American Strategy

● If Germany won in Europe, US would face aggressor nations alone.
● “Get Hitler First”
● The Russians wanted a second front in Europe.
● Wanted allies to invade lands held by Axis power.
● Instead, July 1942, Allies decided to invade North Africa.

Invasion of North Africa
● Germany - Led by “Desert fox” General Erwin Rommel.
● British - Led by General Bernard Montgomery.
● Montgomery’s army broke through Rommel’s Africa Corps: Nov. 4, 1942.
● US and British force struck from the West and North - Nov. 8, 1942.

Invasion of Italy
● July 10, 1943 - 250,000 US & British troop land on Sicilian coast.
● Germans - Escaped to the Italian Mainland.
● Italians - Sick of war; Mussolini - Forced to resign.

Battle of the Atlantic
● German submarine “wolf packs” sunk tons of allied supplies.
○ Main years: 1942-1943
● Subs had to be beaten, and soon.
● Radar and sonar were invented; both could destroy subs.

Control of the air
● British and US forces heavily bombed Germany, but used different strategies.
● British - “Saturation” Bombing - Bombed whole areas.
● US - “Pinpoint” Bombing - Attacked in daylight; could focus bombs on crucial factories.

Attack on the European Continent
D-Day:
● US and Great Britain's invasion of France.
○ Objective: 2nd Front in Europe.
● Directed by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme commander of Allied Forces in
Western Europe.
● June 6, 1944 - D-Day invasion began.
● Conditions needed: Low tide, half moon, good weather and morning invasion.
● D-Day Code Name: Operation Overlord.
● Allies - Achieved a tactical surprise; landings were a success.
● Generals Montgomery and Eisenhower lead Allied forces through Europe toward Germany.

Omaha Beach
● Ohama were the first people to land on French soil.
● They sent 4,000 boats in waves to land on the beach.
● That needed to capture the only road near Omaha beach.
● They had to get passed the Atlantic wall.
● The Germans put obstacles on the beach to slow down the American.
● They used over 34,000 wooden stakes on the beach.
● Company A leaded the Attack and 92% of their Company died.
● The bombs landed either in the sea or 3 miles behind the enemy line.
● The Germans Prepared Months before D-Day.
● The Americans getting through the barbwire was the turning point in the fight for Omaha beach.

Re-conquest of France
● By the end of July, 1944 the Allies controlled 1500 square miles of France.
● Paris- Liberated on August 25, 1944.
● By mid-September All of France had been cleared of Germans.
● FDR - Elected to a fourth term.
● WWII - Taking its toll on FDR health.
● Dec. 16, 1944 – Battle of the Bulge – Germany final bid to break the allies.
● Germans penetrated 60 miles creating a “bulge” in the allied lines.
● Foul weather aided the germans.
○ American planes grounded, brutally cold temperatures.
● Patton and Montgomery stopped the advancing Germans.

Death Of FDR
● Worn down by wartime burdens, health continued to decline.
● Died April 12, 1945 while “resting” in Warm Springs, Georgia.
● The nation grieved.

Collapse of Germany
● March 1945 – Allies were closing in - US & GB from west, Russia from east.
● Churchill – “Shake hands with the Russians as far east as possible.”
● Concerned with Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.
● Russia and US troops met at the Elbe River April 25, 1945.
● Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin bunker.
● May 8, 1945 – Germany surrendered ; Celebrated as V-E Day.

The War in the Pacific
Extent of Japanese Conquests:
● Controlled a 4500 mile area of the Pacific.
● Allied policy in Pacific – Active defense.

Island hopping
● General MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz- Commanders of allied forces in the Pacific.
● The Allies invaded strategic islands and bypassed others.
● May 3-8, 1942 – Battle of the Coral Sea - Result: Draw.
● First Naval battle where the opposing ships never saw one another.
● June 4, 1942 - Battle of Midway - US Victory.
● Japan’s first great naval defeat; a big turning point.
● Aug. 7, 1942 – Battle for Guadalcanal – US Victory.
○ Our troops first exposure to land battle with the Japanese.
○ The fighting was fierce and brutal – the Japanese would not surrender.
● October 20, 1944 – Re-conquest of the Philippines begins.
● Led by MacArthur, the US crushes the Japanese and knocks their navy out of the war.
● Feb.-Mar. 1945 – Iwo Jima (650 Miles from Tokyo) – US Victory – Operation Detachment
● Goal – Secure airfield
● Heavy losses: 6821 US deaths
● Flag raised: Mt. Suribachi
● March 9-10 - Tokyo Firebombing – Operation Meetinghouse
● Targeted industrial sites, but was a very populated area.
● Utilized 334 B-29 Superfortress airplanes.
● 100,000 died in the attack, 1 million homeless.
● April-June, 1945 – Okinawa – US Victory
● Brutal fighting – Japan considered it a home island.
○ 12,513 Americans died.
● Within striking distance of Japan: Victory is in sight!
● Developed after Germans and Italians surrendered; Manhattan Project.
● Potsdam Declaration (Ultimatum) – Allies warned the Japanese: “the alternative to surrender is
prompt and utter destruction.”
● August 6, 1945 – A-bomb is dropped on Hiroshima.
● August 9, 1945 – A-bomb is dropped on Nagasaki.
● V-J Day – August 14, 1945.