Mapping Indonesian Bajau Communities

in Sulawesi

by

David Mead and Myung-young Lee

with

six maps prepared by Chris Neveux

SIL International
2007

SIL Electronic Survey Report 2007-019, July 2007
Copyright © 2007 David Mead, Myung-young Lee, and SIL International
All rights reserved

2

Contents
Abstract

1 Background

2 Sources of data for the present study

3 Comparison of sources and resolution of discrepancies
3.1 North Sulawesi
3.2 Central Sulawesi
3.3 Southeast Sulawesi
3.4 South Sulawesi

4 Maps of Bajau communities in Sulawesi

5 The Bajau language in Sulawesi
5.1 Dialects
5.2 Language use and language vitality
5.3 Number of speakers

Appendix 1: Table of Bajau communities in Sulawesi

Appendix 2: Detailed comparisons of sources

Appendix 3: Bajau wordlists from Sulawesi
Published wordlists
Unpublished wordlists

References
Works cited in this article
An incomplete listing of some other publications having to do
with the Bajau of Sulawesi

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Mapping Indonesian Bajau Communities
in Sulawesi
Abstract
The heart of this paper is a set of six maps, which together present a picture of the
location of Indonesian Bajau communities throughout Sulawesi—the first truly new
update since the language map of Adriani and Kruyt (1914). Instead of the roughly dozen
locations which these authors presented, we can say that at present the Bajau live in more
than one hundred fifty locations across Sulawesi. In order to develop this picture, we
gleaned information from a number of other sources, most of which treated the Bajau
only tangentially.

1 Background
Two difficulties face the researcher who would locate where the Indonesian Bajau
(hereafter simply ‘Bajau’)1 live across the island of Sulawesi. The first difficulty is the
well-known propensity of the Bajau to migrate from place to place. As Adriani noted
during his visit to the Tomini Bay area at the turn of the previous century, “Zij verhuizen
wel eens van de eene plek naar de andere, maar verlaten toch nooit geheel de Togian-
eilanden….” (They move sometimes to one place, and sometimes another, but they have
never entirely abandoned the Togian Islands…) (1900:460).2 This tendency to migrate
with the seasons or with the mood has been considerably attenuated by conscious
government effort over the past one hundred years, particularly in the past thirty years.
However, it probably remains more difficult to pin down precise numbers in precise
locations for the Bajau than for any other people group of Sulawesi. Consequently, in the
present study we must simply live with a certain degree of uncertainty and unreliability,
all the more so when our sources of information span over the past twenty-five years.

The second difficulty arises from the first. Because the Bajau live spread out, there has
heretofore been no comprehensive overview of where the Bajau live in Sulawesi, where
they are to be found, and in what concentrations. What we find instead are primarily

1
Indonesian Bajaw is the term used by Pallesen (1985) to refer to the branch of Borneo Coast Bajaw found
living in Sulawesi, the Moluccas, and various locations in the Lesser Sunda Islands. We follow Indonesian
in representing final /aw/ orthographically as au (but the spelling Bajo is also frequently encountered in the
literature). In Sulawesi, Taurije'ne' is a Makasarese exonym for this group (meaning ‘people on the water’),
while Sama is reportedly the preferred endonym in some locations (Adriani 1900:461; Lowe 1999).
2
This is not to say that in the old days the Bajau were completely mobile or lived their lives entirely on
boats. Even in the early 1800s, Vosmaer distinguished in southeastern Sulawesi between Bajau who lived
on shore (“aan den wal wonende Orang Badjos”) and roaming Bajau (“rondzwervende Orang Badjos”)
(Vosmaer 1839:115). In terms given by Liebner’s respondents, these are respectively Lolo Bajo (noble
strata) and Sama (Liebner 1998:114).

4
studies which focus only on the Bajau in a particular locale. Zacot’s investigation can be
taken as an exemplar of this kind of study. His work specifically concerns the Bajau
living in two villages of North Sulawesi: Torosiaje and Nain (Zacot 1978:677, footnote
2). However, we also learn in the text that there are Bajau living in Kimabajo in the
Manado area (p. 673), Tumbak in South Minahasa (p. 675), and Jaya Bakti in the
Banggai area of Central Sulawesi (p. 677, footnote 6). While this is good information, it
clearly leaves open the question: Are there Bajau living in yet other locations in North
Sulawesi? On this, Zacot is silent.

Consequently, language atlas compilers have been in a difficult position about where to
turn for information on the Bajau. Wurm (1994:121), for example, notes that “Bajau is
spoken in small, scattered communities around the coast of Sulawesi and nearby islands,”
but on the accompanying map, he indicates only about a dozen Bajau locations for the
whole of Sulawesi. Furthermore, it is clear that in locating these communities, Wurm
relied on the Sulawesi language maps that had been prepared a decade earlier by Sneddon
(1983a, 1983b). Sneddon, in turn, followed the location of Bajau communities found in
Salzner (1960),3 who, in turn, had gleaned all his information from the language map in
Adriani and Kruyt (1914)! Here the trail ends, as Adriani based his map on personal
research and information gathered from his contemporaries. In other words, the ‘best’
language atlases available today have simply been repeating old information from nearly
a century ago.

2 Sources of data for the present study
This is not to say, however, that there is nothing current regarding the location of Bajau
communities in Sulawesi.4 Rather, the available information has lain scattered among
several diverse publications and has only now been brought together in one place. While
one could, therefore, say that the present work is a fresh survey of the Bajau communities
of Sulawesi, it is not based on a period of fresh research in the field. Rather, it is an
armchair compilation of the results of several other studies.

Only one of these studies (Horst Liebner’s article, under South Sulawesi section) focused
on the Bajau people themselves. The others focused on the languages of either a
particular geographical area or, even more specifically, on a particular language group.
Nevertheless, each managed to bring to light some information about the Bajau living in
their respective areas. In some cases, we even went back to look at researchers’ original

3
Sneddon located three additional Bajau communities in North Sulawesi, presumably based on information
from having lived in Minahasa. Sneddon also “moved” the Bajau community found on Salzner’s map on
the northern tip of Selayar Island to the small islands in the nearby Taka Bonerate area. Locations are
otherwise identical.
4
An earlier, abbreviated version of this paper (minus present section 3 and the appendices) was prepared
for the International Conference on Bajau/Sama Communities 2004 (ICBC-2004) held 21–23 July in Kota
Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, and appears in the proceedings under the title “Location of Bajau Communities
in Sulawesi.”

The heart of this book is a compilation of in-depth wordlists on the heretofore little known Tomini- Tolitoli languages of northwestern Central Sulawesi. While this survey covers portions of three provinces of Sulawesi. Mead (in press) “A preliminary sketch of the Bobongko language. it contains no information about Bajau communities in the survey area. The Bajau language does not enter into their lexicostatistical calculations. Himmelmann (2001) Sourcebook on Tomini-Tolitoli Languages. The focus of this book is clearly on the three major language groups of North Sulawesi: the Sangiric languages. cited here as Barr (1978). However. For village population estimates. The linguistic situation here was so unclear to the Barrs that they simply left the Togian Islands out of consideration in their above-mentioned published report. Himmelmann’s village-by-village distribution of languages (pages 38–43) includes Bajau. an attempt was made to give a village-by-village listing of where it was spoken. This data was obtained by personally visiting every subdistrict in the survey area. This survey was a rapid appraisal of the languages of Central Sulawesi. Instead. Indonesia. As with Merrifield and Salea (1996). The sources we have consulted are as follows.” This article includes demographic and language data at the village level for three subdistricts in the southeastern portion of Central Sulawesi. Language population estimates were made only for the province as a whole. For Central Sulawesi: Barr and Barr (1979) Languages of Central Sulawesi. and the Gorontalo-Mongondow languages. For North Sulawesi (including Gorontalo): Merrifield and Salea (1996) Languages of North Sulawesi. we had to turn to their unpublished field survey notes. we have had to turn to the unpublished field survey notes (cited here as Mead 1988) to obtain village-by-village demographic and language data. Mead and Mead (1991) “Survey of the Pamona dialects of Kecamatan Bungku Tengah.” By way of introduction. The short survey period (one month) combined with the then poor transportation system in the province meant that much of their information was collected outside the area. For each language. the demographic data presented in chapter 7 indicates villages where Bajau is spoken. nor is any Bajau wordlist included. eight-day visit in 2001. gleaned during a brief. For Southeast Sulawesi: Mead (1999) The Bungku-Tolaki languages of south-eastern Sulawesi. . 5 survey notes in order to glean additional information which did not appear in the published reports. the Minahasan languages. this article briefly describes the language situation in the Togian Islands.

Usually we have only been able to compare authors in regard to where they state Bajau communities are located. Merrifield . Donohue describes the location of various Bajau communities living in the Tukang Besi archipelago. 6 Donohue (1999) A grammar of Tukang Besi. Note that in this presentation.” This unpublished. This report is little more than a list of villages. nonethe- less a comparison is likely to reveal something about the accuracy of one or both sources.” Liebner helpfully gives two maps indicating places inhabited by Bajau in the Selayar and Bone Bay areas of South Sulawesi. and Andersen (2003) “Kampung-kampung Bajo (Sama) di Sulawesi Tenggara. 1989.1 North Sulawesi Merrifield and Salea (1996) is our only source of information for North Sulawesi. A single paragraph and part of an accompanying map are devoted to the Bajau. two sources have covered the same geographic area. the authors also give an estimate of the Bajau population living there. we follow Merrifield (1990: personal communication to Scott Youngman) that there are no Bajau in the Sangir-Talaud Islands. Nelwan. Friberg and Laskowske (1989) “South Sulawesi Languages. Salam. it behooves us to discuss discrepancies where we have encountered them and discuss how we have dealt with those discrepancies in this report. It was compiled by David Andersen. based on information gleaned from two knowledgeable Bajau respondents. three-page manuscript was a clear attempt to fill in our knowledge gap of where the Bajau live in Southeast Sulawesi. thus preventing comparison with outside sources. However.” This article was an update to Grimes and Grimes’s Languages of South Sulawesi which had just appeared in print two years prior. 3. based on his personal visits to Bajau villages or on information supplied by his Bajau respondents. In about half the cases. In rare cases we have also been able to compare population estimates (see section 5). While we would not expect to find exact agreement between surveys which took place years apart. In his introduction. Second. For South Sulawesi Liebner (1998) “Four oral versions of a story about the origin of the Bajo people of southern Selayar. 3 Comparison of sources and resolution of discrepancies In a few cases. the islands stretching northward from the northern tip of mainland Sulawesi.

and in the Banggai Archipelago: Buko (88) and Bulagi (160). Siau.7 Kapale. we might also expect to find Bajau communities in the following subdistricts (Bajau populations listed by these authors are given in parentheses): in Poso district. However. subdistrict-wide lapses. 5 We can perhaps take comfort in that Sneddon. who conducted personal research in the Sangir-Talaud Islands. This suggests that where Barr and Barr (1979) is our only source of data. where Mead and Mead (1991) indicate eleven Bajau communities. .2 Central Sulawesi Barr and Barr (1979) was a rapid appraisal of the entire province of Central Sulawesi. The first two are apparently island names. to be Menui and Kulisusu settlements (Mead 1988). et al. (1986:8 ff. in Barr (1978) written Gusutobelo. Merrifield communicated that “there may be Bajau living on Bangka. south coast of Tomini Bay: Lage (75) and Ampana Tete (230). and Balaesang. and they were not able to personally visit every corner of the province. There is somewhat more variance between Barr and Barr (1979) and Mead (1988) concerning Bajau communities in the southern Bungku area in the extreme southeastern corner of Central Sulawesi (appendix 2. Actually. upon personal visit. and Batui (508). Petasia. Balantak (18). 7 and Salea provide no demographic data for the Tahulandang. similar (but unknown) gaps may also exist. indicates no Bajau living in this subdistrict (Merrifield & Salea 1996:292). their information in regard to Bajau communities is somewhat hit and miss. while the third is the name of a kampung ‘village’ that was administratively part of another village. Consequently. 6 According to information in Wumbu. Two other locations listed in Barr & Barr (1979:38). the published report. and Nanusa subdistricts. Luwuk (540). they list no Bajau communities in the three subdistricts of Dampal Utara. which would have confirmed this. also does not indicate any Bajau living in the area (Sneddon 1983a). Kadir. Molore and Padabaho.. In an undated note to Scott Youngman. Dondo. and Tanona—were not even official village names. table A5). or Bungku Tengah subdistricts. turned out. in Banggai district. three of the Bajau ‘villages’ listed on page 38 of Barr and Barr (1979)—Busutobelo. 22–23). where Himmelmann (2001) indicates six Bajau communities. we find particularly good agreement between Barr and Barr (1979) and Himmelmann (2001). which we follow. table A2. Gangga and/or Talise Islands in Likupang [Subdistrict]” (three islands immediately off the coast of the very northern tip of the mainland). Tahulandang and Siau subdistricts lie between the mainland and Sangihe Island. see appendix 2. For example. mainland eastern Sulawesi: Bunta (213). they list no Bajau for the Bungku Utara. The Nanusa subdistrict comprises several small islands just to the northeast of Karakelang Island in the Talaud group.6 Apart from the above. Likewise. depending on the knowledge and reliability of their respondents. 7 Apparently a typographical error.5 3.

The difference in Bajau population which is listed for Boepinang village. Since it proved impossible to find a simple resolution of this discrepancy. Table 2. Bajau communities of western mainland Southeast Sulawesi and Kabaena Island SUBDISTRICT Mead Salam. Nelwan. it appears that Salam. which was carved out of the old Larete village. Nelwan. it would appear that for the Poleang Timur subdistrict. Nelwan. when we realize that Pulau Masudu is a ‘new’ village (created since 1988). but compare here our other sources. for example table 2. If we inspect this table. Nelwan. & Village (1988) Andersen (2003) POLEANG TIMUR Pulau Masudu 500 Marampuka 200 200 Waemputtang 309 300 Larete 488 POLEANG BARAT Boepinang 1178 400 Boeara 14 Toari Buton 26 If we look at the data for the Poleang Barat subdistrict in table 2. then we also understand why Salam. is a true discrepancy. and Andersen (2003) agree with Donohue (1999) concerning the Bajau communities reported for the Tukang Besi Islands. Compare. Nelwan. The only discrepancies we encountered concern the names of the three Bajau-speaking villages on Kaledupa Island. and Andersen (2003) do not list any Bajau living in Larete. & Propinsi Sulawesi Donohue Donohue Andersen (2003) Tenggara (1985 map) (1999:2) (1999 Map 3) Laolua: Bajosampela Lualua Sapela Laolua Bajohoruo Horua LaHoa Hurua Langgee: Bajobatambawi Langgee Mantigola Lange Information from Mead (1988) and Salam. for which we have no account at present. Nelwan. Table 1: Names of Bajau villages on Kaledupa Island Salam. both authors list one Bajau community that was ‘missed’ by the other. we follow the names given by Salem. and Andersen (2003). which is an excerpt of table A7. and Andersen (2003) is compared in tables A6 and A7 in appendix 2. . 8 3. While some of the differences are true discrepancies. Nelwan. However.3 Southeast Sulawesi Salem. and Andersen (2003) simply do not list villages where only a handful of Bajau live. others are only apparent differences. however.

Finally. each Bajau community is indicated by the name of the village. a town located at the northern end of Bone Bay. . 100 to 500. and greater than 1000. Liebner. Given what we know about the historical origin of the Bajau from the southern Philippines. the Sangir-Talaud Islands off the northern tip of Sulawesi and portions of the west coast of Sulawesi along the Makassar Straight— then. we consider it questionable whether Bajau live in Ussu. it seems unlikely that Ussu would have ever historically been a Bajau entrepôt. Besides Liebner’s firsthand research in the area. however. plus the known distribution of Bajau communities across Sulawesi. Subsequent investigation failed to verify this report as well (Timothy Friberg 2004 personal communication). goes the extra step of providing village names. and Larompong subdistricts of the Luwu district. for example. Where a region of Sulawesi is not depicted on any of the maps—such as. However. 500 to 1000. neither Liebner nor Friberg and Laskowske mention any such communities. not just locations. Grimes and Grimes also reported (without details) the presence of Bajau in Pangkajene Kepulauan. There the reader can find a somewhat fuller amount of information about each community. reported Bajau communities in the Bajo. including the population estimate given by our sources. as do Friberg and Laskowske. Both of these reports supersede the earlier work of Grimes and Grimes (1987:84). 4 Maps of Bajau communities in Sulawesi This section contains the heart of this report. to our knowledge. The Grimeses. for example. and—perhaps more significantly—Vail’s detailed survey of the Luwu district also failed to turn up any Bajau living there (Vail 1991:100–103). we find in Laidig and Maingak (1999:48) the unrelated Laiyolo people also trace their origin to Ussu. the group of small islands off the west coast of South Sulawesi. another reason to put confidence in his report is that it matches almost identically the location of Bajau communities independently reported in Friberg and Laskowske (1989:12. In addition. 14). a set of six maps which together present all known Bajau communities across Sulawesi. However. whereas the latter authors only mention. Liebner’s basis for postulating a Bajau community in Ussu is that the Bajau in the Selayar area trace their origin back to this location. 9 3. no Bajau communities are located there. Each Bajau community is also cross-listed in table A1 in appendix 1. in four broad categories: less than 100.4 South Sulawesi Our primary source on the Bajau communities of South Sulawesi is Liebner (1998). other groups have similar origin tales. the presence of Bajau descendants there. for example. he pinpoints the two Bajau communities in the Pulau Sembilan group off the coast of Sinjai. along with a symbol which gives an estimate of the number of Bajau living there. On the maps. Suli. without specifics.

10 Map 1. Bajau communities of northern Sulawesi .

Bajau communities of the northern coast of Sulawesi. . 11 Map 2.

12 Map 3. Bajau communities of eastern Sulawesi .

Bajau communities of upper southeastern Sulawesi . 13 Map 4.

14 Map 5. Bajau communities of lower southeastern Sulawesi .

15 Map 6. Bajau communities of southern Sulawesi .

Notably. Geographically. . 5. 5. the Moluccas. At present. Unfortunately. we lack baseline studies upon which to measure language vitality or language shift. With increasing settlement on land and integration into the national culture. preferred to speak about Bajau ‘descendants.) so that people inside the community no longer identify themselves as Bajau. A lexicostatistical comparison of sixteen wordlists from eastern. none of the (by then all land-based) communities were pure Bajau. no one has researched the linguistic affinities of the Bajau communities in the Tolitoli area of Sulawesi (at the ‘elbow’ of the northern peninsula where it bends eastward). and the Lesser Sunda Islands. but he further noted that resettlement on land often leads to “rapid loss of Bajo characteristics. Munanese. including language … as soon as the social and cultural environment changes to a milieu dominated by other ethnic groups” (Liebner 1998:113). since Pallesen asserted that Indonesian Bajau clusters with the East and West Coast Bajau languages of Sabah). Bugis. Following is further information about the Bajau language in Sulawesi.2 Language use and language vitality Because the Bajau live in scattered communities without a core language area. 16 5 The Bajau language in Sulawesi Locating the Bajau communities in Sulawesi is only a start in developing a picture of the Bajau language as spoken across the island. these communities lie midway between the East Coast Bajau communities of Sabah and the Indonesian Bajau communities at the tip of Sulawesi’s northern peninsula. who describes the Bajau communities around Salayar Island in some detail.1 Dialects Pallesen gave the name ‘Indonesian Bajaw’ to the variety of Bajau which is spoken in Sulawesi. suggesting that this variety comprises a single language with dialectal chaining (Pallesen 1985:117). but their linguistic affinities are unknown. Liebner. which was to include wordlists from northern Sulawesi and elsewhere inside and outside of Indonesia (particularly Malaysia.” then people would speak Bajau. etc. and southern Sulawesi (Youngman 2005) confirmed that the Bajau spoken throughout this area is one language. nonetheless. language use and overall language vitality are difficult to judge. outsiders may. we can expect the pattern which Liebner noted to be repeated across Sulawesi.’ He noted that when he visited in 1996. Butonese. with lexical similarity scores never dropping below 90% in the surveyed area. southeastern. however. If the “social climate” was “predominately Bajo. Even when a community has become so mixed (Bajau. still refer to the community as ‘Bajau’ (Bakker 1992). this larger comparative study was never undertaken. Youngman’s study (which was actually completed in 1989) was intended to be the foundation for a more comprehensive comparison.

000 Central Sulawesi 36. with the number of actual Bajau speakers yet to be determined.000 individuals.000 Bajau in the North Moluccas.000 Southeast Sulawesi 40. we suggest the following estimates instead:8 North Sulawesi and Gorontalo 7.603 Bajau in Central Sulawesi. Kadir. Wumbu. et al. calculating roughly 500 speakers per community.000 in North Maluku. Compare Grimes and Grimes (1987:64) who estimate 8. Grimes (1982) reports 5.000 in Central Sulawesi. 5. while Verhiejen (1986) indicates ninety-five Bajau and former Bajau settlements in the Lesser Sunda Islands. Based on population figures compiled in appendix 1.000. The latest edition of the Ethnologue (Gordon 2005) presents a total of 90.3 Number of speakers While it may be hazardous.000 South Sulawesi 9. including 25. 8.000 Outside of Sulawesi. 17 5. If we consider these ninety-five communities to translate to roughly 40.000–10.000 Bajau in South Sulawesi. to form conclusions about the number of Bajau speakers. therefore. Counting subdistrict by subdistrict. rather than on population figures obtained for each community.000 in South Sulawesi. (1986:22–23) arrived at a figure of 35. For North and South Sulawesi. nonetheless. 8 Population values are admittedly based on data collected in the 1980’s.000 to 45. the number of ethnic Bajau in Indonesia has heretofore been underestimated.000–10. and the remainder in other locations across Indonesia.000 Indonesian Bajau. the population was estimated based on the number of Bajau communities. then the total Indonesian Bajau population lies perhaps somewhere around 150. .

The following eight columns are used in the table to report information about each Bajau community of Sulawesi. 500 to 1000. For older subdistrict boundaries. and Mead (1999:4) for Southeast Sulawesi. a notation such as 210kk is to be read as ‘210 heads of households’ (‘kk’ is an abbreviation of Indonesian kepala keluarga). . On the maps we have taken the more reasonable approach of collapsing Bajau population figures into four categories: less than 100. following current political boundaries. as reported by our sources. see further below. Bajau population – the Bajau population living in that village. by chance. Brt (Indonesian barat ‘west’). that Bajau population figures obtained in the field have often involved considerable estimation and guesswork. A dash in this column indicates that we do not have Bajau population information. The table is designed to accompany the maps presented in section 4 and contains a fuller amount of information than is presented on the maps themselves. The total population would roughly be four to five times the number of heads of households. Tm (Indonesian timur ‘east’). and greater than 1000. The reader should bear in mind.) for North Sulawesi. as reported by our sources. in general. Abbreviations which have been used in this column include Kep (Indonesian kepulauan ‘archipelago’). however. as reported by our sources. as reported by our sources. Barr and Barr (1979:66–68) for Central Sulawesi. we have not rounded off population figures unless our sources have done this. see especially Merrifield and Salea (1996:245 ff. It has not been possible for us to keep up with the proliferation of subdistricts which has characterized recent political evolution in Indonesia. Map – the number of the map (in section 4) on which one can find the Bajau village located. Subdistrict – the subdistrict (Indonesian: kecamatan) where the community is located. In order to present the primary data. then. as reported by our sources. and Sltn (Indonesian selatan ‘south’). District – the district (Indonesian: kabupaten) where the community is located. two villages have the same name. Village population – the total village population. 100 to 500. If the source is known. This name is also used to identify the Bajau community on the accompanying maps. Population comment – information about other language groups or ethnic groups living in that village. In this and the next column. it is possible to predict the year for which the Bajau population (as well as village population) figures are valid. A dash in this column indicates that we do not have village population information. Village – the name of the village where the community is located. 18 Appendix 1: Table of Bajau communities in Sulawesi This appendix contains an extensive table which lists each known Bajau community of Sulawesi. In the few cases where. in order to disambiguate on the map the subdistrict name was included in parentheses following the village name.

(c). if applicable. 19 Source – our source of information for each Bajau community (including. Solely as a means to conserve space. Year for which population Source Abbreviation figures were obtained Barr (1978) Barr78 1977 Barr & Barr (1979) B&B79 n/a Donohue (1999) Donh99 1996 Friberg & Laskowske (1989) F&L89 n/a Grimes & Grimes (1987) G&G87 1984 Himmelmann (2001) Him01 1987 Liebner (1998) Lieb98 n/a Merrifield & Salea (1996) M&S96 n/a Mead (1988) Mead88 1988 Mead (in press) MeadIP n/a Mead & Mead (1991) M&M91 1988 Salam. indicated by a raised letter enclosed in parentheses. then this is usually indicated in a note to the table. Nelwan. thus (a). page number within that source). (b). If the information which we present about a particular Bajau community has come from different sources. etc. The notation n/a (‘not applicable’) means that that source did not include population figures as part of their description. Explanations appear in full at the end of the table. The third column gives the year for which population figures were valid (often different from the year in which the source was published). & Andersen (2003) SNA03 2003 Van den Berg (2004 personal communication) VB04 n/a In some cases we have added additional explanations (footnotes) to the table. . we have used the abbreviations that are listed below.

Bugis Him01:40 . Bajau communities of Sulawesi Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of North Sulawesi Minahasa Utara Wori Bajo Talawaan 1 — — Bajau M&S96:291 (Minaesa) (a) Minahasa Utara Wori Kima Bajo 1 — 654 majority Bajau + Siau M&S96:291 Minahasa Utara Wori Tiwoho 1 — — majority Siau + Bajau M&S96:291 Minahasa Utara Wori Tangkasi 1 — — Bajau M&S96:291 (Mantehage II) (a) Minahasa Utara Wori Nain 1 — — majority Bajau (60–70%) + Siau M&S96:291 Minahasa Selatan Tumpaan Bajo 1 — — majority Bajau + Bugis M&S96:288 Minahasa Selatan Belang Basaan 1 — — majority Tontemboan + Bajau M&S96:293 Minahasa Selatan Belang Tumbak 1 1050 1050 Bajau M&S96:293 Province of Gorontalo Pohuwato Popayato Torosiaje 2 — — majority Bajau + Bugis M&S96:265 Boalemo Tilamuta Bajo 2 — — Bajau M&S96:275 Province of Central Sulawesi Tolitoli Baolan Kabetan 2 478 (b) 566 Bajau. Totoli Him01:40 412 (b) 20 Tolitoli Baolan Labuan Lobo 2 1071 Bugis. Table A1. Bugis. Bajau Him01:40 Tolitoli Baolan Pulias 2 772 (b) 2038 Bajau.

Bugis Him01:40 Tolitoli Dampal Utara Bambapula 2 — 2165 Kaili. Mandar. Minahasa Him01:39 Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Galumpang 2 1608 (b) 1918 Bugis. Bugis. Mandar. Bajau Tolitoli Dampal Utara Malambigu 2 — 553 Bajau. Bajau. Bugis Him01:40 Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Salumpaga 2 — 2354 Bajau. Dondo. Bajau Him01:40 Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Laulalang 2 1231 (b) 2586 Totoli. Bugis. Buol. Totoli Him01:40 Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Kapas 2 664 (b) 993 Bugis. Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Central Sulawesi (continued) Tolitoli Baolan Sambujan 2 413 (b) 688 Bajau. Pendau Him01:39 (10%). Kaili Him01:41 Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Santigi 2 1242 1242 Bajau Him01:41 Parigi-Moutong Moutong Bajo 2 587 (b) 1123 Bajau. Bugis Him01:43 Parigi-Moutong Moutong Tuladenggi Pantai 2 426 426 Bajau Him01:43 Donggala Balaesang Pomolulu 2 1673 1673 Bajau Him01:38 21 . Bugis Him01:39 Tolitoli Dampal Utara Simatang Tj 2 1043 1043 Bajau Him01:39 Tolitoli Dampal Utara Simatang Ut 2 823 823 Bajau Him01:39 Tolitoli Dondo Malala 2 — 2455 Bajau. Bugis. Bugis. Him01:41 Bajau Tolitoli Tolitoli Utara Lingadan 2 1123 (b) 1843 Bajau.

Bugis. Pamona. Bugis. Bugis. B&B79:38 Bajau (assumed 25%) Tojo-Unauna Ampana Kota Labuan 3 308 925 Gorontalo. Toangi Is. Bajau B&B79:38 (assumed 33%) Tojo-Unauna Unauna Kulingkinari 3 — 872 Bajau only on Taupan Is MeadIP Tojo-Unauna Unauna Pulau Anau (d) 3 464 464 Bajau Barr78 Tojo-Unauna Walea Kep Kabalutan (e) 3 — 1502 MeadIP Tojo-Unauna Walea Kep Tiga Pulau (Taoleh Is) 3 — 415 Tiga Pulau = Milo Is. Bajau (assumed B&B79:38 22 33%) . Bajau (assumed B&B79:38 33%) Poso Poso Kota Madale 3 193 772 Pamona. Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Central Sulawesi (continued) Poso Poso Pesisir Tumora (c) 3 116 350 Kaili. Bajau (assumed 50%) B&B79:38 Banggai Pagimana Bajo Poat 3 131 131 Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Pagimana Jaya Bakti 3 2682 (f) 2682 Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Kepulauan Banggai Tinakin Laut 3 394 394 Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Kepulauan Liang Bajo 3 469 469 Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Kepulauan Tinangkung Salakan 3 266 799 Banggai. MeadIP and Taoleh Is Banggai Lamala Bonebobakal 3 465 465 mixed: assumed 100% Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Lamala Lomba 3 371 742 Balantak. Gorontalo.

Bajau (80) M&M91:140 Morowali Bungku Utara Tirongan Bawah 3 320 454 Bajau (320). Bugis M&M91:140 (90) Morowali Bungku Utara Ueruru 3 100 253 Pamona (125). Bajau (100). Bungku (60). M&M91:138 Bungku (80). Bajau (80) M&M91:138 Morowali Bungku Karaupa 3 60 558 Pamona (280). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Central Sulawesi (continued) Banggai Kepulauan Totikum Kalumbatan 3 2623 2623 Bajau B&B79:38 Banggai Kepulauan Totikum Lopito 3 432 864 mixed: assumed 50% Bajau B&B79:38 Morowali Bungku Utara Kolo Bawah 3 940 952 Bajau (940). Bajau (60). Bajau (90). Bugis (70) Morowali Petasia Gililana 3 60 939 Tolaki (160). M&M91:139 Tengah Bajau (60). Bugis (140) M&M91:140 Morowali Bungku Utara Tokonanaka 3 90 355 Bungku (175). Bugis (10) M&M91:140 Morowali Petasia Gandaganda 3 160 700 Tolaki (390). Bajau (160). Toraja (110). M&M91:138 Bungku (50) Morowali Petasia Towara 3 80 793 Bugis (710). Bajau (200) M&M91:140 Morowali Bungku Utara Tambale 3 80 204 Pamona (120). Bugis 23 (50) . Bungku (10) M&M91:140 Morowali Bungku Utara Matube 3 200 499 Bugis (300). M&M91:140 Bugis (25) Morowali Bungku Utara Uewaju 3 400 407 Bajau (400).

Mead88 Bugis (5%) Morowali Bungku Sltn Sainoa 4 1371 1371 Bajau Mead88 24 Morowali Bungku Sltn Tangofa 4 40 386 Bungku (90%). Mead88 Bungku (3%) Morowali Bungku Sltn Lakoambulo 4 336 336 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Padabale 4 312 312 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Padopado 4 138 275 Bajau (50%). Bugis (40%). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Central Sulawesi (continued) Morowali Bungku Sltn Betebete 4 166 333 Bajau (50%). Mead88 Muna (10%) Morowali Bungku Sltn Bungingkela 4 430 430 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Jawijawi 4 348 348 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Kaleroang 4 75 1067 Bugis (90%). Muna (35%). Kulisusu (35%). Bungku (50%) Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Paku 4 254 391 Bajau (65%). Bajau (7%). Mead88 Bungku (15%) Morowali Bungku Sltn Buajangka 4 266 532 Bajau (50%). Bajau (40%) Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Pulau Bapa 4 278 278 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Bungku Sltn Pulau Dua 4 806 1343 Bajau (60%). Bugis (25%). Mead88 Bungku (10%) Morowali Bungku Sltn Polewali 4 218 545 Muna (60%). Bajau (10%) Mead88 .

Mead88 Bajau (5%) Konawe Lasolo Lemobajo 4 1318 1318 Bajo (235kk) Mead88 Konawe Lasolo Molawe 4 572 315kk Tolaki (150kk). Mead88 Bugis (5%) Konawe Lasolo Tapunggaya 4 122 184kk Tolaki (149kk). Bajo (100kk). Mead88 Bajau (10%) Morowali Menui Kep Padei Laut 4 447 447 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Menui Kep Pulau Tiga 4 699 699 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Menui Kep Samarengga 4 319 319 Bajau Mead88 Province of Southeast Sulawesi Konawe Lasolo Andomowu 4 66 1317 Tolaki (85%). Bugis (15%). Bajau (25kk). Mead88 Bugis (65kk) Konawe Lasolo Sawa 4 273 1092 Tolaki (70%). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Central Sulawesi (continued) Morowali Bungku Sltn Umbele 4 290 290 Bajau B&B79:38 Morowali Menui Kep Masadian 4 789 789 Bajau Mead88 Morowali Menui Kep Matano 4 49 489 Torete (75%). Bajau (25%). Mead88 25 Bajau (20%) . Mead88 Bugis (10kk) Konawe Lasolo Tinobu 4 206 1029 Bugis (55%). Bugis (10%). Tolaki (25%).

and Jawa (i) Kotamadya Kendari Poasia Talia 4 70 289kk Bugis (229kk). Bugis (20%). Muna (5%). Bugis. Tator (2kk) 26 Konawe Selatan Moramo Wawatu 4 99 175kk Tolaki (155kk). Bajau (12kk). Bajau (5%). Mead88 Muna (14kk). Cina (4%) Kotamadya Kendari Poasia Bungkutoko 4 379 1264 Bugis (50%). Muna (15%). Jawa (5kk). Makasar. Mead88 Buton (20%) Kotamadya Kendari Poasia Lapulu 4 — 2292 (h) mixed. Buton (17kk). SNA03 Buton. Bugis Mead88 (5%) Konawe Soropia Saponda 4 662 (g) 662 Bajau (235kk) (100%) Mead88 Konawe Wawonii Langara Laut 4 1808 1808 Bajau Mead88 Kotamadya Kendari Kendari Kendari Caddi: 4 2298 45969 Tolaki (56%). Mead88 Bugis (10%) Konawe Soropia Bokori 4 786 (g) 874 Bajau (90%). Bajau (20kk) Mead88 . Makasar (8kk). including Tolaki. Buton (5%). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Konawe Soropia Bajo Indah 4 787 787 Bajau (presumably 100%) SNA03 Konawe Soropia Mekar 4 583 (g) 778 Bajau (75%). Tolaki (2kk). Bajau (30%). Muna. Toraja. Mead88 Langibajo Muna (10%).

Jawa/Bali (2kk) Konawe Selatan Lainea Amolengu 5 274 155kk Muna (66kk). Muna (120kk). Mead88 Muna (20%). Tolaki (6kk). Bugis (10kk). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Konawe Selatan Moramo Sangisangi 5 293 446kk Tolaki (176kk). Wawonii (2kk) Konawe Selatan Lainea Polewali 5 262 1047 Bugis (75%). Kulisusu (40kk) Konawe Selatan Moramo Moramo 5 190 368kk Tolaki (298kk). Mead88 Tolaki (15%) 27 Muna ?? Lagasa (j) 5 900 — Bajau (200kk) VB04 . Bajau (25%). Menui (5kk). Mead88 Bugis (20%) Konawe Selatan Lainea Rumbarumba 5 206 589 Bugis (40%). Mead88 Tolaki (10%). Bajau (42kk). Tolaki (70kk). Bajau (25%) Mead88 Konawe Selatan Lainea Puupi 5 359 897 Bajau (40%). Bugis (10%) Konawe Selatan Tinanggea Lapulu 5 575 226kk Bajau (126kk). Bajau (48kk). Buton (8kk). Bugis (50kk). Tolaki (5%) Konawe Selatan Lainea Tumbutumbu Jaya 5 262 658 Bajau (40%). Mead88 Bajo (60kk). Mead88 Bugis (30kk) Konawe Selatan Tinanggea Tinanggea 5 611 2301 Bugis (60%). Tolaki (40%). Mead88 Bugis (26kk). Bajau (35%). Muna (40%). Mead88 Kulisusu (10kk).

Mead88 Bugis/Buton/Jawa/pegawai (30) Muna Tiworo Pulau Katela 5 1216 — SNA03 Muna Tiworo Pulau Maginti 5 2621 — SNA03 Muna Tiworo Pulau Tiga 5 1693 — SNA03 (l) Muna Tiworo Wontuwontu — — SNA03 (m) Buton Gu Wajogu 5 — — SNA03 Buton Lasalimu Bonelalo 5 200 — Bajau approx 20% of total SNA03 village population Buton Lasalimu Kamaru 5 450 — Bajau approx 40% of total SNA03 village population Buton Lasalimu Lasalimu 5 1700 — Bajau approx 50% of total SNA03 village population 28 Buton Mawasangka Terapung 5 — — VB04 .397). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Muna Bone Tapitapi (k) 5 — — SNA03 Muna Bone Wadolau 5 — — VB04 Muna Katobu Lakaramba: Toko 5 — — SNA03 (Tobea Besar Is) Muna Katobu Tampo 5 — — SNA03 Muna Kulisusu Lakonea 5 356 1783 Kulisusu (1. Bajau (356).

Bajau (13%). Mead88 Selayar (10%). Tukang Besi Donh99:2 Wakatobi Tomea Waitii: Bajolamanggau 5 — — Bajau. Mead88 Moronene (10%). Tukang Besi SNA03 Wakatobi Wanci Mola Utara 5 2278 — Bajau. Tukang Besi SNA03 Wakatobi Wanci Mola Selatan 5 2398 — Bajau. Bajau (5%) Bombana Kabaena Brt Baliara 5 309 2992 Bugis (80%). Tukang Besi Donh99:2 Wakatobi Kaledupa Langgee: 5 — (n) — Bajau. Donh99:2 Bombana Kabaena Tm Talaga Besar 5 385 1539 Muna (75%). Muna (2%) 29 Bombana Kabaena Brt Sikeli 5 198 1982 Bugis (75%). Muna (20%). Bajau (10%). Bajau Village Source District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Buton Pasar Wajo Holimombo 5 1000 — Bajau approx 55% SNA03 Buton Persiapan Kumbewaha 5 950 — Bajau approx 40% of total SNA03 Siontapina village population Buton Persiapan Matanauwe 5 400 — Bajau approx 20% of total SNA03 Siontapina village population Wakatobi Kaledupa Bajohoruo 5 — (n) — Bajau. Mead88 Moronene (5%). Tukang Besi SNA03. Bajau (25%) Mead88 Bombana Kabaena Tm Dongkala 5 112 2254 Buton (65%). Moronene (5%) . Tukang Besi Donh99:2 Bajobatambawi Wakatobi Kaledupa Laolua: Bajosampela 5 — (n) — Bajau.

Mead88 Bugis (30%) Bombana Poleang Tm Waemputtang 5 410 1239 Bugis (75%). Bajau (114). Bajau (30%). Tiro (5%). Mead88 Moronene (25%) Bombana Poleang Tm Terapung (Masudu Is) 5 488 1627 Moronene (40%). Bajau (100) Bombana Rumbia Liano 5 114 637 Bugis (459). Bajau (25%). Bajau Village Source District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Bombana Kabaena Brt Batuawu 5 150 747 (o) Bajau (20%) SNA03 Bombana Poleang Tm Marampuka 5 200 798 Bugis (50%). Buton (5%) Bombana Poleang Barat Toari Buton 5 26 1305 Bugis (72%). Bajau (25%) Mead88 Bombana Poleang Barat Boeara 5 14 1407 Bugis (90%). Mead88 Moronene (10%). Tiro (200). Bajau (35%) (r) . Bajau (30%). Mead88 Tolaki (4%). Tolaki (1%). Mead88 Muna (760). Mead88 Moronene (64) Bombana Rumbia Lora (q) 5 420 1201 Moronene (40%). Bajau (2%). Muna (5%). Bajau (1%). Moronene (760). Buton (2%) Bombana Rumbia Lauru 5 100 2582 Bugis (762). Moronene (20%). Mead88 30 Bugis (20%). Buton (1%) Bombana Poleang Barat Boepinang 5 1223 (p) 3929 Bugis (55%). Mead88 Makasar (2%).

Bajau (34kk) Kolaka Watubangga Tanggetada 5 — 1956 (h) mixed. including Tolaki. Mead88 Bajau (40kk) Kolaka Utara Pakue Lawata 4 147 492 Bugis (65%). Bajau (7%). and SNA03 Bugis (i) Kolaka Pomalaa Sopura 5 208 821 Tolaki (362). Mekongga (20%). Mead88 Mekongga (5%) Kolaka Utara Wolo Ladahai 4 50 173 Bugis (53%). Mead88 Moronene (15%). Makasar (5%) Kolaka Kolaka Kolakaasih 4 1392 3479 Bajau (40%). Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Bombana Rumbia Masaloka 5 — 2650 predominantly Muna (?) (s) SNA03 Kolaka Watubangga Anaiwoi 5 176 Bugis (203kk). Bajau (30%). Mekongga (40%). 31 Luwu' (5%) . Mekongga (10%). Bajau (30%). Moronene (50) Kolaka Pomalaa Tambea 5 103 517 Bugis (80%). Bajau (20%) Mead88 Kolaka Kolaka Kolaka II 4 1402 4673 Bugis (40%). Bajau (208). Mekongga Mead88 307kk (70kk). Mead88 Moronene (10%). Mead88 Makasar (15%). Bugis Mead88 (201). Bugis (70kk). Bugis (10%) Kolaka Utara Lasusua Pitulua 4 215 210kk Luwu' (100kk).

Sembilan the younger generation Lieb98:111 Sinjai Pulau Kanalo 6 — — have become Bugis speakers in F&L89:14. Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Kolaka Utara Wolo Wolo 4 12 518 Bugis (55%). Mamasa (10%) Province of South Sulawesi Luwu Utara Malili Ussu 3 — — Lieb98:111 Bone Tanete Bajoe 6 676 (t) — G&G87:64 Riattang Sinjai Pulau Kambuno 6 — — have become Bugis speakers in F&L89:14. F&L89:14 Selayar Bontosikuyu Kayu Pandah 6 — — Lieb98:109 32 Selayar Pasimaranu Benteng Jampea 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Pasimaranu Doda 6 — — Lieb98:109 . Makasar (15%). F&L89:14 Selayar Bontomatene Polong 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Bontosikuyu Apa Tana 6 — — Lieb98:109. Mead88 Bajau (10%). Mekongga (10%). Sembilan the younger generation Lieb98:111 Selayar Bontoharu Dongkalang 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Bontoharu Padang 6 — — Lieb98:109.

F&L89:14 Selayar Pasimasunggu Latondu (u) 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Pasimasunggu Rajuni (u) 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Pasimasunggu Passi Tallu (u) 6 — — Lieb98:109. Bokori (521) and Saponda (887). (b) Bajau populations are from the Barrs’ survey field notes. Pulau Enam. Bajau Village District Subdistrict Village Map Pop Pop Population Comment Source Province of Southeast Sulawesi (continued) Selayar Pasimaranu Dusun Bajo 6 — — Lieb98:109. Pulau Enau and Pulau Enaw. (i) Bajau presence not recorded in Mead (1988) field survey notes. cited in Pallesen (1985:284). (?) F&L89:14 (a) The significance of the names which Merrifield and Salea (1996) give in parentheses is unclear. (c) Probably not distinct from the Bajau community listed at “Polande” by Rixhon (1974). Total village populations for these same villages are from Himmelmann (2001) (population data from 1988). cited in Pallesen 1985:284) gives a figure of 3000. (g) Salam. (d) In different sources variously spelled Pulau Anam. It is unclear whether Bilok Island administratively falls under Kabalutan village or some other village. Nelwan & Andersen (2003) report Bajau populations as follows: Mekar (773). (f) Rixhon (1974. (e) And on Bilok Island. Requires further investigation. Pulau Anau. . 33 33 (h) Village population figures are from Mead (1988). F&L89:14 Selayar Pasimaranu Katelang 6 — — Lieb98:109. F&L89:14 Selayar Pasimaranu Labuang Mangatti 6 — — Lieb98:109 Selayar Pasimasunggu Kayuadi 6 — — Lieb98:109. and represent estimates made in 1977.

Nelwan and Andersen (2003) as being located in Kecamatan Mawasangka.). (t) This figure reported to Tom Laskowske at the time (1984) he collected a Bajau wordlist in this village.(j) Bajau formerly living in Laino on the outskirts of Raha were relocated to Lagasa (Van den Berg 2004:pers.comm. Nelwan & Andersen (2003).) there are extremely few Bajau living in Wajogu. (u) Latondu. Bajau presence reported by Salam. (n) Donohue (1999:3) lists a total Bajau population for Kecematan Kaledupa of 1. Nelwan & Andersen (2003) also note Bajau spoken on Tambako (Tembakau) Island immediately adjacent to Lora on the mainland. it is unclear whether all three are also village names.500 (o) Village population total is from Mead (1988).). (q) Salam. By contrast. (m) According to Rene van den Berg (2004:pers. Salam.comm. (k) Incorrectly listed by Salam. (s) Reported to be 100% Muna in Mead (1988). Kabupaten Buton. (r) Population figures and demographic data from D. (l) Doubtless the village of Wontuwontu is located on one of the small islands lying between Muna Island and mainland Southeast Sulawesi. Rajuni and Passi Tallu are names of islands or island clusters. but its precise location could not be ascertained. 34 . Nelwan & Andersen (2003) report only 400 Bajau living here. Andersen (2004:pers. (p) A figure of 1223 Bajau was reported to Mead on a personal visit to Boepinang.comm.

An asterisk preceding a village name means that it is not included in the tables or maps of section 4. Table A2. if indicated. Villages are listed only where at least one of our sources indicated the presence of a Bajau community. 35 Appendix 2: Detailed comparisons of sources Regarding these tables. it is followed by the number of Bajau living in that location. . see the accompanying prose discussion in section 3. Bajau communities in the Tomini-Tolitoli area of northwestern Central Sulawesi KECAMATAN (Subdistrict) Barr & Barr Himmelmann Village (1979) (a) (2001) MOUTONG Bajo 587 Tuladenggi Pantai 426 TOLITOLI UTARA Laulalang 1231 Santigi 325 1242 Lingadan 1123 Kapas 664 Galumpang 1608 Salumpaga BAOLAN Sambujang 413 Labuan Lobo 412 Kabetan 478 Pulias 772 DAMPAL UTARA Bambapula Simatang Utara 823 Simatang Tj 1045 Malambigu DONDO Malala BALAESANG Pomolulu (a) Population figures are from Barr (1978). A check mark indicates that that author indicated Bajau living in that village. Conversely. a grayed out cell indicates that that author did not indicate Bajau living in that village.

Tomini Bay. Bajau communities in the Togian Islands. 36 Table A3. Bajau communities in the northern Bungku area of southeastern Central Sulawesi KECAMATAN Barr & Barr Mead & Mead Village (1979) (1991) BUNGKU UTARA Matube 200 Uewaju 400 Tirongan Bawah 320 Ueruru 100 Kolo Bawah 940 Tambale 80 Tokonanaka 90 PETASIA Towara 80 Gililana 60 Gandaganda 160 BUNGKU TENGAH Karaupa 60 . Central Sulawesi KECAMATAN Barr Mead Village (1978) (in press) UNAUNA Kulingkinari Pulau Enam 464 WALEA KEPULAUAN Tiga Pulau 415 Kabalutan Table A4.

According to Mead (1988). (c) Not an official village name. (e) Given by Barr & Barr (1979) as Malore. a Menui (dialect of Wawonii) settlement. but almost certainly in the Salabangka Archipelago). Bajau communities in the southern Bungku area of southeastern Central Sulawesi KECAMATAN Barr & Barr Mead Village (1979) (a) (1988) BUNGKU SELATAN Betebete 166 Padopado 211 138 Padabale 308 312 Kaleroang 75 Bungingkela 430 Lakoambulo 336 Buajangka 266 Paku 254 Jawijawi 348 Polewali 447 218 Pulau Dua 806 Sainoa 115 1371 Pulau Bapa 278 Tangofa 40 * Padabaho (b) 164 * Gusutobelo (c) * Kapale (c) Umbele 290 MENUI KEPULAUAN * Tanona (d) * Molore (e) Pulau Tiga 309 Masadian 337 Samarengga 116 Padei Laut 102 Matano (a) Population figures are from Barr (1978). a Kulisusu settlement. (b) According to Mead (1988). officially part of Matano village. . as late as 1988. (d) A hamlet on the mainland. but rather an island name (location uncertain. 37 Table A5.

) collected a Bajau wordlist in Lawey. Ayatrohadi. Bajau communities of eastern mainland Southeast Sulawesi and Wawonii Island KECAMATAN Mead Salam. (2000a:88 ff. 38 Table A6. a village on the southwest coast of Wawonii Is. et al. but gave no information about the Bajau living there. (b) Lauder. & Village (1988) Andersen (2003) LASOLO Lemobajo 1318 Tapunggaya 122 Molawe 572 Tinobu 206 Sawa 272 Andomowu 66 SOROPIA Mekar 583 773 Bokori 786 521 Saponda 662 887 Bajo Indah (a) 787 KENDARI Kendari Caddi 2298 POASIA Bungkutoko 379 Lapulu Talia 70 MORAMO * Buroro (a) Moramo 190 Wawatu 99 Sangisangi 293 LAINEA Polewali 262 Puupi 359 Tumbutumbu Jaya 262 Rumbarumba 206 Amolengu 274 TINANGGEA * Bungi (a) Lapulu 611 Tinanggea 575 WAWONII (b) Langara Laut 1808 (a) Not an official village in 1988. . Nelwan.

(c) Not an official village in 1988. 39 Table A7. Terapung village. (b) More correctly. Bajau communities of western mainland Southeast Sulawesi and Kabaena Island KECAMATAN Mead Salam. & Village (1988) Andersen (2003) RUMBIA Lauru 100 150 Liano 114 115 Lora 100 * Pulau Tambako (a) Masaloka POLEANG TIMUR Pulau Masudu (b) 500 Marampuka 200 200 Waemputtang 309 300 * Larete 488 POLEANG BARAT Boepinang 1178 400 Boeara 14 Toari Buton 26 WATUBANGGA Anaiwoi 176 150 Tanggetada POMALAA Tambea 103 Sopura 208 KOLAKA Kolaka II 1402 Kolakaasih 1092 WOLO Wolo 50 Ladahai 12 LASUSUA Pitulua 215 PAKUE Lawata 147 KABAENA TIMUR Dongkala 112 100 Kokoe (Talaga Besar) 385 350 * Tolitoli (c) 100 KABAENA BARAT Sikeli 198 200 Baliara 389 400 Batuawu 150 (a) Formed from part of Lora village in 1998. . Nelwan. located on Masudu Island.

Kadir. Alb. Lauder. (2000b:75 ff. The second list was collected by Adriani himself in 1899 in the Togian Islands. with notes on morphology. Buton Island. Wumbu. South Sulawesi. in 1878. et al. Barr & Barr (1979:102–104): A modified Swadesh 100 list collected from a respondent in the town of Luwuk. 40 Appendix 3: Bajau wordlists from Sulawesi By our count. Tobea Besar Is north of Muna Is 210 PL Padei Laut. Published wordlists Adriani (1900:460–490): Presentation of items from two extensive Bajau wordlists. beginning with the published ones. Southeast Sulawesi. et al. et al. Youngman (2005): Sixteen Bajau wordlists. there have been at least thirty-four Bajau wordlists collected across the island of Sulawesi. The first wordlist was collected by J. Anceaux (1978): A 211-item wordlist collected from a Bajau respondent whom Anceaux encountered in Baubau. in Sidate. eastern arm of Sulawesi 100 LBA Lakaramba.): A modified Swadesh 200 list collected on Rajuni Island to the southeast of Selayar Island. on the coast between the gulf of Amurang and the mouth of the Poigar River.” Central Sulawesi. location where the wordlist was collected. (1986:67–74): Two 100-item wordlists (items selected somewhat randomly from the Swadesh 200 list) of “Bajo-Balaesang” and “Bajo-Tomini. Ayatrohadi. just off the coast of Menui Is 226 LAK Lakonea in northeastern Buton Is 226 PIT Pitulua on the eastern coast of Bone Bay 226 ANA Anaiwoi. eastern arm of Central Sulawesi. His respondent came from “one of the small Samalan communities living on both sides of the narrow channel which separates the islands of Muna and Buton from the main island” (Anceaux 1978:659). Brief descriptions of these thirty-four wordlists are given here. in the Tomini Bay of Central Sulawesi. 1911 version) originally collected circa 1913 in or near Kendari. Southeast Sulawesi. Schwarz. and number of items on the wordlist): LUW Luwuk. collected by various researchers associated with SIL International (columns indicate the wordlist code given by Youngman. The majority (twenty-four) of these have already appeared in print. North Sulawesi. Lauder. Ayatrohadi. south of Kolaka on the coast of mainland 226 SE Sulawesi . southwestern coast of Wawonii Island.): A modified Swadesh 200 list collected in Lawey. (2000a:88 ff. T. Stokhof (1985:279–290): Publication of a Bajo wordlist (Holle list. Southeast Sulawesi.

on the east side of Sulawesi 488 KAL Kaleroang. in all three cases without success. near the western tip of Wawonii Is 488 LB Lemobajo. Buton Island. Gerard. Unpublished wordlists Donohue. Wanci Island in the Tukang Besi Archipelago. and Jaya Bakti. c1992: One 226-item wordlist collected in Mola. Original (hardcopy) wordlist archived with Indonesia Branch of SIL. 1984: One 216-item wordlist collected in Bajoe village on the western coast of Bone Bay (the same location as the ‘BAJ’ wordlist in Youngman 2005). and in February 2004 David Mead contacted Gerard Rixhon. an island in the Salabangka Archipelago. 488 southeastern Central Sulawesi The list labeled as ‘LUW’ is the same list that was published in Barr and Barr (1979:102– 104). Lee. southwestern corner of mainland SE Sulawesi 226 LAU Lauru. Jason. 1990–1991: Four 488-item wordlists collected in North Sulawesi in the villages of Bajo (Tilamuta subdistrict). in June 2002 Jason Lee contacted Kemp Pallesen. on the south side of Togian Island in the Tomini Bay. 2002: One partially or perhaps completely filled out 226-item wordlist collected in Bajo Matanauwe. along the coast east of Boepinang 226 LAP Lapulu. southern coast of mainland SE Sulawesi along 226 the Tiworo Straight MOR Moramo. Cited in Pallensen (1985:284). Rixhon. in Southeast Sulawesi. on the southeast coast of Tomini Bay. Wordlist held personally. Polanda village. In 1989 Scott Youngman contacted the Philippines Branch of SIL for these wordlists. north of Kendari on the coast of mainland 488 Southeast Sulawesi KB Kolo Bawah. Wordlist held personally. Merrifield. off the southern tip of Selayar Is 488 LL Langara Laut. south of Kendari on the coast of mainland 226 Southeast Sulawesi BAJ Bajoe. The original wordlists may be lost to posterity. Original (hardcopy) wordlist archived with Indonesia Branch of SIL. Tom. 41 BOI Boepinang. near the city of Poso. 1974: Three 372-item wordlists collected in Central Sulawesi in. Mark. Southeast Sulawesi. and Kima Bajo and Nain (both in the Wori subdistrict). Tumbak (Belang subdistrict). Pulau Enaw. . Scott. on the western coast of Bone Bay 488 KAY Kayuadi Is. A map showing wordlist locations is included in the article. Laskowske.

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