big Three Buddy Holly Ritchie Valens The Big Bopper -All died in plane crash Buddy Holly -First Rolling Stone hit was a cover of Not Fade Away *Innovator. The Day the Music Died (Feb 3.

Freed refused out of principle and was fired.821 record non-stop over 5 days. . blending of Major and Minor *Rapid fire notes *Blending of notes *All part of Chuck Berry sound -Crafted many of rock and roll’s greatest riffs and married them to lyrics that shaped rock and roll vernacular for generations. not playing white cover versions in favour of the R&B originals. two strings and sliding in -Part blues scale. high energy rework of old Mexican wedding song -Loved Little Richard.Johnny B Goode (1955) *Double stop. Literally laid blueprint for rock and roll.Ritchie Valens *La Bomba. Rock n Roll) -First DJ and concert producer of rock and roll **Credited with coining the term rock and roll in 1951 Opened the door to white acceptance of black music. Cleveland. The Big Bopper (Jilles Perry Richardson) *One of rock’s first novelty artists *One of first DJs to cross into rock startdom *1958 hit Chantilly Lace remains a classic **Pioneer in development of music video (Chantilly Lace. and coined the term to get people to listen to R&B music. part major. during which time began hallucinating and visualizing his own death. -1959 the US House Oversight Committee began looking into DJs who took gifts from record companies to play their records. (crossing color line) *First person to use term Rock and Roll on air. the day the music died 3) Alan Freed (DJ) gets caught up in scandal and goes off air Alan Freed (aka Mr. *First person to promote and organize a rock and roll concern. Double-sided smash is one of greatest rock and roll singles of the 50s. *Reasons First Era of Rock and Roll Ends: 1) Elvis went into army 2) The Big Three. telephone sketch) -Set record as a DJ in 1957 by playing 1. known as the “Little Richard of the San Fernando Valley” *First hit Donna *La Bomba was B-side of Donna. **WABC in New York asked him to sign a statement confirming he had never accepted payola. Ohio Chuck Berry .

"Around and Around" 1958 2:35 15. "Memphis" 1959 2:12 18. Goode" 1958 2:38 14. "Havana Moon" 1956 3:05 8. "No Particular Place to Go" 1964 2:44 . "Brown Eyed Handsome Man" 1956 2:17 6. "Thirty Days" 1955 2:24 3. "I'm Talking About You" 1961 1:48 25." 1959 2:25 22.*Wrote simple songs with topics concerning everyday life that everyone could relate to -Chuck Berry is to rock and roll what Louis Armstrong is to Jazz -One of first performers to write and perform his own material before singer/songwriter boom of 70s.A. "Come On" 1961 1:50 26. "Maybellene" 1955 2:18 2. "School Days" 1957 2:40 9. "Too Much Monkey Business" 1956 2:53 5. "Johnny B. "Back in the U. "Sweet Little Rock and Roller" 1958 2:20 19. "Reelin' and Rockin'" 1958 3:14 12. "Nadine (Is It You?)" 1964 2:30 27. "Carol" 1958 2:46 16. "Rock and Roll Music" 1957 2:30 10. "Let It Rock" 1960 1:50 23. "Beautiful Delilah" 1958 2:08 17. "You Can't Catch Me" 1956 2:42 4. "Roll Over Beethoven" 1956 2:23 7. "Sweet Little Sixteen" 1958 2:55 13. "Little Queenie" 1959 2:38 20. "Almost Grown" 1959 2:19 21. "Oh Baby Doll" 1957 2:33 11. "Bye Bye Johnny" 1960 2:03 24.S. *The Great 28 (List 10) 1.

I’m talking about you Let it rock Around and around Memphis *Test 1 – Saturday. 2015 Roots of Heavy Metal Pat Hare (1930-1980) -Session guitarist for Junior Parker. Bo Diddley *Broke new ground during rock and roll’s formative years with unique guitar work. indelible African/Cuban rhythms. it now sounds like a direct line to the coarse. -Feature a guitar sound so overdriven that with the historical distance of several decades. distorted tones favored by modern rock players. October 17 October 5. launched thousands of copycat songs Doo-Wop -The Robins -The penguins *Doo Wop is a specifically urban music that in it’s original form has no instrumentation and relies on voice alone. Howlin’ wolf at Sun Records *His guitar solo on James Cotton’s electric blues record “Cotton Crop Blues” (1954) was the first record to use heavily distorted power chords.28. Almost grown Back in the usa. two tenors and an alto . James Cotton. with a bass. anticipating elements of heavy metal music. -Originally played on wooden blocks called… *His band was one of first to integrate women and men and employ exotic instruments -“Who do you Love” *Know the Bo Diddley beat -Songs covered by countless music legends. "I Want to Be Your Driver" (from Chuck Berry in London) 1965 2:15 Sweet little sixteen. No particular place to go Come on Maybellene. inventive songwriting and larger than life persona. *Typical doo-wop combo is a 4 person combo.

2015 . including The Beach Boys. etc. **Miles Davis (Trumpet). which Spector described as the “Wagnerian approach to rock and roll. learned to play music along side black neighbours -Countless Elvis Presley songs written by them Phil Spector *“The Wall of Sound” -Produced a lot of the songs Lieber & Stoller were writing *Age 21 already millionaire responsible for 20 consecutive smash hits **The “Wall” approach to production involves a process of overdubbing scores of musicians to make a full sound. -Known for “Story Songs” -Unifying factor is that all of their songs had a fundamental grounding in rhythm & blues. Julian ‘Cannonball’ Adderly (Alto). many iconic artists would begin imitating this technique in future years. etc. John Coltrane (Tenor). -A Masterwork of careful phrasing and articulation with a practically flawless execution. Paul Chambers (Bass). mostly 1950s 1960s -Written some of the most enduring rock and roll songs. HoundDog. Miles Davis *“Kind of Blue” (1959) **Considered a landmark in audio recording and fidelity and one of the greatest albums ever recorded in any genre *Laid the framework for modal jazz in the 1960s -Modal jazz is the concept of focusing on one mode for all solos rather than playing a host of scales and arpeggios to “get through” the chord changes of a jazz song. Love Potion No 9. Wynton Kelly & Bill Evans (Piano). -Grew up in ghetto of Baltimore. Jimmy Cobb (Drums) October 19.-Usually all men *One of the tenor voices also typically doubles as falsetto *The bass voice is also more active than in typical vocal groups Lieber & Stoller **Jerry Leiber (wrote lyrics) and Mike Stoller (wrote music) *Considered the greatest pop/rock writing team of all time -Arranged and produced countless recordings and advanced rock and roll to new heights of wit an musical sophistication.” (layering several artists recording same instrument for full sound) *Style served to make Spector even more famous in the music industry. Bruce Springsteen. The effect created a “roar”.

heavy use of Tom drums for lower bass -One of first genres to feature bands or groups as opposed to individuals Dick Dale *King of Surf Rock -Band Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. saved from death -Beatles -Surf Music -These two bands made it clear Rock and Roll was not just a fad. often used to emulate sound of waves and surf -Percussion often focuses on African and Latin rhythms. and famous drummer Gene Krupa. *First white person public really ever saw playing guitar aggressively and until Jimi Hendrix was the icon of the electric guitar -Dale’s Machine Gun approach was influenced by love of drums. here to stay Surf Rock -The Ventures “Walk Don’t Run” -Chantays “Pipeline” -The Surfaris “Wipeout” -Dick Dale and the Del-Tones -Instrumental driven. written by bass player Brian Wilson -Countless hooks. signature harmonies. layering . MA *First guitar god.-By early 60s two predominant genres/styles brought Rock and Roll back. first “shredder” known as “King of the surf guitar” -Played so loud that he regularly blew up the amps and Leo Fender provided him pushing Fender to produce louder and more durable amps. vocals. guitar based rock -Based in California 1960s -Guitar style with Staccato rhythms and attack heavy solos that were mostly pentatonic based -One of first rock styles that used heavy amplification of new solid body electric guitar -Known for heavy doses of reverb and vibrato. Beach Boys -“I Get Around” *Complex. “Misirlou” -Later featured in Quentin Tarentino’s film Pulp Fiction -Boston.

Brian Wilson (Bass. -56 Hot 100 hits. *Vocal harmonies are amoung most unmistakable and enduring signature of the rock and roll era -Second only to the Beatles in terms of impact on the Top 40 *Often called “America’s Band”. magnitude of that genius was overlooked because of the adolescent subject matter of early hits. The Texas Connection: -Big Buddy Holly fans (The Crickets / The Beatles) *Bruce Channel “Hey Baby” *Harmonica played by Delbert McClinton (harmonica. repackaged American influence -Reintroduced American blues to American audience who has forgotten it -After the Beatles launched there was a North American appetite for British bands and many found success in 1960s -The Brits were very influenced by Motown and American soul The Beatles -Ed Sullivan paid $10. The British Invasion -The Beatles -The Rolling Stones -The Kinks -The Who -The Yardbirds *Covered early Motown. Vocal). Keys. entire Beach Boys classic catalog is seen as legendary and ahead of it’s time. Vocal). R&B. inspired itself by Fab Four’s ‘Rubber Soul’. David Marks (Guitar. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ was their attempt to address the challenge posed by the Beach Boys’ classic ‘Pet Sounds’. considered Americas first.000 for first 4 appearances on his variety show -Influenced a lot of generations to come -Beatles Influences. *Members: Dennis Wilson (Drums). Today. best rock band -Had 36 US Top 40 hits (most by any American rock band). -Brian Wilson demonstrated an uncanny gift for harmonic invention and complex vocal and instrumental arrangements -Brian Wilson heavily influenced by Spector’s “Wall of Sound” -Initially. including 4 number 1 singles *The Beatles’ most serious competitors on a creative level. non- blues context) -Influenced Beatles “Love Me Do” (John Lennon liked use of harmonica) . Paul McCartney has admitted that ‘Sgt. Vocal). Al Jardine (Guitar. Blues. Mike Love (Lead Vocal).

kicking off Summer of Love. after which the band was aggressively merchandised. I Love You” *Their first movie “A Hard Day’s Night” opened in America in August. -Summer 1966 controversy erupted when Lennon made comment to British newspaper “Christianity will go… We’re more popular than Jesus now. record burning *Beatles gave up touring and only made records in the studio after an August 29. like Dark Side of the Moon -15 weeks at number 1. rather than exceptional. “1” a compilation of the Beatles number one hits. the Beatles cut two originals “Love Me Do” and “P. it grossed $1. hit number one in 35 countries and went on to become the best-selling album of the 2000s. cover of Buddy Holly “Not Fade Away” . sold over 8 million copies *1967 Beatles recorded their single “All You Need Is Love” before international television audience of 400 million. Pepper’s Lonely Heart’s Club Band using a then stat-of-the-art four-track tape recorder and building each cut layer by layer *Hailed as serious art for it’s “concept” and its range of styles and sounds -Concept records have a theme. Virtually every rock experiment has some precedent on Beatles records. the Beatles proved that rock and roll could embrace a limitless variety of harmonies.S. -They also embodied the archetype of the band unit. but was asked to leave/departed in 1962 to make way for Ringo Starr.-In 2000s. *As musicians. dangerous alternative *First hit. and sounds. Four distinct looks and voices that were at once familiar and easily marketable. -Every record was a shock when it came out to the record buying public as they had no equal at the time. structures. -On September 11th. death threats. -1966-1970 released 4 of most influential albums in rock history *1967 released Sgt. *Pete Best was the original drummer for the Beatles. the Beatles arrived sounding like nothing else **By writing their own songs. they made writing your own material expected. **Produced by George Martin The Rolling Stones -Marketed as bad boy alternative to Beatles.” -Anti-Beatles backlash intense in USA. 1966 concert at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park claiming they could not hear themselves onstage anymore and no one was listening. Pete Best is often referred to as the 5th Beatle. -Unlike R&B purists like the Rolling Stones.3 million in its first week.

Page assumed the lead guitar role. Pete Seeger. hard-driving blues-based rock and roll that came to define hard rock. called the New Yardbirds. and others -Folk revival mostly took place in the coffee house scene. Bill Wyman (Bass). *Keith Richards particular rhythm style. writing their own material *For a time the Folk movement was separate and opposed to Rock and Roll -One result of the folk revival was the proliferation of bluegrass music and the popularization of old timey music *Two schools during folk revival: -Singers/Songwriters who wrote their own words to traditional melodies. and in some cases wrote new melodies -The old timers. Brian Jones (Guitar. spurred on by cultural rise in social causes and political protests of time *Bob Dylan was the biggest star of the Folk revival and marked the beginning of folk singers. *Original Members: Mick Jagger (Vocal). John Sebastian. lead to some of the greatest guitar riffs ever written. Cajun music. Tom Rush. *First original hit “The Last Time” -Self proclaimed World’s Greatest rock and roll band -The Stone’s pioneered the gritty. popularizing the music of Appalachia. *Page lead the Yardbirds into full psychedelia before band broke up. then changed name to Led Zeppelin. Ritchie Havens. went into seclusion and drowned in his own pool under suspicious circumstances *To replace Jones. *Brian Jones was original leader and main songwriter of the band. with dynamic stage moves and latent sexuality. Joni Mitchell . Charlie Watts (Drums). in which he used open tunings. He was left with rights to the name. -Mick Jagger became the prototypical rock front man. Keith Richards (Guitar). hired 19yo Mick Taylor as lead guitar The Yardbirds *Important because feature 3 guitar legends who went on to shape rock and roll *Eric Clapton *Jeff Beck *Jimmy Page -Ace session player Jimmy Page was brought on to play bass in late 1967 and when Jeff Beck left to form the Jeff Beck Group. Folk Revival -1960s. toured a bit. who simply stuck to traditional songs and styles. Sitar). drug problems. early 60s -Stars include: Bob Dylan. on a large scale. Joan Baez.

Ont -Young boy began singing church choir. began experimenting with electric music *Records Highway 61. to which he credits early development of his singing voice. As teenager. -Bob Dylan goes Electric: -Tired of being typecast as acoustic folk singer. began teaching himself piano and various percussion instruments. *First song he played electric in public was “Maggies Farm” -Crowd jeered and booed Dylan as he proceeded to run through rest set -History would show this to be a turning point in Rock history and only the first time Dylan would anticipate the changing of modern music. Album contained “Blowin’ In The Wind” -Songs closely linked to protest movements 1960s -Songs covered by more artists than anyone. Bob Dylan -Real name Robert Allen Zimmerman -Took name after poet Dylan Thomas -First Album “Bob Dylan” 1962 -1963 “The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan” really began to mark Dylan as an original and special talent. etc. except Beatles *Unique use of words and phrasing made him a legend and have often compensated for his voice and simple musical arrangements in early work. then backed by Paul Butterfield Blues band. goes electric. Gordon Lightfoot -Gordon Meredith Lightfoot. one of most important rock albums of all time *At Newport Music Festival 1965. -Influenced Bob Dylan -Canadian legend *Prior to Gordon Lightfoot. Dylan decides to do first half performance acoustic. born Orillia. Grateful Dead. there was no Canadian music industry -Began signing in church choir *1965 “Early Morning Rain” would go on to influence entire folk movement -Songs covered by Elvis. first number one hit “Sundown” . -By 1965 popular folk musicians of the time were performing his songs -1971 hit Top 10 with “If You Could Read My Mind” *Three years later.

to raspy and harsh. Little Richard. Soul singers use a variety of tones from gentle and smooth. -Soul music has a definitive rhythm. plays a huge role in distinguishing soul music from other genres. One singer or musician calls out something. *Concerned with things going on in real people’s lives *Emotion Stax Records (Nickname: Soulsville USA) *Founded in Memphis. *Movie theatre credited for signature Stax Records sound. in order to properly convey this range of emotions. -Soul music infuses a wide variety of instruments together. -Artists: Isaac Hayes. drums. Rufus Thomas. Otis Redding. Mar-Keys. -Since then. another singer or musician provides a response. TN by Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton in 1957 -Amalgamation of their last names *Jimmy Stewart initially founded as Satellite Records. where had distribution deal with Atlantic Records. The use of horns. and the guitar. such as piano. also had some hits of their own -Instrumental . 3-line lyric style used in blues of the 40s and 50s -Pioneers include: Ray Charles. he has continued touring and writing at incredible pace -20 albums to date *Put Canada on map as he was first pop star from Canada to make impact in US and Europe Birth of Soul Music -Concerned with 3 Labels: -Stax -Atlantic -Motown -Soul music lends itself to a wide variety of emotions. like the trumpet and saxophone. *Minor success with Last Night by Mar-Keys -Home base was an old movie theatre in South Memphis. Albert King. -Borrows heavily from 12 bar. Bar-Kays. Not uncommon to hear the same musical notes. Johnnie Taylor. Aretha Franklin *Heavy call and response routine. Booker T & The MGs Booker T & The MGs *Stax Records’ house band. James Brown. *Repetition plays a major role in soul music. TN. phrase and rhythms throughout a song.

Same and Dave -Soul Man -Hold on I’m Coming Motown Records (Nicknamed Hitsville USA) *Founded by Berry Gordy. December 10. never lived to see release *Four day after recording. Jr. *Redding was one of the first soul singers to cross over to the white hippie rock audience. Sam and Dave. intense performance enthusiastically received. Al Jackson (Drums) *Massive early sixties success with all instrumental hit “Green Onions” *House and Touring band for many Stax/Volt artists. *Inspired by the festival. reaching #20 on R&B chart and establishing as a recording artist *Appearance at Monterey Pop Festival 1967 introduced singer to white rock fans. Steve Cropper (Guitar). -Songs covered by numerous artists. Georgia -Grainy voice and galvanizing stage shows made him one of the greatest soul singers of all time. Eddie Floyd and the Mar-Keys -The MGs played on countless hits while Jones and Cropper would go on to write and produce many hits. the Bar-Kays. Jones (Organ). including: -Otis Redding. Became biggest hit. *Most successful independent record label in history -The Temptations -Kim Weston -Take me in your Arms (Rock Me Little While) -The Four Tops . such as “Soul Man” and “Sitting on the Dock of the Bay” -Inducted into Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 Otis Redding -Born Otis Ray Redding. Jr. in Dawson. including Aretha Franklin “Respect” -Huge influenced by Little Richard and Sam Cooke -“These Arms of Mine” first hit. -Mixed race band *Members: Booker T. 1967 his chartered plane crashed. killing Otis and 4 members of his back up band. Donald “Duck” Dunn (Bass). Redding and Steve Cropper wrote “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay”.

promotion. Eddie Willis. and business. Joe Messina. Black Soul) to get around radio rules regarding playing too many hits from one label. booking agency.-Diana Ross and the Supremes *Started with $800 loan from Berry Gordy Jr. Elvis Presley. **List 6-8 Funk Brothers and what they play -Keyboards: Joe Hunter. -Departments for every aspect of the business. Richard “Pistol” Allen. *Ran multiple labels at same time (Tamala. in the USA *Called itself “The Sound of Young America” -Motown began as the Tamala label *Gordy co-wrote “Money” which got him enough to purchase 2648 West Grand Blvd. publishing. rehearsal hall. Dennis Coffey -Bass: James Jamerson. Home to a round- the-clock recording studio. finance. etiquette… *Gordy sold Motown Records to MCA and Boston Partners in 1988. The Rolling Stones. This would be Motown headquarters for the next decade. Eddie “Bongo” Brown (Bongo) -Vibes: Jack Ashford *All hits recorded in Motown Studio A (The Snake Pit) *Backing band for nearly every Motown song ever produced . Uriel Jones -Percussion: Jack Ashford (Tambourine). Popcorn Wylie -Guitars: Robert White. where he hung his sign “Hitsville USA”. and The Beach Boys combined. family in 1959 -Within few years Detroit-based outfit was selling more singles and releasing more hits than any other record company *Became cultural icon as most successful African-American owned and operated record company. Motown. -Assembled a roster of young artists drawn from Detroit’s poor and working class neighbourhoods *Many hits written and produced by Smokey Robinson. Bob Babbit -Drums: Benny Benjamin. teaching artists choreography. The Funk Brothers *Have played on more number-one hits than The Beatles. Motown is owned by Universal Music Group. Earl Van Dyke. *Currently. ending Motown’s era as an independent company.

Marvin Gaye *Most successful artist in Motown history *Greatest selling hit in Motown History “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” sold four million copies -Wrote. including “Dancing in the Street” -Biographer David Ritz wrote “His music was cathartic. -Distinctive use of tambourine. meditations. razor sharp guitar parts and thunderous clockwork-like drum fills defined Motown’s sound -Influenced The Beatles and The Rolling Stones *Never received any credit until Marvin Gaye’s “What’s Going On” 1970 James Jamerson -Main bassist for Motown -Genius on the bass. This ability players 50 years later struggle to recreate. incredible improviser in the studio -Top 3 greatest bass players in popular music history *Anchor of in-house group at Motown Funk Brothers -Groove-oriented melodicism brought broader awareness of the role and possibilities of the bass guitar *Paul McCartney rates him as an influence *Genius was an uncanny sense of time and the ability to play melodic while still locking down a strong bottom end. A musical visionary -Wrote or co-wrote songs for himself and others. Played drums and piano on tour and in studio for likes of Miracles and Marvelettes -Possessed a classic R&B voice that was edged with grit yet tempered with sweetness. Produced and played a variety of instruments in early days of Motown.” *Initially envisioned himself a supper-club singer and dreamed of becoming “The Black Frank Sinatra” -Succeeded in Motown as a soul man who aimed his talent at a younger audience. liquid bass lines. His songs were prayers. strategies for survival. *First success under his name came with “Stubborn Kind of Fellow” 1962 .

emphasis on beat one -Funk Music -Great performer. -Made people take Marvin Gaye seriously as a singer James Brown *“Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag” (First Funk single) *Beat is on The One. *Album “What’s Going On” -First Motown album to credit the studio musicians -First socially conscious album Motown released -Almost didn’t get released by Berry Gordy Jr. Joined movement supporting MLK. would fine band members for mistakes -Band were tired of fines and treatment. -Late 1960s Brown became concerned with civil rights. sold 4 million copies. called band from Ohio “The Pacemakers” to replace them. Organized mutiny and all quit unless Brown conceded to demands *Brown refused. *Ultimate showman. demanded excellence. Tammi Terrell and Diana Ross. founded by Bobby Byrd (Organ) *Byrd is credited with discovering James Brown *Possessed nearly inhuman vocal capability allowing him to scream in tune at the top of his lungs for decades without shredding vocal chords. -Strict. Released controversial funk single “Say It Loud. earned nickname The Prince of Motown. -From that point on. placed 56 records on the pop singles charts. became Motown’s biggest selling single of the 60s -For this. amazing vocalist. -Considered one of the most important records ever produced. including Wells. both as a solo act and with female duets. many moves later refine by MJ. . etc. fired all on spot. Kim Weston. *Gaye’s version of “Heard It Through The Grapevine” topped charts for 7 weeks. I’m black and I’m Proud” which became an anthem and smash hit. dance moves -Known as “Hardest working man in show business” “The godfather of soul” *Began as singer in “The Flames” in 1960s. Justin Timberlake. one of best selling of all time.

*The Pacemakers included: Bootsy Collins (bass) and brother “Catfish” Phelps Collins (guitar). *Then formed The Stoners. allowing the bass to be more adventurous. -The JB’s: Pass The Peas Jimmy Nolen *Was a long serving member of many of James Brown’s legendary bands and is credited with pioneering the funk style guitar heard in most funk music. socially relevant material -Racial. influenced every rock. The Grateful Dead and Grace Slick’s band Great Society. funk bassist ever since. *First to use the 9th chord as a resting chord and devote most of his attention to syncopation and rhythmic displacement rather than flashy solos -His “Chank-chank-chank” guitar was the backbone of Brown’s funk style and laid down a rock solid foundation. rhythmically *Father of funk guitar Sly Stone -Sly and the Family Stone -Child prodigy -Born Sylvester Stewart. Texas -Worked as disc jockey mid 1960s for San Francisco. Summer of Love *Telecast June. pop. City of San Francisco deemed summer of 1967 the “Summer of Love” -San Francisco was an epicentre for music in the mid 1960s -Haight/Ashbury district. Band would go on to form core of Brown’s new band the JB’s. 1967. San Francisco. California soul station KSOL -Worked as a staff record producer for Autumn Records. The Beatles performing new song “All You Need Is Love”. . loose hybrid brand of funk is the flip side to James Brown’s rock tight. adopting the name “Sly Stone” -Motown producer Norman Whitfield patterned label into harder- driving. structured funk *Stone’s bassist Larry Graham invented slap bass technique. Sexual and stylistic mix had a major influence in 1980s on artists such as Prince and Rick James -Most talented musician I know (Bootsy Collins) *Sly’s wild. on live TV for millions of people. young hippie generation moved into area. producing bands such as The Beau Drummels.

and total lack of sexual and social inhibition. Mikey Hart (Drums. Vocals. etc. Bill Kreutzman (Drums). incorporated many styles often in same song (blues. as many as 100. Late 60s Turmoil … Psychedelic Rock -Cream. drugs. such as gender equality. -Unprecedented gathering of young people often considered to have been a social experiment. and effects echo throughout modern society -Hippies. free love. etc. CA (Haight/Ashbury) -Often blues based. The Grateful Dead *First band to release a song considered “Psychedelic” was in 1966. -The term coined by Roky Erickson. tremolo. communal living. creativity. lifestyles -Social phenomenon. Phil Lesh (Bass). Others uninterested in political affairs. fuzz. lead singer of 13th Floor Elevators -originated in USA. got very little radio play and did not sell many albums . the 13th Floor Elevators – You’re Gonna Miss Me. music. music. -Many of these types of social changes reverberated on into the early 1970s. one of highest grossing concert touring acts in history *Compared to contemporaries. drugs. Vocals). Public LSD parties before outlawed *Original lineup: Jerry Garcia (Lead guitar. MJ *First genre in Rock and Roll that relied heavily on improvisation beyond simple guitar solos *First genre to use effects heavily such as wah wah pedal. country. house band for Ken Kesey’s Acid Tests. Many were suspicious of the government. Bob Weir (Rhythm Guitar. Percussion). were an eclectic group. art rock. generally opposed to Vietnam War. Keys) *One of most enduring bands of all time. specifically San Francisco. delay. specifically LSD. rejected consumerist values.) -Heavily influenced by drug use. Quicksilver Messenger Service. Ron “pigpen” McKernan (Harmonica. -1965. Rolling Stones use first Fuzz Pedal The Grateful Dead -Formed 1965 in San Francisco. -ABC documentary -First time people breaking out of typical roles. preferred to spend their time involved in sex. jazz. sometimes called Flower People. because of all the alternative lifestyles which became more commonly accepted.000 people -City became even more of melting pot of politics.CA -Originally called the Warlocks. vocals).

many doing so with their families for large portions of their lives *Jerry Garcia died in 1995. eventually became first band to sell tickets directly to their fans *Band became one of most merchandised bands of all time while at same time not alienating hardcore fans -Known for preserving “old time” folk. but his legend looms large as the most melodic guitarist rock music has ever known. John Cale. called “The most influential record ever” -It is often said that only a handful of people bought the first album. who opened for Vanilla Fudge *1968 psychedelic power trio Blue Cheer released version of the Eddie Cochran’s Summer Time Blues. rock. giving modern twists -Wove country. developed close bond with Warhol -Warhol produced first album. Attractive for fans to see them many times in a row -By 1970s an army of loyal fans dubbed “deadheads” followed them from show to show and across the world. song wildly considered first Heavy Metal recording. Dark brooding style and searing guitar was markedly different than the flower power of the era. funk into trademark sound *Played 1500+ shows. but all that did started bands. blues. . -Allowed fans to tape their live shows and trade them at a time when most bands looking to bust bootleggers -First band to have a fan newsletter informing fans of their tour dates and news. would never repeat a setlist -Adventurous spirit and heavy use of improvisation made them unique and every show different. Appice’s thunderous style was an influence to Led Zeppelin’s John Bonham. jazz. with a 400 song repertoire of originals and covers. *Wildly considered one of most important albums of all time. blues. set foundation for new wave era and punk eras of 70s and 80s -Last album “Loaded” Roots of Heavy Metal -1967 psychedelic rock band Vanilla Fudge has a hit with slowed down sludgy version of the Supreme’s “You Keep Me Hanging On” -Rhythm section featured Tim Bogart (Bass) and Carmine Appice (Drums). Sterling Morrison and Maureen Tucker (and a german-born model Nico) -Paired Nico with the Velvets. The Velvet Underground *The Velvet Underground and Nico (album cover painted by Andy Warhol) *Andy Warhol financed them *1965 Andy Warhol met Lou Reed. He possessed a sparkling tone that has never been heard since. disco. soul songs. reggae.

Wanted to build a studio in Woodstock. -Blue Cheer managed by Hell’s Angel New Music Technology 1960s -Vox Wah Pedal -JM45 amp with cabinet (needed for stadium performance. Noel Redding (Bass). Bob Dylan and others lived in Woodstock. Vocal). his phrasing. raise money through festival. John Roberts. New York. playing behind head. He made such an impact in England. only on music scene 3 years *Wild stage persona of smashing gear. Vocal). Eric Clapton remarked after seeing him live he may have to go back to selling shoes. Mike Lang. -During his short life. Billy Cox (Bass) -First rock and roll song – Rocket 88 -First wildly popular rock and roll song – Rock Around the Clock Woodstock 1969 *Monterey Pop Festival (where Jimi Hendrix first performed back from England) proved to promoters that there was a market for this music. lighting guitar on fire **The Jimi Hendrix Experience: Jimi Hendrix (Guitar. *Was discovered and managed by Eric Burdon and the Animals bassist Chas Chandler -Hendrix had to go to England to breakthrough in late 1966. made an impact. Expected maybe 50. Kurtis Knight.000+) *Organized by 4 young men. *Though he used primarily blues and pentatonic scales. loud or with as much soul as Hendrix could. etc. no PAs built in) Jimi Hendrix -Widely considered to be greatest electric guitarist of all time -began as backup musician for Little Richard. inventiveness and use of textural effects were and still are unparalleled. -Huge Music and Arts festival -Did not go as planned. Buddy Miles (Drums. *Hendrix paved the way for the power trio and heavy metal shredding to come as no one could play as fast.000 people *Largest rock festival at that time (500. oldest 27 *Original proposal was to build a recording studio and retreat for rock musicians in Woodstock . with teeth. Joel Rosenman. Mitch Mitchell (Drums) -Band of Gypsies: Jimi Hendrix (Guitar. Artie Kornfeld. Vocal).

focus in pop music became introverted songs of personal toil. love or longing. *To a lot of people. Ohio over Vietnam War -National Guard called in to disperse crowd -Open fire on unarmed university students on campus. NY while already $100. film became a hit -Just know the significance of the event. Hall and Oats -As 60s faded. -However. where they planned to hold the festival. Max Yasgur offered his 600-acre dairy farm in Bethel. considers best song he ever wrote -Wrote after seeing article in Life Magazine -Recorded same evening in few takes -Same session. 2 of which were not even protesting. left 4 dead. -Gained considerable commercial appeal and radio play -Gifted Songwriter is core with minimal instrumentation (Guitar/Piano and Voice typically) -Natural sounding melodies. By end in debt over $1M with 70+ lawsuits. Story songs were also popular. never did. chorus willed with hooks while harmony generally diatonic -As decade progressed. -Luckily in Mid-July. not a lot of details.000 in debt. incorporated various styles and genres . Town passed a law and banned the festival. filmed the concert. -----End of Test 2 Material----- 1970s Ken State Shootings *Protest at Ken State.-Citizens of Wallkill did not want a bunch of drugged-out hippies on their town. B-side recorded “Find the Cost of Freedom” -Record was mastered by the four principles. James Taylor (Fire and Rain). signalled the end of the 60s CSNY *Crosby Stills Nash and Young *Wrote “Ohio” about Ken State shootings -Written by Neil Young. CSNY. -As result. polished their sounds with full bands. rush released by Atlantic and heard on the radio with only a few weeks delay Singers/Songwriters & Soft Rock -Paul Simon. “Flower Children” became disillusioned and lost their idealism as Vietnam war dragged on and major societal changes they hoped would materialize.

MAPL System -To qualify as Canadian content. King Crimson -Mostly a British movement to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility *Prog-Rock often features compound meter (anything not 4/4). requirements are referred to as the MAPL system *Some stations. Windsor) also get to play less. playing formats where there may be a limited number of Canadian recordings suitable for airplay. Rush. usually telling an epic story -First sub-genre where synthesizers and electronic textures Can-Con Era -Canadian Content -Early 1970s CRTC legislation on content quota for Canadian music -Radio and Television broadcasters (Cable and satellite) must air a certain percentage of content that was at least party written. has multiple sections with sophisticated arrangements and uses jazz inspired improvisation -Tends to be more traditionally melodic and borrow lyrical content from concept pieces. must fulfil at least 2 of the following conditions: *M (music): Composed entirely by Canadian *A (artist): Music. Pink Floyd. jazz. more complex compositions and extended instrumental explorations *Many bands focussed on crating concept albums with unified statements. and science fiction -Album-based style. poetry. presented by persons from Canada *Currently the percentage is 35% -For music. produced. taking advantage of format’s capacity for longer. such as classical. oldies. may be allowed to play as little as 20% *Stations close to major US cities (ie. Genesis. lyrics performed principally by a Canadian *P (performance): Musical selection consists of a performance that is: -Recorded wholly in Canada or -Performed wholly in Canada *L (lyrics): Lyrics written entirely by Canadian -What constitutes a Canadian under MAPL system? -One of the following: -Canadian Citizen -Permanent resident -Person who’s ordinary place of residence was Canada for the 6 months immediately preceding their contribution to musical composition .Progressive Rock -Yes.

O. vocals). person licensed to operate a radio station Guess Who *First internationally successful rock band from Canada -Began in 1960s (Winnipeg) as “Chad Allan and the Expressions” -The name “Guess Who?” was invented to promote their single “Shakin’ All Over”. highest earning song in the Sony catalogue for synchronization earning $2M per year April Wine *Leader and main songwriter = Miles Goodwyn *Have been consistently successful and touring since 1969 -From East coast. Garry Peterson (drums). keys) *Scored international smash hits with “These Eyes” “Laughing” and “American Woman” *Success of these three early hits. writer) -“Fly at Night” Birth of Hard Rock . band toured the globe and became superstars. Robin Bachman (drums). B. vocals). most popular rock group ever from Canada -1970 Bachman left the group to form B. Blair Thorton (guitar) -Even more popular than Guess Who in US *Composed “Takin’ Care of Business”. -License (i. NS Canada (Centred in Monteal) Chilliwack *Bill Henderson (guitar. -Replaced Bachman. Marketing decision stemmed from idea that if people thought they were from England they would be more successful. -Hit single “Shakin’ All Over” appeared in US an travelled to England -Chad Allan left the group due to vocal issues. vocal. Turner. still very successful -Hits include “No Sugar Tonight” “Hand Me Down World” etc. Overdrive) -“Let it Ride” “Takin’ Care of Business” -After Bachman left The Guess Who. Jim Kale (bass guitar). (Bachman.O.e. became The Guess Who *Original Guess Who: Randy Bachman (guitar). he formed power rock combo to compete with big American hard rock acts and distance himself from laid back sounds -Original Members: Randy Bachman (guitar.T.T. and Burton Cummings (vocals. Fred Turner (bass. Halifax.

Jimmy Page (Guitar). Iron Butterfly -Innovations in technology also lead to development of rock and Heavy metal. due to John Bonham’s drumming *Always slightly late/behind beat. Keys. reason Led Zeppelin stands out. middle eastern influences -Sold over 100 million albums worldwide. John Bonham (Drums) -Originally formed by Jimmy Page as contractual obligation to Yardbirds (The New Yardbirds) -John Bonham and Robert Plant originally from blues act called “Band of Joy” while Jimmy Page and John Paul Jones were experienced session players *Led Zeppelin signed to Atlantic records (by Ahmet Urtegen) without an album for a large sum and made demands on royalty percentages that were unheard of at time for unsigned band. Vanilla Fudge. Led Zeppelin. created demand for live recordings *Most bootlegged band of all time -Created signature sound unlike anything else. Grant notorious for shaking down and assaulting bootleggers or promoters who were scamming the band. created large pocket and heavy feeling -Crucial to LZ sound -Early days. both as rhythm instrument with simple repetitive riffs and as solo instrument -More likely used with distortion and other effects -Began in phychadelic era of late 60s with bands like Cream. 30 million since 2000 *Notorious reputation with road crew lead by tour manager Richard Cole and band manager Peter Grant. Mandolin). Harmonica).-Hard rock generally derived from blues rock and played louder with more intensity -Emphasised electric guitar. -Zeppelin went on to become biggest concert draw of 1970s. mixture of high octane blues. Second gen effects boxes meant louder volumes with less noise -Development of more powerful amplifiers meant bands could get louder on stage while retaining definition -Improved PA systems in venues meant bands no longer had to push all volume from stage Led Zeppelin -Biggest rock and roll act since Rolling Stones and Beatles *Robert Plant (vocal. psychedelia. got banned from clubs because violent drumming in sighted riots . -Lots people believe Jimmy messing with Black Magic lead to death and tragedies around band John Bonham *A lot of success. breaking records set by the Beatles and Rolling Stones -Concert tour sold out well in advance. John Paul Jones (Bass.

extreme volume. where bass player follows drummer. solos. or breakdowns -English creation -Early practitioners include: Black Sabbath. possessed an inventiveness and fluency -Lengthy songs had frequent meter changes. mood of doom and aggression -Quickly recorded the quintessential Black Sabbath album. other side of hippie era. Tony Iommi (Guitar). Judas Priest Black Sabbath *First Heavy Metal band -First Album “Black Sabbath” 1970 -Unlike typical rock and roll. Influenced by Led Zeppelin. and dark. Paranoid (1971) which contained classic tracks such as “Iron Man”. sweep-picking and other fast playing tricks all make up heavy metal -Hard Rock played with more intensity and speed. Bill Ward (Drums) *Credited with creating heavy metal -Riff-based songs. . shortened to Earth. John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers. bass and drums through amplifier -“Heavy” part is distortion of bass and lead guitar -Riffs. -Butler saw what he believed to be a ghost from dark side *Pioneered the use of flatted 5th interval (the devil’s interval) in rock and the use of detuned and drop tuned guitar -Arrived at height of Vietnam War. less concern for finesse. the four of them formed Earth Blues Company in 1968. A fan of horror films and the black magic-themed novels. bass player follows guitar *Terry “Geezer” Butler (Bass). Cream. occasionally reuniting with his son Jason. Ozzy Osbourne (Vocal). Zeppelin folded under his death. and even jazzy temperament using bluesy scales. embodied key aspects of the heavy metal aesthetic *Looking to escape life of dreary factory work. Deep Purple. interludes. ample room for improvisation. “War Pigs” and “Paranoid” -Band’s musicality generally overlooks. demonic subject matter. -Everything changed when Butler came to the band with an idea for a song inspired by a disturbing apparition. -One technique was to line drums with tinfoil to amplify sound -One of the few rock drummers that could swing and syncopate as hard as any jazz drummer *Died in 1980 after drinking 40 shots of Vodka in 12-hour. Birth of Heavy Metal -Main element is driving power of guitar.

Etc. sometimes dated to when The Beatles played Shea Stadium in NY 65 *Smoke. Pink Floyd. Fireworks and sophisticated lighting shows became staples *Commercial sponsorship of large-scale tours. Kiss. did some demos looking to record another male artist. almost all about love -Began as producer. bass voice -First Barry White album was 1973 “I got so much to Give” Isaac Hayes (“Black Moses”) -Writer for Stax Records in 60s -Became recording artist in 70s -Iconic bald head -Cultural icon with Black Power movement -Inspired by funk movement. anthematic choruses. deep whispered spoken vocals. wah wah pedal guitar. -Origins in late 60s. lead to music being branded -Includes: Led Zeppelin. fat bass -Artists such as Barry White. particularly sports venues for concerts *Utilized a more commercially oriented and radio-friendly sound. highly produced music including both hard rock numbers and power ballads. formed his own band with former Bar-Kays member and dubbed it “The Isaac Hayes Movement” *1971 Hayes commissioned to score an upcoming inner city copy thriller “Shaft” *Title song won him Best Motion Picture score *“Shaft” was million seller and also launched a new style of guitar that would be used in countless funk and disco recordings to come **Guitarist Charles “Skippy” Pitts was the first to use the wah wah pedal as the focus and the guitar as the effect Superfly (1972) -Similar film style to Shaft . -Labels heard him & pushed him to be the recording artist himself due to his defined bass voice *His band was called “Love Unlimited Orchestra” *Big hit with “Love’s Theme” *Known for his deep.Arena Rock -Rock music that utilizes large venues/arenas. Isaac Hayes. Barry White (“The Maestro”) -Beginning early 70s a slowed down sexy brand of R&B became popular *Featured syrupy slow tempos. Teddy Pendergrass set the mood -First type of R&B more concerned with mood than dance or soulful lyrics.

syncopated electric bass line.Parliament/Funkadelic *George Clinton Funkadelic -Mid 60s doo-wop group The Parliaments had minor hit with “I just want to testify” but had to drop the name when band with same name threatened to sue -Fascinated with Sly Stone and psychedelic rock of Jimi Hendrix and Cream. Disco -Disco is a genre of dance-oriented soul music that began as club music played by DJs in underground club frequented by Gays. Blacks and Latinos in Urban centres like NY. Disco would eventually become pop music in late 70s -Before Disco. Philadelphia -As the 70s wore on. big ensembles on stage. and a prominent. wanting to fuse Motown with Psychedelic rock -Formed Funkadelic to create this sound -“Funkadelic”. an eight note or sixteenth note hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat. -First club music. crucial in the development of hip-hop and electronic music that sampled it’s best grooves and took it’s beat structure. “Free your ass and your mind will follow” pioneered the idea that funk music could have searing rock guitar solos *70s Clinton formed mirror group Parliament. a drummer for Philadelphia international disco group the Trammps -While performers and singers garnered the lion’s share of public attention. long shows **Bernie Worrell -Member added to Parliament mid 70s -Brought the idea of the Moog Synth he played *Worrell was one of the first players to use the Moog as the Bass in a band structure. “Maggot Brain”. . behind the scenes producers equally important in the creation. often reverberated vocals over a steady Four-On-The- Floor beat. *Classic disco beat of kick drum alternating with high-hat was invented by Early Young. *This lead to the synth bass sound that would define Parliament and influence countless others into 80s and beyond. LA. *Toned down psychedelic influence of Funkadelic and incorporated horns and large ensemble -Parliament was wildly successful in late 70s *Parliament is more club oriented sound. people didn’t really go out to watch/listen/dance to DJs *“Rock the Boat” by The Hughes Corporation is seen as the first disco song by many *Usually have soaring.

producer. crowd wild mix of gays. main DJ at Paradise Garage *Larry seen today as a pioneer in electronic music -Legacy directly lead to modern house music *Spawned electronic music called “Garage” music -Meat packing district. drug addicts. most exclusive club in country *Was a popular and world renounced nightclub. ground- breaking multi-media visual extravaganza *Place to be seen and mingle with stars. Studio 54 -Club everyone wanted to be at. . located in Manhattan. industrial NYC -Raves would go for days -All about the music. sophisticated. NYC -Operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager *Was called most famous nightclub of all time. The focus was the event of going to the nightclub to hear disco and dance and the DJ became the star. A-list frequented club -Very hard to get into with lineups for blocks and only the best dressed for famous got in *Notorious reputation for rampant drug use and open sex in infamous balcony area. *Donna Summer “I Feel Love” -First song all electronic (except kick drum) Paradise Garage *Larry Levan. This created a sonically superior. tracks you may only hear at this venue. warmer and loud sound which allowed records to be played much louder and with less distortion in night clubs.*It is fair to say electronic dance music would not exist without disco *Disco was the first music where the live performer was not the focus. pimps. punks and hippies The Philly Sound MFSB *Mother Father Sister Brother -Studio band *Massive hit with “TSOP” (The Sound of Philadelphia) Tom Moulton -Experimented with pressing only one song on each side of a 12” record (unheard of at the time). underground disco hits and ground-breaking mixes -Polar opposite of Studio 54 -Lasted days. all stars went.

Punks lack of concern made controversial as many felt punks couldn’t play *Music is always loud. -Started extending instrumental breaks and hooks. piercings and spikes all meant to separate their culture from normal society . started in 60s -Scored hit with “I Started a Joke” -As 70s came. centre field. -One of best selling artists of all time (75M+) *Their distinctive falsetto vocals are their trademark and have been imitated by thousands of artists. Clothes. carry more volume -Discovery of 12” single record allowed Discos to thrive and offer a sonic experience that could compete with live concerts. to be current with times. everyone wanted a “Tom Moulton Mix” *Inventor of the 12” Single. energy and less with artistry. thicker. blew them all up. started a frenzy Punk Music -Opposite of disco -Born from gritty proto-punk music in Detroit -Genre concerned more with intensity. -Stigwood envisioned a White band that sounded Black -Bee-Gees tried out their new format with single “Jive Talkin’” and was smash hit. thundering drums. faded from popularity *They became fascinated with American Funk and R&B and hired famed manager Robert Stigwood to help them re-launch. Barry and Robin Gibb -Beatles like British-invasion band. fast and generally short with a few catchy sing song chorus *Power chords and distorted guitars. until The Bodyguard *After this movie. -Grooves and be deeper. simple harmony and screaming vocals *All about rebellion. also invented the remix The Bee-Gees -Three brothers Maurice. tattoos. Mixes became popular. Disco became very commercialized Disco Backlash -Big divide between Rock and Roll and Disco -Rock and roll DJ in Chicago organized a Disco Sucks rally -Collected everyone’s disco records at half time in Candlestick Park. Saturday Night Fever *The Bee-Gees featured on soundtrack -John Travolta’s first major role -Highest grossing soundtrack of all time.

New York City *Considered by many to be birthplace of Punk Music The Sex Pistols -Original Members: Johnny “Rotten” Lydon (Vocals). putting kick drum and emphasis on the 3 (Jamaicans count beats double time) *First Reggae song “Do The Reggae” by “Toots and the Maytals” -First to use the word on record -Emphasis always on the offbeat. Earl “Wire” Lindo (Keys) -Wailers began as a vocal trio in the mid 60s emulating Motown styles of the Temptations -Discovered by Jamaican producer Lee “Scratch” Perry .-Punk was a youth movement and the youth loved the music as it was their own. Paul Cook (Drums). Reggae is all about one-drop rhythm *One drop rhythm. instead sub culture. *CBGB’s (& OMFUG) -Country Bluegrass Blues and Other Music for Uplifting Gormandizers *Important venue for Punk and New Wave artists. where it quickly hit number 1 with “God Save the Queen” and “Anarchy in the UK” Reggae -Early 60s dominant style music in Jamaica was SKA and fast paced type Jamaican soul music featuring local artists and emphasis on upbeats -Eventually dancers got tired of fast pace and a slowed down version was created called “Rocksteady” -Allowed more socializing and intimate dancing *By 70s the Rastafarian culture boomed and began playing Rocksteady with heavier bass and more spiritual lyrics. quickly became associated with disillusioned. 1977. This was called “Reggae” *At its core. Steve Jones (Guitar) *Began when owner of London alternative clothing shop called “Sex” (Malcolm McLaren) came upon idea of forming a Punk band made of local youth that hung around shop. *Did not appeal to masses. Aston “Family Man” Barrett (Bass). to promote clothing *“Never Mind the Bollocks… Here’s the Sex Pistols” was issues in Britain in October. parents didn’t understand. Benny Wailer (Percussion/Vocals). rebellious youth and anti-government mentality. bass drum disappearing on first beat and coming in strong with the snare on the 3rd. can be attributed to influence of American R&B as New Orleans radio could be heard in Jamaica Bob Marley & The Wailers *Original Members: Bob Marley (Vocals/Guitar). Peter Tosh (Vocals/Lead Guitar). Carlton Barrett (Drums). Sid Vicious/Glen Matlock (Bass).

and brought in Memphis studio musicians to add North American touches *1973 “Catch a Fire” was released. Lynyrd Skynyrd *Mix of Rock. and became good friends with Keith Richards. developed by record producers who softened the raw honky-tonk sound -Fundamental opposition between law-and-order authoritarianism and the image of “outlaw” -Lyrics often deal with drugs. murder. ZZ Top. partying -Stylistically it is a more raw version of typical country employing multiple electric guitars at times and drum patterns closer to rock -Audience was mix of younger country fans and rock fans . lost love. he added distorted electric guitar solos. eventually opening for Rolling Stones -Bob Marley would go on to released countless iconic singles Jimmy Clif *Stared in movie “The Harder They Come” -Did a lot to popularize Reggae. Jimmy Cliff is the most important Reggae artist in helping spread the genre around world Southern Rock -The Allman Brothers Band. *The Wailers eventually were brought to the attention of English record label owner Chris Blackwell (Island Records) who gave them an unheard of advance at the time to record their first full length album. -Blackwell wanted to break Reggae to the world and get Rock fans to take it seriously -To do so. became smash hit and introduced the Wailers to the world of Reggae -1974 Eric Clapton released his cover of Bob Marley’s “I Shot the Sheriff” which became a million seller and further cemented Bob Marley’s place in music history -Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer left to pursue solo careers -Tosh released “Legalize It” album which became an anthem for Marijuana users. filmed in Jamaica and aired in US and UK -Next to Bob Marley. Country and Blues *Loud Amplification and riff based arrangements -Often employs guitar harmonies (guitars playing the same melody at different intervals -Generally features long guitar solos -Adopted long hair and beards Outlaw Country -Pioneered by Johnny Cash -Waylon Jennings -Subgenre of Country music -Movement attributed to reaction to Nashville sound.

creating iconic dance moves *Dance style direct descendant from dance moved of James Brown who was Jackson’s hero *Recorded his first album as an adult (18+) with Quincy Jones as producer and rose to mega stardom (“Off the Wall”) -Jackson has won 18 Grammy’s and sold 750 Million+ records *Jackson was one of the last in a tradition of true entertainers who did not write songs but focussed on live performance and vocal finesse. but did name it and popularize it -First appeared on British TV dance show “Top of the Pops” in early 1982 *Break-dancer Jeffrey Daniel performed it while dancing to Shalamar’s hit “A Night to Remember” -Jackson later contacted him to learn the dance Quincy Jones *Massive role in Michael Jackson success story -Began as a Miles Davis style be-bop trumpet player. began as pay station until around 1989 *Wasn’t good enough to just be a musician. . Much Music. breaking boundaries both for his race and for music video as art form. highly respected. instantly identifiable voice. Willie Nelson -One of greatest songwriters in Country music history -“Whisky River” 1980s MTV Music Television -First Air 1981. Much More Music. *The Moonwalk *Did not invent. became about image Much Music -1984 *Moses Znaimer -City TV. *Thriller (1982) became biggest selling album of all time (150+ Million) *Jackson was the first black artist to become a star on MTV. Michael Jackson -King of Pop. stunning musical versatility and loads of star power -Began as youngest of the Jackson 5 on Motown records. played along side Ray Charles. made first recording at age 11 and had his first million seller in Jackson 5 same year. eye- popping dance moves. -1980s MJ was larger than life. CP24. biggest selling artist of 1980 and one of biggest of all time -In his prime. Etc. Jackson had it all.

solidified signature MJ sound *Jones brought in Paul McCartney for a duet. Guitarist Eddie Van Halen for a jaw-dropping solo. Jeff Porcaro (Drums) *“Toto IV” marked beginning of Toto’s most successful era Hit Soundtracks -80s first decade in which songs in film soundtrack were also big hits -“Big Name” artists began recording new songs exclusively for film soundtracks. Steve Lukather (Guitar/Vocals). budgets for soundtracks grew significantly . An immaculately crafted set of funky disco-pop and sentimental pop ballads. peaking with critically acclaimed “Toto IV” -Known for technical skill in studio. -Many became major hits -These hits drove soundtracks and they became big sellers on par with standard band/artist albums -As a result. David Piatch (Keys). -“Off the Wall” produced 4 Top Ten singles including “Don’t Stop ‘Till You Get Enough” and “Rock with You” and went platinum (over 7M copies) -Thriller was released in 1982. Off the Wall made Jackson a star all over again. and Vincent Price for a creepy recitation. Lenny Castro (Percussion). Bobby Kimball (Vocals). -Had to limit trumpet playing after a brain aneurism under doctor’s orders -Turned to producing *One of greatest ears for textures. *7 of the 9 songs from Thriller hit Top 10 Toto *Played on a lot of Thriller backing tracks. also produced by Quincy Jones -Refined the strengths of Off the Wall. hooks and layering coupled with superb string orchestration and a love for urban music -Also has a keen ear for reverb use. David Hungate (Bass). specifically on background vocals *Quincy Jones’ first album with Michael Jackson was 1979’s Off the Wall. core of a lot of the rhythm section *Greatest studio band of all time -Played on thousands of records across many genres *“Africa” and “Roseanna” -Founded in 1977 by some of most popular and experiences session musicians of the era -Contributed to many of the most popular records of 70s *Great commercial success in 1980s. as well as musical style with elements from range of genres -Band released 17 albums and have sold over 30 Million records -Steve Porcaro (Keys/Vocals).

Def Leppard. Madonna performed “Like A Virgin” -Very controversial. Vanity. all they got) *Tipper Gore (Al Gore’s wife) -Goals: -Print lyrics on album covers -Keep explicit covers under counter -Establish rating system for records. Michigan -First band “Breakfast Club” *Began recording with high profile DJ John “Jellybean” Benitez *Produced her first single that became a hit “Holiday” *1984 very first MTV Video Awards. Sheena Easton. Ont -Initially Alex Lifeson (Guitar). similar to films -Establish rating system for concerts -Reassess contracts of performers who engage in violence and explicit sexual behaviour on stage -Establish a citizen and record-company media watch to pressure labels -The Filthy Fifteen: -Judas Priest. 1980s Music Traits -Synth-bass -Drum machined and electronic drums *Synthesizers and synthesized sounds -Use of cool sounds. chorus and flanger -Birth of digital recording and MIDI -Distancing from the blues roots of rock *PMRC (Parents Music Resource Centre) *Parental Advisory Explicit Content (Sticker. Mary Jane Girls. Cyndi Lauper Madonna *Perhaps the most media-savvy American pop stars ever. scandalous (for the time) Rush -Started in 70s. Mercyful Fate. Motley Crue. Black Sabbath. ACDC. *Was most consistently controversial artists since Elvis -Diva -Born in Bay City. WASP. Twisted Sister. Madonna. Prince. Geddy Lee (Vocal/Bass). John Rutsey (Drummer) -John Rutsey later replaced by Neil Pert -Drew heavy influence from power trio Cream . by 80s became global phenomenon -Formed Scarborough.

) *Rap is the music at the centre of Hip-Hop culture *Inner city beat poet and funk-jazz pioneer Gil-Scott Heron is seen as the forefather to the rap movement. shortened songs & modern sound -Album made internationally huge -Hits include “Tom Sawyer” “YYZ” “Red Barchetta” -Gathered heavy radio play -Made them megastars Early Rap & Hip Hop -Early Rap Music Aesthetics: -Main MC (Rapper) and one or two hype men (back up rappers) who repeat -A DJ (mixes “breaks” from funk and disco in seamless flow) and scratches effect -Dynamic poses. posturing and hand gestures to give impact to lyrical content -Aggressive. *Hip-Hop is the term used to describe the entire culture surrounding rap music (DJ. Breakdancing. more concerned with lyrical content *The very first Rap song was Sugar Hill Gang’s “Rapper’s Delight” sampled Chic’s disco hit “Good Times” -Hired studio band to play the bass-line/loop (didn’t have samplers at time) DJ Kool Herc -Father of Hip-Hop -Born Jamaica -Knew which records would keep crowd moving -Realized crowd more interested in the Break than the song *Realized if we placed the breaks back to back people would stay . Art. soul and funk records that were looped by DJs for break-dancers to dance to and rappers to rap over. Etc. Rap. replaced by Neil Pert (became primary songwriter) *“Moving Pictures” 1981 incorporated Synthesizers. -First single was cover of Buddy Holly “Not Fade Away” -After first album John Rutsey left. generally monotone *Break Beats: The catchy instrumental breaks in disco. Graffiti. “The revolution will not be televised” was a landmark recording -Instrumental loop.

Beastie Boys -Brooklyn -Mike D. Daryl McDaniel (DMC) and Jason Mizell (Jam Master Jay) *“Raising Hell” first African American double-platinum selling Hip Hop album . *Would purchase two copies of same records and play them on separate turntables *Loudest sound system in NY and began playing parties in the park -began with Reggae and Dub. landmark sample usage *extremely sample-heavy. considered one of their strongest works -Contained “Fight For Your Right” -Parted ways with Def Jams after this album -Signed to Capitol Records *Second album “Paul’s Boutique” produced by Dust Brothers -To date. too expensive. couldn’t create today. Ad-Rock -Began as hardcore punk group *Proved a white rap group could be taken seriously *“Licenced to Ill” became best selling rap album of 1980s and first rap album to reach #1 on billboard 200 -Def Jam’s fastest selling debut *So many samples used. also used break-beat technique *One of first DJs who could scratch and mix seamlessly. MCA. sold 22 million albums in USA alone and 40 million worldwide Run DMC -With Aerosmith “Walk This Way” -Took rap music back to street level -Joseph Simmons (Run). invented many techniques we see today -Leader of Furious 5 *First DJ to appear in a film and first many saw doing anything other than dropping needle on record. soon found locals wanted Funk *Applied break beat technique to Funk *Sound-system parties in NY park became legendary Grand-Master Flash -Band called The Furious Five *Breakout hit with song called “The Message” *One of most influential DJs.

Motorhead. Diamond Head. pure metal for metal fans *Major inspiration to the Thrash Metal that followed (Pantera. dynamics and articulation with blazing speed -One of few guitarists to play things no one ever heard before *Renewed interest in use of feedback as melodic tool New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM) -Iron Maiden. *Featured first metal/hip-hop collaboration “Walk This Way” -First African American rap act to make cover of Rolling Stone magazine Van Halen -Bring back fun -Americas savior of hard-rock/metal -worldwide album sales over 75 million -Eddie Van Halen perhaps… -Began as Mammoth -Self titled album released 1978 (produced by Ted Templeman) became one of most successful debut albums ever. not trying to cross over -Re-energized heavy metal *Distanced themselves from the blues. everyone that followed him had to deal with his legacy *Invented two hand tapping technique and pioneered extreme vibrato dive-bombing techniques *Amazing sense of phrasing. sped up tempo. Metallica. Lamb of God) Diamond Head -“Am I Evil” pioneered Thrash Metal and laid blueprint for what Metallica would become Def Leppard *”Hysteria” Produced by Mutt Lang -Also produced “Pyromania” . rewrote rules of rock guitar Eddie Van Halen *Game changer: Like Jimmy Hendrix. toughened up the sound. Judus Priest -Set out to be heavy metal. leaving a tough. not just called heavy metal by others -Making music exclusively for metal fans. hard metallic core with little finesse *Didn’t make any attempt to win commercial audience. fast.

activism. Slow Ride) -Surf Rock first to feature the Group rather than Solo performers -The Beatles Firsts (writing own material expected. one of few Canadian artists to have major success in Canada before breaking through in USA -Awarded the Order of Canada and several Junos Exam Review: -More heavily weighted towards 80s -Late Psychedelic Rock is a bridge between “British Invasion” to “Heavy Metal” -Elvis “Baby Lets Play House” influenced Jimmy Page -Arena Rock (Foghat. -Album spawned 6 hit singled. Loverboy -70s and 80s catch all term for music followed Punk -Could be divided into two categories. including Hot 100 number one “Love Bites” along side “Pour Some Sugar on Me” “Hysteria” “Armageddon It” “Animal” and “Rocket” -First album featured Synth drums on Leppard album due to Rick Allen’s accident New Wave -Basically anything after Punk music that isn’t as aggressive and Punk -The Police. Concept record) . and innovative guitar playing -Early champion of environmentalism and civil rights -Like Gordon Lightfoot. merchandised. Duran Duran. Post Punk and New Wave Hair Metal Power Ballad -Roots in Canada -Skylark song “Wildflower” considered beginning of Power Ballad era -Distorted guitar solo -Rock power ballad has roots in Arena Rock genre -To draw in female fan base -Wrote songs with pop love ballads but sold them to audience with heavily compressed/screaming guitar solos and thunderous drums -Formula worked and many sold millions and massive radio play -Many frustrated for being known for song that didn’t really represent their sound Bruce Cockburn -Born Ottawa -Canadian icon respected worldwide for his songwriting.