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CHAPTER 9

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

POINTS TO REMEMBER
 Differential Equation : Equation containing derivatives of a dependant
variable with respect to an independent variable is called differential
equation.

 Order of a Differential Equation : The order of a differential equation is
defined to be the order of the highest order derivative occurring in the
differential equation.

 Degree of a Differential Equation : Highest power of highest order
derivative involved in the equation is called degree of differential equation
where equation is a polynomial equation in differential coefficients.

 Formation of a Differential Equation : We differentiate the family of
curves as many times as the number of arbitrary constant in the given
family of curves. Now eliminate the arbitrary constants from these
equations. After elimination the equation obtained is differential equation.

 Solution of Differential Equation

(i) Variable Separable Method
dy
 f  x, y 
dx
We separate the variables and get
f(x)dx = g(y)dy

Then  f  x  dx   g  y  dy  c is the required solutions.

(ii) Homogenous Differential Equation : A differential equation of

dy f  x, y 
the form  where f(x, y) and g(x, y) are both
dx g  x, y 

XII – Maths 90

. dx 4  dx  dx 5  dx  13 32  d 2y  dy  2  dy   2 d y (v) 1   2 . Solution is y I . homogeneous functions of the same degree in x and y i.F .F . dx  dx    dx   dx 2 2 3  d 3y   d 2y  dy  dy  (vii)  3   2  sin x . (vi) 1     k . 2 2 dy  dy  d y (i)  cos y  0. For finding solution of this type of equations. The equation can be solved by variable dx dx separable method. (iii) Linear Differential Equation : An equation of the from dy  Py  Q where P and Q are constant or functions of x only dx is called a linear differential equation. we find integrating factor (I . dx dx  dx 4 5 d y  d 2y  d y 5  sin x   2  . dx x For solving this type of equations we substitute y = vx and then dy dv  v  x .e.  dy  (iii) (iv)  log   0. Write the order and degree of the following differential equations.  dx c VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARK) 1.)  e  P dx . (viii)  tan   0  dx   dx  dx  dx  91 XII – Maths .F . (ii)    3 2  4.    Q. I. of the dy y form  F   is called a homogeneous differential equation.

(vi) y = a cos (x + b) a b (vii) y = a + bex+c XII – Maths 92 . 2. (iv)  5 . dx 1  cos 2y dx 3x  1 3. (iv) x  y log x  x  y dx dx dy 3 dy (v) x  3y  x (vi)  y tan x  sec x dx dx dy 1 (vii)  2 y  sin x dx 1 x 4. dx dx dy 1  cos 2x dy 1  2y (v)  . Write integrating factor of the following differential equations dy (i)  y cos x  sin x dx dy 2 (ii)  y sec x  sec x  tan x dx 2 dy 4 dy (iii) x  y  x . Write the general solution of following differential equations. dy 5 2 2 (i)  x  x  . (ii) (ex + e–x) dy = (ex – e–x)dx dx x dy 3 x e dy x y (iii)  x e  x . (vi)  . Write order of the differential equation of the family of following curves (i) y = Aex + Bex + c (ii) Ay = Bx2 (iii) (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = 9 (iv) Ax + By2 = Bx2 – Ay 2 2 x y (v) 2  2  0.

dx dx 2 2 B x d y dy (iii) Show that y  Ax  is a solution of 2  x  y  0. (i) Show that y  e is a solution of 2 1  x 2  d y 2  x dy dx 2  m y  0. 6. dx dx (v) Verify that y  log x   x 2  a2  satisfies the differential equation : a2 d 2y dy  x2  2  x  0. dx (ii) Show that y = sin(sin x) is a solution of differential equation 2 d y dy 2 2   tan x   y cos x  0. x dx dx (iv) Show that y = a cos (log x) + b sin (log x) is a solution of 2 2 d y dy x 2  x  y  0. dy dy 2 (i)  y cot x  sin 2x . dx dx (vi) Find the differential equation of the family of curves y = ex (A cos x + B sin x). SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 MARKS) 1 m sin x 5. (ii) x  2y  x log x . Solve the following differential equations. (vii) Find the differential equation of an ellipse with major and minor axes 2a and 2b respectively. dx dx 93 XII – Maths . (viii) Form the differential equation representing the family of curves (y – b)2 = 4(x – a). where A and B are arbitrary constants.

dy x x 3 dy (iv) cos x  cos x  sin x . x  0. (v) (xy2 + x) dx + (yx2 + y) dy = 0. 2 2 (iii) x 1  y dy  y 1  x dx  0. y  cos x  . dx (v) ydx  x  y  3  dy  0 (vi) y ye dx  y  3  2xe y  dy 7. dy 3 3 x (vi)  y sin x cos x  xy e . Solve each of the following differential equations : dy  2 dy  (i) y  x  2y  . dx 1 sin x (iii)  . dx (iii)  x 2  y 2  dx  2xy dy  0. XII – Maths 94 . y(0) = 1. dx (vii) tan x tan y dx + sec2 x sec2 y dy = 0 8. (iv) 1  x 2   1 – y 2  dy  xy dx  0. 2 dy 2 2 (ii) x  x  xy  y . Solve the following differential equations : (i) x2 y dx – (x3 + y3) dy = 0. y 1  1. dx  dx  (ii) cos y dx + (1 + 2e–x) sin y dy = 0.

Solve the following differential equations : dy (i)  2y  cos 3x . Show that the differential equation : (x2 + 2xy – y2) dx + (y2 + 2xy – x2) dy = 0 is homogeneous and solve it. (i) Form the differential equation of the family of circles touching y-axis at (0. dx x  y dx 2 dy 1– y (viii)  2 . 0). 0) and axis along the (i) positive y-axis (ii) positive x-axis. dx 1 x (ix)  3xy  y 2  dx   x 2  xy  dy  0 9. (iii) Form differential equation of family of circles passing through origin and whose centre lie on x-axis. (iv) Form the differential equation of the family of circles in the first quadrant and touching the coordinate axes. 11.  x  x  dy y y (iv) y sin dx  x sin  y dy . dx dy 2   (ii) sin x  y cos x  2 sin x cos x if y    1 dx  2 3e tan y dx   1  e  sec2 y dy x x (iii)  0 95 XII – Maths . dy x  2y 10.   y   y  dx x x dy 2xy dy x y 2 y (vi)  2 2 (vii)  e  x e . Show that the differential equation  is homogeneous and dx x  2y solve it. 12. (v)   tan   . (ii) Form the differential equation of family of parabolas having vertex at (0.

Solve the following differential equations : 2 dy (i) cos x  tan x  y .  x  x (iv) x2dy + y(x + y) dx = 0 given that y = 1 when x = 1. y x dy (v) xe  y  x  0 if y(e) = 0 dx (vi) (x3 – 3xy2) dx = (y3 – 3x2y)dy. y(0) = 0.  y  y (iii) y  x cos    y sin    dx  x  x  y  y – x  y sin    x cos    dy  0. Solve the following differential equations : (i) (x3 + y3) dx = (x2y + xy2)dy. dx dy (ii) x cos x  y  x sin x  cos x   1. XII – Maths 96 . dx (iii)  x x  1  e y dx  e y  1  x  dy  0. 2 2 (ii) x dy – y dx  x  y dx .  y  (iv) (y – sin x) dx + tan x dy = 0. 13. dy y y (vii)   cosec    0 given that y  0 when x  1 dx x x 16.

dx ANSWERS 1. dy (iii)  y cot x  2x  x 2 cot x given that y(0) = 0. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (6 MARKS EACH) 17.(i) order = 1. Solve the following differential equations : y y (i)  x dy  y dx  y sin     y dx  x dy  x cos   x x  (ii) 3ex tan y dx + (1 – ex) sec2 y dy = 0 given that y  . (iv) 5x + 5 –y = c 4 e 1 (v) 2(y – x) + sin 2y + sin 2x = c. 3. degree = 1 (ii) order = 2. degree is not defined. degree is not defined 6 3 x x y  loge e  e x x  c 2. (v) order = 2. degree = 2 (viii) order = 1. degree = 2 (vi) order = 2. when 4 x = 1.(i) y    2 log x  c (ii) 6 6 4 e 1 x x x (iii) y  e   c. degree = 1 (iv) order = 5.(i) esin x (ii) etan x  log x 2 (iii) e–1/x (iv) 2 e 1 (v) 3 (vi) sec x x 97 XII – Maths . (vi) 2 log |3x + 1| + 3log |1 – 2y| = c. degree = 1 (iii) order = 4. degree = 2 (vii) order = 3.

(i) 2 sin x y  x  4 loge x  1 c y sin x  c (ii)  2 3 16 x c (iii) y  sin x  .(i) cy   x  2   1  2y  (ii) e x  2  sec y  c 2 2 (iii) 1 x  1 y  c 2 1 1 y 1 2 2 (iv) log  1 x  1 y c 2 2 1 y 1 (v) x 2  1 y  2 1  2  XII – Maths 98 .(vi)  2  2y  0 (vii) x  xy = y dx 2 dx  dx  dx 2 dx 2 3 d y  dy  (viii) 2    0 dx 2  dx  3 2 6. x  0 (iv) y = tan x – 1 + ce–tan x x 4 y (v) xy  c (vi) x = – y2e–y + cy2 4 7.(i) 1 (ii) 1 (iii) 2 (iv) 1 (v) 1 (vi) 1 (vii) 2 2 2 2 d y dy  dy  d y dy 5. 1 tan x (vii) e 4.

2 2  x  y x  y x 99 XII – Maths . y  2x dx dx dx 2 2 dy (iii) x  y  2xy  0 dx 2 2 2 (iv) x  y 1  y '   x  yy '  2 2 1  x  2y  10. 1 4 1 6 x x (vi) log y   cos x  cos x  xe e c 4 6 3 1  cos 2x  x   – cos 2x    x  1 e  c 16  3  cos 2x (vii) log tan y   c y 3 x 1 y 8. log x  xy  y  2 3 tan   c 3x  3 x c 11.(i)  log y  c (ii) tan    log x  c 3 3y x (iii) x2 + y2 = 2x cos  x y  1 (iv) y  ce [Hint : Put  v] x y (v) sin    cx x (vi) c x  2  y 2  y 3 y x x 1 1 (vii) e  e  c (viii) sin y  sin x c 3 (ix)  x log x y  y  cx 3  2 2 dy dy dy 9.(i) x  y  2xy  0 (ii) 2y  x .

XII – Maths 100 .(i) y    ce (ii) y  sin x  cosec x 13 13 3 3 x 3 (iii) tan y  k  1  e  13. 3 sin 3x 2 cos 3x 2x 2 2 1 12.(i)  y  x log c  x  y   (ii) cx 2  y  x 2  y 2 y 2 3x y  y  2x (iii) xy cos    c (iv) x (v) y   x log  log x  . (i) c xy  sec   x (ii) (1 – e)3 tan y = (1 – ex)3 (iii) y = x2. x  0 (vi)  c x y 2 2  2 x y . (i) y = tan x – 1 + c e tan x (ii) y  c x x x (iii) x  ye y  c (iv) 2y = sin x y 17. 2 y (vii) cos  log x  1 x 1 sin x cos x 16.