# Name: ​Mikala Muskelly

Class: ​ELED 3221-002
Date: ​3/20/2017

Indirect Instruction Lesson Plan Template

What is sound and how does it move through objects?

Lesson Plan Summary:​ ​This whole group science lesson addresses the NC Essential standard
2.P.1.1 on sound. The lesson consists of an engage phase that has the students do the first two
sections of a KWL chart (what they know and what they want to know about sound). Then I read
aloud to the class a few pages from a Razkids science article to gain some background
knowledge on sound. The explore phase consists of two activities. First, students watching a
video about a tuning fork in water to observe how sound is created by vibration and how it
travels through liquids. The second activity has students experimenting with how sound differs
when knocking on a desk. They will be asked questions that they record the answers to on their
student sheet (below their KWL chart). The explain phase has students thinking about some
questions​, talking with a partner, and then sharing as a group about both activities as I write their
observations and thoughts on the board. To finish up, the students will complete their KWL
Chart by doing the "L" section and writing one thing that they learned about what sound is or
how it travels through objects.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Central Focus/Big Idea​: To what big idea/unifying science concept does your idea align?
Think about how you would teach this standard in multiple lessons- how would it build?

Sound and Motion

Subject of this lesson​: What is the subject of your lesson?

What sound is and how it travels through objects.

NC Essential Standard(s)​:
2. P.1.1​ Illustrate how sound is produced by vibrating objects and columns of air.

Next Generation Science Standard(s)​:
PS4.A: Wave Properties: ​Waves, which are regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by
disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up
and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water
meets a beach.

21​st​ Century Skills:
● Critical Thinking and problem solving: Students are listening intently to the different
qualities of the sounds that they hear traveling through air versus a solid object. They
have to be able to discriminate between the sounds and determine which is louder or
softer.
● Communication: During the explain phase, students are expected to communicate with
others effectively to talk about what they they observed during the activities.

● Language Function: In the table below highlight the one most important language
function for your lesson. Explain why you chose this one.
Compare and contrast best fits this lesson because students are focusing in on noticing the
difference between sounds that travel through the air and sounds that travel through a solid
object.
Analyze Argue Categorize Compare/contrast Describe Explain
Interpret Predict Question Retell Summarize
● Scientific Vocabulary:
o Sound
o Sound waves
o Energy
o Vibration
o Particles
o Solid objects
o Observation

Instructional Objective​:
Performance:​ Student will be able to write at least 1 thing that they learned about what sound is
or how it moves through objects.
Conditions:​ Students must work independently on their KWL chart written responses.
Criteria:​ Student are expected to write in complete sentences and provide a fact they learned
that is factual. Students are expected to earn 80% accuracy to achieve mastery.

Prior Knowledge​ (student):
Students are expected to have a very basic knowledge of what a solid is. They also need to know
the difference between an observational note and an inference.

Content Knowledge​ (teacher):
Vibrating objects produce sound. When tiny particles in the air or in an object vibrate, sound is
produced. Sound waves can travel through different mediums, including solid objects and air.
Sound waves began at the source and travel outward as sound energy. Sound can be described in
terms of pitch, which may be higher or lower. Pitch is different from volume because volume if
only a measure of how loud or soft a sound is while pitch is measured by the frequency that
sound waves vibrate.

Accommodations for special needs​ (individual and/or small group): What will you do for
students with special needs (ELL, ability, etc.)?
● Struggling students: These students may write their responses for each activity
observation in bullet points instead of full sentences, as long as the bulleted notes still
make sense without explanation from the student. They may also work their partner to
create their answer.Students can dictate their answer to the teacher or another student.
● Students that need an extension: These students will be asked during their activity work
each activities.

Materials and Technology requirements​:
● Flash drive
● 26 printed copies of the student sheet (front: KWL Chart, back: activity questions) ​(link
to document)
● Projectable Razkids: Science A-Z Sound (low) book. Pages 4-6 ​(link to a pdf file)
● Powerpoint with Sound activities ​(link to powerpoint directions)
● Teacher summary sheet for the activities​ (used in explain phase)
● Marker for writing on the whiteboard

Total Estimated Time​:
1 hour

Source of lesson:
● Even More Picture-Perfect Science Lessons : Using Children's Books to Guide Inquiry,
K-5 by Emily Morgan and ​Karen Ansberry
● RazKids- Science A-Z
● PBS:https://wtvi.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.mfe.ztunefork/sound-and
-solids-visualizing-vibrations/#.WMkpqRLytEI

Safety considerations:
a. Students need to be careful when knocking on the desk (do not hit anyone and do
not bang unnecessarily hard)

Content and Strategies (Procedure)

Engage​:​20 minutes
1. Introduce the objective of the lesson: “We are going to be learning about what sound is
and how it travels through objects.” (1 minute)
2. KWL Chart​: Instruct students to use the side of their student sheet that says KWL Chart
(5 minutes)
a. K Section: “Write one thing that you know about sound so far.”
b. W Section: “Write one thing that you want to know about sound.”
3. Razkids: Science A-Z Sound ​(low)-(Keep this to 10-13 minutes)
a. Use the projectable version of the book or the ​online pdf in the powerpoint.
c. Ask questions during the lesson to gauge understanding
i. What do you think sound is? (before reading)
ii. What makes the particles vibrate? (end of page 5)
iii. How does sound get from one place to another? (before you read page
7)
4. Tiny experiment: ​“Touch your throat (over your vocal cords) and feel how it feels when
you hum. Then compare that to how your throat feels when you aren’t humming.” (1
minute). Have a small discussion about what they noticed. Tell them that the vibration
they feel in their throats when they hum is creating sound.
5. Transition: Introduce the listening activities that you are going to be doing in the explore
phase.
Explore​: ​20 minutes
1. Explain objective: “We are going to observing in our activities how vibrations create
sound and how that sound moves through objects.”
2. Both activities will be done as a whole class. However, in activity 2 (knock, knock), they
will do they activity with a partner.
3. Activity 1 will be the visualizing vibrations activity ​(link to video)​ ​Set timer for 10
minutes
a. Introduce the video to the students and ask them to think about the following
questions as they watch:
i. Question 1: Does sound travel through liquid (water) as well as air?
ii. Question 2: Why do you see ripples when you place a vibrating tuning
fork in water? Explain.
iii. Only talk about the first question together. Have them record their
observation and thoughts about​ question 2 on their student sheet.
4. Activity 2 will be the Knock, Knock Activity​ ​(link to powerpoint directions)​ ​Set timer for
10 minutes
a. Read the directions to the students before putting them in pairs. Ask a student to
demonstrate the activity with you in front of the class. Then split the class into
partner pairs for the activity. Tell them to think about these two questions.
i. Question 1: Does sound travel through a solid desk?
ii. Question 2: Which sound is louder (listening from the other end of the
desk or listening with your ear to the desk)? Why?
● Only talk about the first question together. Have them record their
observation and thoughts about ​question 2 on their student sheet.
5. Students will do the activities and will record their observations on their student sheet in
a full sentence.​ ​(link to document)
6. Transition into the explanation phase

Explanation​: ​15 minutes

1. Activity 1: Visualizing Vibrations Review: (​Set timer for 7 minutes​)
a. Think Time: “Take a minute to think about what you noticed in activity 1 about
the sounds you heard from the tuning fork and what you saw when it was placed
in the water. ​Why do you see ripples when you place a vibrating tuning fork
in water?”
b. Partner Share: “Turn to the person beside you and share your thoughts.
Remember to listen to what your partner says so that you can share with the large
group.”
their observations in activity 1.”
d. While student are sharing, ​write their observations on the board, to the side​.
e. Teacher summary: ​“Sound waves transport energy from one location to another.
When the boy hit the tuning fork on his leg, he made the object vibrate. Those
vibrations moved through the air particles around it to create sound. When he puts
the tuning fork in the bowl of water, we can see these vibrations moving through
2. Activity 2: Knock, Knock Review: (​Set timer for 7 minutes)
a. Think Time: “Take a minute to think about what you noticed in activity 2 ​about
the different sounds you heard and which sound was louder.​”
b. Partner Share: “Turn to the person beside you and share your thoughts.
Remember to listen to what your partner says so that you can share with the large
group.”
their observations in activity 2.”
i. While student are sharing, ​write their observations on the board, to the
side.
d. Teacher summary:​ “Sound waves can travel through solid objects. The knock
should have sounded louder when you listened through the desk because the
sound travels better through the solid desk than it does through the air.” *adapted
from Even More Picture Perfect Science Lessons
3. Transition into elaborate phase: Ask students to pull their KWL Charts back out and head
back to their desks. (1-2 minute transition)

Elaborate​: ​Set timer for 5 minutes

1. On their KWL Chart, ask students to write at least 1 thing that they learned about sound
during the lesson. They can reference the observations we wrote on the board:
a. This can be something completely new
b. It can be something that they wanted to know about and actually learned
c. Or it could be something that they thought they knew, but learned that the
opposite was actually true

Evaluate​:

● Formative Assessment: Questions will be asked of students during the lesson to check for
understanding of the task and of the concept.
● Summative Assessment: The summative assessment will come from the fact that the
student wrote in the “L” section of their KWL Chart. Students will be asked to write at
least 1 thing that they learned about what sound is or how it moves through objects.
○ Rubric: out of 10 points
■ 3 points for a complete sentence
■ 7 points for that statement being factual

Student Work Sample
Reflection on Lesson

The essential question for this lesson was “what is sound and how does it move?” and the

NC Essential Standard that it addressed was 2.P.1.1 (Illustrate how sound is produced by

vibrating objects and columns of air). Planning the lesson was the most difficult part of the entire

lesson. I was unfamiliar with the particular standard and didn’t know what exactly it meant or

what students were expected to know by the end of the lesson. This meant that I had to spend a

good bit of time on research before I could even begin planning. I needed to know as much as I

could about the science of sound on a very deep level so that I could answer conceptual

questions that students might ask, and could say it in a way that they would understand. I
referenced the NCDPI website to find the expectations for what students needed to know, as well

as the vocabulary they needed to know. Then I spent time watching videos and reading articles

about what exactly sound is, how it is made, and how it travels through objects. Once I had

gathered all of this information, I was able to piece it all together and planned a lesson that

helped students to experience and visualize the science of sound.

Teaching the lesson was an extremely positive experience that showed me how much I

really enjoy teaching science to younger students. I used to think that concepts like sound would

be to over young students’ heads, but they actually understood the lesson and asked questions of

me that dug even further. I used an idea given to me by my clinical teacher and put most of the

links that I would need and the questions I would ask on powerpoint slides, so that my resources

were organized and students could always see the question/directions being given. While

teaching, I also kept the teacher’s small magnet timer set to reflect how much time I had for each

section of my lesson. This strategy was taught to me by my clinical teacher as a way of keeping

oneself and students on task and aware of the time. Toward the end of the lesson, I had more of a

sense of how much time was passing and could pace myself appropriately.

Students were highly engaged throughout the whole and were asking higher order level

questions. If I were to do something differently, I would do one large activity instead of two

smaller ones. One larger experiment that addresses multiple concepts would keep students

focused and allows less time for students to misbehave in between transitions.