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Name __________________________________________________________ Aven - ______________

Sectionalism
 Urbanization – growth of cities; occurs in North; increase in factories/mills and immigrants

 Secede – to withdraw; in this case from the United States

 Emancipation – to set free from slavery

 Republican Party – formed in 1854 by opponents of slavery in the territories.

Missouri Compromise 1820

 Peaceful resolution to slavery issue; maintained balance of power in Congress
(idea of Henry Clay)

1. Missouri enters Union as slave state - Maine enters Union as free state

2. Slavery banned north of 36 30’

Nullification Crisis 1832
 South Carolina declares a tariff null and void; threatens to secede
 Jackson: that is treason; will use military to enforce federal laws if necessary

* State’s Rights: who has the power?

Compromise Tariff 1833

 Tariffs would be lowered over ten years. (idea of Henry Clay)

 Temporarily solved the nullification issue

Mexican War 1846-1848

 Texas annexed in 1845 (James K. Polk)

 Mexico disputes the border of Texas

 U.S. wins the war

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1. Rio Grande is the Southern border of Texas
2. U.S. acquires the Mexican Cession. *(will slavery expand into the new
territories?)

Compromise of 1850

 Support: Congressmen Henry _____________ and Daniel _________________

 Oppose: Southerners – afraid of losing power in ____________________________ branch

1. California enters the Union as a ________________ state

2. New territories will use _______________________ sovereignty to determine
slave or free

3. Slave trade is outlawed in _________________________________

4. _______________________ Slave Act

Fugitive Slave Act
 Law: required the ___________________ of runaway __________________
 _____________ African Americans could be sent South if someone claimed to be

their owner
 Fugitives have no right to a trial by ______________ or to testify in their own

__________________
 Federal officials were paid a bounty (money) for each fugitive
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
 Written by Harriet ________________________ __________________
 Fictional _____________________ of the evils and ____________________ of slavery
 Sold thousands of copies; increased support for ____________________________

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1. Created Kansas and Nebraska _____________________________

2. Repealed the 36 30’ line from the ________________________ Compromise

3. Growing number of ______________________ will use popular sovereignty to
determine slave or free

Bleeding Kansas

 Pro vs. ____________-slavery forces fight over Kansas for years (John Brown leads
Anti-slavery)

 Settlers from both sides poured into Kansas to decide the slavery issue (popular
sovereignty)

 Voter fraud in elections leads to bloodshed and _____________________________

Dred Scott Case
 Dred Scott: a ___________________ in Missouri, owned by an Army officer
 Taken to Illinois and ___________________________ (both free)
 Owner dies in 1846: Scott _______________, claiming he is free since he lived in 2 free
places
Court Decision
1. Slaves are not __________________, they are _________________ and cannot sue
anyone in court.
2. Congress has no power to limit the _____________________ of slavery. (huge win for
the South)

John Brown & Harper’s Ferry
October 1859

 John Brown: radical abolitionist; willing to kill and die for his cause

 Leads followers to arsenal at Harper’s Ferry - Plans to arm slaves and start a revolt

 Local militia & marines (led by Robert E. Lee) kill or capture all of Brown’s men

 Brought national attention to the division of the nation!

Lincoln Elected - 1860

 ______________________ is the primary issue of the 1860 election

 New _______________________________ Party had formed in 1854

 Lincoln promised he would NOT abolish slavery where it ______________________
existed

 South did not believe Lincoln – threatened to ______________________ if elected

South Carolina Secedes

 South Carolina secedes a _________________ after the election of 1860

 ___________ more states will join South Carolina in the next few months

 Population in 1860: North = ________ million, South = _________ million
o 39% of South is slave

The Civil War
 Blockade – armed forces prevent the transportation of goods or people in and out of an
area

 Anaconda Plan – Union strategy to blockade the Confederacy during the war

 Abraham Lincoln – President of the Union during Civil War; Republican; elected in 1860;
raised in Illinois

 Ulysses S. Grant – commanding general of Union Army

 Phillip Bazar – from Chile’; served in Navy during war; awarded Congressional Medal of
Honor

 Clara Barton – Nurse; later founded the American Red Cross

 Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederacy; imprisoned for 2 years after the war

 Robert E. Lee – Commander of Confederate Army; brilliant general and strategist

 “Stonewall” Jackson – Confederate general; earned nickname at the Battle of First Bull
Run.

 Border States – States that had slavery but did not secede (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland,
Delaware)

The Confederate State of America

 State’s Rights

o States have the ______________ to cancel the Constitution if their survival is
threatened

o ________________ interpretation of the Constitution – elastic _______________
does not apply

o Slavery is the primary cause of the war
 11 states secede: VA, NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, AR, TX, TN, LA

Scorecard

South North

Goals

South North

Advantages

South North

Fort Sumter, South Carolina
April 12, 1861

 First _________________ of the Civil War (like Lexington & Concord)
 Union fort ________________________ by Confederates until a surrender (no
casualties)

 Lincoln calls for 75,000 men to join army

First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia
July 21, 1861

 First ________________ battle – surprising victory for the
_________________________
 Thomas Jackson rallies the southerners and earns the nickname
“_____________________”
 Both sides realize the war will not be won easily

Antietam, Maryland
September 1862

 First battle on _____________________ soil; Union could have destroyed Lee’s
army

 _______________________ one-day battle in history (23,000 casualties)

 Lee forced to retreat back to ______________________

 Gives Lincoln an opportunity to issue the ______________________________
Proclamation

Suspension of Habeas Corpus

 Writ of Habeas Corpus: the arrest of someone must be justified before a
________________
 Lincoln ______________________ the writs for Confederate prisoners
 A federal ______________ ruled Lincoln could not do this – ignored the judge
and did it anyway
o Judge was Roger B. ______________ (Dred Scott decision)
 Supreme Court later ruled Lincoln’s actions ________________________________

Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863
 Lincoln: “all slaves in states of ___________________ are free” – did not apply to
border states
 No __________________________ effect – South does not recognize Lincoln’s
authority
 First official step to abolishing slavery – war is now focused on
_____________________ for all
 Encouraged African Americans to ________________ for the Union

New York Draft Riots
1863
 Congress passed the Conscription Act to __________________ more men into
the Union army
 Wealthy men could pay a ______________ to avoid being drafted
 African Americans were ineligible because they were not considered
__________________
 Poor working class (Irish) _______________________ with violence and
destruction

Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
July 1-3, 1863

 ____________________ ______________ of the war!

 Only time the Confederate army invaded the North

 Lee ___________________; massive armies collide at Gettysburg and fight
for 3 days
 Lee forced to ______________________ after Pickett’s Charge

 Casualties: Union _________________ Confederacy __________________

Gettysburg Address
November 19, 1863

 Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers National _____________________

 Themes

1. ______________________ and liberty (“all men are created equal”)

2. The Constitution and ________________________

o “government of the people, by the people, and for the people
shall not perish”

3. Strength of the nation – war was being fought to secure
__________________ for all

Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi
July 4, 1863

 Confederate stronghold on the ______________________________ River

 Grant’s army captures the city on July 4, after ___________________ of fighting

Outcomes

1. _________________ the Confederacy in two (Anaconda Plan)

2. Cut off ___________________ from other states and Europe
3. Tide of war turns for the ________________ (Gettysburg was day earlier)

Sherman’s March to the Sea
1864
 Grant’s plan to cripple the South and force a _________________________
 Ordered General ______________________ T. Sherman to march across the
South (Georgia)
 Destroy _________________, property, transportation – Devastate economy and
supplies
 Sometimes referred to as “_______________ __________”

Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
March 1865
 We must not give up the fight
 Slavery is wrong and will not continue
 We must “_____________” the nation, not punish the South (“bind up the
nation’s wounds”)

Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
April 9, 1865
 End of the Civil War!
 ___________________ falls on April 3 – Lee surrenders to ________________ on
April 9
 No _____________________, Confederates go home and remain
____________________
 Began _______________________________ process

Lincoln’s Assassination
April 14, 1865
 Shot by John Wilkes _________________ at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C.
 Andrew _____________________ (a southerner) becomes president
 Booth killed 12 days later while on the run