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Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532

The 4th International Conference on Sustainable Future for Human Security, SustaiN 2013

Analytic Hierarchy Process of Academic Scholars for Promoting
Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction in Taiwan
Yi-Ti Tunga, Tzu-Yi Paib,*, Su-Hwa Linb, Cheng-Hsien Chihc, Hsin-Yi Leeb, Hui-
Wen Hsub, Zhao-Di Tongb, Hsueh-Feng Lub, Li-Hua Shihb
a
School of Medical Sociology and Social Work, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 40201, Taiwan, ROC
b
Master Program of Environmental Education and Management, Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung
University of Education, Taichung, 40306, Taiwan, ROC
c
Hsin-Jie Primary School, Mingjian Township, Nantou County 551, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract

This study adopted analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the significance of the criterion of social education (SE)
regarding promoting energy saving and carbon reduction (ESCR), taking the points of view of scholars from universities and
research institutes into consideration. The analytical results of the study are as follows. Regarding the hierarchy of
evaluation criteria, on the whole, the academic experts suggest that the most important major criteria are in the following
order: positive actions of the government, implementation of education and propaganda activities, support from SE units,
and integration with social resources.

© 2013
© 2014 The
The Authors.
Authors.Published
Publishedby
byElsevier B.V. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
ElsevierB.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the SustaiN conference committee and supported by Kyoto University;
Selection and peer-review under responsibility ofthe SustaiN conference committee and supported by KyotoUniversity;
(RISH), (OPIR), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts
(RISH), (OPIR), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Academic Scholars, Social Education, Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-4-22183541; fax:+886-4-22183540.
E-mail address:bai@ms6.hinet.net.

1878-0296 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the SustaiN conference committee and supported by Kyoto University; (RISH),
(OPIR), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts
doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.065

AHP approach integrates different measures into a single overall score for ranking measure priority. (2) the application of AHP.1. the hierarchical structure was constructed. Identify the problem. 4. Besides. normal. important to very important). Additionally. Introduce comparative judgments to construct comparison matrices. 2. and (3) a questionnaire survey of qualitative and quantitative methods. an AHP is proposed to aid decision makers to make their own decisions to prioritize and select SE options of ESCR. The followings are the basic steps in an AHP model development [3-9]: 1. . The idea of ESCR can be fulfilled by integrating institutions and systems of educational functions to promote the social education (SE) of ESCR based on the concept of lifelong learning. Items in this questionnaire were designed using a Likert five-point scale (ranging from very unimportant. This procedure solicits experts’ opinion to obtain a pair-wise comparison that is necessary for determining the relative importance of elements in each level of the hierarchy. The First Stage Questionnaire Before the development of AHP. set the objective and identify the criteria that will affect the measure. and the combustion of fossil fuels accounts for the largest release source of CO2 and the prime culprit of greenhouse effect. To further promote SE of ESCR. the consumption of fuel resources in Taiwan is mostly of fossil fuels. 3. Materials and Methods 2. It decomposes a decision-making problem into several hierarchy levels. sub criteria and alternatives to identify priority rating. 2. AHP is a system analysis method proposed in the 1970s by Saaty [1-2]. consistency index and ratio. Construct the hierarchy which includes the decomposition of problem into interrelated levels with certain hierarchy. The consistent common viewpoints were summarized by arranging and analyzing the research results. Yi-Ti Tung et al. 2. Developing the Evaluation Hierarchy The steps adopted in the construction of the AHP model include: (1) obtaining the hierarchy structure for SE of ESCR. and weights for each criteria. Introduction The earth’s resources are being gradually depleted because human beings excessively consume the resources. this study has adopted Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) theory to evaluate the significance of the criterion of SE in regard to promoting ESCR. Therefore. in order to serve as a reference for the government to promote the SE of ESCR in the future. This paper describes the criteria affecting the SE of ESCR. unimportant. In such a way. For each comparison matrix. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532 527 Nomenclature A the matrix of pair-wise comparison CI consistency index CR consistency ratio RI a value obtained from a tabulated random consistency index 1. energy saving and carbon reduction (ESCR) has become the most important issue at present. The hierarchy must contain all essential elements relevant to the problem. there performs the calculation of eigen values.2. they form a hierarchy with unidirectional hierarchical relationships between levels [3-8]. AHP simplifies a multiple criterion problem by decomposing it into multilevel hierarchical structure. Fifteen academic experts from universities and research institutes of Taiwan were asked to answer the questionnaires. the first stage questionnaire should be first developed on the basis of previous literature. After the process of analysis and modification of key factors and criteria.

and Omax is the maximum eigen value of matrix A n wj Omax ¦a j 1 ij wi (2) The result is a positive reciprocal matrix A {aij } with aij 1 / aij . the consistency ratio for each of the matrices and overall inconsistency for the hierarchy were calculated. Measurement of Pair-Wise Comparison Consistency To regulate the result of AHP. Scale for pair-wise comparison [1] Importance Scale Definition of the Importance scale 1 Equally important/preferred 2 Equally to moderately important/preferred 3 Moderately important/preferred 4 Moderately to strongly important/preferred 5 Strongly important/preferred 6 Strongly to very strongly important/preferred 7 Very strongly important/preferred 8 Very strongly to extremely important/preferred 9 Extremely important/preferred The pair-wise comparison data were allocated in the form of a matrix and summarized on the basis of eigenvector procedure from Saaty [2].3. The pair-wise comparison data are transformed into absolute values and the normalized weight vector w = (w1. which means the two elements contribute equally. The O max value obtained from Eq. according to a higher criterion. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532 2. The consistency is expressed by the following equation. 2. Pair-Wise Comparison The pair-wise comparison is a numerical representation of the relationship between two elements that determine which element is more important. w is the normalized weight vector. …. where aij is the numerical equivalent of the comparison between criteria i and j. Additionally. Satty [1] proposed a scale of 1-9.4. Table 1 shows the scales and their definition of importance proposed by Saaty [1]. (2) is employed to calculate the consistency. 9 represents an extreme importance that favours one element over another of the pair-wise matrix. Table 1. and the measure of consistency is called the consistency index (CI) Omax  n (3) CI n 1 . wn) is obtained by solving the following matrix equation: Aw Omax w (1) Where A is the matrix of pair-wise comparison. where 1 represents elements with equal importance.528 Yi-Ti Tung et al. w2. The method proposed by Saaty computes w as the principal right eigenvector of the matrix A. w3.

(2) support from SE units.1 (CR < 0. and integration with social resources. For this application. Subsequently.120 4 Table 3 also shows the relative weight for individual sub-criteria under specific major criteria. The Relative Weights for Individual Major Criteria and Sub-Criteria Based on the first stage questionnaire test. the consistency test was used to screen effective questionnaires and control the reliability of the results.1). 1 shows the evaluation hierarchy designed for this problem. The overall score indicates the relative importance of each sub-criterion.2.” the experts suggest that the most important criterion was “promoting the completion of legislation of relevant laws and rectifying the environment of legal system” (0.10. In respect of the hierarchy of evaluation criteria. and (4) integration with social resources. The consistency ratio (CR) is calculated by dividing the CI by a value obtained from a tabulated random consistency index (RI). the comparisons are acceptable. (3) implementation of education and propaganda activities. Subsequently. By using AHP pair-wise comparison. Yi-Ti Tung et al.” the experts suggest that . 3. and 16 items with the mean top 16 weights were selected as the evaluation criteria to complete the hierarchy structure of SE for promoting ESCR. CI (4) CR RI If the CR is lower than 0. all CR inconsistency ratios values were lower than 0. the criteria were used to compile the AHP relative weight questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed by using Likert 5-point scale. Under the evaluation criterion of “positive actions of the government. This is divided in the second level into four major criteria: (1) positive actions of the government. related evaluation criteria were summarized and arranged. Table 2 shows the comparison of relative weights for individual major criteria. 3. Commercially available Microsoft Excel Software has been used in the calculation of the AHP model. the criteria were used to compile the AHP relative weight questionnaire. 1. implementation of education and propaganda activities. fifteen experts from universities and research institutes of Taiwan suggested that the most important four criteria were as follows: positive actions of the government.177 3 Implementation of education and propaganda activities 0.518). as shown in Fig. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532 529 The consistency ratio (CR) is adopted to determine directly the consistency of pair-wise comparisons. support from SE units. The criteria scores were combined into an overall score. The data was analyzed by average means and standard deviation. Results and Discussion 3. The Results of First Stage Test Based on the literature review.1. fifteen scholars and researchers were asked to answer the AHP questionnaires and the relative weights were compared. Table 2 Weights of 4 major criteria Major criteria Weight Order Positive actions of the government 0.243 2 Integration with social resources 0. Each sub-criterion possesses a score on all criteria.460 1 Support of SE units 0. Under the evaluation criterion of “support of social education units. The third level consists of 16 sub-criteria. After the questionnaires were returned. hence. Fig. all the judgments were consistent. the relative weights of all criteria was obtained to construct the weight system and provide as a valuable reference for relevant units.

the experts suggest that the most important criterion was “developing community energy saving and making use of renewable resources to supply communities with hot water and heating” (0.552). Among sixteen sub-criteria. five sub-criteria were ranked most importantly.075).518 1 rectifying the environment of legal system SE institutions enhance connection. Under the evaluation criterion of “integration with social resources”.391 1 and propaganda activities of ESCR Designing diversified educational activities 0.268 2 universities Implementation of education Increasing incentives for the public to participate in the activities 0.252 2 education Including energy education in the courses of community 0.238).426 1 Support from SE units Strengthening the in-service training of the staff of SE institutions 0.073 4 government Promoting the completion of legislation of relevant laws and 0.072 4 Including the concept of ESCR in the focuses of lifelong 0. organize strategic alliance.530 Yi-Ti Tung et al.129 3 3. Under the evaluation criterion of “the implementation of education and propaganda activities.” the experts suggest that the most important criterion was “increasing incentives for the public to participate in the activities of ESCR” (0.552 1 renewable resources to supply communities with hot water and heating Integration with social Asking enterprises or non-governmental organizations to 0.127). “drawing up the implementation plan of the education of ESCR” (0.391).211 2 resources participate in activities of ESCR Selecting outstanding communities of energy saving to set good 0. Table 3 Weights of 16 sub-criteria Relative Major criteria Sub-criteria Order weight Aggressively investigating and developing new alternative 0.109 4 examples Organizing community energy saving volunteer groups 0.3.250 3 and share resources Drawing up the implementation plan of the education of ESCR 0.066). 0. The calculated weights show the suitability of AHP model to be applied in the decision making for the SE of ESCR. “developing community energy saving and making use of renewable resources to supply communities with hot water and heating” (0. including “promoting the completion of legislation of relevant laws and rectifying the environment of legal system” (0.133 3 Positive actions of the of public transportation government Rewarding the installation of energy saving device by the 0.102 4 Establishing demonstration systems of renewable energy 0. The Weights for All Sub-Criteria Figure 1 shows the weights for all sub-criteria.239 3 Developing community energy saving and making use of 0. . / Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532 the most important criterion was “drawing up the implementation plan of the education of ESCR” (0.095). “aggressively investigating and developing new alternative resources” (0. “increasing incentives for the public to participate in the activities of ESCR” (0.276 2 resources Reducing the price of public transport fees to encourage the use 0.426).

The results could be served as a reference for the government to promote the SE of ESCR in the future. “aggressively investigating and developing new alternative resources”.050 0.075 Developing community energy saving and making use of renewable resources to supply communities 0. Conclusion This study determined the criteria affecting the SE of ESCR by taking the academic experts’ point of view into consideration. Yi-Ti Tung et al.065 Reducing the price of public transport fees to encourage the use of public transportation 0. the criteria with top five weights are in the order as follows: “promoting the completion of legislation of relevant laws and rectifying the environment of legal system”. “developing community energy saving and making use of renewable resources to supply communities with hot water and heating”.058 Including the concept of ESCR in the focuses of lifelong education 0.000 0.013 Strengthening the in-service training of the staff of SE institutions 0. .250 Priority weight Fig.013 0.025 Designing diversified educational activities 0.127 Increasing incentives for the public to participate in the activities of ESCR 0. organize strategic alliance. 1.015 Selecting outstanding communities of energy saving to set good examples 0. Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to the National Science Council of R. As for the global weights of the criteria.100 0.045 SE institutions enhance connection. “increasing incentives for the public to participate in the activities of ESCR”. The weights for all sub-criteria 4.238 Aggressively investigating and developing new alternative resources 0.025 Organizing community energy saving volunteer groups 0.C.044 Rewarding the installation of energy saving device by the government 0.200 0.150 0.034 Asking enterprises or non-governmental organizations to participate in activities of ESCR 0. / Procedia Environmental Sciences 20 (2014) 526 – 532 531 Promoting the completion of legislation of relevant laws and rectifying the environment of legal system 0.066 with hot water and heating Including energy education in the courses of community universities 0. By using AHP pair-wise comparison. “drawing up the implementation plan of the education of ESCR”. and share resources 0. the relative weights of all criteria were obtained to construct the weight system and provide as a valuable reference for relevant organizations. for financial support under the grant number NSC 101-3113-S-324-001. The calculated weights showed the suitability of AHP model to be applied in the decision making for the SE of ESCR.095 Drawing up the implementation plan of the education of ESCR 0.O.061 Establishing demonstration systems of renewable energy 0.

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