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PNJ-HOLCIM INDONESIA

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
424-EPl

MAKALAH

RAKA DWINANTA ALIDLLA
NIM. 5211220018

POLITEKNIK NEGERI JAKARTA-EVE HOLCIM INDONESIA
JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK MESIN
KONSENRASITEKNIKINDUSTRI
NAROGONG
JULI, 2014
PREFACE

'All praise to Allah SWT, the writers want to say thanks to Allah SWT,
because of God's blessing, the writers can finish Case Study Report -
Electrostatic Precipitator 424-EPl punctually without matter problems.
This report is made to complete the equipment study based on curriculum
of education between PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk. and State Polytechnic of Jakarta
at fourth semester of studying period.
This report contains explanation about electrostatic precipitator 424-EPl
that used at NAR 2 plant, such as technical process, flow sheet in the cement
plant, general design, technical data, operational parameters, performance, general
problem, economical aspect, environmental and safety hazards.
Hopefully this report can be useful for the reader. For sure the writers
accept any critics and suggestion to improve this report.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE ............................................................................................................... ii
TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................ iiii
CHAPTER I TECHNICAL PROCESS ................................................................... 1
A. Historical Invention of Electrostatic Field ............................................................. 1
B. Technical Process ................................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER II FLOW SHEET .................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER III TECHNICAL DATA ....................................................................... 6
CHAPTER IV OPERATION PARAMETERS ....................................................... 7
CHAPTER V PERFORMANCE ............................................................................. 8
CHAPTER VI GENERAL PROBLEMS ................................................................ 9
A. Mechanical ............................................................................................................. 9
B. Electrical ................................................................................................................ 9
C. Process/Operation................................................................................................. 10
CHAPTER VII MAINTENANCE ........................................................................ 11
A. Periodical Maintenance (Running Inspection) ..................................................... 11
B. Annual Maintenance ............................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER VIII ECONOMICAL ASPECT .......................................................... 12

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CHAPTER I
TECHNICAL PROCESS

A. Historical Invention of Electrostatic Field

The first use of corona to remove particles from an aerosol was by
Hoflfeld in 1824. However, it was not commercialized until almost a century later.
In 1907 Dr. Frederick G. Cottrel applied for a patent on a device for charging
particles. Then collecting them through electrostatic attraction-the first
electrostatic precipitator. He was then a professor of chemistry at the University of
California, Berkeley. Cottrel first applied the device to the collection of sulfuric
acid mist and lead oxide fume emitted from various acid-making and smelting
activities. Vineyards in northen California were being adversely affected by the
lead emission.
At the time of Cottrell's invention, the theoretical basis for operation was
not understood. The operational theory was developed later in the 1920's.
Prof. Cottrel used proceeds from his invention to fund scientific research
through the creation of a foundation called Research Corporation in 1912 to which
he assigned the patents. The intent of the organization was to bring inventions
made by educators (such as Cottrel) into the commercial world for the benefit of
society of large. The operation of Research Corporation is perpetuated by
royalties paid after commercialization occurs. Research Corporation has provided
vital funding to many scientific projects: Goddard's rocketry experiments,
Lawrence's cyclotron, production methods for vitamins A and Bl and etc. By
decision of US Supreme Court the Corporation had to be split into two entities,
the Research Corporation and two commercial firms making hardware: Research
Cottrrel Inc. and Western Precipitation. The Research Corporation continues to be
active to this day and the two companies formed to commercialize the invention
for industrial and utility applications are still in business as well.
Electrophoresis is the term used for migration of gas-suspended charged
particles in a direct-current electrostatic field. If your television set accumulates
dust on the face it is because of this phenomenon.

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B. 'technical Process

1 High voltage supply
2 Inspection doors and
sealing
3 Discharge electrode rapping
4 Insulator casing (often in
roofbeam), here penthouse
5 Gas inlet
6 Gas distribution walls
(sometimes pre-collector
walls)
7 Discharge electrode system
8 Collecting electrode system
9 Hopper
10 Casing
11 Insulation
12 Sample point for dust
analysis

Figure 1 Electrostatic Precipitator Layout

The upper schematic drawing shows a perspective view of an EP. An
industrial precipitator has a number of ducts through which the gases pass at
velocity of about 1 m/s. The duct is formed by two parallel rows of vertically
mounted collecting plates and a number of discharge electrodes vertically
suspended between the collecting plates.
The high negative voltage applied to the electrically insulated discharge
electrodes creates a strong electrical field between the discharge electrodes and
the earthed collecting plates. The highest strength occurs near the discharge
electrodes. As the voltage is raised, electrical breakdown of the close to the
electrode surface takes place. This breakdown, called "corona", appears as bluish

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glow extending into the gas a short distance beyond the surface of the discharge
electro4f.

Max. height
12,5m

Gap width Discharge electrode
250 .. .400 mm Gasflow

Figure 2 Collecting Plate and Discharge Wire

The corona produces large number of gas ions, the positive ions being
immediately attracted to the discharge electrodes while the negative ions migrate
towards the collecting plates. Some of the moving ions attach themselves to dust
particles suspended in the gas between the electrodes. Dust particles are charged
either by bombardment by the ions moving under the influences of the electrical
field, or by ion diffusion, both type of charging taking place simultaneously. The
particles size determines which type of charging is predominant, ion diffusion
being the prevailing mechanism for particle sizes below 1 micron.
Dust that is easy to collect is mainly in the first zones, while difficult dust
is concentrated in the last zones. The difficult dust are very fine dust <1 micron
(having a high specific surface and thus enriched in absorbed substances e.g. Hg)
sand Salts (KCl, NaCl, K2S04, Na2S04).
to filter exit Collecting
Electrode

e
Gas flow
, direction Electron Charged

~
Dust particles
'•,,',,,\',,, Corona >-+-<
discharge
:;o-o
----
\\, Discharge
\ Electrode

Neutral Jonized
Gas molecules

Transformer/
Rectifier set

from filter inlet

Figure 3 Charging Process

The negatively charged particles migrate towards the collecting plate to
which they adhere while being discharged.
These particles build up a layer of dust on the plate surface which is
dislodged by rapping hammer. The dislodge particles fall by gravity towards the
bottom of the precipitator, ending up in the bottom hopper from where the dust is
extracted by either mechanical conveyor or pneumatic type system.
CHAPTER II
FLOW SHEET

figure 4 shows the flowsheet diagram ofEP kiln at Narogong 2 plant. This
EP actually consist of two "smaller" EPs. But in this case study we only take up
one EP, 424-EPl.

['%

Figure 4 Flow Sheet 424 EPl

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CHAPTER III

't
TECHNICAL DATA

Technical data of 424-EPl are given in Table 1. The technical data may
not be the same with current specification because there were some improvements
and modifications made, for example motor rapping has been replaced because
the old one has broken.

Table 1 424-EP1 Specification
No. Item Description Unit Data
I Dimension Width m 29,6
Height m 16,5
Length m 26,2
II General Design Gas quantity (design) m3/h 1.294.989
Max. temperature oc 350
Max. static pressure mmwg -250
Raw gas dust content g/m3 38.9
Clean gas dust content (dry) mg/Nm3 50
Total collecting area m2 29160
Number of chambers 1
Number of fields per chamber 4
Number of row 18
Row width mm 300
Plate thickness of casing mm 5
Pressure drop over EP mBar 4.4
Insulation thickness mm 200
III Electrical Data Number of HT rectifier 2/2
100
Peak voltage of rectifiers kV
110
900
Secondary Current rectifiers rnA
1.800
Location of rectifiers Roof
Rapping motor kW

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CHAPTER IV
OPERATION PARAMETERS

During operation, there are some parameters that critical to maintain the
performance of 424-EPl. The parameters are given in Table 2. If the peak high
value is reached, there will be alarm in Central Control Room (CCR) display. If
the high high value is reached, the EP will be shutted down and will cause
interlock to some other equipment, such as kiln.

Table 2 Operating Parameter

No. Parameter Unit VL PH HH
1 co % 3.0 0.7 2.5
2 Inlet Temperature oc 400 300 350
3 Outlet temperature oc 300 160 200
4 Inlet Draft ID fan mbar 900 175 175
5 Outlet Draft ID fan mbar 150 50 150
6 Fan EP Power kW 1050 800 1050
7 Dust Load mg/m3 80 75 80

Note: VL = Value Limit
PH = Peak High
HH = High High

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CHAPTERV
PERFORMANCE

The performance of EP NAR 2 during the last 3 years is given in Table 3.
During last 3 years 424-EPl didn't have down time. Maintenance is done during
kiln stop every year. Failure is counted when EP run not in optimum condition
(e.g. dust emission more than 75 mg!Nm\

Table 3 424-EPl Performance

Criteria Unit 2010 2011 2012

Running Hours Hours 7.514 7.541,7 2495,4

Failure Hours 96 432 72

Net Available Index % 98,90 95,07 97,87

Information Jan-Dec Jan-Dec Jan-May

8000
7000

6000

5000
~running hour
4000
~failure
3000
2000

1000

0
2010 2011 2012

Figure 5 Performance Diagram of 424-EP1

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CHAPTER VI
GENERAL PROBLEMS

A. Mechanical

1. Collecting plate dirty
Collecting plate may become dirty if the rapping system isn't working
properly. Material that stick to the collecting plate sometimes won't
fall down, especially if the humidity is high.
2. Guides of collecting system loose
3. Rapping hammer worn
Because of lifetime, the rapping hammer may become worn out. We
have to check and replace worn rapping hammer during maintenance
to make sure EP works optimally.
4. Bolt, nut, and washer of discharge system loose
Sometimes bolt, washer, or nut of discharge system broken. It can
cause high spark or even short circuit if the unlocked discharge
electrode move or touch the collecting plate.
5. Discharge electrode dirty
Same with the collecting plate, if the rapping system isn't working
properly dust on discharge electrode wont fall down.

B. Electrical

1. Rapping motor bum
2. Cable junction from transformer to discharge wire loose/broken
During maintenance, we have to make sure that all cable junction is
tight to avoid heat and spark.
3. Discharge wire insulator dirty/wet
If the heater around discharge wire is broken, high spark may occur,
because of high moisture. We also have to make sure that the cover
box of discharge wire insulation is tight to prevent water to come in.

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C. Process/Operation

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1. CO level too high due to fuel fluctuation
Ifthere's too much Alternative Fuel (AF) feed at pre-calciner, the CO
concentration tend to rise due to incomplete combustion, especially
when the AF is wet (high moisture).
2. Inlet temperature too high
Inlet temperature is maintained by spraying water in Conditioning
Tower.

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CHAPTER VII
MAINTENANCE

During operation of 424-EPl, sometimes problems occur. So the EP has to
be checked periodically. EP has to be maintained according to schedule and
maintenance guideline. Operational maintenances procedure for electrostatic
precipitator are:

A. Periodical Maintenance (Running Inspection)

The electric and maintenance team have scheduled routine inspection
running. The purpose of this inspection is to maintain the EP always in good
condition and if there's a problem can be repaired as soon as possible to avoid
greater damage to the equipment or to the process. The activities are checking and
controlling part of the equipment.
1. Rectifiers condition
2. Wiring condition
3. Rapping motors
4. Insulation and heater
5. Casing and manhole
6. Safety devices
7. Control devices

B. Annual Maintenance

During kiln shutdown EP also shutted down. At this moment complete
check performed. All the broken parts replaced and all the problems repaired so
the EP will have good condition for next year operation.

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-~

CHAPTER VIII
ECONOMICAL ASPECT

Economical aspect of 424-EPl is given in Table 4.

Table 4 Economical Aspect of 424-EP1

N arne of equipment Electrostatic Precipitator 424-EPl
Cost of investment
Actual Value Rp 10,570,000,000.00
Lifetime years 20

Depreciation time years 10
Depreciation Rp/year 1,057,000,000.00
Interest rate % 8

Cost of capital Rp/year 845,600,000.00
Cost of investment Rp/year 1,902,600,000.00
Cost of investment Rp/to 5,389.37
Rplhr 271,489.73

Operation cost
Energy electric Rp/to 6,845.66
Manpower 827.13
Consumable 0.00
Others 0.00
Total operation cost per to 7,672.79
perhr 386,516.67
Maintenance cost (last 2 years)
Manpower Rp 720,000,000.00
Consumable Rp 0.00
Spare parts Rp 2,854,999,117.00
Others Rp 0.00
Total maintenance cost Rp 3,574,999,117.00
per to 168.78
perhr 8,502.19

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Table 5 Cost of 424-EPl

Value
Investment Cost Rp5,389.37
Operation Cost Rp7,672.79
Maintenance Cost Rp168.78

Cost Diagram

11 Investment Cost

11 Operation Cost

'I' Maintenance Cost

Figure 6 Cost Diagram of 424-EPl

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