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6200 North C?ntralExpressway ‘&?RSPE 5703
Dallas,Texas 75206 -

Planning a Well Completion for Profit

John F. de Rochemontand C. A. Ledet, Members SPE-AIME,Baker Oil Tools

@)Copyright 1976
Americsn Xn~tituteof Mining, MetaIIurgicaI, and Petroleum Engineera, Inc.

This paper was preparedfor the Societyof PetroleumEngineersof AIME Symposiumon Fcr-
mationD8mage Control,to be held in Houston,Tx., Jan 29-30, 19’76. permissionto copy is re-
strictedto an abstractof n~t more thsn 300 words. Illustrationsmay not be copied. The
abstractshouldcontainconspicuousacknowledgmentof where and by whom the paper is presented.
Publicationelsewhereafter publicationin the JOURNAIJOF PETROLEUMTECHNOLOGYor the SOCIETY
OF PETROLEUMENGINEERSJOURNAL is usuallygrantedupon requestto the Editorof the appropriate
journal,providedagreementto give proper credit is made.

Discussionof this paper is invited. Three copiesof any discussionshouldbe sent to the
Societyof PetroleumEngineersoffice. Such discussionmay be presentedat the above meeting
and, with the paper, may be consideredfor publicationin one of the two SPE magazines.

ABSTRACT formation damage, resulting in lower pro-
duction rates and return on investment.
A suggested procedure for deep well com-
pletions is presented with emphasis on a team- It is a well-known fact that workover
work effort to arrive at an in-depth analysis techniques over the past decade have concen-
of the known well parameters. This analysis trated on methods to avoid having to kill a
will enable a completion team to accurately wel1. This can allow kill fluids to migrate
predict the behavior of the production con- into producing formations and possibly affect
duit, and subsurface equipment combination. formation to wellbore interfaces; thus, affect
The method outlined will prevent possible “ production rates.
equipment failure during well treating and
production cycles, and possible formation Examples of such workover techniques are:
damage as a result thereof.
a) Snubbing systems which allow working
INTRODUCTION over wells under pressure.

~he costs of drilling, completing and b) Coil tubing units which are used
working over oil and gas wells is increasing extensively for clean out purposes
steadily. The need for more energy makes it rather than pulling the tubing,
imperative that wedo all that is possible
to optimize production from new wells drilled Let us consider a new well completion.
as well as wells worked over, increase pro- What are the opportunities available to us in
duction through stimulation techniques, or planning swell completion? Who is involved
overcome production difficulties resulting in making these opportunities become a
from either reservoir characteristics or reality? When shall we examine the opport-
wellbore problems. This paper is devoted unities available to us? How sha’!lwe go about
primarily to new wells drilled and the them? These are the questions that present
opportunities available to operators to themselves. Too often, lack of communication
minimize problems, that could possibly cause prevents planned results. In this paperwe

the resources available to an 3. The operator or Decision Data: well owner should share all and every detail available to him with the service companies 1. furnishing the subsurface equipment required to stimulate and/or complete Surface flowing pressure: 1. inhibited salt 3. Unfortunately. Various procedural 10. EXAMINING THE WELL DATA b) During testing of the well.000 ft During the initial planning of the com- pletion procedure. knowledge about the well than anyone. What pumping rate should be decided of the expertise of the service companies to on? accomplish the remedial and completion phases. The operator or owner of the well. 35 lb/ft.000 psi. the operator has more and 310°F. of the well. determine the suggested approach. C-75 (Yield strength The four groups are: 169. exchange of information is essential. The drilling contractor. and equipment alternatives should be carefully evaluated. Average surface temperature: 70”F 2. They must share the information available in order to be able to arrive at Tubing size planned: 2-7/8 in. ascertained the pro- ducing formation. that four distinct groups of people are casing involved. the optimum in procedures and equipment. after well is acidized During the planning phase. during the drilling with a limited amount of well data available. Well data should be acidized prior to putting are as follows: it on production.. Known Data: —— THE COMPLETION TEAM Top of producing formation: 16. These assumptions are The best completion will result from a as follows: collective effort.. The service company responsible for water pre-production or subsequent stimu- lation treatment of the well. To recommendations. From testing data and well logs.9 lb/ft.000 B/D. Estimated prod~lctionrate: 4. The well selected is determine optimum procedure and equipment a deep high pressure gas or oil well.000 to for an optimum completion. The service company responsible for 3.010 lbs) 1. are established and a decision is made to ascertain which variables must be examined to c) It was established that the well make the final equipment selection. He should initiate the information exchange and Estimated final pump pressure at the the planning to arrive at the best procedure surface during acidizing will be 8. What type acid and what quality selected. a) The operator has.000 psi. Most service companies have sophisti- typical well completion with emphasis on the cated systems to evaluate well data and completion equipment. . The operator should avail himself 2. Compl@ion fluid selected: 9. static bottomhole temperature may be between 300”F Up to this point. Let us consider an example and examine a procedure proposed.000 psi the well. In view of casing and tubing combinations. it should be understood Casing program called for: 7 in. What type of down hole completion operator are not always exploited to the maxi. several assumptions are made. equipment should be selected? .5 lb/gal.. flow During the first meeting of the comple- potentials were determined so that tion team. This is the crucial planning stage should be used? and will determine the ultimate success of the completion. Doubtful Data: The above group should form the cOrnple- tion team. applied annulus pressure is assumed to be 4. e — 1U3 PLANNING A WELL COMPLETION FOR PROFIT SPE 5703 will cover a suggested procedure for a mum. the parameters for the completion completion tubing could be sized.

Figure II shows that the contractile it is decided to run a permanent packer.900 lbs if the tubing is constrained. it can be seen that a 1. duri~lgthe entire”production cycle.68 in. I. up 3 in. if the Due to traces of H2S and possible tubing is not constrained at the packer. In view of this and the depth of the well.on the packer. To prevent this upward motion of the seals. lb/ft tubing is 126. 7 and 10 It is assumed that initially the floating bbl/min.68 in. de ROCHEMONT AND C.342 lbs volumes. 7. the seal assembly will move rate of 7 bbl/min.762 forces which are imparted to the tubing psi string if the tubing is restrained at the packer.000 psi and 10. The maxi- This restricts the production string mum force down on the packer will then be . it can be seen that tubing contraction will be 212 in. the c. both of which are not desirable at this depth with The weight of 16. Possible packer bore sizes: 2. using the following as variables: From the above. From the above it can be seen that if b. EQUIPMENT SELECTION formed. a. it is decided that the tubing is initially landed with zero acid will be displaced at a maximum set down weight. and 3. final pump-in pressure are used. Final formation pump-in pressure: production. floating type seal assembly at the packer is tion~: 300”F and 31O”F. making it necessary that the tubing be free erature variations should be known. for the is decided. every time the well is shut in. type seal assembly is located on the packer with zer~ set down weight. Formation temperature at perfora. Figure 11 shows the corresponding packer to tubing Fiber stress at inner wall of tubing = 16. Thus from Figure I. wei~h?. 9.D. 4. therefore.000 lbs set down pressure ofl0.9 2-7/8 in. A packer bore of2. A force is 67. after examination of qualitative length of the seal assembly.500 In order to make the final equipment 193. required to accommodate the tubing contraction during acidizing. thus the seals in the packer bore will not be subjected to movement d.000 psi. shear released or rotationally released. It is apparent that during 2. it is decided that the behavior This is above the 169. From Figure I. is selected. increases in the future.000 ft of 2-7/8 in.400 lbs.375 indicates that a 20. 3. In order to be able to answer 2 and 3 it at the packer to 2 in.52 lb/gal acid will be used. A. a meeting of the completion team arrived at the following decisions: Tubing contraction = 3 in. pumping rates and packer bores along with the original bottom hole temperature and Tubing elongation = 75 in. Various treating Tubing-to-packer force down = 26. and quantitative analyses of subsurface cores that: a 28% HCL. Shut In: After the computer analysisdata are Tubing-to-packer force up = 1.000 gallon acid psi treatment suffices.25 in. Re-examination of the geological data Fiber stress at inner wall of tubing = 5.400 + 67.500 lbs if the tubing is con- retrievable packer will have to either be strained at the packer. the tubing string will not be sub- 8. C-75tubing. total force at the surface will be 126. A computer analysis of the data is per. selection. je~ted to contractile forces.SPE 5703 JOHN F. Allowance”is made for maximum pump-in tubing can be landed with 2. Figure I shows Producing: the effect of tubing contraction as a result of treating the well. LEDET 14Q —-. Analysis of the tubing-to-packer forces and tubing movement during the production EXAMINATION OF COMPUTER ANALYSIS phase.000 psi and 310”F BHT.010 lbs yield strength of the tubing string under pressure and temp.052 lbs available. to move during the treating of the well. produce the following: The computer output data are summarized in Figure I and Figure II. C-75 tubing is chosen. Planned injection rates: 5. both flowing and shut-in.

Texas It is pointed out that the various equip.: “Wellbore Heat Trans- quences if not enough consideration is mission” given to this phase ofthe project. 1. proper equipment selection.68 made by the operator. can be considerable when one thinks about the possible conse. 1. however. “Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers” It can be seen that there are many alter- natives available when deciding on equipment Paper SPE 178. 1963 cost impact. J. 1. W. but not excessive. Althouse. Logan: $N@ALL WELL ECONOMICS. the following equipment maximum inputs relative to well data. in preparing supporting graphs for this paper. . presented 36th SPE fall meeting. L. A team effort approach will insure At this point. in well completions. publish this paper. It goes without saying that if a well needs to be Paper SPE96.342 lbs during production. J.000 + 26. can be decided upon: treating procedures and equipment selections. Jr. A WELL COMPLETION FOR PROFIT SPE -. Dallas. and listed below: 4. Tec~. Some of the arrive at correct tubing landing configurations on the market are shown in procedures. it is not only costly. Lubinski. seal bore. Dallas. Analysis of the pre-completion well treating procedures is essential to 2. 2.50 PLANNING . Special thanks is due to Mr. 2. Pet. A permanent packer with 2. A. J. Analysis of the production phase of in various packages. “PROPER PRIOR PLANNING PRODUCES A) Permanent packerwith long seal bore PROFITS” is a most applicable phrase extension. Picard of the Applications Engineering D) Latched into permanent packer with Group of Baker Oil Tools for his assistance long seal receptacle above packer. Figure III. Volume 2.342 lbs during production which is worked over. Figure Iv shows some seal assembly varia. L. —--5703-- 2. 3. The author wishes to express his appre- C) Permanent packer with no seal bore ciation to Baker Oil Tools for permission to extension. S. Can. meeting. the clownhole equipment is a small fraction of the overall well cost. Ramey. presented 36th SPE fall and procedures. L. packer will be 28. H. From an overall in Packers” cost standpoint. These basic requirements can be furnished 3. Texas. REFERENCES tions available on the market. the maximum fiber stress value in the tubing CONCLUSIONS is low and thus no tubing damage will occur. The J. repeated exposure of the formation to kill fluids can affect it and its productivity Although the total force down on the and possibly do permanent damage. 2. B) Permanent packer with seal bore ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS protector. No. Logan: “How to Keep Tubing Sealed ment choices can vary widely. A seal assertily20 ft long. Ultimate choice will the well must be carried out to have to.

000 FT.000 PSI TUBING.000 PSI TUBING.. 1 . originalbottom hole temperatureand final pump-inpressure.000 FT. --8. .000 PSI TUBING. 10. pumping rates.3000FQ 16.3.The effect of tubing to packer force.The effect of tubing movementas a result of treatingthe well with variationsin treating“~olumes. pumping rates packer bores.000 FT —— 110. 2 . originalbottom hole teroperature and final pump-inpressure. iii 0 20 40 60 60 100-0 20 40 60 60 100 TREATING FLUID (THOUSAND bALLONS) Fig.000 FT. 300° F @ 16.000 PSI TUBING. 310° F @ 16. ● $ Y ~ 50 40 0 20 40 60 60 100-0 20 40 60 80 100 TREATING FLUID . 310° F @ 16.000 PSI CASING. -- 300 L I I 100 .000 PSI CASING. 3. as a result of treatingthe well with variationsin treatingvolumes.000 PSI CASING.variationsof packer bores. 3.(THOUSAND GALLONS) Fig. 3.000PSI CASING. — 6.withtubing restrained.