Works Cited

Booker, M. Keith. "Comics Code." Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels, edited by

M. Keith Booker, vol. 1, Greenwood Press, 2010, pp. 110-111. Gale Virtual Reference



Accessed 7 Mar. 2017.

Updated in 2010 is good, my topic is dated enough that the information should still be valid. The

comics code was the results of my topic, as well as history on comics. Its accuracy should not

have to come into question being an encyclopedia. Purpose is to inform and holds solid


“Comic Book Legal Defense Fund.” Comic Book Legal Defense Fund, Accessed 9

Mar. 2017.

This web-site has a ton of information on the history of the comic book code and how it

has changed throughout the years. The website also goes into depth into why some comics are

banned. The website has case files of comics being banned or forced to change. The website also

brings up the first amendment and that it is our right to read whatever we want without

censorship. The site also has a link for educators and librarians about the use of graphic novels in

the class room. I think this part would work out in the topic on applying the graphic novel

Fahrenheit 451 to the topic. The site also has a pretty large number of articles on comic book

censorship and how and what kind of things have been censored in comics. I think that this
website with all its background on censorship in the comic book industry and the history behind

it will be very useful to the project.

Lent, John A. "Comics Code." Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender, edited by Fedwa Malti-Douglas,

vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2007, pp. 317-318. Gale Virtual Reference Library,


%7CCX2896200139&it=r&asid=ee3ba8c7cd6c46581752a3f982d41bd2. Accessed 7 Mar.


This is an encyclopedia article about the comic book code of ethics. This article discusses

how and why there was a Comic Book Code put into place. The article also gives insight into

how Wertham was pushing for stricter guidelines for censorship of the comic book industry. The

article shows how the comic book code had strict guidelines in the fifties on what could be

drawn and portrayed in. When the code was first put together in 1948 it had a clause in it that

women should be covered up and not nude and that divorce should not be glamorized. In 1954

the code got even more stringent with not allowing sexual poses to be allowed whether it be

hinted or actual. The article does state that the code has been revised twice both in 1971 and

1989 and that costumes may be drawn within the contemporary styles and fashions. The article

also states that the popular comics use the code still to this day. But independents are excluded

from the Comic Code. This article would be useful to the topic because it shows how the code

was created and how it is stilled used to this day by major comic book companies. The article

also give background on Fredrick Wertham and how he was involved with the creation of the

comic book code.
Pustz, Matthew J. "Comic Book Reading." Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America,

edited by Gary S. Cross, vol. 1, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, pp. 207-210. Gale Virtual

Reference Library,


%7CCX3434800070&it=r&asid=8c97ae3576a436ae4ce0d46f3547b90d. Accessed 7 Mar.


This is an encyclopedia article about the different types of reader of comic books from early

on until today and how the industry has changed over the times. Pustz shows a timeline of what

people were reading in comics. Early on young reader were reading about superheroes like

Superman and Batman. The storylines changed when Americans entered World War II. The

stories were more war related battling spies and Hitler himself. After World War II comic book

sales softened as people grew tired of the war stories. In the early 1950’s comic book sales grew

as larger adult audiences got into reading crime and romance comics. This article also brings up

how the comic book came to be and how it had a major impact on the comic book industry. EC

comics discontinued its crime and romance comics. Many other comic book companies failed

because of the comic book code and the loss of adult readers. This article shows a timeline or

history of the different tastes comic book readers had throughout different decades and how. It

also told about what kind of age groups were reading comic and who was reading them. This

article would be useful for this reason.

Reibman, James E. "Wertham, Fredric (1895–1981)." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular

Culture, edited by Thomas Riggs, 2nd ed., vol. 5, St. James Press, 2013, pp. 333-336.

Gale Virtual Reference Library,


Accessed 7 Mar. 2017.

Updated in 2013, it’s a good encyclopedia source and it purpose is to inform. A great deal of

information on Wertham’s works against comics. Lots of background information on his

Phycology studies.

"Seduction of the Innocent." American Decades Primary Sources, edited by Cynthia Rose, vol.

6: 1950-1959, Gale, 2004, pp. 349-353. Gale Virtual Reference Library,


Accessed 7 Mar. 2017.

Book written by Frederic Wertham on danger of comics on young adults. Dated 1954 but its age

works because of how famous it is. Great information on his viewpoints and the tone he tried to

set for the issue. The book was the cause of the crackdown on comic books.