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Licensed to: iChapters User

Licensed to: iChapters User

Fundamentals
of Nursing
Standards & Practice

Fourth Edition

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Licensed to: iChapters User

Fundamentals
of Nursing
Standards & Practice
Fourth Edition

Sue C. DeLaune, MN, RN
Assistant Professor
RN-BSN Coordinator
William Carey University
School of Nursing
New Orleans, Louisiana

President and Education Director
SDeLaune Consulting
Mandeville, Louisiana

Patricia K. Ladner, RN, MS, MN
Former Consultant for Nursing Practice
Louisiana State Board of Nursing
New Orleans, Louisiana

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

May not be copied.Licensed to: iChapters User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. and alternate formats. author. changes to current editions. in whole or in part. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. some third party content may be suppressed.com/highered to search by ISBN#. or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.cengage. For valuable information on pricing. previous editions. scanned. Due to electronic rights restrictions. . Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. All Rights Reserved. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. title. or duplicated. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. please visit www. Due to electronic rights. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Locate your local office at: international. Senior Marketing Manager: Michele McTighe Marketing Coordinator: Scott Chrysler Library of Congress Control Number: 2009937406 Production Director: Carolyn Miller ISBN-13: 978-1-4354-8067-4 Production Manager: Andrew Crouth ISBN-10: 1-4354-8067-8 Senior Content Project Manager: Kenneth McGrath Delmar Senior Art Director: Jack Pendleton 5 Maxwell Drive Clifton Park. Notice to the Reader Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any independent analysis in connection with any of the product information contained herein. By following the instructions contained herein. Publisher does not assume. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.com.cengage. Due to electronic rights. from the readers’ use of.com. Web distribution. the United Kingdom. 2006. Mapstone permissionrequest@cengage. taping. Ladner may be reproduced. Career and Professional Marketing: online at cengage. without the prior written Executive Editor: Stephen Helba permission of the publisher. including but not limited to. Vice President. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein By Sue C. For your lifelong learning solutions. or exemplary damages resulting. 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product. information networks. this material.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education.com/permissions. The publisher makes no representations or warranties of any kind. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities described herein and to avoid all potential hazards. contact us at Editorial Assistant: Meghan Orvis Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support. Career and Professional recording. Delmar. except as permitted under Section 107 Director of Learning Solutions: Matthew Kane or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act. NY 12065-2919 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe.com. or mechanical. 1998. Cengage Learning Fourth Edition ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Brazil. All Rights Reserved. in whole or in part. visit delmar. May not be copied. digitizing. submit all requests Vice President. and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such material. . Australia. Mexico. including Singapore. nor are any such representations implied with respect to the material set forth herein. or duplicated. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). the warranties of fitness for particular purpose or merchantability. scanned.Licensed to: iChapters User Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice ª 2011. and expressly disclaims. the reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions. or reliance upon. in whole or part. or Editorial: Dave Garza information storage and retrieval systems. any obligation to obtain and include information other than that provided to it by the manufacturer. Jennifer McAvey Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to Marketing Director: Wendy E. including but not limited to photocopying. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. consequential.CengageBrain. DeLaune and Patricia K.com Visit our corporate website at cengage.cengage. transmitted. stored. 2002. The publisher shall not be liable for any special. electronic. Managing Editor: Marah Bellegarde Senior Product Manager: Patricia Gaworecki For product information and technology assistance. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www. scanning. or used in any form or by any means graphic. and Japan. Ltd.

for unending support and encouragement. in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights. You are our future. or duplicated. Kelly. Charles Thomas Lee. and Sarabeth and Jay Accardo. Katie and Jacob Segrave. -SCD To Wayne.Licensed to: iChapters User To Jennifer and Ryan Cardinal. Caroline Alexa Cardinal. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. scanned. Gretchen. -PKL We dedicate this book to our grandchildren: Camille Anna Cardinal. Glynn Edward Carter. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). and Michael. May not be copied. Wayne Jr. and Cooper and Paige Ladner. I especially want to thank my husband and best friend. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . for his continued support and belief in me. All Rights Reserved. especially for my academic endeavors. Jay.. ‘‘G’’ and ‘‘Mimi’’ Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Michael and Joshua Ladner. I want to acknowledge my father. Leah Marie Ladner.

and the Nursing Process 75 Chapter 6 Assessment 89 Chapter 7 Nursing Diagnosis 109 Chapter 8 Planning and Outcome Identification 125 Chapter 9 Implementation 139 Chapter 10 Evaluation 153 UNIT 3: Professional Accountability Chapter 11 Leadership. Healing. Present. and the Continuum of Care 53 UNIT 2: Nursing Process: The Standard of Care Chapter 5 Critical Thinking. scanned. Delegation. Infection Control. and Future Chapter 1 Evolution of Nursing and Nursing Education 3 Chapter 2 Nursing Theory 23 Chapter 3 Research and Evidence-Based Practice 41 Chapter 4 Health Care Delivery. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). or duplicated. in whole or in part. and Caring 245 Chapter 15 Communication 261 Chapter 16 Health and Wellness Promotion 281 Chapter 17 Family and Community Health 297 Chapter 18 The Life Cycle 309 Chapter 19 The Older Client 357 Chapter 20 Cultural Diversity 379 Chapter 21 Client Education 401 UNIT 5: Responding to Basic Psychosocial Needs Chapter 22 Self-Concept 423 Chapter 23 Stress. and Cognition 1207 Chapter 39 Elimination 1231 Chapter 40 Nursing Care of the Perioperative Client 1295 Glossary 1337 References 1363 Index 1383 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Adaptation. Due to electronic rights. Anxiety.Licensed to: iChapters User Brief Contents UNIT 1: Nursing’s Perspective: Past. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Decision Making. . and Change 439 Chapter 24 Spirituality 463 Chapter 25 Loss and Grief 475 UNIT 6: Responding to Basic Physiological Needs Chapter 26 Vital Signs 501 Chapter 27 Physical Assessment 539 Chapter 28 Diagnostic Testing 601 Chapter 29 Safety. Quality. and Hygiene 653 Chapter 30 Medication Administration 749 Chapter 31 Complementary and Alternative Modalities 833 Chapter 32 Oxygenation 859 Chapter 33 Fluids and Electrolytes 919 Chapter 34 Nutrition 993 Chapter 35 Comfort and Sleep 1043 Chapter 36 Mobility 1087 Chapter 37 Skin Integrity and Wound Healing 1161 Chapter 38 Sensation. All Rights Reserved. Perception. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and Power 165 Chapter 12 Legal and Ethical Responsibilities 187 Chapter 13 Documentation and Informatics 213 UNIT 4: Promoting Client Health Chapter 14 Nursing. May not be copied.

. 19 Acknowledgments / xxxvi Accelerated Degree Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Early Nursing Theories . . . . . . . . . . 38 vii Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Micro-Range Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 EVOLUTION OF NURSING AND NURSING Importance of Nursing Theories . . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Nursing Pioneers and Leaders . . . 26 Demands of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Religious Influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 CHAPTER 1 Use of Theories from Other Disciplines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Paradigms in Nursing . 30 Nursing Education Overview . . . . . . . 24 What Is a Theory? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Procedures / xix Doctoral Programs. . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . 9 Metaparadigm of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Selected Nursing Theories. . . . . 37 Master’s Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . 18 How to Use This Text / xxxiii Differentiated Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 About the Authors / xxxvii Technology Changes in Nursing Education . . . 30 Diploma Education . . . . . . 26 Origins of Nursing . . . . . . . . 24 Present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Middle-Range Theories . . 30 Associate Degree Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . 28 Nursing in the Twentieth Century . . . . . . . 7 Evolution of Nursing Theory. . 17 Continuing Evolution of Nursing Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 What Is a Concept? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Contributors / xxiii Staff Development and Continuing Education . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Service Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Contemporary Nursing Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Grand Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 EDUCATION / 3 Scope of Theories . 29 Social Forces Affecting Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Florence Nightingale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Evolution of Nursing . 20 CHAPTER 2 UNIT 1 NURSING THEORY / 23 Nursing’s Perspective: Past. . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing . . . . 8 Knowledge Development in Nursing . . . . . and Future / 1 What Is a Proposition? . . . . . . . . . 33 Baccalaureate Programs. . . . . . . . . Components of the Theoretical Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reviewers / xxv Preparing Nurses for Tomorrow’s Preface / xxix Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 55 Critical Thinking Applied in Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Nursing Agenda for Health Care Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Nursing Supply and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Data Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Data Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Sources of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Principles of Quality Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Reimbursement Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Methods of Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Health Care Settings . . 61 Data Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Private Insurance . . . . . . 98 Fragmentation of Care. . 110 Organizational Structure for Quality Comparison of Nursing and Medical Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Nursing’s Role in Quality Management . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . 42 Historical Development . . . 67 NURSING DIAGNOSIS / 109 Customer Satisfaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Types of Assessment . . . . . . . . 70 Purposes of Nursing Diagnoses . . . . 66 CHAPTER 7 Quality and Health Care Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Defining Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . . 47 MAKING. . . . . . . . 92 Vulnerable Populations . . . 83 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 AND THE CONTINUUM OF CARE / 53 Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND THE NURSING Evidenced-Based Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Advanced Practice Nurse: Roles and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Community Nursing Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER 5 Framework . . . . . . 97 Continuum of Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Assessment . . 97 Levels of Care . . . . The Nursing Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Development of Critical Thinking Skills . . . . . . . 67 What Is a Nursing Diagnosis? . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Nurse: Roles and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Nursing Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Health Care Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Historical Perspective. . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . 43 CRITICAL THINKING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Trends in Research and Evidence-Based Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Assessment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . 49 Critical Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 CHAPTER 6 Government Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Types of Assessment Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Research . . . . . . . . 79 Health Care Delivery: Organizational Overview of the Nursing Process . . 78 HEALTH CARE DELIVERY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Outcome Identification and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Components of Critical Thinking . . . . . . . . 79 Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Data Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Responses to Health Care Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . 58 ASSESSMENT / 89 Factors Influencing the Delivery of Purpose of Assessment . . . . . . . DECISION Research Utilization. . . . . 111 Process Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Comprehensive Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Public Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Critical Thinking and Creativity . . . 57 Managed Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 PROCESS / 75 Evidence Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Diagnoses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Trends in Health Care Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Types of Data . . . . . . . . . 81 Private Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . 111 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 CHAPTER 4 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . 71 Professionalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Focused Assessment . . . . 65 Factors Influencing Quality in Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Data Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Critical Thinking and Decision Making . . . . 91 Public versus Private Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUALITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Quality Management in Health Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Ongoing Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 3 UNIT 2 RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE / 41 Nursing Process: The Standard Research: Substantiating the Science of of Care / 73 Nursing . . . . . . . . 90 Quality. . . .

. 140 Leadership Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Collecting Data. 175 Interpersonal Skills . . . . . . . . . . 140 Leadership Characteristics . . . 170 CHAPTER 9 Individual Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 CHAPTER 8 Evaluation and Accountability . . . . . . . . 112 Nursing Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Nursing Diagnoses and Nursing Informatics . . . . . . . 155 Writing the Nursing Diagnosis Statement . . . 155 Assessment Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Purposes of Implementation . . . . . 175 Cognitive Skills. . . . . 155 Limitations of Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . 117 Methods of Evaluation . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . 118 Determining Goal Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 CHAPTER 10 Categories of Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Types of Care Plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 of Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Clinical Judgment in Nursing: Developing Components of Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Leadership in Nursing . . 155 Clustering Cues . 140 Mentoring . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Critical Thinking and Evaluation . . . . 166 Plan of Care . . . . . . . . . 135 Professional Accountability . . . 181 Ongoing Assessment . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . 129 Problems Frequently Encountered in Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . 128 Professional Accountability / 163 Components of Goals and Expected Outcomes . . . . . . . . 149 Components of a Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Evaluation of Client Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Establishing Standards . . . . . . . . . . 156 Nursing Audit . . . . . . . 126 Critical Thinking . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Techniques. . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . Individualized Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Using NANDA-Approved Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Overcoming Barriers and Limitations Evaluation and Quality of Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Criteria of a Profession . . 126 UNIT 3 Establishing Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 PLANNING AND OUTCOME Multidisciplinary Collaboration in IDENTIFICATION / 125 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Requirements for Effective Implementation . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS ix Communication . . . . . 127 Establishing Goals and Expected Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 EVALUATION / 153 Taxonomy of Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . 140 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Managerial Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 IMPLEMENTATION / 139 Advanced Practice Nursing . . . . . . . . . . 118 Reassessing the Client’s Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Implementation Activities. . . . . . . . 112 Evaluating Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 The Two-Part Statement . . . . 117 Goals and Expected Outcomes . . . . . 158 Peer Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Avoiding Errors in Development and Use Relating Nursing Actions to Client Status . 144 Holistic. . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Validating Cues . . . . DELEGATION. . . . 171 Student Accountability . . . . 120 Elements in Evaluating the Quality of Care . . . . . . . . 136 Elements of Professional Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Psychomotor Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Interpreting Cues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . 181 Establishment of Priorities . 130 CHAPTER 11 Planning Nursing Interventions. . . . . . 155 Diagnostic Errors . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Modifying the Plan of Care . 168 Strategies for Effective Care Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 to Nursing Diagnosis . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Politics of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 POWER / 165 Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Professional Nursing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 The Three-Part Statement. . . . . . . . 159 Purposes of Planning and Outcome Identification . . . . . 168 Legislative Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . 132 LEADERSHIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND Evaluating Care . . . 117 Sources of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Allocation of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Generating Cues . . . . . . . . . . 126 Process of Planning and Outcome Identification . . . . 154 Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Documentation of Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Judging the Value of Nursing Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Empowerment . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Electronic Health Record . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Applications of Nursing Informatics . . . . . . . . . . 208 Theoretical Perspectives of Caring . . . . . . . . . 252 Characteristics of Therapeutic Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Source-Oriented Charting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Evidence-Based Practice and Research . . . . . . . . 273 Nurses’ Progress Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Language Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Therapeutic Approaches with Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Nursing: A Blend of Art and Science . . . 251 INFORMATICS / 213 Caring and Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Legal Foundations of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Nurse-Client Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Charting by Exception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Nurses. . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Health Status . . . 262 Narrative Charting . . . 246 Ethical Roles and Responsibilities of Professional Purposes of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 RESPONSIBILITIES / 187 Informatics Competencies for Nurses . . . . . . 238 Sources of Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Legal Responsibilities of Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Factors Influencing Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Ethical Foundations of Nursing . . . . . . 202 NURSING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Cultural Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 COMMUNICATION / 261 Elements of Effective Documentation . 216 CHAPTER 15 Purposes of Health Care Documentation . . . . . . . 266 PIE Charting . . . . . . . . AND CARING / 245 Values and Ethics . . 265 Problem-Oriented Charting. . . 273 Telephone Reports and Orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 266 Focus Charting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Legal Responsibilities and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Modes of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Kardex . . . . . . . . 205 Definition of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . 197 UNIT 4 Legal Issues Related to Death and Dying . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Ethical Codes . . . 214 Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Ethical Decision Making . 269 Flow Sheets . . . 195 Legal Safeguards for Nursing Practice . . . . 215 Nursing Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Therapeutic Communication . . . . . . . 228 Types of Communication . . . . . . . . . . 215 Documentation as Communication . . . . . 268 Case Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Forms for Recording Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Interdisciplinary Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Care in the High-Technology Environment . . . 273 Incident Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 DOCUMENTATION AND Therapeutic Use of Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Promoting Client Health / 243 Concept of Ethics . 262 Methods of Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Documentation Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Discharge Summary . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User x TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 12 Computers in Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Nonverbal Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Summary Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . 246 Clients’ Rights . . . . . . . . 204 Nursing’s Therapeutic Value . . . . . . 273 Reporting. . . . . . . 226 Components of the Communication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 CHAPTER 14 Ethical Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Verbal Messages . 214 Therapeutic Value of the Nursing Clinical Information Systems . . . . . . . . 252 Informatics . . . . . 227 Metacommunication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 CHAPTER 13 Phases of Therapeutic Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 The Judicial Process . . . . . . . 196 Legislation Affecting Nursing Practice . . . . . 239 Legal Liability in Nursing . . . . . . . . . 273 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . 235 Developmental Level . . 230 Barriers to Therapeutic Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 The Communication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Ethical Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Computerized Documentation . . . . . 190 Criteria for Evaluating Validity of Information . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Nursing Information Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . HEALING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Ethical Dilemmas . . . . . . . . . . . 237 The Professional Nurse as an Information Consumer LEGAL AND ETHICAL and Producer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Principles of Effective Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Levels of Communication . . . . . 188 Telehealth . 207 Nursing and Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Knowledge Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Health Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Nurse’s Role in Health Promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 CHAPTER 18 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 274 Emotions . 290 THE OLDER CLIENT / 357 Development of Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Wellness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 THE LIFE CYCLE / 309 Nursing Diagnosis . . . 319 Variables Influencing Health Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Family Roles and Functions . 324 Health Promotion Activities. . . . . . 284 Holistic Framework for Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS xi Emotional Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Theoretical Perspectives of Human CHAPTER 16 Development . . 335 Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public Health Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Psychological Dimension . . 298 Assessment . . . . . . . . 291 Developmental Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Psychosocial Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Nursing Process and Sexuality. . . . . . . . . . 369 Family Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Responses to Medication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Human Sexual Response . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 School-Age Child. . . . . . . . . . 290 Theories of Aging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Fundamental Concepts of Growth and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Community Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Nursing Process and the Older Adult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . 299 Outcome Identification and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY Medication Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Sexual Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Health Promotion and Vulnerable Adolescent . . . . . . . . . and Nursing Process . . . 286 Infancy . . . . . . . . . . 375 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . 369 Family Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Preschooler . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . 288 Middle-Aged Adult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Threats to Family Integrity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Daydreaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Stages of the Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 The Individual as a Holistic Being . . 344 Needs and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Moral Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 HEALTH AND WELLNESS Physiological Dimension . . . 370 Family Development Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . 316 Models of Health . . . . . . . . . . 276 Planning and Outcome Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Promoting Sexual Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Older Adult . . . . . . . . . . 288 Preadolescent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Gender Identity . . . . . . . . 290 CHAPTER 19 Spiritual Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Sociocultural Dimension . . . . . . . 368 HEALTH / 297 Mistreatment of the Older Adult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Illness Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Neonatal Period . . 331 Disease Prevention Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Thinking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Defining Old Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Sexuality and Health . . . . 274 Disaster Preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Health Promotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Prenatal Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Changes Associated with Aging . . . 291 Myths and Stereotypes of Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Toddler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 PROMOTION / 281 Psychosocial Dimension . . . . . . 361 Physiological Changes . . . 365 CHAPTER 17 Medications and the Older Adult. . . . . . . . . . 278 Principles of Growth and Development . . . . . 274 Communication Blocks . . . . 304 Use of Health Care Jargon . . . 289 Intellectual Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Factors Influencing Growth and Development . . . . . . 291 Quality of Life among Older Adults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Characteristics of Healthy Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Health Protection Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Wellness Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . 312 Cognitive Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Spiritual Dimension . . . . . . . . 347 Physiological Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Young Adult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 CLIENT EDUCATION / 401 Physiological Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Resistance to Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . 383 Self-Esteem . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Body Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Development of Self-Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND Evaluation. . 430 Cultural Competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Changing Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Stress and Illness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Documentation . . . . . . . . . 449 Adolescents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Assessment . . . 445 Domains of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Children . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Lifestyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Verbalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Teaching-Learning and the Nursing Implementation . 440 CHAPTER 21 Sources of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Crisis Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 CHANGE / 439 Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Learning Throughout the Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Social Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User xii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 20 UNIT 5 CULTURAL DIVERSITY / 379 Concepts of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Cultural Disparities in Health and Health Factors Affecting Self-Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 SELF-CONCEPT / 423 Value of Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . 396 CHAPTER 23 Implementation . 444 Barriers to Learning . . . 409 Outcome Identification and Planning. . . . . . . . . 440 The Teaching-Learning Process. . . . 395 Outcome Identification and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Responses to Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Psychosocial Needs / 421 Ethnicity and Race. . . . 446 Professional Responsibilities Related Types of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Organizing Phenomena of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Developmental Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 to Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Outcomes of Stress. . . . . . . . . . . 450 Planning and Outcome Identification . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . 409 Meeting Basic Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Altered Health Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Nursing Process and Self-Concept . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Theories of Change . . . . . Anxiety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Responding to Basic Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Stress and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Older Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Impact of Illness and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. 395 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Facilitators of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Involvement of Family and Significant Others . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Orientation to Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Multiculturalism in the United States . in whole or in part. 425 Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Manifestations of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Assessment . . 424 Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Role Performance . . . . . . . . . 430 Cultural Competence and Nursing Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Biological Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Vulnerable Populations . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Purposes of Client Teaching. . . . . . . 428 Environmental Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Nurse as Change Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 STRESS. . 450 Process . . . . . . 382 Components of Self-Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Transcultural Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADAPTATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Religion. . . and Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Evaluation. . . . 409 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Labeling and Stereotyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Legal Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Stress Management . . . . 381 CHAPTER 22 Dominant Values in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Folk Medicine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Adulthood. . . . . . 390 Adolescence. . . . . . . 409 Environmental Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Care Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANXIETY. . . . . 395 Planning and Outcome Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 456 Environment . 488 Male Genitalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Assessment Techniques . . . . . . . . . . 546 Theories of the Grieving Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Care after Death. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Types of Grief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 Physiological Needs / 499 Hematologic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Breasts and Axillae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Papanicolaou Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 VITAL SIGNS / 501 Stool Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . 628 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Evaluation. 628 Physiological Function . . . . . . . . 586 Ethical Implications . . . . . . . . . . 507 Personal Stress Management Approaches Lifestyle . . . . . . . . . . . 616 CHAPTER 26 Blood Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Nursing Process and Thermoregulation . . . . . . . . 493 Data Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Grief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Integument . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Gender . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Vital Signs . . . . . . . . . 520 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 Diagnosis . 493 Care of the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 Urine Analysis . . 584 Stages of Death and Dying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Neurologic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 Assessment . 495 DIAGNOSTIC TESTING / 601 Overview of Noninvasive and Invasive Diagnostic Testing. . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Respirations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Loss as Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 for the Nurse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 Type and Crossmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 Responding to Basic Specimen Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Factors Affecting Grief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 CHAPTER 24 Measuring Vital Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Female Genitalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Heart and Vascular System. . . 576 Nursing Care of the Grieving Person . 509 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Risks of Exposure to Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Abdomen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 UNIT 6 Nursing Care of the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Nursing Burnout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Anus and Rectum. . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Plain Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Blood Pressure . . . . . . . . . 493 Legal Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 General Survey. . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Pain . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Contrast-Mediated Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Spirituality Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 Medications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Laboratory Tests . . . . . . 488 Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 CHAPTER 28 Nurse’s Self-Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Thorax and Lungs . . . . 519 Planning and Outcome Identification . . . . 581 Death . . . . . 597 Care of the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 Factors Influencing Vital Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 Outcome Identification and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Radiologic Studies. . 502 Culture and Sensitivity Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Head and Neck . 544 Types of Loss. . . . . . . 630 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Heredity . . . . . . . . 509 SPIRITUALITY / 463 Measurement of Height and Weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . 488 Postassessment Care of the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 CHAPTER 27 CHAPTER 25 PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT / 539 LOSS AND GRIEF / 475 Purposes of Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 The Nursing Process and Vital Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Nursing Process and Spirituality. . . . 540 Preparation for Physical Examination . . . . . .

753 Factors Affecting Safety . . scanned. . . . 679 Medical History . . . . 632 690 Provide Oral Care. . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS Mammography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Metric System . . . . . . 670 Guidelines for Medication Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . and Colonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 Drug Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Provide Foot and Nail Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . . . . . . . 665 Household System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 Safe Drug Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Documentation of Drug Administration . . . 694 Electroencephalography . . . . . . 752 HYGIENE / 653 Metabolism. . 770 Reduce Noise Pollution . 760 Hygiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 Raise Safety Awareness and Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769 Reduce Exposure to Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Federal Legislation. . . . . . . . 770 Ensure Asepsis . 690 Magnetic Resonance Imaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Ultrasonography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Thoracentesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Reduce or Eliminate Infectious Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Risk for Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Converting Units of Weight and Volume . . . . . . . . . 663 Parts of the Drug Order . . . . 689 Nonnuclear Scan Studies . . . 765 Other Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Medications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681 Angiography Studies . . . . . . and Nose Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Medication Compliance . . . . . . . . . . AND Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFECTION CONTROL. . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Provide for Client Bathing Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Cerebrospinal Fluid Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Health History . . . 665 Apothecary System . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 689 Provide Skin Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Assessment . . . . . . 758 Health Care–Associated Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 Administration . . . . Radioactive Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 Potential Occupational Hazards . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 CHAPTER 30 Amniocentesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 Assessment . . . 668 Drug Dose Calculations. . . 757 Emerging Infections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Professional Roles in Medication Stages of the Infectious Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Factors Influencing Hygienic Practice . . . . . . . . . . . 657 Pharmacology . 753 Creating a Culture of Client Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 Drug Standards and Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 Infection Control Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763 Risk for Infection . . . . . . . . . 688 Doppler Ultrasonography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659 Factors Influencing Drug Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 SAFETY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Practice Standard and Isolation Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 State and Local Legislation. . . 763 Self-Care Deficits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 Pharmacokinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 Drug Nomenclature . . . . . 768 Prevent Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Prevent Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . Computed Tomography . . . . . . . . 761 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrodiagnostic Studies . 633 Endoscopy . . . . . . . . . . 757 Normal Defense Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 Aspiration and Biopsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Systems of Weights and Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . 678 Preventing Medication Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 Ensure Safe Operation of Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . 753 Excretion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 Complementary and Alternative Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Drug History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 Types of Medication Orders . . . . . . . . 751 CHAPTER 29 Absorption . 633 Evaluation . . 658 Side Effects and Adverse Reactions . . . . . . . . . 633 Provide Eye. . . . . . . . . . . 671 Legal Aspects of Administering Prevent Falls. . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 Health Care Institution Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Chain of Infection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Electrocardiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 Pathogens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 691 Provide Hair Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ear. . . . . . . . . 678 Medication Errors. . . . . . . . . . . 634 MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION / 749 Paracentesis. . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Outcome Identification and Planning. . . . . . . . . . . 657 Drug Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Types of Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . 671 Drug Abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Drug Supply and Storage . . . . . . . 631 Provide Clean Bed Linens. . . . . . . . 666 Approximate Dose Equivalents . . . . . . 687 Echocardiograms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Biographical Data .

. . . . . . . . . 848 Factors Affecting Fluid and Electrolyte Nursing and Complementary/Alternative Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Alveolar Gas Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 Physiological Responses to Reduced Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Medication Administration: Topical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 Disturbances in Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773 Impaired Gas Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 Medication Administration: Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865 Excess Fluid Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934 OXYGENATION / 859 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943 Oxygenation . . . . 926 CHAPTER 32 Electrolyte Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Interventions to Promote Airway Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 Lifestyle . . . . . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839 Movement of Body Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 875 Medication Administration: Enteral . 921 Energetic-Touch Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Ineffective Breathing Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879 Interventions to Improve Oxygen Uptake and Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 Physical Examination . 845 Acid-Base Balance . . . . . 942 Disease Processes . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939 Oxygen Transport and Delivery . . 837 Body Water Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 Interventions. . . . . . 837 Holism and Nursing Practice . 921 Body-Movement: Manipulation Strategies . . 837 Electrolytes. . . . . . . . . . 862 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865 Other Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 Allopathic Medicine . . . . . . 926 Nurse as Instrument of Healing . . . 884 From Ancient Tradition to Early Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923 Nutritional Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . 876 Medication Administration: Parenteral. . . . . . . . . . 773 Ineffective Tissue Perfusion . . . . . 882 Interventions to Address Associated Nursing Historical Influences on Contemporary 883 Diagnoses. . 784 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . 943 Health History . . . . 865 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 Other CAM Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 Health History . . . . . . . . 846 Regulators of Acid-Base Balance. . . . . . . . . 773 Decreased Cardiac Output . 837 Physiology of Fluid and Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS xv Cultural Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921 Mind-Body: Self-Regulatory Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . 870 Lifestyle and Beliefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 Complementary Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869 Measure Vital Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881 MODALITIES / 833 Emergency Interventions . . . . . . . 943 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . 943 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . 926 Acid-Base Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836 Contemporary Trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practices . 865 Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume. . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Interventions to Improve Breathing Patterns. . . . . 860 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 Environmental and Lifestyle Factors . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941 Factors Affecting Oxygenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Evaluation . . 837 FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES / 919 The Nature of Healing . . . . . . . . . . . 869 Monitor Daily Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840 Regulators of Fluid Balance . . . . 836 CHAPTER 33 Mind-Body Medicine and Research. . 774 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . 880 CHAPTER 31 Interventions to Increase Cardiac Output and Tissue COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE Perfusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 Approaches. . . . . . . 887 Shamanistic Tradition . . 941 Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 Sensory and Cognitive Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921 Spiritual Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . 772 Ineffective Airway Clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865 Deficient Fluid Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 Other Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869 Implementation . . . . . . . 852 Age . 873 Planning and Outcome Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Physiology of Oxygenation. . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . 920 Complementary and Alternative Fluid Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements Developmental Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 Implementation . . . 1026 Monitor Intravenous Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 Health Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 or Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Factors Affecting Rest and Sleep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 Respiratory Effects . . . . 1099 Other Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 Initiating Diet Therapy . . . 1016 Neurological Effects and Mental Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073 Water . . . . 1009 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 Alteration in Sleep Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 Digestive Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069 Excretion. . . . 1075 Minerals . . . . . . . 1070 Nutrients . . 1054 Digestion . . 1068 Energy. . . . . . . . 1080 Daily Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Other Factors . . . . . . . . 1008 Body Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a Feeding Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 CHAPTER 36 Weight Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006 Factors Affecting Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 Musculoskeletal Effects . . . . . . . . . 1102 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Parenteral Nutrition . . . 1074 Vitamins . . . . Complementary and Alternative Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015 Physiological Effects of Mobility Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 1023 Maintain Tube Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007 Body Alignment . . . . . . . 1100 Monitoring Weight and Intake. . . . . . . . 1097 Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Factors Affecting Mobility . . . . . . 997 Rest and Sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 Assessment . . . . . . . . 997 Illness or Hospitalization . . . . . . . . . . 996 Evaluation. 1098 Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076 Proteins . . . . . . . 1101 Providing Nutrition Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Physiology of Rest and Sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015 and Immobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Biological Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 Physical Fitness . . 1044 Nature of Pain . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS Measure Intake and Output . . . . and Religious Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077 Dietary Reference Intakes and Recommended Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 Physiology of Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 Neurological System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 The Food Guide Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943 Administering Medication through 944 Provide Oral Hygiene. 1055 Metabolism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958 CHAPTER 35 Evaluation . . . or duplicated. . 1088 Lifestyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018 Elimination Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . 1014 Attitudes and Beliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Assessment . . . . . 1076 Promoting Proper Nutrition . . . .954 Complementary and Alternative Therapy . . 1023 944 Initiate Oral Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958 COMFORT AND SLEEP / 1043 Pain. 1091 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006 MOBILITY / 1087 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015 Lifestyle . . . . . . . . 1101 Assistance with Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 Requirements. . 1090 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055 Absorption . . . 945 Managing IV Therapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 Cardiovascular Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Assessment . . . . . 1021 Integumentary Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 Physiology of Mobility . . . . . . . . . . 1046 NUTRITION / 993 Factors Affecting the Pain Experience . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . 1099 Planning and Outcome Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Enteral Tube Feeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006 Overview of Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Nutritional History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 Societal Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 CHAPTER 34 Physiology of Pain . . . . . . 1013 Types of Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088 Ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 1232 Factors Affecting Wound Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215 Bed Rest . . . . . . 1181 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1213 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1162 ELIMINATION / 1231 Physiology of Wound Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1165 Bowel Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244 Impaired Urinary Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107 Sensory Deprivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235 Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236 Physiology of Pressure Ulcers . . . . . . . . 1219 Performing Range-of-Motion Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178 Common Alterations in Elimination . . . 1236 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1166 Factors Affecting Elimination . . . . . . . . Bowel Incontinence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . 1234 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Functional Abilities. . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Mental Status Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 1222 Complementary and Alternative Treatment Managing Sensory Overload . . 1164 Urinary Elimination. . Perception. 1213 Health History . 1178 Medications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND Urge Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Planning and Outcome Identification. . . 1102 Sensory. . . . . . . . . . . 1214 Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Lifestyle . . . 1221 Wellness Promotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212 Planning and Outcomes . . 1110 Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Components of Cognition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240 Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105 Alterations. . . . . . 1216 Meeting Psychosocial Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . 1108 Sensory Overload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181 Physical Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224 CHAPTER 37 SKIN INTEGRITY AND WOUND HEALING / 1161 CHAPTER 39 Wounds . . . . . . . 1108 Assessment . . . . . . . . . 1219 Assisting with Ambulation. . . 1110 Diagnosis. . . . 1212 Other Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216 Health Promotion and Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Physiology of Sensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108 Health History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236 Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers . . and Cognitive Neurological Assessment . . . . . . . . 1217 Applying Principles of Body Mechanics . . . . . . . 1211 Perceived Constipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215 Restorative Nursing Care . . . . . . 1222 Modalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . 1216 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211 Diarrhea . . . . . . 1213 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 Managing Sensory Deprivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 Use of Restraints . . . Perceptual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Cognition . . . 1184 Diagnostic and Laboratory Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Implementation . . . . . . . . . 1232 Wound Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214 Planning and Outcome Identification. . . . 1106 Sensory Deficits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 and Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244 Stress Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1242 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Age . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . 1245 COGNITION / 1207 Total Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . 1170 Diet . . 1244 CHAPTER 38 Reflex Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Factors Affecting Sensation. . . . . . . . 1223 Evaluation . . . . . 1244 Functional Urinary Incontinence. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1162 Physiology of Elimination . . . . . . 1243 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1218 Maintaining Body Alignment: Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180 Urinary Elimination. . . . . . . . 1224 Complementary and Alternative Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERCEPTION. . . . . . . 1102 Environment . . . . . . . 1240 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219 Transfer Techniques . . . . . . . . . . 1181 Bowel Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245 Components of Sensation and Perception . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181 Health History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236 Pressure Ulcers . . . . . . . . . . . . .Licensed to: iChapters User TABLE OF CONTENTS xvii Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . 1124 Caring for the Unconscious Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1208 Constipation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235 Implementation . . . . . . . . 1244 SENSATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 Managing Sensory Deficits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Urinary Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 1316 Initiate Diet and Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . 1251 Surgical Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1318 Monitor Elimination Diversions . . . . . . . . . 1246 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . 1321 Nursing Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307 Monitor Skin Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1324 NURSING CARE OF THE PERIOPERATIVE Evaluation and Discharge from the PACU . . . . . . . . . . . . 1323 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317 Administer Enemas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250 Evaluation. . . 1305 Initiate Behavioral Interventions . . . . . Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326 Ongoing Postoperative Care . . 1300 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . . . 1300 Maintain Elimination Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1299 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May not be copied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254 Interventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256 Postoperative Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249 Planning and Outcomes . . . . . . . . in whole or in part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1321 Evaluation . . . . . . . 1300 Initiate Exercise Regimen . . . . . . 1337 Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317 Initiate Rectal Stimulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252 Assessment . . . . . . 1298 References . . . . . . . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252 Nursing Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . 1326 CLIENT / 1295 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316 Administer Medications. . .Licensed to: iChapters User xviii TABLE OF CONTENTS Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250 Intraoperative Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297 Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1383 Local Anesthesia . . . Due to electronic rights. . . . . . . . . 1321 Complementary and Alternative Therapies . . . . . . 1298 Regional Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scanned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or duplicated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1258 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1321 Monitor Surgical Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1248 Diagnosis . 1296 Client Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253 Planning and Outcomes . . . 1323 CHAPTER 40 Interventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317 Perform Catheterization . . . . 1303 Suggest Environmental Modifications . . 1296 Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316 Apply a Containment Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255 Transfer to Postanesthesia Care Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1363 General Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246 Preoperative Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327 Surgical Interventions . . . .

and Mask / 705 Procedure 29-5: Surgical Hand Antisepsis / 710 Procedure 29-6: Applying Sterile Gloves and Gown via the Closed Method / 713 Procedure 29-7: Removing Contaminated Items / 716 Procedure 29-8: Bathing a Client in Bed / 720 Procedure 29-9: Changing Linens in an Unoccupied Bed / 724 Procedure 29-10: Changing Linens in an Occupied Bed / 728 Procedure 29-11: Perineal and Genital Care / 732 Procedure 29-12: Oral Care / 735 Procedure 29-13: Eye Care / 741 Procedure 30-1: Medication Administration: Oral. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).Licensed to: iChapters User LIST OF PROCEDURES Procedure 26-1: Measuring Body Temperature / 524 Procedure 26-2: Assessing Pulse Rate / 529 Procedure 26-3: Assessing Respiration / 531 Procedure 26-4: Assessing Blood Pressure / 533 Procedure 28-1: Performing Venipuncture / 638 Procedure 28-2: Performing a Skin Puncture / 641 Procedure 28-3: Obtaining a Residual Urine Specimen from an Indwelling Catheter / 644 Procedure 28-4: Collecting a Clean-Catch Midstream Urine Specimen / 645 Procedure 28-5: Measuring Blood Glucose Levels / 648 Procedure 29-1: Applying Restraints / 695 Procedure 29-2: Handwashing: Visibly Soiled Hands / 699 Procedure 29-3: Applying Sterile Gloves via the Open Method / 701 Procedure 29-4: Donning and Removing Clean and Contaminated Gloves. or duplicated. Sublingual. scanned. . in whole or in part. Cap. and Buccal / 789 Procedure 30-2: Withdrawing Medication from an Ampule / 793 Procedure 30-3: Withdrawing Medication from a Vial / 796 Procedure 30-4: Mixing Medications from Two Vials into One Syringe / 799 Procedure 30-5: Medication Administration: Intradermal / 802 xix Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. May not be copied. Due to electronic rights. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. scanned. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Due to electronic rights. Commode.Licensed to: iChapters User xx LIST OF PROCEDURES Procedure 30-6: Medication Administration: Subcutaneous / 804 Procedure 30-7: Medication Administration: Intramuscular / 807 Procedure 30-8: Medication Administration via Secondary Administration Sets (Piggyback) / 809 Procedure 30-9: Medication Administration: Eye and Ear / 812 Procedure 30-10: Medication Administration: Nasal / 817 Procedure 30-11: Medication Administration: Nebulizer / 820 Procedure 30-12: Medication Administration: Rectal / 823 Procedure 30-13: Medication Administration: Vaginal / 826 Procedure 31-1: Administering Therapeutic Massage / 854 Procedure 32-1: Maintaining and Cleaning the Tracheostomy Tube / 887 Procedure 32-2: Performing Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Suctioning / 890 Procedure 32-3: Suctioning Endotracheal and Tracheal Tubes / 894 Procedure 32-4: Administering Oxygen Therapy / 897 Procedure 32-5: Performing the Heimlich Maneuver / 902 Procedure 32-6: Administering Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) / 907 Procedure 33-1: Measuring Intake and Output / 962 Procedure 33-2: Preparing an IV Solution / 964 Procedure 33-3: Preparing the IV Bag and Tubing / 967 Procedure 33-4: Assessing and Maintaining an IV Insertion Site / 970 Procedure 33-5: Changing the IV Solution / 971 Procedure 33-6: Flushing a Central Venous Catheter / 975 Procedure 33-7: Setting the IV Flow Rate / 976 Procedure 33-8: Changing the Central Venous Dressing / 980 Procedure 33-9: Discontinuing the IV and Changing to a Saline or Heparin Lock / 983 Procedure 33-10: Administering a Blood Transfusion / 986 Procedure 34-1: Inserting a Nasogastric or Nasointestinal Tube for Suction and Enteral Feedings / 1031 Procedure 34-2: Administering Enteral Tube Feedings / 1036 Procedure 35-1: Administering Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) / 1080 Procedure 36-1: Body Mechanics. and Transferring / 1127 Procedure 36-2: Administering Passive Range-of-Motion (ROM) Exercises / 1129 Procedure 36-3: Turning and Positioning a Client / 1134 Procedure 36-4: Moving a Client in Bed / 1138 Procedure 36-5: Assisting from Bed to Wheelchair. or duplicated. May not be copied. . Lifting. or Walker / 1151 Procedure 37-1: Irrigating a Wound / 1191 Procedure 37-2: Obtaining a Wound Drainage Specimen for Culturing / 1193 Procedure 37-3: Applying a Dry Dressing / 1195 Procedure 37-4: Applying a Wet-to-Damp Dressing (Wet-to-Moist Dressing) / 1198 Procedure 37-5: Preventing and Managing the Pressure Ulcer / 1201 Procedure 39-1: Assisting with a Bedpan or Urinal / 1259 Procedure 39-2: Applying a Condom Catheter / 1261 Procedure 39-3: Inserting an Indwelling Catheter: Male / 1264 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. in whole or in part. or Chair / 1140 Procedure 36-6: Assisting from Bed to Stretcher / 1143 Procedure 36-7: Using a Hydraulic Lift / 1145 Procedure 36-8: Assisting with Ambulation and Safe Walking / 1148 Procedure 36-9: Assisting with Crutches. Cane. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

or duplicated. Due to electronic rights.Licensed to: iChapters User LIST OF PROCEDURES xxi Procedure 39-4: Inserting an Indwelling Catheter: Female / 1268 Procedure 39-5: Irrigating an Open Urinary Catheter / 1273 Procedure 39-6: Irrigating the Bladder Using a Closed-System Catheter / 1276 Procedure 39-7: Administering an Enema / 1280 Procedure 39-8: Irrigating and Cleaning a Stoma / 1286 Procedure 39-9: Changing a Colostomy Pouch / 1289 Procedure 40-1: Postoperative Exercise Instruction / 1328 Procedure 40-2: Administering Pulse Oximetry / 1332 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. May not be copied. scanned. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). . in whole or in part. All Rights Reserved.

MSN. CCRN Association of Operating Room Nurses Touro Infirmary Nashville. Colorado Associate Professor of Nursing Mary Ellen Zator Estes. FNP-BC. CCRN. RN. RN Mikel Gray. All Rights Reserved. scanned. MS. Due to electronic rights. C College of Nursing School of Nursing University of Tennessee University of Hawaii Knoxville. Cash. Tennessee Honolulu. CRRN. RN. RN. Louisiana Carma Andrus. CNS Jan Corder. RN Denver. RN Covington. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. CCCN. Arizona Healing Touch Practitioner and Instructor Ali Brown. May not be copied. School of Nursing St. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Virginia Loyola University New Orleans. in whole or in part.Licensed to: iChapters User CONTRIBUTORS Sheila L. or duplicated. HNC. Louisiana Assistant Professor Norma Fujise. CCRN Loyola University Assistant Professor New Orleans. APRN Monroe. MN. MSN. RN. MS. BSN. Maryland Clinical Professor Ann H. CUNP. CNOR. MN. PhD. MSN. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. CEN Executive Board Member Sentara Healthcare CU International Federation of Perioperative Nurses Norfolk. RN Northeast Louisiana University Pain Consultation Service Monroe. . MSN. School of Nursing Charlottesville. Louisiana Northeast Louisiana University Billie Barringer. RN. Martinville. RN. Hawaii Virginia Burggraf. CRNFA Lissa A. DNS. Louisiana xxiii Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Gerontological Nurse Consultant FAANP. FAAN Kensington. MPH. RN. DNS. RN. FNP-C Marymount University College of Nursing Arlington. CHTP/I. RN. MS. RN Dauterive Primary Care Clinic Dean. CHt Tempe. PNP-BC. Tennessee New Orleans. PhD. Louisiana School of Nursing Julie Coy. PhD. Louisiana The Children’s Hospital Barbara Bihm. Virginia Arizona State University Mary Frost. RN. CS. Allen. Cary. Virginia President Beth Christensen. Louisiana School of Nursing Barbara Brillhart. A-CCC University of Virginia School of Nursing Director.

RN. NP New Orleans. RN. scanned. RN. Kansas Claire Lincoln. Heather Herdman. PhD. Louisiana Kansas City. MS. BSN. RN Faculty Executive Director Wayne State University College of Nursing Louisiana State Board of Nursing Detroit. RN. Louisiana New Orleans. Louisiana Judy Martin. CNAA. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. . RN Executive Director Tulane University Hospital and Clinic North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International New Orleans. Tennessee Rothlyn Zahourek. Louisiana Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. CRNI Director of Nursing Infusion Nurse Manager. MN. Louisiana School of Nursing Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Tina M. RN Martha Yager. PhD. in whole or in part. RN. or duplicated. Local AACN Smithfield. RN. EdD. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Louisiana Lucille Joel. BSN. MN. PhD. PhD. Vermont Knoxville. CNOR. New Jersey New Orleans. Louisiana SCCM. Louisiana Georgia Johnson. MS. DNS. CNS. RN Barbara Morvant. MS. RN Cathy O’Byrne. C Associate Professor JoAnna Magee. PhD. MSN. MN. CCRN West Jefferson Mental Health Clinic Dean Marrero. MS. Louisiana Lorrie Wong. RN Associate Professor of Nursing Assistant Professor Southern University School of Nursing Baton Rouge. MPH. MSN. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). CETN Nurse Attorney Wound and Ostomy Unit. Hawaii Mary Anne Modrcin. May not be copied. Louisiana Baton Rouge. Our Lady of the Lake Regional Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals Medical Center Health Standards Section Baton Rouge. RN Certified Clinical Nurse Specialist Director Amherst. RN. Louisiana T. Due to electronic rights. RN. JD. Surman. CCRN. RN Dean and Professor Assistant Director of Nurses Caylor School of Nursing Bennington Health and Rehabilitation Center Lincoln Memorial University Bennington. Louisiansa Our Lady of Holy Cross College New Orleans.Licensed to: iChapters User xxiv CONTRIBUTORS Janet Kula Harden. CS Barbara S. RN Professor Associate Professor College of Nursing School of Nursing Rutgers—State University of New Jersey Louisiana State University Medical Center Newark. CPHQ Roxanne Perucca. CHT. RN Mary W. FNP Delgado Community College Metairie. National AACN. FAAN Brenda Owens. Liske. Virginia Suzanne Riche. CS Demetrius Porche. Louisiana Cheryl Taylor. Moffett. RN. MN. PhD. MS. RN Instructor Elizabeth ‘‘Betty’’ Hauck Miller. All Rights Reserved. Louisiana Honolulu. RN. Massachusetts School of Nursing Southeastern Louisiana University Hammond. RN Director for Simulation Learning Director of Education School of Nursing and Dental Hygiene Ochsner Hospital. Westbank University of Hawaii at Manoa Gretna. RN Linda McCuistion. Michigan Baton Rouge. MS. Clinical Nurse Specialist Southeast Louisiana Hospital University of Kansas Hospital Mandeville.

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RN Tacoma. MSN. Reed. Virginia Margaret P. RN School of Nursing Department of Nursing Quincy College Miami-Dade Community College Quincy. Elizabeth School of Nursing Middle Tennessee State University Lafayette. MS. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). RN Mobile. MS. Rancourt. MS. Washington Assistant Professor of Nursing Maria College Barbara Scheirer. RN Maria A. Florida Anita K. RN University of Nebraska Assistant Professor Omaha. RN Chattanooga State Practical Nursing and Surgical Paula P. scanned. MSN. RN. RN. CCRN Instructor of Nursing School of Nursing St. Due to electronic rights. MS. Arizona Ruth Schaffler. Tennessee Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital School of Practical Nursing Julie Sanford. MA. RN. RN Sandy J. MA. Indiana Donna Roddy. Tennessee Neil Rheiner. MSN. Ohio Julia Robinson. .Licensed to: iChapters User REVIEWERS xxvii Carol Rafferty. CCRN California State University Associate Professor of Nursing Bakersfield. Whitbeck. RN Technological Programs Educator Chattanooga. or duplicated. RN Roanoke. MSN. DNS. RN Northeast Wisconsin Technical College Southwest Virginia Community College Green Bay. in whole or in part. RN. RN Gail Smith. CS. Thompson. PhD. Smith. MSN. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Wisconsin Keenmtu. MS. All Rights Reserved. California Purdue University Calumet Hammond. Nebraska Ohio University Zanesville. DSN. Virginia Assistant Professor of Nursing Spring Hill College Anita Thorne. Massachusetts Miami. Indiana Murfreesboro. Shortridge. ARNP Pacific Lutheran University Elizabeth K. MSN. FNP-C Associate Professor Janic Tazbir. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. RN Albany. Louisiana Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. BSN. May not be copied. MSN. EdD. BSN. Alabama Arizona State University Tempe. RN Sharon Staib. New York Assistant Professor of Nursing Grambling State University Grambling.

nursing education. the environment. age.Licensed to: iChapters User PREFACE W e are very excited to share the fourth edition of Fun- damentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice with you! It is hoped that this text will encourage the student to de- concepts of scientific and discipline-specific theory. communication skills. research and evidence-based practice. or health status. including spiritual beliefs and practices. Scien. and nursing—are threaded throughout this text. care of the older adult. ethnicity. Emphasis is placed on cultural diver- love of learning. and ethical and legal principles. The safe and appropriate paradigm elements of theory—human beings. interdisci- nursing care. All Rights Reserved. holism. This edition presents the most current advances in practice and emphasize safety. scanned. or duplicated. health and health promotion. Assessment tools specific to selected care are rapidly expanding and challenge nurses to think out. Due to electronic rights. Therapeutic nursing interventions reflect standards of research. Indi- concepts. concise tinuum ranging from wellness to death. status. Inte. This comprehensive edition addresses fundamental con. and nursing’s meta. ev. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Nursing knowledge is formulated on the basic viduals who are experiencing illness have strengths that xxix Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. and effective delegation in delivering demands of delivering care across a continuum of settings. sity. needs and strengths and the abilities to meet those needs. client teach- ing. An individual’s manner using language that is easy to read. and external variables. The external environment affects an individ- ual’s health status by facilitating or hindering the person’s achievement of needs. The to reflect contemporary nursing practice. spirituality. however. topics are presented to assist students with pertinent data col- side the box in applying best practices based on current lection. socioeconomic encourages clients to participate in determining their care. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). use of technology has been incorporated throughout the text health. organization of units and chapters is sequential. self-efficacy. by linking related actions and choices affect changes in health status. logical traits. Physiological and psychosocial responses of values. cognitive development. Holism implies that individuals are treated as whole enti- cepts and skills to help prepare novice graduate nurses to apply ties rather than fragmented parts or problems. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. and psycho- interventions. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH • Health: Viewed as a dynamic force that occurs on a con- This edition presents in-depth material in a clear. Critical thinking and reflective reasoning skills Multiple theories of nursing are embraced. Each chapter may be used independ. are integrated throughout the text. and velop an inquiring stance based on the joy of discovery and a the continuum of care. • Individuals: Viewed as holistic beings with multiple ently of the others according to the specific curriculum design. environment. Up-to-date clinical information is based on sound theo. Every per- both client and nurse are addressed in a holistic manner. The settings for delivery of presenting information. The conceptual approach used as an organizational ery effort has been made to allow for varying needs of diverse framework for the fourth edition falls into four categories: curricula and students. Nursing is facing new challenges in delivering quality care The nursing process provides a consistent approach for to clients in a variety of settings. Each per- an understanding of human behavior to issues encountered in son is a complex entity who is influenced by cultural clinical settings. • Environment: A complex interrelationship of internal retical concepts and provides a rationale for practice. son has the right to be treated with dignity and respect grative modalities are presented in an environment that regardless of race. Internal variables include one’s self- tific evidence is applied to the implementation of nursing concept. and research relative to the plinary collaboration. nursing care. in whole or in part. . May not be copied. religion.

Concepts such as safety and infec- This textbook provides student nurses with a bridge that tion control. this method of presentation also prevents dupli- that seeks to improve the health status of individuals. . Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. and client empowerment. interpersonal. is emphasized across chapters. Nursing’s focus is person-centered and communicates a Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice. ily accessed and understood. and the pro- • Community. indi. Chapter 12 combines legal and eth- threaded throughout the text. NEW TO THIS EDITION Features that challenge students to use critical thinking • Chapter 13. responsibilities to the client. cussed from the perspective of health care delivery and • Evidence-based practice. evolution as a profession and its contributions to health Other important conceptual threads used to direct the care based on standards of practice. • Alternative and complementary modalities are treat. power or divine source—is discussed in depth in Chapter 24. the community. which is derived from scientific the continuum of care. and elimination are described within authors is to help students become proficient critical thinkers the nursing process framework. ogy on nursing practice. or duplicated. practical manner. integrative concepts is included throughout the text. Chapter 16 emphasizes incorporated throughout the text. ethnic. been added to Chapter 13 on documentation. tion is highlighted throughout the text in a format that is eas- viduals who are experiencing a high degree of health gen. in whole or in part. research. Spirituality is spotlighted in order to emphasize its impact on individuals’ health. Chapter 14 provides nursing • Caring. May not be copied. presents 40 chapters organized in six units: through nursing interventions. is theoretical perspectives on caring. Fourth caring intent. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. The legal aspects of delegation are discussed in ting for delivery of care. professional practice association. Similar concepts have been erally have areas that can be improved. has an skills are incorporated into each chapter. sonal accountability for their health-related behaviors. Research-based knowledge and clini- cal skills that reflect contemporary practice are presented in a reader-friendly. and a relationship with a higher grate information on health promotion. • Unit 6: Responding to Basic Physiological Needs dis- ORGANIZATION OF TEXT cusses aspects of nursing care that are common to every area of nursing practice. as both an aggregate client and as the set. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). tions. The intent of the integrity. as well as described in the nurse’s role in empowering clients to assume more per- depth in a separate chapter. and ‘‘Delegation Tips’’ are incorporated into the Community Considerations critical thinking boxes each clinical procedure. ventional medical therapies. health care services in order to ensure consistent care • Unit 3: Professional Accountability describes the nurse’s across practice settings. Due to electronic rights. grouped together to encourage students to learn through • Nursing: An active. with information tion of nursing and nursing education. Present. nutrition. Each stage of the nursing process is discussed with • Continuum of care is viewed as a process for providing an emphasis on critical thinking. provided. and cultural Nurses Association as well as nursing specialty organiza- variables. is evidenced in Chapter 17 and in Chapter 11. a sense of • Unit 4: Promoting Client Health was created to inte- connection with others. skin connects theory with clinical practice. ical aspects of nursing practice to reflect the interfacing of • Holism recognizes the bodymind connection and views these concepts. a universal value that directs nursing practice. Documentation and Informatics.Licensed to: iChapters User xxx PREFACE may improve their health status. scanned. Quality is dis- with the art of nursing. Critical informa. and practice based on scientific knowledge and delivered in an Future provides a comprehensive discussion of nursing’s artful manner. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. The theoretical frame- development of this book include the following: works for guiding professional practice and the signifi- • Health promotion encourages individuals to engage in cance of incorporating research into nursing practice are behaviors and lifestyles that facilitate wellness. • Spirituality—one’s relationship with one’s self. Chapter 17 addresses the health needs of families and ment approaches that can be used in conjunction with con. Caring and compassion are demonstrated Edition. The concept of evidence-based practice is • Critical thinking is an essential skill for blending science emphasized along with research utilization. and critical thinking expanded discussion of the history and impact of technol- questions appear at the end of each chapter. who are able to use the nursing process with diverse clients in a variety of settings. fluid and electrolyte balance. communities. consumer demand. cation of content. fession. On the other hand. emphasized. mobility. Chapters are reflective of the parallel evolu- • Standards of practice are discussed. An in-depth discussion of informatics has the client as a whole person rather than fragmented parts. Examples showing from national and specialty organizations incorporated the incorporation of theory into the nursing process are into each chapter as appropriate. • Unit 2: Nursing Process: The Standard of Care dis- • Cultural diversity is defined as individual differences cusses standards of care established by the American among people resulting from racial. Nursing is a professional • Unit 1: Nursing’s Perspective: Past. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 31 is dedicated to • Unit 5: Responding to Basic Psychosocial Needs this integrative approach. and related information featuring stresses the importance of the holistic nature of nursing.

com/companions/ questions. a pace that is comfortable for them. Educational Resources for Caregivers. ISBN 13: 978-1-4354-8069-8 • Uncovering the Evidence emphasizes the importance of This teaching/learning tool contains key steps for every pro- clinical research by linking theory to practice. • Respecting Our Differences challenges the student to con. able to perform with assistance. The DeLaune/Ladner Online individual). Fourth Edition. ards and Practice. To assist students in learning the essential skills and com- ISBN 13: 978-1-4354-8070-4 petencies needed to secure a career in the area of nursing Free to all instructors who adopt Fundamentals of Nursing: 2.delmar. sion and critical thinking skills. legal. scanned. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. by Sue C. simply point your browser to • Test Bank—Computerized test bank includes over 1200 www. Key fea- gender. mation designed to enhance the book. DeLaune and Patricia K. Ladner. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and Web sites are included to increase Companion are: student awareness of current issues. cedure in Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . Features include: cal terminology audio library—is included. or duplicated. • Safety First identifies critical health and safety situations SKILLS CHECKLIST and highlights strategies for the appropriate nursing response ISBN 10: 1-4354-8069-4 and management. age. • Concept maps • HIPAA information Computerized Test Bank with Electronic To access the site for Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards Gradebook and Practice. foundation on which instructors may customize their own this study aid builds on and reinforces the content presented unique presentations. are provided to enhance student comprehen- Companion enables users of Fundamentals of Nursing: Stand. STUDY GUIDE PowerPoint Presentation ISBN 10: 1-4354-8068-6 A vital resource for instructors. sider approaches to respectful and appropriate care for cli. followed by a student activity (group and/or index. serving as a Containing 500 sample questions in an easy-to-use format. perform. May not be copied. in whole or in part. questions and reflects an NCLEX style of review. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). All Rights Reserved. the slides created in Power- ISBN 13: 978-1-4354-8068-6 Point parallel the content found in the book. critical thinking Delmar Web site: www. in their courses. cognitive level. heart and lung sounds.com. and skills.delmarlearning. and a medi. • Discussion Questions and Critical Thinking Challenges • NCLEX-style review questions have been added at the added to every chapter end of every chapter. ethical. • Additional Resource Aids—Additional audiovisual material. and vided for each chapter to enhance student writing and Recommended Dietary Allowances thinking skills.cengage. and developmental level.asp?isbn¼1401859186. includ- and then select the nursing discipline. trends. NCLEX. To assist instructors in planning and implementing their Standards and Practice. Included in the Online computer software. Fourth Edition. and unable to perform • Comments section at each step for constructive feedback EXTENSIVE TEACHING/ • Easy-to-follow format LEARNING PACKAGE The complete supplements package was developed to achieve two goals: INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES ISBN 10: 1-4354-8070-8 1. Students have an avenue to learn key concepts at style chapter quizzes. Answers and rationales are located • Various levels of difficulty in the instructor’s manual. and text reference. and professional components of nursing practice. in the text. • Questions built upon the key concepts on a chapter-by- • Spotlight On is a new feature that focuses attention on chapter basis issues relating to the caring. • Healthy People 2020 Guidelines • Evaluation Strategies—Discussion questions are pro- • Appendices. ing rationales. comprehension and execution of the procedures. Fourth Edition. compassion. this programs for the most efficient use of time and other comprehensive resource includes the following: resources Instructor’s Guide ONLINE COMPANION • Instructional Strategies—Centered around the compe- Delmar offers a series of Online Companions through the tencies at the beginning of each chapter. to access a wealth of infor. Fourth Edition. Click on Online Companions.Licensed to: iChapters User PREFACE xxxi • Free StudyWARE CD—with 3-D animations. Due to electronic rights. tures include: • Evidence-based practice is highlighted across chapters as • Three categories to document performance: able to appropriate. These checklists may be used to help students evaluate their ents who may differ in a variety of ways including culture.

a • Sort art by desired categories glossary. All Rights Reserved. scanned. . and instructor resources. concept maps. or duplicated. in whole or in part. lated to the text. the WebTutor Advantage includes quizzes tions and discussion questions. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Corre- • Set up electronic pointers to actual image files or collec. Due to electronic rights. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. ISBN 13: 978-1-4354-8071-1 graphs from the text. 3-D animations. • Print selected pieces Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. With the Image Library you can: This online resource delivered on Blackboard offers value as • Create additional libraries a standard component to any fundamentals course. May not be copied.Licensed to: iChapters User xxxii PREFACE Image Library WebTutor Advantage The Image Library is a software tool that includes an organ. ISBN 10: 1-4354-8071-6 ized digital library of more than 700 illustrations and photo.

4. 80. ‘‘I eat because I have nothing else to do. Her daily routine involves cooking for her husband and brother. taking small bites and chew- ing each bite 12 times. eating only at mealtime. Overlap the front pieces. taking into consideration food preferences. and Hygiene 695 PROCEDURES PROCEDURE 29-1 Applying Restraints Procedure boxes are step-by-step guides to per- EQUIPMENT (See Figures 29–14. was diagnosed 2 years ago with type 2 (non–insulin-dependent) diabetes. She says. (Continues) xxxiii Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. These are very helpful in strengthening • Height. performing interven- graduated from high school. 4. skin. 4. threading the ties through the slot/loop on the front of the vest. Explain that the client will be wearing a jacket attached 2. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Healthy eating habits and tips on recog- nizing fullness during a meal will help the client eat to satisfy hunger. Infection Control. Jones. May not be copied. Client’s understanding of her disease may increase motivation to manage it. She has a history of obesity and does not exercise. Assess client’s motivation to lose weight. plan with client an 1800-kilocalorie diet for a week. chewing sugar-free gum when watching TV). and sedentary lifestyle. Provide client with dietary materials: Review the food pyramid and diabetic exchange list. weight control NIC: Weight management thinking skills. using open-ended statements to assist client in exploring psychological factors that may contribute to eating. type. 3. movement but restricts PRESENTATION The Nursing Care Plan guides you through the Mrs. 50 400 • Triceps skinfold. Due to electronic rights. 6.Licensed to: iChapters User HOW TO USE THIS TEXT T he following suggests how you can use the features of this text to gain competence and confidence in your assessment and nursing skills. Explain that this is for safety. She is being 5. drinking water with meals. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 1. Prevents the spread of microorganisms. eating in response to boredom. and 26–16) • Restraints appropriate to the client’s condition and type of restraint required forming basic clinical nursing skills. and watching TV for 6–8 hours. I am thirsty all day and(Continues) awaken several times during the night. Nonjudgmental approach to acquiring information will encourage client trust and honesty. age 55. Helps client recognize her eating patterns and note healthy and unhealthy behaviors. in whole or in part. 28 mm • Elevated blood glucose • Weight gain. Conduct a dietary history. in exercising your critical NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements related to excess intake of high- calorie foods. NOC: Motivation. or duplicated.’’ tions. 4. Allows CASE freedom. CHAPTER 29 Safety. Discuss risk factors and symptoms (thirst and urination) of diabetes. Verbalize factors contributing to excess weight 2. Provides for client privacy and prevents 3.6 kg of care. 3. This feature • Cotton batting or foam padding will help you gain competence in nursing skills.’’ She does not work and hasn’t been involved in community activities for the past 5 years since her youngest child process of planning care. NURSING CARE PLAN to the bed. having to go to the bathroom. Instruct client to maintain a daily dietary intake log: time. She says. Promotes client cooperation. 5. reading. 29–15. and FIGURE 29-14 Locking Belt Restraint DELMAR/CENGAGE LEARNING FIGURE 29-15 Mitten Restraints DELMAR/CENGAGE LEARNING as a review aid for future reference. Ensures client has infor- mation necessary to plan healthy meals within recommended guidelines. ‘‘I hardly have the energy to get up and dress in the morn- ing. and amount. Secures the restraint. Lose 1–2 lb/week while eating well-balanced meals Engage in 20–30 minutes of exercise 3 times a week care. FIGURE 29-16 Jacket Restraint DELMAR/CENGAGE LEARNING ACTION RATIONALE 1024 UNIT 6 Responding to Basic Physiological Needs CHEST RESTRAINT 1.6 kg your understanding of the nursing process in • Sedentary lifestyle • Eats in response to boredom ‘‘live’’ nursing situations. scanned. Place the restraint on the client with the opening in the front (see Figure 29-17). not boredom. 5. Use this feature as a study tool to help you under- stand the rationale behind the nursing interven- tions. Having client’s support for care plan will influence success. Explore outside interests to decrease boredom and increase feelings of self-worth INTERVENTIONS/RATIONALES 1. 3. as a guide for mastery of procedures. . 3. putting the fork on the plate between bites. All Rights Reserved. and for use as a blueprint from EXPECTED OUTCOMES The client will which to develop your own complete plans of 1. Place the restraint over the client’s hospital gown or the restraint from rubbing the client’s Client with Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements clothing. and evaluating the outcomes of your plan ASSESSMENT • Weight. NURSING CARE PLAN 2. She loves to bake fresh breads and pastry. Wash hands/hand hygiene. 2. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. seen in the clinic for her 6-month visit. Adapt eating habits to decrease amount of intake (having smaller servings.

Due to electronic rights. Fei. L. this conclusion? • What elements of this situation. and after uti- seems incomplete or uncertain? lizing the nursing process. frequencies. Checklists are your • Should I talk to the client and family again? • What data fit together or have something in com- reference guide to using critical thinking in nurs- mon? ing and to understanding the steps in the nursing • What specific cues from the client made me form process. Statistics were examined to determine the types. condition. UNCOVERING THE EVIDENCE BOXES ulations’’ These boxes emphasize the importance of AUTHORS L. May not be copied. .Licensed to: iChapters User CONCEPT MAPS Concept maps are used in this edition to visually illustrate five of the nursing care plans included in the text. they PURPOSE focus attention on current issues and The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify trends in nursing. J. social services. As a learning tool. or problem can be enhanced or resolved by thera- peutic nursing interventions? • What elements need to be referred to another discipline (e. Shever. All Rights Reserved. or duplicated. Dochterman. and D. NURSINGCHECKLIST Critical Thinking The following questions should be considered by the nurse in the development of a nursing diagnosis: • Do I have enough data to formulate a nursing NURSING CHECKLIST diagnosis? • Are any data missing? Nursing Checklist boxes outline important points • Is there any information in my database that for you to consider before. Q. M. scanned. dietary)? xxxiv Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.. frequently used nursing interventions and (2) to describe patterns of interventions used for each of the three selected groups of clients. METHODS This secondary data analysis study used data from a medical center in which the Nursing Interventions Clas- sification (NIC) was used to electronically document nursing care. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Titler. The mapping process provides the learner with a non-linear option for problem-solving learning. and patterns of interventions used in providing care to older care recipients. medicine.g. UNCOVERING THE ce Eviden TITLE OF STUDY ‘‘Patterns of Nursing Intervention Use across 6 Days of Acute Care Hospitalization for Three Older Patient Pop. clinical research in nursing by linking Picone theory to practice. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. M. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). during. in whole or in part.

You may You are working as a nursing assistant (unlicensed choose to read through each one and explore the issues personnel) during your school break.Licensed to: iChapters User HOW TO USE THIS TEXT (Continued) SAFETY FIRST SAFETY FIRST As a professional. in whole or in part. you will often be a client’s main link subject. • Encourage children’s talents and accept their limi- tations. legal/ethical. daily experiences. What would be before reading the chapter. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. or duplicated. If you choose to read them as you go dure previously as a nursing student affect your through the chapter. Be realistic in your expectations. cal situations on your own. and use words they is a great resource for ensuring success in understand. current trends and issues. response? then go back and look at them at a later date. perhaps write your thoughts down. both efficiently and effectively. • Promote mutual respect and trust by establishing CLIENT TEACHING CHECKLIST and maintaining open lines of communication • Demonstrate a willingness to talk about any As a nurse. and pro- Student Accountability fessional components of nursing practice. The Client Teaching Checklist • Listen carefully to children. CLIENT TEACHING CHECKLIST Actions of Parents to Promote Positive Self-Concept in Children • Encourage expression of feelings. Pay careful attention to this feature to their assignments before instituting care. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Students as it will help you to begin to identify and respond to criti- must ask for directions if unsure of their abilities. original thoughts. to health care. • Provide children with unconditional love. All Rights Reserved. and avoid comparing one child to another. SPOTLIGHT ON SPOTLIGHT ON This feature helps you to develop sensitivity to issues Legal about the caring and compassion. Role-model problem solving and coping skills. • Celebrate children’s accomplishments. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Guidelines for care. . May not be copied. Due to electronic rights. readdress each Spotlight On and reevaluate your Would the fact that you have performed the proce. xxxv Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. • Demonstrate confidence in their abilities. and professional proto- cols are addressed throughout the text. COMMUNITY CONSIDERATIONS Belief System Culturally competent care requires the nurse to work COMMUNITY CONSIDERATIONS within the client’s cultural belief system to resolve health problems. scanned. Then as you read through the your appropriate response if asked to perform a nurs- ing procedure such as medication administration? chapter. • Teach by example. teaching exercises and procedures and in • Use examples and anecdotes to promote learning. you will need to be able to react immedi- ately in some situations in order to ensure the health and It is absolutely critical to client safety that nursing students verbalize any questions or concerns relative safety of your patients. This means that the nurse needs to Community Considerations spotlight client care in hear the client and consider the client’s world and the community environment. relaying critical information to clients.

ily: Jay. . Louisiana. we would like to thank Carol Ren Kneisl for initiating our work on this CNOR.’’ Thank you for sharing so many of your resources and support with us. BSN. scanned. All Rights Reserved. encouragement throughout the development of this manu- script. Your clinical and Jacob Segrave. demonstrating daily understanding and support when the Our friends and professional colleagues provided book had to be given priority. Wayne Jr. Kelly. Gretchen. A special thank you to Paulette Watts. and Sarabeth and Jay Accardo. First. which often stimulated humor. in whole or in part. Jennifer.Licensed to: iChapters User ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T his textbook is the product of many dedicated. of Mandeville. Ryan. and conscientious individuals. RN. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Thanks and academic expertise provided valuable suggestions that also to Wayne. and Caroline Cardinal. who served as a content specialist for Chapter 36. knowl- edgeable. May not be copied. Katie ically read and commented on the manuscript. we need to thank all the reviewers who crit. Camille. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. text. easing a literature. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Our families deserve recognition for their daily queries ered to produce an outstanding contribution to the nursing relative to the book. We would like to thank all the contributors who persev. xxxvi Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. or duplicated. Your clinical expertise is evident in this final product. and Michael for strengthened the text. Special thanks to the DeLaune fam- Likewise. Due to electronic rights.. ‘‘Mobility. sometimes tedious task.

Currently. Loui- siana. Ala- bama. and nursing leadership in a variety of pro- grams. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Ladner has taught fundamentals of nursing. She has been recognized as one of the ‘‘Great 100 Nurses’’ by the New Orleans District Nurses Association. and nursing seminars while maintaining clinical competency in various critical care and medical-surgical settings. leadership skills. clinician. in whole or in part. psychiatric– mental health nursing. She has taught nurs- ing in diploma. Missouri. medical-surgical nursing. a master of science in counseling and guidance from Troy State University. and the American Nurses Association. New Orleans. Sue has taught fundamentals of nursing. P atricia Ann Kelly Ladner obtained an associate degree in science from Mercy Junior College. Louisiana. May not be copied. Sue is an Associate Professor and RN-to-BSN Coordinator at William Carey University School of Nursing. Ms. xxxvii Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Louis. Her professional career has pro- vided her with the necessary knowledge and skills to be an effective lecturer and community leader. and a master’s degree in nursing from Louisiana State University Medical Center. She has taught at George C. Due to electronic rights. She also presents seminars and workshops across the country that assist nurses to maintain competency in areas of communication. Louisi- ana. Louis. She has also been the Director of Touro Infirmary School of Nursing and a Director of Nursing at Tulane University Medical Center in New Orleans. St. With 35 years as a clinician and academician. and baccalaureate schools of nursing as well as in RN degree-completion programs. and a master’s degree in nursing from Louisi- ana State Medical Center. Louisiana. scanned. New Orleans. a bachelor of science in nursing from Maril- lac College. associate degree. and administrator. Sue is a member of Sigma Theta Tau. Sue is a prolific author. St. client education. She also is President of SDeLaune Consulting. having written several professional journal articles and textbook chapters in the areas of nursing education and mental health nursing. Missouri. With over 35 years of experience as an educator. professionalism. North Carolina. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Wallace Junior Community College. Dothan. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.Licensed to: iChapters User ABOUT THE AUTHOR S ue Carter DeLaune earned a bachelor of science in nursing from Northwestern State University. Alabama. Clinton. an independent education consulting business based in Mandeville. Troy. . Natchitoches. or duplicated. the National League for Nursing. Sampson Technical Institute. and stress management. and Touro Infirmary School of Nursing and Charity/Delgado School of Nursing in New Orleans. New Orleans. All Rights Reserved.

She main. . May not be copied. infection control. scanned. All Rights Reserved. grams on such topics as hygiene. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.Licensed to: iChapters User xxxviii ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ms. Since Hurricane Katrina in 2004. and grief tion Community Service Award and has been recognized as and loss. in whole or in part. Ladner received a governor’s appointment to serve one of the ‘‘Great 100 Nurses’’ by the New Orleans District on an Advisory Committee of the Louisiana State Board of Nurses Association. She DeLisle. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Medical Examiners. the American Nurses Louisiana State Board of Nursing. She served for over 10 years on the Louisiana State nated the volunteer services for the Catholic Church in Nurses Association’s Continuing Education Committee. and the Louisiana Organization of Nurse Execu. Mississippi. Association. She is a former Nursing Practice Consultant for the tains membership in Sigma Theta Tau. Ladner has been listed in Who’s Who in American Committee for Loyola University in New Orleans. and she also served on an Advisory Ms. Ms. Nursing. or duplicated. Due to electronic rights. and presented in-service education pro- is the recipient of the New Orleans District Nurses Associa. Ladner has coordi- tives. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.

Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. that allows for readjustment of the cognitive structure active range of motion Range-of-motion exercises (mind-set) in order to take in new information. grants accredited status to institutions and programs or acupuncture The use of needles inserted at specific points services that meet predetermined structure. and a relatively short duration. ion donor. which people of a subculture assume the characteristics of acute pain Discomfort identified by sudden onset and the dominant culture. toxins. active listening Listening that focuses on the feelings of accommodation Component of cognitive development the individual who is speaking. scanned. and that will hasten the client’s death. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Due to electronic rights. adaptation Component of cognitive development that acid-base balance Regulation of hydrogen ion refers to the changes that occur as a result of assimilation concentration. acupressure The use of finger pressure applied to specific nongovernmental agency or organization appraises and points (energy pathways) on the body to promote healing. methodology. 1337 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. accountability Process that mandates that individuals actual nursing diagnosis Nursing diagnosis that are answerable for their actions and have an obligation indicates that a problem exists. May not be copied. acidosis A condition that occurs when there is an absorption Process by which the end products of excessive number of hydrogen ions in a solution. relatively short duration. digestion pass through the epithelial membranes in the acquired immunity Formation of antibodies that protect small and large intestines into the blood or lymph system. abduction To move a body part away from the midline. related factors. ongoing process by which an acid-base buffer system A solution containing two or individual adjusts to stressors in order to achieve more chemical compounds that prevents marked changes homeostasis. the individual against invading agents such as lethal passage of a drug from the site of administration into the bacteria. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). intense beliefs. performed independently by the client. composed of the (or duty) to act. acute illness Disruption (usually reversible) in functional acculturation Process that consists of learning norms. ability characterized by a rapid onset. outcome criteria. and behavioral expectations of a group through manifestations. . animals.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY A in the hydrogen ion concentration when either an acid or a base is added to a solution. and foreign tissues from other bloodstream. viruses. in whole or in part. process. abstract Summary statement of a research article that active euthanasia Process of taking deliberate action identifies the purpose. conclusions. or duplicated. and signs and symptoms. and a acid A molecule or an ion that can function as a hydrogen steady decrease in intensity over several days or weeks. All Rights Reserved. and accommodation. diagnostic label. accreditation Process by which a voluntary. findings. and on the body (energy pathways) to promote healing. mild to severe intensity.

a 15% or more loss of body weight. (e. therapeutically intended. anthropogenic Reflecting changes in the relationship ageism Imposition of age stereotypes and discrimination. solution. or mainstream (e. advanced practice nursing Practice of nursing at a level anemia Reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the requiring an expanded knowledge base and clinical blood. upon a substance.g. sex characteristics (puberty). and emotions. legislature. angiography Visualization of the vascular structures affective domain Area of learning that involves through the use of fluoroscopy with a contrast medium. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. . expected loss.. breath sounds. analysis Breaking the whole down into parts that can be advance directive Written instruction for health care that examined. neck. people who are associated because of similar social. counteracts and neutralizes the effects of agglutination by the production of agglutinin.g. provides anaerobic metabolism Metabolism of nutrients in the precise instructions for the type of health care the client absence of oxygen. solute. weight. anions Ions with a negative charge. usually a protein. that exacerbate pain. Due to electronic rights. that causes the contacts droplet nuclei or dust particles that are formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that suspended in the air. the normal vesicular. agent An entity that is capable of causing disease. bronchovesicular. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied. conventional. angina pectoris Pain caused by tissue ischemia in the aerobic metabolism Metabolism of nutrients in the heart. presence of oxygen. affect Mood or feeling. antibody (e.. viruses. treat concurrent symptoms collateral circulation to the radial artery. a metabolic pathway that converts wants or does not want in a number of scenarios glucose into energy in the absence of oxygen. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). a defined group or population. adventitious breath sounds Superimposed sounds on anesthesia Absence of pain. to convert glucose into cellular energy. and other subgroupings of is one type of antibody.Licensed to: iChapters User 1338 GLOSSARY addiction Physiological and psychological dependence algor mortis Lack of skin elasticity as a result of death. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. airborne transmission Occurs when a susceptible host antigens A substance. between humans and their environments. families. adjuvant medication Drugs used to enhance the Allen test Assessment procedure that measures the analgesic efficacy of opioids. attitudes. and bronchial aneurysm Weakness in the wall of a blood vessel. anticipatory grief Occurrence of grief work before an or health care needs. 20 years that begins with the appearance of the secondary ambulation Assisted or unassisted walking. agglutinin A specific kind of antibody whose interaction antibody An immunoglobulin produced by the body in with antigens is manifested as agglutination. amniocentesis Withdrawal of amniotic fluid to obtain a advance care medical directive Document in which an sample for specimen examination. is recognized under state law and is related to the provision analyte A substance dissolved in a solution. anthropometric measurements Measurement of the agglutination Clumping together of red blood cells. antigens and destroys bacteria and other cells. individual. alternative therapies Treatment approaches that are adolescence Developmental stage from the ages of 12 to not accepted by mainstream medical practice. normally evoke pain. and proportions of the body. alkalosis Excessive removal of hydrogen ions from a adduction To move a body part toward the midline. practitioner.g. a metabolic pathway that uses oxygen angiocatheter An intracatheter with a metal stylet. Agglutinin aggregates Individuals. beliefs.. entrusted with enforcing the statutory laws passed by the Western medicine). agglutinogen). end-of-life decisions). afferent pain pathway Ascending the spinal cord. or other personal advisers. in consultation with the prescribing anabolism Constructive phase of metabolism. angiogenesis The formation of new blood vessels. angina Pain in the chest. in whole or in part. administrative law Laws developed by groups that are allopathic That which is recognized by a specific culture appointed to governmental administrative agencies and as being traditional. blood. personal. response to bacteria. relatives. thus decreasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the expertise in a specialty area. also called a of such care when the individual is incapacitated. size. or duplicated. scanned. or arm resulting from adverse reaction Any drug effect other than what is myocardial ischemia. and provide independent analgesia allodynia Pain caused by a stimulus that does not for specific types of pain. or other antigenetic agglutinogen Any antigenic substance that causes substances. afferent nerve pathway Ascending pathways that anorexia nervosa Self-imposed starvation that results in transmit sensory impulses to the brain.

and react appropriately through thoughts and actions. spoken words and by cues. or duplicated. as well as pH and bicarbonate immune system that causes the body to attack its own ion. auscultation Physical examination technique that appetite Desire for specific foods instead of food in involves listening to sounds in the body that are created general (hunger). antiseptic hand rub Applying an antiseptic hand atherosclerotic plaque A thick. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. systematic method for organizing data. fibrin. 4). flowers. makes the decisions. verification. or use of autopsy Postmortem examination to determine the cause clothing and jewelry. p. ethical arthroplasty Total hip replacement. craving. and bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine. subsequent vital sign measurements can be compared. autocratic leadership style Style of leadership in which arousal A component linked closely to the appearance of the leader maintains strong control. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). May not be copied. assessment First step in the nursing process. tissues. items in the client’s environment. hard deposit on the cleanser to the hands in order to reduce the number of walls of the inner arteries that can clog the arteries in the microorganisms heart and the brain. 2002. auditory learner Style of learning in which an individual apnea monitor Machine with chest leads that monitors learns by hearing. wakefulness and alertness. All Rights Reserved. grooming. aphasia Impairment or absence of language function. auscultatory gap The temporary disappearance of aromatherapy Therapeutic use of concentrated essences sounds at the end of Korotkoff phase I and beginning of or essential oils that have been extracted from plants and phase II. a diverse feeling of auditory channel Transmission of messages through dread or apprehension. complete rest both physically and mentally. basal metabolic rate (BMR) Energy needed to maintain assimilation Component of cognitive development that essential physiological functions when a person is at involves taking in new experiences or information. instead of waiting for direction from others. thin. interpretation. in an offensive. principle that refers to the individual’s right to choose for artifact Specific type of nonverbal message that includes oneself and the ability to act on that choice. assisted suicide Situation in which a health care base A molecule or an ion that will combine with professional provides a client with the means to end his or hydrogen ions. in arterial blood. experiences a threat to well-being. greatest need. atherosclerosis Disease characterized by narrowing and base of support Foundation on which a person or object eventual occlusion of the lumen (opening of the arteries) rests. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. and calcium on the interior oxidation reactions. involves a psychological desire or by movement of air or fluid. of death. soap or other detergents containing an antiseptic agent’’ flabby muscles due to a reduction in muscle size and shape. attending behaviors A set of nonverbal listening skills anxiety Subjective response that occurs when a person that conveys interest in what the other person is saying. scanned. or physically intimidating manner.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1339 antioxidants Substances that block or inhibit destructive by deposits of lipids. Due to electronic rights. antiseptic handwash ‘‘Washing hands with water and atrophy Thinning of skin surface and loss of markings. (CDC. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. arterial blood gases (ABGs) Measurement of levels of autoimmune disorder A malfunction of the body’s oxygen and carbon dioxide. Indian philosophy that embraces the concept of an energy assault Intentional and unlawful offer to touch a person force in the body that seeks to maintain balance or harmony. walls of the arteries. arthritis Inflammation of the joints that causes pain and autonomy Being self-directed and taking initiative swelling. her own life. ascites Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. autoregulation Redistribution of blood flow to areas of asepsis Absence of microorganisms. aspiration Procedure performed to withdraw fluid that Ayurveda A healing system based on Hindu philosophy and has abnormally collected or to obtain a specimen. the movement of the chest. in whole or in part. documentation of data. includes B collection. balance The body’s ability to maintain postural assessment model Framework that provides a equilibrium. organization. baseline values Establish the norm against which atelectasis Collapsed alveoli. aseptic technique Infection control practice used to awareness The capacity to perceive sensory impressions prevent the transmission of pathogens. and solves all the problems. . insulting.

body mechanics Purposeful and coordinated use of cardiac output Measurement of blood pumped by the body parts and positions during activity. and ability. calorie Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature biopsy Excision of a small amount of tissue. and oxygen. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. atrioventricular body image Individual’s perception of physical self. promote good and prevent harm. bundle of His. and protozoa. and physiological functions. body mass index (BMI) Determines whether a person’s cardiac cycle Series of electrical and mechanical events weight is appropriate for height by dividing the weight in resulting in a cycle of atrial and ventricular contraction kilograms by the height in meters squared. and including appearance. services provided. Due to electronic rights. C biological agent Living organisms that invade the host. biofeedback Measurement of physiological responses butterfly needle Winged-tipped needle. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). measured by multiplying the heart rate bodymind Inseparable connection and operation of by the ventricle’s stroke volume. cardiac catheterization Radiographic study with the use blood pressure Measurement of pressure pulsations of a contrast medium injected into a vascular catheter that exerted against the blood vessel walls during systole and is threaded into the heart. bisexuality Having an equal or almost equal preference capitated rate Preset fees based on membership. ‘‘getting air moving through the large airways. feelings. turn white when pressure is applied. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Technique of bonding Formation of attachment between parent and applying respiration and chest compressions to support child. that yields information about the relationship between the mind and body and helps clients learn how to manipulate these responses through mental activity. behavior Observable response of an individual to bruxism Teeth grinding during sleep. bronchial sounds Loud and high-pitched sounds with a catabolism Destructive phase of metabolism. Purkinje fibers. care through an episode of illnesses so that specific bradypnea Respiratory rate of 10 or fewer breaths per clinical and financial outcomes are achieved within an minute. flow becomes turbulent as it rushes past an obstruction. blanching Reduction of blood flow causing the skin to hydrogen. not for sexual partners of either gender. hollow quality heard longer on expiration than inspiration categorical imperative Concept that states that one from air moving through the trachea. bioethics Application of general ethical principles to characterized by fatigue. and decreased health care. coronary. should act only if the action is based on a principle that is bronchovesicular sounds Medium-pitched and blowing universal. of 1 g of water 1°C. bradycardia A heart rate less than 60 beats per minute in case management Methodology for organizing client an adult. All Rights Reserved. measuring time in a living organism. oxygenation in the event of cardiac and respiratory arrest. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. scanned. and relaxation. beneficence Ethical principle regarding the duty to bulimia Insatiable appetite. carbohydrate Organic compound composed of carbon.Licensed to: iChapters User 1340 GLOSSARY basic human need Need that must be met for survival. May not be copied. bruits Blowing sounds that are heard when the blood battery Touching another person without consent. cavities Dental caries. thoughts. consists of each other. . posteriorly between things off the chest’’ through verbalization. sounds heard equally on inspiration and expiration from catharsis Process of talking out one’s feelings. heart in 1 minute. buccal Pertaining to the inside cheek. external stimuli. payment system used in managed care. occurs when caregivers deplete their adaptive energy. emaciation that usually occurs with a chronic illness such biological clock Endogenous mechanism capable of as tuberculosis or cancer. depersonalization. diastole. feelings of personal accomplishment. node. allotted time frame. black wound Contains necrotic tissue (eschar). loved one. cardiac conduction system Specialized cells in the heart body alignment Position of body parts in relation to that generate and conduct electrical impulses. the sinoatrial node. right and left bundle branches. function. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. fungi. burnout State of physical and emotional exhaustion that bioavailability Readiness to produce a drug effect. or pulmonary vessels. viruses. sternum at the first and second intercostal spaces. bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by bereavement Period of grieving following the death of a episodic binge eating followed by purging. in whole or in part. the scapula and anteriorly over bronchioles lateral to the cations Ions with a positive charge. or duplicated. cachexia Weight loss marked by weakness and such as bacteria. internodal pathways.

some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). of serenity that is done before beginning an energetic chronic persistent pain Discomfort that is persistent. for example. awareness. cognition The intellectual ability to think. nearly constant. channel Medium through which a message is cleansing Removal of soil or organic material from transmitted. and has a high probability of ending.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1341 ceiling effect As the dose of medication is increased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) above a certain level. and spiritual civil law Law that deals with relations between individuals. alimentary. genitourinary. closed suction drainage system Fluid-draining method cholesterol Lipid that is produced by the body and used that commonly has a reservoir capable of creating in the synthesis of steroid hormones. actions precipitate the incident. All Rights Reserved. cluster Set of data cues in which relationships between cholinesterase Enzyme manufactured in the liver that is and among cues are established to identify a specific responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine and other health state or condition. excreted in bile. specified by that profession for specialty practice. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. asthma. valued for their contribution. Due to electronic rights. scanned. chronobiology A relatively new branch of science that certification Process by which a nongovernmental studies rhythms that are controlled by our biological agency or association certifies that an individual licensed clocks. some microorganisms that are usually not pathogenic. of the client. infectious process. in whole or in part. change agent Individual who intentionally creates and clean object Object considered to have the presence of implements change. mental patterns. internal. jugular vein. body. chemical restraint Medications used to control the client behavior accident When the client’s behavior or client’s behavior. chest physiotherapy (CPT) Technique of percussing or burns. physical body. or external in a person’s life. and long lasting (6 months or longer). May not be copied. emotions. or duplicated. intellectual understanding. less chronic illness Disruption in functional ability usually threatening perspective. . or central line Venous catheter inserted into the superior recurrent pain that produces significant negative changes vena cava through the subclavian. choline esters. chylomicrons Lipoproteins synthesized in the intestines chain of infection Phenomenon of developing an that transport triglycerides to the liver. touch therapy treatment. clean-contaminated wound Intentional wound created change Dynamic process in which an individual’s by entry into the alimentary. medications. instruments and equipment used in providing client care. with intensity collaboration A partnership in which all parties are ranging from mild to severe. poisonings. preestablished norms. another. oropharyngeal tract under controlled conditions. genitourinary. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. of the spinal column. questions that can be answered briefly with one-word chiropractic Promotion of healing through manipulation responses. Cholesterol is negative pressure or a vacuum. chronic acute pain Discomfort that occurs almost daily cognitive reframing Stress management technique in over a long period. insidious onset with lifelong cohesiveness Bonding of group members with one changes that are usually irreversible. and client advocate Person who speaks up or acts on behalf industrial chemicals. food additives. vibrating the chest wall in an effort to mobilize pulmonary closed question Interviewing technique that consists of secretions. Category of alterations in ventilation including centering Process of bringing oneself to an inward focus emphysema. chronic nonmalignant pain Discomfort that occurs colic Acute abdominal pain. chronemics Study of the effects of time on the cognitive domain Area of learning that involves communication process. and chronic bronchitis. such as pesticides. respiratory. usually accompanies postural drainage. perception of a situation or event to a more positive. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and self-inflicted cuts and bruises. charting by exception (CBE) Charting method that clean wound Intentional wound created under requires the nurse to document only deviations from conditions in which no inflammation was encountered. to practice a profession has met predetermined standards chronological age Exact age of a person from birth. almost daily and lasts for at least 6 months. characterized by a gradual. has the potential for lasting months or which the individual changes his or her own negative years. and chemical agent Substances that can interact with the oropharyngeal tracts were not entered. or response to a stressor leads to an alteration in behavior. circadian rhythms Biological rhythms that cycle on a chakra A concentrated area of energy that influences the daily basis. the analgesic effect remains the same. and the respiratory.

stretch of a muscle. counterstimulation Techniques believed to activate the computer literacy Familiarity with the use of personal endogenous opioid and monoamine analgesia systems. and contaminated secretions. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. popping sound of short duration) that concepts together to form a unified whole. are used to study work processes that lead to long-term complementary therapies Treatment approaches that system improvements. pitched crackling. spillage from the gastrointestinal tract. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). low- abstract ideas. suicide. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. base of the lungs as an interrupted fine crackle (dry. May not be copied. comprehensive assessment Type of assessment that contrast medium Radiopaque substance that facilitates provides baseline client data. data-driven approaches a particular way. gurgling sound of long duration) that conduction Loss of heat to an object in contact with the sounds like water going down the drain after the plug has body. of the internal structures. can be used in conjunction with conventional medical contract law Enforcement of agreements among private therapies. articular cartilage by decreasing swelling and the comorbidity Existence of simultaneous disease processes formation of adhesions. construct Abstraction or mental representation inferred communicable agent Infectious agents that are from situations. consciousness State of awareness of self. complicated grief Associated with traumatic death such contracture A condition of fixed resistance to the passive as death by homicide. or an accident. been pulled on a full tub of water. and the crepitus Grating or crackling sensation caused by two surrounding environment. within a host that does not result in cellular injury. within an individual. qualities. constipation Infrequent and difficult passage of hard colonization Multiplication of microorganisms on or stool. element or shared interest. Due to electronic rights. or duplicated. contact with a contaminated object or close contact with communication Dynamic. or incision into infected urinary or biliary tracts. . scanned. in whole or in part. commands. including a complete health roentgen imaging of the body’s internal structures. including the use of software tools. events. high- conceptual framework Structure that links global pitched crackling. history and current needs assessment. traumatic wound or determined by standards or policies. continuous. sounds like a piece of hair being rolled between the conceptualization Process of developing and refining fingers in front of the ear or a coarse crackle (moist. body with x-ray beams and radiation detectors that costal (thoracic) breathing Occurs when the external transmit data to a computer that transcribes the data into intercostal muscles are used to move the chest upward quantitative measurement and multidimensional images and outward. to infection. and capacity to function in management in which scientific. computers. contact transmission Direct physical transfer of an communicable disease Diseases produced by infectious agent from an infected person to a host through direct agents. convalescent stage Period of time from the beginning compromised host Person whose normal defense of the disappearance of acute symptoms until the client mechanisms are impaired and who is therefore susceptible returns to the previous state of health. airborne route. others. ability to maintain a continuously patent airway and to collagen The most abundant protein in the body and the respond appropriately to physical stimulation or verbal material of tissue repair. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. continuous quality improvement Approach to quality competency Ability. capable of being transmitted to a client by direct or consultation Method of soliciting help from a specialist indirect contact through a vehicle (or vector) or in order to resolve diagnoses. or behaviors. rough surfaces rubbing together. community health nursing Nursing specialty that is continuous passive motion device (CPM) Device that divided into two sections: public health and home health increases range of motion and stimulates healing of the care nursing.Licensed to: iChapters User 1342 GLOSSARY collaborative problems Certain physiological conscious procedural sedation Minimally depressed complications that nurses monitor to detect onset of level of consciousness during which the client retains the changes in status. convection Movement of heat away from the body’s computed tomography Radiological scanning of the surface. individuals. intentional wound in which there was a major break in community Group of people united by some common aseptic technique. colloid Nondiffusible substances. multidimensional process for sharing information as contaminated wound Open. crackles Heard predominantly on inspiration over the concept Vehicle of thought.

cells. examining alternatives. regeneration of healthy tissue. services. experiences and learned skills to solve problems. critical thinking Disciplined. interventions that facilitate the achievement of a desired crystallized intelligence The application of life outcome. evaluating evidence. ideas. declarative knowledge Specific facts or information crystalloid Electrolyte solution with the potential to and an understanding of the nature of that knowledge. scanned. democratic leadership style Style of leadership that is customer Anyone who uses the products. multidisciplinary group that is assigned to study an decision making The consideration and selection of organization-wide process. crisis Acute state of disorganization that occurs when the cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA virus that causes individual’s usual coping mechanisms are no longer intranuclear and intracytoplasmic changes in infected effective. perineal bleeding. rituals. data interpretation Recognition of patterns in data to critical period Time of the most rapid growth or determine nursing diagnoses. and practices that in a situation to an individual who is competent to are unique to a particular group of people. context. employs strategies ventilated but poorly perfused. that result from racial. All Rights Reserved. attitudes. validated as being complete and accurate. values. nerve endings in the skin and results in a well-localized deontology Ethical theory that considers the intrinsic ‘‘burning’’ or ‘‘prickling’’ sensation. moral significance of an act itself as the criterion for cyanosis Blue or gray discoloration of the skin resulting determination of good. understand various points of view. defense mechanisms Unconscious operations that cultural assimilation Process by which individuals protect the mind from anxiety. May not be copied. form crystals. or based on the belief that every group member should have processes provided by an organization. or duplicated.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1343 criminal law Acts or offenses against the welfare or cystocele Protrusion of the urinary bladder through the safety of the public. Cullen’s sign Bluish discoloration around the umbilicus defecation Evacuation of feces from the rectum. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). and seeking to amino acids. wall of the vagina. in postoperative clients. and cultural variables. microorganisms to identify a pathogen. growing perform that task. identifying deamination Removal of the amino groups from the assumptions. deliberate method of deadspace Condition in which lung tissue is well thinking used to search for meaning. development in a particular stage of the life cycle in which data verification Process through which data are an individual is most vulnerable to stressors of any type. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. deglutition Swallowing of food. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. together according to a specific assessment model to critical pathway Abbreviated summary of key elements establish a nursing diagnosis. from a minority group are absorbed by the dominant defining characteristics Observable cues/inferences culture and take on the characteristics of the dominant that cluster as manifestations of an actual or wellness culture. cutaneous pain Caused by stimulation of the cutaneous also called participative leadership. can indicate intra-abdominal or defendant Person being sued in a lawsuit. . diagnosis. dehiscence Partial or complete separation of a wound’s culture Dynamic and integrated structures of knowledge. Due to electronic rights. behaviors. crisis intervention Specific technique used to assist clients in regaining equilibrium. input into the development of goals and problem solving. such as asking questions. edges and the layers below the skin. in whole or in part. debridement Removal of necrotic tissue to foster the cross-functional team Interdepartmental. customs. beliefs. from the case management plan. delegation Process of transferring a selected nursing task languages. cultural diversity Individual differences among people degrees Units that measure the heat of the body. habits. from reduced oxygen levels in the arterial blood. ceremonies. criteria Standards that are used to evaluate whether the D behavior demonstrated indicates accomplishment of the data clustering Process of grouping significant cues goal. dependence Reliance on or need to take a drug. cultural competence Process through which the nurse definition Clear description of diagnosis that provides care that is appropriate to the client’s cultural differentiates it from other similar diagnoses. symbols. defamation Act that occurs when information that cues Small amounts of data that are applied to the damages an individual’s reputation is communicated to a decision-making process. ethnic. third party either in writing (libel) or verbally (slander).

between two concentration. himself or herself. and situation is and skills. imaging of the vasculature with visualization on a monitor durable power of attorney Document or legal status screen following the intravenous injection of iodine that enables any competent individual to name someone through a catheter. pathogenic. distraction Focusing attention on stimuli other than diagnosis Science and art of identifying problems or pain. dirty and infected wound Traumatic wound with under specific circumstances. documentation Written evidence of the interactions diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing Occurs when between and among health care professionals. to secrete adequate levels of insulin to accommodate dissolution Rate at which a drug becomes a solution. administration of tests. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. or between a drug and the container or tubing. Due to electronic rights. conditions. receptors and axons feed into a single dorsal root of the disinfection Elimination of pathogens. dirty object Object considered to have a high number of duration The time a drug remains in the system in a microorganisms. the result or client’s response to these and decreased consistency of stool sufficient to represent diagnostic tests and interventions. to exercise health-related decision-making authority. developmental tasks Certain goals that must be disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) An achieved during each developmental stage of the life cycle. digest and absorb. duty Obligation created either by law. in whole or in part. . some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). can be distribution Movement of drugs from the blood into a word or a phrase that describes the pattern or related various body fluids and tissues. drugs. and client diarrhea Passage of liquified stool (increased frequency education. with some that are potentially concentration great enough to have a therapeutic effect. cues. dullness A muffled thudlike sound that occurs over digital subtraction angiography Computerized dense tissue. convert nutrients into a physically absorbable state. stages of overwhelming emotions associated with grief or Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. a change in bowel habits). drug allergy Hypersensitivity to a drug. and health care organizations. scanned. acquired hemorrhagic syndrome characterized by diabetes mellitus A disease in which the pancreas fails uncontrollable formation and deposition of thrombi. dietary fiber The part of food that body enzymes cannot Doppler Handheld transducer. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. disinfectant Chemical solutions used to clean inanimate dermatome map Cutaneous area whose sensory objects. self. rather than as a person. distress Experienced when stressors evoke an ineffective diagnostic label (concept) One or more nouns (may response. diffusion Movement of molecules in a solution or a gas drug incompatibility Undesired chemical or physical from an area of high concentration to one of low reaction between a drug and a solution. doses of the drug to produce the desired therapeutic digestion Mechanical and chemical processes that effect. before leaving the health care environment. also include an adjective) that name the diagnosis. treatments. contract. the movement of the abdomen. May not be copied. except spores. the client begins to resume self-care activities dependent variable Outcome variable of interest. society. discharge. or duplicated. from inanimate objects. dominant culture Group whose values prevail within a diastole Process of cardiac chamber filling. on the individual’s behalf retained dead tissue or intentional wound created in when the client is incapable of making decisions for situations where purulent drainage was present. depersonalization Treating an individual as an object discipline Field of study. as observed by the their families. diffusion defect Decrease in efficiency of gas diffusion drug tolerance Reaction that occurs when the body from the alveolar space into the pulmonary capillary becomes accustomed to a specific drug and requires larger blood. detrusor muscle Smooth muscle of the bladder wall. place. disaster Any event (human-made or natural) that causes dysfunctional grief Failure to progress through the destruction that cannot be relieved without assistance. procedures.Licensed to: iChapters User 1344 GLOSSARY dependent nursing intervention Nursing action that discharge planning Planning that involves critical requires an order from a prescribing practitioner or other anticipation and planning for the client’s needs after health care professional. clients and the diaphragm contracts and relaxes. disorientation A mentally confused state in which the development Behavioral changes in functional abilities person’s awareness of time. impaired. or any disaccharide Double sugar. spinal cord. All Rights Reserved. voluntary action. blood glucose levels.

eschar The scab or dry crust resulting from death of the effleurage Massage technique consisting of long. occurs as a result of unhealthy skin and lungs when water is converted from a liquid to a boundaries within the family unit. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. through a gastrointestinal tube. ethical principles Beliefs that govern actions. these substances raise the pain euthanasia Intentional action or lack of action causing threshold. involves hands are used to direct or redirect the flow of the body’s determining whether client goals have been met. efferent nerve pathway Descending pathways that erythema Increased blood flow to an inflamed area. empathy Understanding another person’s perception of ethnocentrism Assumption of cultural superiority and a situation. encoding Use of language and other specific signs and eupnea Easy respirations with a normal breath rate of symbols for sending messages. which literally means ‘‘good or gentle through a scope. electroencephalogram Graphic recording of the brain’s ethical reasoning Process of thinking through what one electrical activity. when dissolved provide justification of actions based on principles. an inability to accept other cultures’ ways of organizing empowerment Process of enabling others to do for reality. erythrocytes Red blood cells. for example. partially energy fields to enhance balance within the fields.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1345 failure to demonstrate any behaviors commonly enteral nutrition The nonvolitional delivery of nutrients associated with grief. ethnicity Cultural group members’ perception of embryonic stage Developmental stage that occurs during themselves (group identity) and others’ perception of the first 2–8 weeks after fertilization of a human egg. populations. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). systematic manner in order to electrolyte Element or compound that. gas. death. electrical activity. All Rights Reserved. endorphins Group of opiate-like substances produced eustress Type of stress that results in positive outcomes. met. naturally by the brain. scanned. produce sedation and euphoria. in water or another solvent. ethical dilemma Situation that occurs when there is a electrochemical gradient Sum of all the diffusion forces conflict between two or more ethical principles. growth and development and must be obtained from electrocardiogram Graphic recording of the heart’s food. acting on the membrane. etiology Related cause of or contributor to a problem. fluid. epidemiology The study of the distribution and dysrhythmia Irregular heartbeat. enmeshment Overinvolvement or lack of separateness of evaporation Continuous insensible heat loss from the family members. e-prescribing The electronic transmission of drug E prescriptions to a pharmacy from a hospital-based echocardiogram Ultrasonic procedure used to reveal inpatient ordering system. determinants of health-related states or events in dysuria Painful urination. thrombi. or not met. cellular reactions. epithelialization Growth of epithelial tissue. efferent pain pathway Descending the spinal cord. or other handheld devices. ought to do in an orderly. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. strokes used at the beginning and end of treatment and essential amino acids Amino acids that are required for between other movements. themselves. . and promote a the merciful death of someone suffering from a terminal sense of well-being. abnormal structure or motion of the heart wall and wireless computers. or duplicated. available empirical evidence. dissociates (separates) into ethics Branch of philosophy concerned with determining ions (electrically charged particles) and provides for right from wrong on the basis of a body of knowledge. them. in the chest and neck to breathe. personal digital assistants. electrocution and fire. Due to electronic rights. including recent research Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. derived from the Greek endoscopy Visualization of a body organ or cavity word euthanatos. dyspnea Difficulty in breathing as observed by labored or enzyme Protein produced in the body that catalyzes forced respirations through the use of accessory muscles chemical reactions in organic matter. enteral instillation Administration of drugs through a evidence-based practice The application of the best gastrointestinal tube. illness or incurable condition. equipment accident Results from the malfunction or edema Detectable accumulation of increased interstitial improper use of medical equipment. send sensory impulses from the brain.’’ energetic-touch therapies Techniques in which the evaluation Fifth step in the nursing process. smooth skin. in whole or in part. May not be copied. breaths per minute that are age specific.

and response. together who are united by significant emotional bonds. care must be delivered by the plan in order for clients to fee-for-service Health care recipient directly pays the receive reimbursement for health care services. may be actual or perceived). client teaching. extubation Removal of an endotracheal tube. through the disrupted wound. massage technique whereby the heels of the of fats for their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract hands or the thumb pads are used to apply deep and for cellular metabolism. or duplicated. problem. when a negative pressure is created on the tubing. fidelity Ethical concept that means faithfulness and expert witness Person called by parties in a malpractice keeping promises. feedback Information the sender receives about the exclusive provider organization Organization in which receiver’s reaction to a message. adapt to unfamiliar situations. to potential research subjects regarding the nature of the Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. extinction Ability to discriminate the points of distance flexion To bend a joint. or potential health care risk. specific statement that alcohol. exudate Material and cells discharged from blood fluid intelligence Ability to acquire new concepts and vessels. fluency Ability to talk in a steady manner. Due to electronic rights. of the family unit. faith Belief in and relationship with a higher power. fatty acids Basic structural units of most lipids that full disclosure Communication of complete information contain carbon chains and hydrogen. All Rights Reserved. given in writing by the concerned parties. extraurethral incontinence Uncontrolled loss of urine flow rate Volume of fluid to infuse over a set period of caused when the sphincter mechanism has been bypassed. . family structure Form a family takes in adapting and free radical scavengers Substances that remove or maintaining itself as a dynamic system of people living destroy free radicals. May not be copied. time. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. changed legally by an oral agreement. provider for services as they are provided. expiration (exhalation) Movement of gases from the fixation Inadequate mastery or failure to achieve a lungs to the atmosphere. describes the methods through which a goal will be fetal stage Intrauterine developmental period from 8 achieved and includes aspects such as direct nursing care. existence in an incomprehensible world and the role that fetal alcohol syndrome Condition in which fetal free will plays in it. duration and volume to create a social or hygienic evisceration Occurs when the client’s viscera protrude problem. family functions Roles that allow family members to fraud Wrong that results from a deliberate deception adapt in order to develop as individuals and as members intended to produce unlawful gain. developmental task that inhibits healthy progression expressed contract Conditions and terms of a contract through subsequent stages. floras Microorganisms on the human body. focus charting Documentation method using a F columnar format to chart data.Licensed to: iChapters User 1346 GLOSSARY findings. suit who is a member of the same profession as the party fight-or-flight response State in which the body being sued and who is qualified to testify to the expected becomes physiologically ready to respond to a stressor by behaviors usually employed by members of the profession either fighting or running away from the danger (which when in a similar situation. penetrating pressure on knotted muscles. mental activities based on organizing information. flashback Rush of blood back into intravenous tubing extension To straighten a joint. scanned. health care are made to wrongfully believe they cannot leave a place. free radicals Atoms or groups of atoms that can cause family roles Behaviors expected of family members. when two body parts are simultaneously touched. weeks to birth. family A dynamic system of people living together who formal contract Written contract that cannot be are united by significant emotional bonds. in whole or in part. excretion Elimination of drugs from the body. flatulence Discharge of gas from the rectum. action. to clinical practice in order to aid clinical fecal incontinence Involuntary loss of stool of sufficient decision making. development is impaired by maternal consumption of expected outcome Detailed. friction Force of two surfaces moving against one fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins that require the presence another. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). focused assessment Type of assessment that is limited false imprisonment Situation that occurs when clients in scope in order to focus on a particular need. external respiration See oxygen uptake. felony Crime of a serious nature usually punishable by existentialism Movement that is centered on individual imprisonment in a state penitentiary or by death. damage to cells. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and continuity of care.

antiseptic handwash. measure the angle of a skeletal joint during range of motion. H gender identity View of one’s self as male or female in half-life Time it takes the body to eliminate half of the relationship to others. consciousness. It consists of which nursing care is divided into tasks to be completed. the subject’s right to refuse participation. or changes in responses that occur following a loss. in whole or in part. and establishing new relationships. functional team Departmental or unit-specific group group communication A complex level of whose scope is limited to departmental or work area communication that occurs when three or more people processes. comfort. emotional. handwashing ‘‘Washing hands with plain (i. Due to electronic rights. access to the toilet. freedom from attachment to the deceased. G group dynamics Study of the events that take place during small-group interaction and the development of subgroups. All Rights Reserved. glycolysis Breakdown of glucose by enzymes located health Process through which the person seeks to inside the cell’s cytoplasm. gate control pain theory Combines cognitive. goniometer Protractor with two movable arms used to sociocultural. and the liability when the caregiver provides assistance at the likely risks and benefits that will be incurred. epidermis and dermis and into subcutaneous fat and grand theory Theory composed of concepts deeper structures. growth Quantitative (measurable) changes in the gallop Extra heart sounds. and spiritual health. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. used for major hand hygiene ‘‘A general term that applies to either surgical procedures.e. psychological. it describes functional nursing Type of care delivery system in the process experienced by the bereaved. thereby glucose or glycogen. p. grief work Phrase coined from Lindemann. 2002. or end. accident. healing touch Energy-based therapeutic modality that gluconeogenesis Conversion of amino acids into alters the energy fields through the use of touch. or neurologic responses to determine the client’s level of disability. blood concentration level of the original drug dose. scene of an emergency and does not intentionally or full-thickness wound Skin loss that extends through the recklessly cause the client injury. and spiritual well-being. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. mental. includes physiological.cdc. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). letters.gov/handhygiene) conception and lasts approximately 10 to 14 days. [2002]. intent. guided imagery A process in which the person uses all and emotional components—in addition to the the senses to experience the sensation of relaxation. Glasgow Coma Scale International scale used in grading healing Process of recovery from illness. from http://www. general adaptation syndrome Physiological response halitosis Bad breath. nonantimicrobial) soap and water’’ (CDC. Retrieved November germinal stage Developmental stage that begins with 10. . physical size of the body and its parts. antiseptic hand rub or germicide Chemical that can be applied to both animate surgical antiseptic handwash’’ (CDC. mentation. health care–associated infections Infections acquired Good Samaritan acts Laws that provide protection to in the hospital or other health care facilities that were not health care providers by ensuring immunity from civil present or incubating at the time of admission. intellectual. lose all sensation and consciousness. scanned. that occurs when a person experiences a stressor. hand hygiene in healthcare settings. gait or transfer belt Two-inch wide webbed belt worn groupthink Going along with the majority opinion while by the client for the purpose of stabilization during personally having another viewpoint. 2005. physiological aspects—and proposes that they can act on a gate control system to block the individual’s perception of pain. no longer present.. or to perform activities of daily living. affecting physical. functional incontinence Loss of urine caused by altered grief Series of intense physical and psychological mobility or dexterity. or duplicated. maintain an equilibrium that promotes stability and goal Aim. sensory. transfers and ambulation. hallucination A sensory perception that occurs in the general anesthesia Anesthesia that causes the client to absence of external stimuli and is not based on reality. functional assessment Assessment of the client’s ability graphesthesia Ability to identify numbers. May not be copied. such as a conference call. shapes drawn on the skin. handwashing. becoming various levels of personnel provide care depending on the reoriented to the environment in which the deceased is complexity of the task. 4). Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. meet in face-to-face encounters or through another communication medium. Guideline for and inanimate objects to eliminate pathogens.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1347 study. representing global and complex phenomena. gingivitis Inflammation of the gums.

the same sex. hemolytic anemia. which increases the rate of metabolism. increased capillary hydrostatic pressure. the presence of blood noted on microscopic examination hypercalcemia Excess in the extracellular level of of the urine. homeostasis Equilibrium (balance) between health-promoting behaviors Actions that increase well. blood circulating to maintain an appropriate environment hypermagnesemia Excess in the extracellular level of in tissue fluids. All Rights Reserved. hygiene The science of health. solution. hemoglobin electrophoresis A laboratory test that uses hypernatremia Excess in the extracellular level of an electromagnetic field to identify various types of sodium. also called filtration hematoma Localized collection of blood underneath the force. sociocultural. hospital-acquired condition Also called a ‘‘never event’’ heaves Lifting of the cardiac area secondary to an because it is an event that should never happen in a increased workload and force of left ventricular hospital. intellectual. and the increased concentration of blood cells. . plasma hyperchloremia Excess in the extracellular level of proteins. hyperphosphatemia Excess in the extracellular level of hemolysis A breakdown of red cells and the release of phosphorus. such as a pressure ulcer or fall. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. hyperthyroidism Increased secretion of thyroid hemostasis Cessation of bleeding that occurs by hormones. often concept of allowing individuals to die with dignity and accompanied by a backup of blood in the venous circuits surrounded by those who love them. health maintenance organization Prepaid health plan history Study of the past. health promotion Process undertaken to increase levels homosexuality Sexual activity between two members of of wellness in individuals. spiritual needs. magnesium. including events. occurs with chloride. contraction. and focuses on cost-effective treatment methods. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. (congestive heart failure). also called a hyperosmolar woman. tissues that may appear as a reddish-blue swelling or mass. May not be copied. upward production. hyperkalemia Excess in the extracellular level of hemodynamic regulation Physiological function of potassium. hypersomnia An alteration in sleep pattern characterized hemorrhage Persistent bleeding. space. greater than 90 mm Hg. events. by excessive sleep. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). hypercapnia Elevation of carbon dioxide levels in the hemoconcentration Reduced volume of plasma water blood indicating inadequate alveolar ventilation. vasoconstriction of large blood vessels in the affected area. scanned. and being or quality of life. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. families. visible to the naked eye. which causes hyperglycemia Condition characterized by a blood water to shift from the intravascular into the interstitial glucose level greater than 110 mg/dL. humoral immunity Stimulation of B cells and antibody Heimlich maneuver Application of sharp. which allows red greater than 135 to 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure blood cells to escape.Licensed to: iChapters User 1348 GLOSSARY health care delivery system Mechanism for providing high-biological-value proteins (complete proteins) services that meet the health-related needs of individuals. thrusts to the abdomen in order to remove an airway hydrostatic pressure Pressure that a liquid exerts on the obstruction. situations. in whole or in part. heart failure Inability of the heart to pump enough hospice Type of care for the terminally ill founded on the blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body. physiological. sides of the container that holds it. hematuria Blood in the urine. hemorrhoids Perianal varicosity of the hemorrhoidal veins. Proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids. and communities. psychological. gross hematuria is the presence of blood calcium. especially in the daytime. hemoglobin. that provides primary health care services for a preset fee and individuals. hemorrhagic exudate Has a large component of red hypertension Refers to a persistent systolic pressure blood cells due to capillary damage. Due to electronic rights. balance with the environment. health-seeking behaviors Activities that are directed hope Factor that enables one to cope with distressing toward attaining and maintaining a state of well-being. health history Review of the client’s functional health high-level wellness State in which individuals function patterns prior to the current contact with a health care at their maximum health potential while remaining in agency. hypertonic Solution with more solutes in proportion to heterosexuality Sexual activity between a man and a the volume of body water. and protein-bound constituents. microscopic hematuria is hyperalgesia Extreme sensitivity to pain. or duplicated.

hypothesis Statement of an asserted relationship independent nursing intervention Nursing action between dependent variables. hypoventilation Characterized by shallow respirations. scanned. informed consent Client understands the reason for the illness stage When the client is manifesting specific proposed intervention. and geographic locations. increase in muscle fiber. illusion An inaccurate perception or misinterpretation of initial planning Development of the beginning of care sensory stimuli. by the nurse who performs the admission assessment and imagery Relaxation technique in which the individual uses gathers the comprehensive admission assessment data. information. or pressure. hormones.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1349 hypertonicity Increased muscle tone. may include a person’s name. phosphorus. impaired nurse Nurse who is habitually intemperate or hyperventilation Characterized by deep. potassium. and symptoms of an infectious process. infection Invasion and a multiplication of microorganisms in body tissue that result in cellular injury. . ethnic inflammation Nonspecific cellular response to tissue identity. infancy Developmental stage from the first month to the hypotonicity Flabby muscle with poor tone. rapid is addicted to the use of alcohol or habit-forming drugs. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. unnoticed water loss that occurs with specified and usually short period of time. individual. independent variable Variable that is believed to cause hypotonic Solution with less solute in proportion to the or influence the dependent variable. inhibit elimination. calcium. All Rights Reserved. same test can be different when applied to people of hypophosphatemia Deficit in the extracellular level of differing ages. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). implantable port Device with a radiopaque silicone hypervolemia Increased circulating fluid volume. knows its benefits and risks. control. family status. or duplicated. occupation. hypoxia Oxygen deprivation of the body’s cells. soothing image. genders. implementation Fourth step in the nursing process. also called a hypo-osmolar solution. in whole or in part. initiated by the nurse that does not require direction or an hypothyroidism Decreased secretion of thyroid order from another health care professional. abilities. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Due to electronic rights. I infiltration Seepage of foreign substances into the identity What sets one person apart as a unique interstitial tissue. hypochloremia Deficit in the extracellular level of involves the execution of the nursing plan of care chloride. which decreases the metabolic rate. first year of life. Hg or 20 to 30 mm Hg below the client’s normal blood incontinence Loss of the ability to initiate. formulated during the planning phase of the nursing hypoglycemia Condition characterized by a blood process. insensible heat loss Heat that is lost through the immediate memory The retention of information for a continuous. agrees to the treatment by signing a consent form. the imagination to visualize a pleasant. and various roles. infarction Death (necrosis) of an area of tissue caused by hypoxemia Decreased oxygen level in the blood. oxygen deprivation. magnesium. gender. implied contract Contract that recognizes a relationship hypokalemia Deficit in the extracellular level of between parties for services. incidence Refers to the prevalence of a disease in a hyponatremia Deficit in the extracellular level of population or community. idiosyncratic reaction Reaction of overresponse. injury or infection. or an atypical response. impaction Hard bolus of stool that obstructs the fecal hypertrophy Increase in muscle size and shape due to an stream. incident report Documentation of an unusual hypotension A systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm occurrence or an accident in delivery of client care. catheter and a plastic or stainless steel injection port with hypocalcemia Deficit in the extracellular level of a self-sealing silicone-rubber septum. incentive spirometers Breathing devices that measure hypomagnesemia Deficit in the extracellular level of the client’s ventilatory volumes. infectious agent Microorganism that causes infections. informatics The science of turning data into underresponse. ventilations. glucose level less than 80 mg/dL. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. evaporation. The predictive value of the sodium. May not be copied. volume of water. illness Inability of an individual’s adaptive responses to information technology The management and maintain physical and emotional balance that processing of information with the assistance of subsequently results in an impairment in functional computers.

and nails. implemented in a collaborative manner by the nurse with ketogenesis Conversion of amino acids into keto acids other health care professionals. intentional wound Occurs during treatment or therapy. in which the cells sensation of touch. hair. organs.Licensed to: iChapters User 1350 GLOSSARY insomnia Refers to the chronic inability to sleep or ischemia Oxygen deprivation. scalp. intrapersonal communication Messages one sends to laws Rules or regulations that are enacted by legal entities. including ‘‘self-talk. kinesthetic learner Learning style in which a person interpersonal communication Process that occurs processes information by experiencing the information or between two people either in face-to-face encounters. laissez-faire leadership style Style of leadership in intramuscular (IM) Injection into the muscle. when the client is transferred to a postanesthesia care late potentials Electrical activity that occurs after normal unit. L intradermal (ID) Injection into the dermis. nondirective. intravenous (IV) Injection into a vein. careful visual observation. and arms of older people. usually under aseptic conditions. curvature of the spine. internal respiration Process of gas exchange between kinesthetic channel Transmission of messages through capillary blood and the body’s cells. also called an isosmolar solution. learning style Way in which an individual incorporates intravenous (IV) therapy Administration of nutrients. to life situations and arrive at an appropriate course of integrative therapy A clinical approach that combines action. depth of learning. in whole or in part. Feelings. J insulin Pancreatic hormone that aids in the diffusion of glucose into the liver and muscle cells and the synthesis of judgment The ability to compare or evaluate alternatives glycogen. which the leader assumes a passive. usually caused by poor inadequate quality of sleep due to sleep that prematurely perfusion. Due to electronic rights. the client is transferred to the operating room and ends lancinating Piercing or stabbing pain. hands. intracath Plastic tube for insertion into a vein. needs. with a individual’s unconscious processes. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). invasive Accessing the body tissues. ischemic pain Pain occurring when the blood supply of inspection Physical examination technique that involves an area is restricted or cut off completely.’’ or communication with leadership Interpersonal process that involves oneself. face. scanned. competent to do so. kilocalorie Equivalent to 1000 calories. conflicts. intrapsychic theory Theory that focuses on an learning Process of assimilating information. or medications by the venous route. or fatty acids. ends or is interrupted by periods of wakefulness. or cavities lentigo senilis Benign brown-pigmented areas on the through some type of instrumentation procedure. and intraoperative (during surgery) Phase that begins when inactive style. resultant change in behavior. by touching and feeling. intermittent claudication Ischemia to the extremities ketones Products of incomplete fat metabolism. that is extended to each individual. . motivating and guiding others to achieve goals. such as surgical incisions K and venipunctures. fluids. new information. electrolytes. in equal amounts. or through other communication kyphosis Abnormally increased convexity in the media. and drives are considered to be motivators of learning plateau Peak in effectiveness of teaching and behavior. May not be copied. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Eastern medicine. depolarization of the ventricles. Western technological medicine with techniques from jurisprudence Body of judge-made law. that is usually temporary and localized. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. justice Ethical principle based on the concept of fairness integumentary system Skin. or duplicated. isotonic Solution with body water and solutes (sodium) inspiration (inhalation) Intake of air into the lungs. All Rights Reserved. over the telephone. interview Therapeutic interaction that has a specific purpose. usually brought on by activity and relieved by rest. Kardex Summary worksheet reference of basic client care interdependent nursing intervention Actions that are information. receive oxygen and carbon dioxide is removed. instability incontinence Loss of urine caused by a premature or hyperactive contraction of the detrusor. legal regulation Process by which the state attests to the intubation Insertion of an endotracheal tube into the public that the individual licensed to practice is bronchus through the nose or mouth to ensure an airway. oneself.

locus of control A person’s perception of the source of material principle of justice Rationale for determining control over events and situations affecting the person’s life. medical diagnosis Clinical judgment by the prescribing lordosis Abnormal forward curvature of the lumbar spine. provides direction regarding medical care should the mammography A low-dose radiographic study of the person become incapacitated or otherwise unable to make breast tissue.. any individual from practicing as a registered nurse lock-out interval Minimum time allowed between doses without a current license. of the throat with lidocaine decreases the gag reflex). May not be copied.. decisions personally. column. demonstrating an expectation to be achieved in resolution medical asepsis Practices to reduce the number. cost. in whole or in part. logrolling Technique for moving a client whose cervical maturation Process of becoming fully grown and spine must stay in alignment with the entire vertebral developed. improper discharge of professional duties. for the client to self-medicate. accountable for safe practice to citizens of that state. or pathologic state. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.. syndrome caused by a hypermetabolic state that is line of gravity Vertical line passing through the center of precipitated by the administration of certain anesthetic gravity. managed care System of providing and monitoring care local adaptation syndrome Physiological response to a in which access. agents. illness) affecting a specific part of during delivery of services. is secreted by T cells in response to through any act or failure to act. disorders of digestion or absorption. loss Any situation in which a valued object is changed or condition. Due to electronic rights. lipoproteins Blood lipids bound to protein. scanned. management Accomplishment of tasks either by oneself localized infection Limited to a defined area or single or by directing others. the food with enzymes in saliva. or failure to product of red blood cell destruction. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. individual who has completed an approved program of maladaptation Process of ineffective coping with studies leading to registered nurse licensure seeks initial stressors. liver mortis Bluish purple discoloration that is a by. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). also inadequate intake. maturational loss Adolescent who loses the younger long-term goal Statement written in objective format child’s freedom from responsibility.g. growth. or duplicated. and spread of microorganisms. of the nursing diagnosis over a long period of time. These networks ‘‘manage’’ or the body. . lumbar puncture Aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid from message Stimulus produced by a sender and responded the subarachnoid space. trauma. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. overeating. stimulation by antigens. is no longer accessible to an individual. and swelling). usually over weeks or months.g. menarche Onset of the first menstrual period. tenderness. that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to make licensure by examination Process by which an continuous cross-sectional images of the body. lymphokine A substance of low molecular weight that is liability Obligation one has incurred or might incur not an antibody. and quality are controlled before or stressor (e. feature found in infusion mastication Chewing into fine particles and then mixing pumps used for patient-controlled analgesia. meditation Quieting the mind by focusing one’s low-biological-value proteins (incomplete proteins) attention. licensure by endorsement Process by which an individual who is duly licensed as a registered nurse under M the laws of one state or country has his or her credentials magnetic resonance imaging An imaging technique accepted and approved by another state or country. control costs in many ways (e. or known as fats. HMOs are a common form of sensation to a localized body part (e. involves physiological and behavioral aspects. and has a role in cell-mediated licensure Method by which a state holds the nurse immunity.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1351 leukocytes White blood cells. when there can be unequal allocation of scarce resources. Proteins lacking in one or more of the essential amino acids. lipids Organic compounds that are insoluble in water but malnutrition Nutritional alterations related to soluble in organic solvents such as ether and alcohol.g. organ with symptoms that resemble inflammation mandatory licensure laws Legislation that prohibits (redness. by limiting referrals to local anesthesia Anesthesia that causes the client to lose costly specialists). spraying the back managed care. licensure by successfully passing a standardized malignant hyperthermia (MH) A potentially lethal competency examination. to by a receiver. practitioner that identifies or determines a specific disease. All Rights Reserved. malpractice Professional person’s wrongful conduct. meet the standards of acceptable care that results in harm living will Document prepared by a competent adult that to another person.

minority group Group of people who constitute less necrosis Tissue death as the result of disease or injury. grand theory but does not cover the full range of phenomena of concern to a discipline. neuropeptides Amino acids produced in the brain and monosaccharides Simple sugars. opioid effects on one receptor type while producing neonatal period First 28 days of life following birth. stiffness. describes the client’s status. minerals Inorganic elements. modulation The changing of pain impulses. nociceptors Receptive neurons for painful sensations that. uncontrollable urges to fall asleep during the daytime. a situation that a reasonable person would ordinarily mixed agonist-antagonist Compound that blocks provide in a similar circumstance. micro-range theory Theory that explains a specific myocardial infarction Necrosis of the heart muscle. interventions and treatments. in whole or in part. neuralgia Paroxysmal pain that extends along the course mode of transmission Process that bridges the gap of one or more nerves. scanned. between the portal of exit of the biological agent from the neurogenic fever Long-term elevation of body reservoir or source and the portal of entry of the temperature thought to result from a disruption of the susceptible ‘‘new’’ host. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. phenomenon of concern to a discipline.’’ nociception The process by which an individual mourning Period of time during which grief is expressed becomes consciously aware of pain. convey information to live at many realms of the universe all at once. 40 to 65 years. mindfulness Form of meditation in which one focuses narrative charting A story format of documentation that only on the present moment. solely concerned with the phenomena of concern to that discipline. ‘‘right. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). mobility Ability to engage in activity and free movement. myofascial pain syndromes A group of muscle middle adulthood Developmental stage from the ages of disorders characterized by pain. the spinal cord where reflexes are activated. body cell. may be punished by a fine or sentence to a local prison negligence Failure of an individual to provide the care in for less than 1 year. other sites in the body that act as chemical monounsaturated fatty acids Fatty acids with one communicators. muscle spasm. peripheral or central nervous system. middle-range theory Theory that addresses more myoneural junction Point at which nerve endings come concrete and more narrowly defined phenomena than a in contact with muscle cells. nitrogen balance Net result of intake and loss of moral maturity Ability to decide for oneself what is nitrogen that measures protein anabolism and catabolism. normal body temperature set point as a result of damage modular nursing Care delivery system in which to the hypothalamus. mid-upper-arm circumference (MAC) Measures N skeletal muscle mass and serves as an indicator of protein narcolepsy A sleep alteration that manifests as sudden reserve. and limited motion. networking Process of building connections with others. need Anything that is absolutely essential for existence. message. All Rights Reserved. music-thanatology Holistic and palliative method for metaparadigm Unifying force in a discipline that names use of music with dying clients. heard during the systolic and diastolic phases created by metabolism Aggregate of all chemical reactions in every turbulent blood flow through a valve. muscle tone Normal state of balanced tension present in metacommunication Relationship aspect of the body that allows muscles to respond quickly to communication that refers to the message about the stimuli. tenderness. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. are negative nitrogen balance Condition that exists when labeled and treated differently than others in the society. May not be copied. and the response to treatments. caregivers are assigned to a small segment of clients in neuropathic pain Arises from damage to portions of the close geographical proximity. . than a numerical majority of the population and who. opioid effects on a second receptor type. Due to electronic rights. because of their cultural or physical characteristics. multidimensionality Acting based on the belief that we together with the axons of neurons. and resolution and integration of the loss occur. or duplicated. tradition that usually reflects personal or religious beliefs. double or triple bond.Licensed to: iChapters User 1352 GLOSSARY metabolic rate Rate of heat liberated during chemical murmur Swishing or blowing sounds of long duration reactions. nitrogen output exceeds intake and protein catabolism misdemeanor Offense less serious than a felony that exceeds anabolism. dissipating any obstacle to a peaceful passage. neurotransmitters Chemical substances produced by morality Behavior in accordance with custom or the body that facilitate nerve impulse transmission. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

(communities). Refers to a sudden drop of 25 mm Hg in systolic pressure nutraceuticals Natural substances found in plant or and 10 mm Hg in diastolic pressure when the client animal foods that act as protective or healing agents. of knowledge (knowing the ‘‘how’’ or ‘‘why’’). nursing audit Process of collecting and analyzing data to older adulthood Developmental stage occurring from evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions. performed during the physical examination and laboratory nonverbal message Message communicated without and diagnostic tests. O nonessential amino acids Amino acids that can be synthesized in the adult body. and orientation phase First stage of the therapeutic evaluation. . or duplicated. implementation. through a microscope or by chemical means. obesity Weight that is 20% or more above the ideal body noninvasive The body is not entered with any type of weight. Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) opposition One body part being across from another Standardized language for nursing interventions. in which the nurse and client become nursing research Systematic application of formalized acquainted. helps the client achieve the results specified by the goals operative knowledge An understanding of the nature and expected outcomes. values. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. valuable service to society. or nutrio. the age of 65 and beyond. nursing process Systematic method of providing care to orientation Perception of self in relation to the clients. nurse-client relationship One-to-one interactive observation Skill of watching carefully and attentively. diagnosis. and determine the expectations methods for generating valid and dependable information of each other. and contained in clinical records and abstracted for studies on ideals of one group are imposed on another group. organization Means by which members of a profession nursing order Statement written by the nurse that is join together to promote and protect the profession as a within the scope of nursing practice to plan and initiate. enhance current states of wellness experienced by ongoing planning Planning that entails continuous individuals. about the phenomena of concern to the discipline of orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension) nursing. scanned. the effectiveness and costs of nursing care. and aggregate populations updating of the client’s plan of care. relationship. which own proteins into amino acids in response to inadequate means to nourish. trapping of air distal to the obstruction. families. Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) Elements oppression Condition in which the rules. osmolality Measurement of the total concentration of nystagmus Involuntary rhythmical oscillation of eyes. and expectations that drive the workforce. norms. All Rights Reserved. modes. objective data Observable and measurable data that are nonmaleficence Ethical principle that means the duty to obtained through both standard assessment techniques cause no harm to others. consists of five steps: assessment. nurse practice act Law determined by each state occult Blood in the stool that can be detected only governing the practice of nursing. obligatory loss of proteins Degradation of the body’s nurse Stems from the Latin word nutrix. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). protein intake. surrounding environment. utilizes nutrients. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. outcome identification and planning. illness states and syndromes. words. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. dissolved particles (solutes) per kilogram of water. onset of action Time it takes the body to respond to a nursing informatics The use of information and drug after administration. in whole or in part. process between client and nurse that is directed at obstructive pulmonary disease Category of lung improving the client’s health status or assisting in problem diseases characterized by obstruction of the airways and solving. establish trust. May not be copied. Due to electronic rights. nursing diagnosis Second step in the nursing process ongoing assessment Type of assessment that includes and includes clinical judgments made about wellness systematic monitoring and observation related to specific states. encourages the client to elaborate about a particular nursing intervention Action performed by a nurse that concern or problem. instrument. part at nearly 180°. moves from a lying to a sitting or a sitting to a standing nutrition Process by which the body metabolizes and position. computer technology to support all aspects of nursing open-ended questions Interview technique that practice. and the readiness to problems. system of nurse-sensitive outcomes.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1353 nocturia Awakening from sleep to urinate. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) Classification organizational culture Commonly held beliefs.

also upper dermis. prevailing paradigm. paraverbal communication The way in which a osmotic pressure Force that develops when two person speaks. speed. passive euthanasia Process of cooperating with the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve Graphic client’s dying process. disease. rate equals the rate of absorption. cavity. scanned. temperature. shortness of breath occurring during sleep. critical performance appraisal and feedback that is geared organ location and size. 58). p. model. and solutions of different strengths are separated by a inflection. swelling. paresthesia Abnormal sensation such as burning. the layer of skin beneath the epidermis. volume. 1994. in whole or in part. oxygen uptake Process of oxygen diffusing from the partial-thickness wound Involves the epidermis and alveolar space into the pulmonary capillary blood. the client is willing or able to endure. and tenderness. performed by the nurse for the dependent client. paraverbal cues Verbal messages accompanied by cues. toward corrective action. tapping strokes on the surface of the skin to create influences one’s decisions and behaviors. activation of physiological systems at inappropriate times osmole Unit of measure of osmotic pressure. during the sleep-wake cycle’’ (American Psychiatric osmosis Process caused by a concentration difference of Association. parenteral nutrition Nutrients bypass the small outcome evaluation Process of comparing the client’s intestine and enter the blood directly. touch. peak plasma level Achievement of the highest blood palliative care Control of the symptoms rather than concentration of a single drug dose until the elimination cure. of severe discomfort or an uncomfortable sensation’’ pathogenicity Ability of a microorganism to produce (Carpenito. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). subcutaneous pain medication in a safe. or tingling. or duplicated. conscious awareness of pain. selectively permeable membrane. effective manner pain tolerance The level of intensity or duration of pain through a programmable pump. osteoarthritis Most common type of degenerative such as tone and pitch of voice. palpation Physical examination technique that uses the peer evaluation Process by which professionals provide sense of touch to assess texture. Penrose drain Functions by gravity and has an open end Papanicolaou test Smear method of examining stained that drains onto dressings. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. moisture. vibrations of underlying organs. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. May not be copied. percussion Physical examination technique that uses paradigm Pattern.Licensed to: iChapters User 1354 GLOSSARY osmolarity Concentration of solutes per liter of cellular parasomnia Refers to sleep alterations resulting from ‘‘an fluid. p. of the blood through a probe clipped to the fingernail or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Episode of sudden earlobe. paradigm revolution Turmoil experienced by a performance improvement Activities and behaviors discipline when a competing paradigm gains acceptance that each individual does to meet customers’ over the dominant. current status with the expected outcomes. paternalism Practice by which health care providers P decide what is ‘‘best’’ for clients and then attempt to pain A universal human experience defined as ‘‘a state in coerce clients to act against their own choices. varies with each the client to control the delivery of intravenous or individual and type of pain. patency Openness of tube lock or bodily passageway. vibrations and pulsations. expectations. parenteral Introducing a medication into the system by osteoporosis Process in which reabsorption exceeds any route other than the oral-gastrointestinal tract. in which the joints become stiff and tender to and other nonlanguage vocalizations. masses. water. perineum. including voice tone. arthritis. 2003. exfoliative cells. Due to electronic rights. All Rights Reserved. pitch. paradigm shift Acceptance of a competing paradigm perineal care Cleansing of the external genitalia. pain threshold The level of intensity at which pain patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) Device that allows becomes appreciable or perceptible. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. over the prevailing paradigm. called external respiration. which an individual experiences and reports the presence pathogen Microorganisms that cause diseases in humans. . or mind-set that strongly short. oximeter Machine that measures the oxygen saturation prickling. representation of the relationship between partial pressure passive range of motion Range-of-motion exercises of oxygen and oxygen saturation. perception Person’s sense and understanding of the paracentesis Aspiration of fluid from the abdominal world. and surrounding area. inflection. 579). accretion of bone.

pneumothorax Collection of air or gas in the pleural phagocytosis Process by which certain cells engulf and space. preoperative. pneumatic compression device Device that provides petrissage Massage technique using squeezing. by the nurse that cannot be confirmed or eliminated until physical restraints Reduce the client’s movement more data have been collected. polyunsaturated fatty acids Fatty acids that have many phlebitis Inflammation of a vein. contain a nitrogenous base. kneading.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1355 perioperative Refers to the management and treatment plateau Level at which a drug’s blood concentration is of the surgical client during the three phases of surgery: maintained. pleura Lining of the chest cavity. politics Way in which people try to influence decision metabolism. formulation of guidelines that establish the proposed prealbumin Precursor of albumin. such as injury or death. body’s decrease in body temperature. serial contraction of pleural friction rub Heard on either inspiration or the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. molecule. abnormal growth of tissue. infuse concurrently with another infusion. intermittent compression cycles to the veins of the and rolling movements to release muscle tension and extremities to promote circulation. and excretion of drugs. to abrupt discontinuation unless preventive action is taken or a ‘‘hunch’’ or intuition of an opioid after repeated use. injected. or other relief. or ion creaking. stimulate circulation. or absorbed by the body. rhythmic. exceeds catabolism. such as a true positive Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). preadolescence Developmental stage from the ages of planning Third step of the nursing process. point-of-care charting Documentation system that phantom limb pain Neuropathic pain in which pain allows health care providers to gain immediate access to sensations are referred to an area from which an extremity client information at the bedside. ingested. client’s care into a formal statement of the strategies that will predictive value The ability of screening test results to be implemented to help the client achieve optimal health. phlebotomist Individual who performs venipuncture. power Ability to do or act. resulting in the achievement plaintiff Party who initiates a lawsuit that seeks damages of desired results. noise. Port-a-Cath A port that has been implanted under the skin phospholipids Composed of one or more fatty acid with a catheter inserted into the superior vena cava or right molecules and one phosphoric acid radical and usually atrium through the subclavian or internal jugular vein. expiration over the anterior lateral lungs as a continuous permeability Capability of a substance. peristalsis Coordinated. grating sound. . when inhaled. scanned. such as heat. intraoperative. evaluation (PIE) format. positive nitrogen balance Condition that exists when physical agents Factors in the environment that are nitrogen intake exceeds output and protein anabolism capable of causing disease. and postoperative. perceived through the senses and is susceptible to polypharmacy Concurrent use of several different description and explanation. carbons unbonded to hydrogen atoms. philosophy Statement of beliefs that is the foundation polysaccharide Complex sugar. poison Any substance that causes an alteration in the pharmacognosy The study of the biochemical aspects of client’s health. includes the approximately 10 to 12 years. leaves the operating room and is taken to a postanesthesia intervention. All Rights Reserved. dispose of foreign bodies. for one’s thoughts and actions. commonly indicates a situation exists in which a problem could arise known as withdrawal syndrome. in whole or in part. course of nursing action in the resolution of nursing precapillary sphincters Smooth muscles surrounding diagnoses and the development of the client’s plan of care. making. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. the smallest arterioles that control blood flow through the plan of care Written guide that organizes data about a capillary beds. medications. phytonutrients Chemicals found in plants. Due to electronic rights. It is composed of the through the application of a device. and machinery. care unit. especially decisions about the use of resources. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. natural products. this phase continues until the client is piggybacked Addition of an intravenous solution to discharged from the care of the surgeon. postural drainage A technique of positioning that piloerection Hairs standing on end as a result of the promotes gravitational drainage of specific lung lobes. to diffuse through a membrane. diagnostic label and related factors. has been amputated. light. radiation. causing the lungs to collapse. distribution. phenomenon Observable fact or event that can be polyp A small. postoperative (after surgery) Begins when the client PIE charting Documentation method using problem. pharmacokinetics Study of the absorption. possible nursing diagnosis Nursing diagnosis that physical dependence Reaction of the body. May not be copied. or duplicated. correctly identify the disease state.

Licensed to: iChapters User

1356 GLOSSARY

correctly identifies persons who actually have the prodromal stage Time interval from the onset of
disease, whereas a true negative correctly identifies nonspecific symptoms until specific symptoms of the
persons who do not actually have the disease infectious process begin to manifest.
(Fischbach, 2000). profession Group (vocational or occupational) that
preferred provider organization Type of managed care requires specialized education and intellectual
model in which member choice is limited to providers knowledge.
within the system. professional regulation Process by which nursing
prenatal period Developmental stage beginning with ensures that its members act in the public interest by
conception and ending with birth. providing a unique service that society has entrusted to
preoperative (before surgery) Refers to the time interval them.
that begins when the decision is made for surgery until professional standards Authoritative statements
the client is transferred to the operating room. developed by the profession by which quality of practice,
presbycusis Hearing loss associated with old age. service, and education can be judged.
preschool stage Developmental stage from the ages of 3 progressive muscle relaxation Stress management
to 6 years. technique involving tensing and relaxing muscles.
presence The process of just being with another; a proposition Statement that proposes a relationship
therapeutic nursing intervention. between concepts.
pressure ulcer Impaired skin integrity related to proprioception Awareness of posture, movement, and
mechanical factors such as unrelieved, prolonged changes in equilibrium and knowledge of position, weight,
pressure; shearing forces; and restraint. and resistance of objects in relation to the body.
primary care provider Health care provider whom a prosody Melody of speech that conveys meaning
client sees first for health care; typically, a family through changes in the tempo, rhythm, and intonation.
practitioner (prescribing practitioner/nurse), internist, or proteins Organic compounds of amino acid polymers
pediatrician. connected by peptide bonds that contain carbon,
primary health care Client’s point of entry into the hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
health care system; includes assessment, diagnosis, protocol Series of standing orders or procedures that
treatment, coordination of care, education, preventive should be followed under certain specific conditions.
services, and surveillance. proxemics Study of the distance between people and
primary intention healing Occurs in wounds that have objects.
minimal tissue loss and edges that are well approximated psychomotor domain Area of learning that involves
(closed). performance of motor skills.
primary nursing Nursing management system in which psychoneuroimmunology Study of the complex
the professional nurse assumes complete responsibility for relationship between the cognitive, affective, and physical
total care for a small number of clients. aspects of humans.
primary source Major provider of information about puberty Appearance of secondary sex characteristics that
a client; research article written by one or more signals the beginning of adolescence.
researchers. public law Law that deals with an individual’s
prn orders Drug orders that are administered as needed. relationship to the state.
proactive Initiating change rather than responding to pulse Bounding of blood flow in an artery that is palpable
change imposed by others. at various points on the body.
problem-oriented medical record (POMR) pulse deficit Condition in which the apical pulse rate is
Documentation focused on the client’s problem with greater than the radial pulse rate.
a structured, logical format to narrative charting pulse oximeter Sensor device used to measure the
called SOAP (subjective and objective data, assessment, oxygen saturation level of the blood.
plan). pulse pressure Measurement of the ratio of stroke
process Series of steps or acts that lead to volume to compliance (total distensibility) of the arterial
accomplishment of a goal or purpose. system.
process evaluation Measurement of nursing actions by pulse quality Refers to the ‘‘feel’’ of the pulse, its rhythm
examination of each phase of the nursing process. and forcefulness.
process improvement Process that examines the flow of pulse rate Indirect measurement of cardiac output
client care between departments in order to ensure that obtained by counting the number of apical or peripheral
the processes work as they were designed and that pulse waves over a pulse point.
acceptable levels of performance are achieved. pulse rhythm Regularity of the heartbeat.

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Licensed to: iChapters User

GLOSSARY 1357

pulse volume Measurement of the strength or amplitude established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the
of the force exerted by the ejected blood against the Academy of Sciences–National Research Council.
arterial wall with each contraction. reconstitution Adaptation to a stressor.
purulent exudate Pus, generally occurring with severe recontextualizing Exploration of a developed theory in
inflammation accompanied by infection. terms of its applicability to other settings or groups.
pyogenic bacteria Bacteria that produce pus. recurrent acute pain Identified by repetitive painful
pyorrhea Periodontal disease. episodes that may recur over a prolonged period or
pyrexia When heat production exceeds heat loss and throughout the client’s lifetime.
body temperature rises above the normal range. red cell indices Laboratory measurement of the size and
pyrogens Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and some antigens. hemoglobin content of the red cells.
pyuria Pus (white blood cells) in the urine. red wound Wound that is the color of normal
granulation tissue and in the proliferative phase of wound
Q repair.
referred pain The sensation of pain is not felt in the
qualitative analysis Integration and synthesis of
narrative, nonnumerical data. organ itself but instead is perceived at the spot where the
qualitative research Systematic collection and analysis
organs were located during fetal development.
reframing A technique that teaches clients to monitor
of subjective narrative materials, using procedures for
which there tends to be a minimum of research-imposed their negative thoughts and replace them with ones that
control. are more positive.
regional anesthesia Anesthesia that causes the client to
quality Meeting or exceeding requirements of the client.
quality assurance Traditional approach to quality
lose sensation in a particular area of the body (e.g.,
management in which monitoring and evaluation focus on laparoscopy for a tubal sterilization).
regurgitation Backward flow of blood through a
individual performance, deviation from standards, and
problem solving. diseased heart valve, also known as insufficiency.
related factors Elements that can precede, be associated
quantitative research Systematic collection of
numerical information, often under conditions of with, contribute to, or be related to nursing diagnoses in
considerable control. some type of patterned relationship.
relaxation response State of increased arousal of the
parasympathetic nervous system that leads to a relaxed
R physiological state.
race Grouping of people based on biological similarities relaxation techniques A variety of methods used to
such as physical characteristics. decrease anxiety and muscle tension.
racism Discrimination directed toward individuals who religion Set of beliefs associated with a formal organized
are misperceived to be inferior because of biological group, such as a church, synagogue, mosque, or temple.
factors. remote memory The retention of experiences that
radiation Loss of heat in the form of infrared rays. occurred during earlier periods of life.
radiofrequency ablation The delivery of low-voltage, research Systematic method of exploring, describing,
high-frequency alternating electrical current to cauterize explaining, relating, or establishing the existence of a
the abnormal myocardial tissue. phenomenon, the factors that cause changes in the
radiography Study of x-rays or gamma ray–exposed film phenomenon, and how the phenomenon influences other
through the action of ionizing radiation. phenomena.
range of motion Extent to which a joint can move. research design Overall plan used to conduct research.
rapport Bond or connection between two people that is resident floras Microorganisms that are always present,
based on mutual trust. usually without altering the client’s health.
rationale Explanation based on the theories and scientific respiration The act of breathing.
principles of natural and behavioral sciences and the rest A state of relaxation and calmness, both mental and
humanities. physical.
readiness for learning Evidence of willingness to learn. restorative nursing care Nursing care provided to
receiver Person who intercepts the sender’s message. clients who have residual impairment as a result of disease
recent memory The result of events that have occurred or injury; seeks to increase the client’s independence and
over the past 24 hours. ability to perform self-care.
recommended dietary allowances (RDA) restraints Protective devices used to limit the physical
Recommended allowances of essential nutrients activity of a client or to immobilize a client or extremity.

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1358 GLOSSARY

restrictive pulmonary disease A category of lung self-concept Individual’s perception of self; includes self-
diseases characterized by impaired mobility or elasticity of esteem, body image, and ideal self.
the lungs or chest wall. self-efficacy Belief in one’s ability to succeed; according
review of systems A brief account of any recent signs or to social cognitive theory of learning, serves as an internal
symptoms related to any body system. motivator for change.
rhonchi Heard predominantly on expiration over the self-esteem Individual’s perception of self-worth;
trachea and bronchi as a continuous, low-pitched musical includes judgments about one’s self and one’s capabilities.
sound. semipermeable Selective permeability of membranes.
rigor mortis Stiffening of the body after death caused by sender Person who generates a message.
contraction of the skeletal and smooth muscles. sensation The ability to receive and process stimuli
risk factors Elements that increase the chances of an received through the sensory organs.
individual, family, or community being susceptible to a sensitivity Determines the susceptibility of a pathogen to
disease state or life event affecting health. an antibiotic; the ability of a test to correctly identify
risk for infection State in which an individual is at those individuals who have the disease.
increased risk for being invaded by pathogenic sensory deficit A change in the perception of sensory
organisms. stimuli.
risk nursing diagnosis Nursing diagnosis that indicates sensory deprivation A state of reduced sensory input
that a problem does not yet exist but specific risk factors from the internal or external environment, manifested by
are present; composed of the diagnostic label preceded by alterations in sensory perceptions.
the phrase ‘‘risk for’’ with the specific risk factors listed. sensory overload Increased perception of the intensity
role Set of expected behaviors associated with a person’s of auditory and visual stimuli.
status or position. sensory perception The ability to receive sensory
role conflict When the expectations of one role compete impressions and, through cortical association, relate the
with the expectations of other roles. stimuli to past experiences to form an impression of the
nature of the stimulus.
serous exudate Exudate that is composed primarily of
S serum (the clear portion of blood), is watery in
saccharides Sugar units. appearance, and has a low protein count.
satiety Feeling of fulfillment from food. sex roles Culturally determined patterns associated with
saturated fatty acids Glycerol esters of organic acids being male or female.
whose atoms are joined by a single-valence bond. sexuality Human characteristic that refers not just to
school-age period Developmental stage from the ages of gender but to all the aspects of being male or female,
6 to 12 years. including feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior.
scoliosis Lateral deviation of the vertical line of the spine. sexual orientation Individual’s preference for ways of
scope of practice Legal boundaries of practice for health expressing sexual feelings.
care providers as defined in state statutes. shaman Folk healer–priest who uses natural and
sebum Produced by the skin and contains fatty acids that supernatural forces to help others.
kill some bacteria. shamanism Practice of entering altered states of
secondary gain Outcomes of the sick role other than consciousness with the intent of helping others.
alleviation of anxiety (primary gain); examples include shearing The force exerted against the skin when a client
gaining attention and sympathy, avoiding responsibilities, is moved or repositioned in bed by being pulled or
and receiving financial compensation or reward. allowed to slide down in bed.
secondary intention healing Seen in wounds with short-term goal Statement written in objective format
extensive tissue loss and wounds in which the edges demonstrating an expectation to be achieved in resolution
cannot be approximated. of the nursing diagnosis in a short period of time, usually
secondary source Source of data other than the client, a few hours or days.
such as family members, other health care providers, or shunting Condition in which alveolar regions are well
medical records; article in which an author addresses the perfused but not adequately ventilated.
research of someone else. side effects Mild nontherapeutic drug effects.
self-care Learned behavior and a deliberate action in signal-averaged ECG Surface electrocardiogram that
response to a need. amplifies late potentials.
self-care deficit Exists when the client is not able to simultaneity paradigm Nursing viewpoint that focuses
perform one or more of the activities of daily living. on the quality of life from the client’s perspective and

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specific gravity Weight of urine compared with weight stroke volume Measurement of blood that enters the of distilled water. one’s relationship with oneself. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. . stat order An order for a single dose of medication to be sleep apnea A syndrome in which breathing periodically given immediately. a specific gravity greater than 1. indicates solutes in the urine. small-group ecology Study of proxemics in small-group stock supply Medications dispensed and labeled in large situations. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. events. structure evaluation Determination of the health care specificity The ability of a test to correctly identify those agency’s ability to provide the services offered to its client individuals who do not have the disease. ulceration. contraction. stomatitis Inflammation of the oral mucosa. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and signed by a prescribing practitioner that is skin turgor Normal resiliency of the skin. sloughing Shedding of dead tissue as a result of skin sterilization The total elimination of all microorganisms. spores Single-celled microorganisms or microorganisms skinfold measurement Measures the amount of body in the resting or inactive stage. May not be copied. stress test Measures the client’s cardiovascular response somatic pain Nonlocalized pain originating in support to exercise tolerance. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). structures such as tendons. All Rights Reserved. beliefs and attitudes. then 2. approved. source-oriented (SO) charting Narrative recording by striae Red or silvery-white streaks due to rapid stretching each member (source) of the health care team on a of skin with resultant damage to elastic fibers of dermis. stress Body’s reaction to any stimulus. population. solute A substance dissolved in a solution. Due to electronic rights. others.. statutory law Laws enacted by legislative bodies.g. sleep deprivation A term used to describe prolonged stereotyping Belief that all people within the same racial. objective data. the self. letters. is threatened. quantities for storage in the medication room or nursing Snellen chart Chart that contains various-sized letters unit. caused by physical exertion in the absence of a bladder somnambulism Sleepwalking.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1359 conceptualizes the interaction between person and spherocytes Small. leads to the need to adapt. a sense of connection with situational leadership Style of leadership in which there others. general slowing of the body’s physiological processes. and a relationship with a higher power or divine is a blending of styles based on current circumstances and source. and a higher power that can be usually beyond the individual’s control (e. may be stress urinary incontinence Uncontrolled loss of urine a deep pain. significant other). solvent A liquid with a substance in solution. spiritual distress State experienced when an individual single-payer system Health care delivery model in perceives that his or her belief system. valve. single point of entry Entry into the health care system spirituality Multidimensional aspect of self that refers to is required through a point designated by the plan. separate record. death of a accessed through prayer or other means. then passage into the first stereognosis Ability to identify objects by manipulation rapid eye movement stage. and nerves. thick red cells. data. and plan. kept on file within health care agencies to be used in sleep A state of altered consciousness during which an predictable situations or in circumstances requiring individual experiences minimal physical activity and a immediate attention. scanned.0 aorta with each ventricular contraction. with a return to stage 3. or cultural group act alike and share the same eye movement or the non–rapid eye movement type. analyte. fat. in whole or in part. often associated with heavy snoring. and touch. standing order Standardized intervention written. environment as mutual and simultaneous. including spores. inadequate quality and quantity of sleep. nature. with standardized numbers at the end of each line of stoma Surgically created opening. also called an stressor Any stimulus encountered by an individual. or that person’s which the government is the only entity to reimburse. place within it. SOAP charting Documentation method using subjective stool Fecal material. skin shear Result of dragging skin across a hard surface. spiritual well-being Sense of connectedness between situational loss Occurs in response to external events. continuous crowing sound. ligaments. or duplicated. stridor Heard predominantly on inspiration as a spasticity Increase in muscle tension. either of the rapid ethnic. assessment. ceases during sleep. sleep cycle The sequence of sleep that begins with the stenosis Narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or four stages of non–rapid eye movement sleep in order.

T therapeutic range Achievement of a constant tachycardia A heart rate in excess of 100 beats per therapeutic blood level of a medication within a safe range. or stapling the edges of the wound together. present time. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. recipient’s well-being. maturation or coincidence. of the fingers that stimulates movement in tired therapeutic use of self Process in which nurses muscles. surgical asepsis Sterile technique. it is indicated when primary closure of personnel to eliminate transient and reduce resident hand a wound is undesirable.Licensed to: iChapters User 1360 GLOSSARY subcutaneous Injection into the subcutaneous tissue. development. pigmented moles along the ‘‘milk line’’ of the breast. from http://www. therapeutic relationship A relationship that benefits tachypnea Respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths per the client’s health status. perceptions. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). surgical hand antisepsis ‘‘Antiseptic handwash or tertiary intention healing Also known as delayed or antiseptic hand rub performed preoperatively by surgical secondary closure. or duplicated. therapeutic procedure accidents Occur during the delivery of medical or nursing interventions. information with another as a means to facilitate thoracentesis The aspiration of fluids from the pleural behavioral changes. therapeutic touch Holistic technique that consists of tactile fremitus Vibrations created by sound waves. promotes a behavioral change that is not a result of including feelings. cavity. Guideline qualified expert in an area. scanned. team Group of individuals who work together to achieve supernumerary nipples Extra nipples that appear as a common goal. in whole or in part.cdc. of a situation is determined by its consequences. for hand hygiene in healthcare settings. the purpose of creating a beneficial outcome for the systemic infection Affects the entire body and involves client. . therapeutic Describes actions that are beneficial to the wiring. sublingual Under the tongue. and person decides to avoid dealing with a stressor at the unlicensed) provide care. minute. and concerns. teaching strategies Techniques employed by the superficial wound Confined to the epidermis layer. therapeutic massage Application of pressure and systole Process of cardiac chamber emptying or ejecting motion by the hands with the intent of improving the blood. assessing alterations in a person’s energy fields and using tapotement Massage technique using a light tapping the hands to direct energy to achieve a balanced state. minute in an adult. Due to electronic rights. Retrieved November thallium Radionuclide that is the physiological analogue 10. All Rights Reserved. synergy Combined power of many people. susceptible host Person who lacks resistance to an agent theory Set of concepts and propositions that provide an and is thus vulnerable to disease. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. regulation to maintain a constant internal body teaching Active process in which one individual shares temperature. Antiseptic detergent preparations often have testimony Written or verbal evidence given by a persistent antimicrobial activity’’ (CDC. 2005. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. teacher to promote learning. flora. technical. multiple organs. team nursing Type of nursing care delivery system in suppression Conscious defense mechanism whereby a which a variety of personnel (professional. surfactant Phospholipid secreted by type II alveolar cells teratogenic substance Substance that can cross the that reduces the alveolar surface tension and thus helps placental barrier and impair normal growth and prevent alveolar collapse. May not be copied. teleology Ethical theory that states that the moral value suppuration The process of pus formation.gov/Handhygiene) of potassium. consists of those termination phase Third and final stage of the practices that eliminate all microorganisms and spores therapeutic relationship. achievement and effectiveness of treatment. therapeutic communication Use of communication for synthesis Putting data together in a new way. which comprises the four outermost layers of skin. demonstrating in response to the actual or perceived thermoregulation Body’s physiological function of heat stressor. client. deliberately plan their actions and approach the taxonomy of nursing diagnoses Classifies diagnostic relationship with a specific goal in mind before interacting labels based on which human responses the client is with the client. orderly way to view phenomena. suture Surgical means of closing a wound by sewing. [2002]. teaching-learning process Planned interaction that subjective data Data from the client’s point of view. focuses on evaluation of goal from an object or area.

utility Ethical principle that states that an act must result transduction The changing of noxious stimuli in sensory in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of nerve endings to energy impulses. total quality management Method of management and uncomplicated grief A fairly predictable grief reaction system operation that is used to achieve continuous following a significant loss. All Rights Reserved. of the lost object and resumption of the previous life. in a person’s system. conceptualizes the interaction between person and environment as constant in order to accomplish goals and maintain balance. toxic effect Reaction that occurs when the body cannot unit dose form System of packaging and labeling each metabolize a drug. fats. vitamins. origin to the brain. toddler Developmental stage beginning at approximately transient floras Microorganisms that are episodic. an echogram. May not be copied. an artificial airway (tracheostomy tube) is placed whose atoms are joined by double. filled cavities. . ending with the relinquishing quality improvement. compatibility of the blood between potential donor and totality paradigm Nursing viewpoint that recipient. health and urine caused by hyperactive (unstable) contractions of the illness beliefs. violation of some private obligation by which damages trough The lowest blood serum concentration of a drug accrue to the person. urobilinogen Derived from the normal bacterial action transducer Instrument that converts electrical energy to of intestinal floras on bilirubin. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). A or B) and determines the changes from shift to shift with the assigned caregiver. bonds. when a child begins to walk. scanned. or duplicated. (stoma) is made through the anterior neck into the unsaturated fatty acids Glycerol esters of organic acids trachea. when a specific dose loses its sex opposite one’s anatomic gender. effectiveness and the client requires larger and larger trigger point A hypersensitive point that when doses to produce the same level of analgesia. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. and practices. stimulated causes a local twitch or ‘‘jump’’ response. transcultural nursing Formal area of study and practice urgency Timely intervention of surgery. sound waves. tort Civil wrong committed upon a person or property triglycerides Lipid compounds consisting of three fatty stemming from a direct invasion of some legal right of the acids and a glycerol molecule. unprofessional conduct Conduct that could adversely tracheotomy A surgical procedure in which an opening affect the health and welfare of the public.. people involved in a situation. also called essential fatty acids. in whole or in part. providing health care within the context of the client’s urinalysis Laboratory analysis of the urine.g. and minerals. U total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Intravenous infusion ultrasound Use of high-frequency sound waves instead of a solution containing dextrose. urinary incontinence Uncontrolled loss of urine of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sufficient duration and volume to create a social or Method of applying minute amounts of electrical hygienic problem. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. values. culture. tort law Enforcement of duties and rights among tympany Musical drumlike sound that occurs over air- individuals independent of contractual agreements. and transmission Movement of impulses from the site of ending at approximately age 3. Due to electronic rights. causing the drug to accumulate in the dose of medication. usually for a 24-hour period. focused on comparative analysis of different cultures and urge urinary incontinence Uncontrolled discharge of subcultures with respect to cultural care. blood. protein and iron. touch Means of perceiving or experiencing through unintentional wound Unanticipated wound and often tactile sensation. the infraction of some public duty. with the goal of detrusor muscle. of x-ray film to visualize deep body structures. stimulation to large-diameter nerve fibers via electrodes urinary retention Inability to completely evacuate the placed on the skin to block the passage of pain to the bladder. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience.or triple-valence into the stoma. 12 to 18 months of age.Licensed to: iChapters User GLOSSARY 1361 thrills Vibrations that feel similar to a purring cat. transferrin (nonheme iron) Combination of a blood thrombus Blood clot. the result of trauma or an accident. or the trocar Large-bored abdominal paracentesis needle. tolerance Can occur after repeated administration of an transsexuality Belief that one is psychologically of the opioid analgesic. total client care Variation of the primary nursing type and cross-match Laboratory test that identifies the management system in which responsibility for client care client’s blood type (e. dorsal spinal root. person. amino acids.

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1362 GLOSSARY

V visual learner Style of learning in which people learn by
processing information by seeing.
vaccination Provides acquired immunity against specific vital capacity Amount of air exhaled from the lungs after
diseases. a minimal full inspiration.
value Variation of the variable. vital signs Measurement of the client’s body temperature
values Principles that influence the development of (T), pulse (P) and respiratory (R) rates, and blood
beliefs and attitudes. pressure (BP).
values clarification Process of analyzing one’s own vitamins Organic compounds.
values to better understand what is truly important to voiding Process of urine evacuation.
oneself.
variable Anything that may differ from the norm.
variations Goals not met or interventions not performed
W
according to the time frame; also called variance. walking rounds Reporting method used when the
vasoconstriction The narrowing of the vessels, usually members of the care team walk to each client’s room
leading to reduced blood flow. and discuss care and progress with each other and the
vasodilation The widening of the vessels, usually leading client.
to increased blood flow. water-soluble vitamins Vitamins that require daily
vectorborne transmission Occurs when an agent is ingestion in normal quantities because they are not stored
transferred to a susceptible host by animate means such as in the body.
mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, lice, and other animals. wellness Condition in which an individual functions at
vehicle transmission Occurs when an agent is optimal levels.
transferred to a susceptible host by contaminated wellness nursing diagnosis Nursing diagnosis that
inanimate objects such as water, food, milk, drugs, and indicates the client’s expression of a desire to obtain a
blood. higher level of wellness in some area of function. It is
venipuncture Puncturing of a vein with a needle to composed of the diagnostic label preceded by the phrase
aspirate blood. ‘‘potential for enhanced.’’
ventilation Movement of air into and out of the lungs wheezes Heard predominantly on expiration all over
for the purpose of delivering fresh air to the alveoli. the lungs as a continuous sonorous wheeze (low-pitched
ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatching Condition snoring) or sibilant wheeze (high-pitched musical
in which perfusion and ventilation of the lung areas are sound).
not adequately balanced. whistle-blowing Calling attention to the unethical,
veracity Ethical principle that means that one should be illegal, or incompetent actions of others.
truthful, neither lying nor deceiving others. working phase Second stage of the therapeutic
verbal message Message communicated through words relationship in which problems are identified, goals are
or language, both spoken and written. established, and problem-solving methods are selected.
vesicant Medication that causes blisters and tissue injury work of breathing Amount of muscular energy (work)
when it escapes into surrounding tissue. required to accomplish ventilation.
vesicular sounds Soft, breezy, and low-pitched sounds wound Disruption in the integrity of body tissue.
heard longer on inspiration than expiration that result
from air moving through the smaller airways over the Y
lung’s periphery, with the exception of the scapular area. yellow wound Has either fibrinous slough or purulent
vibration Massage technique using rapid movements that
exudate from bacteria.
stimulate or relax muscles. young adulthood Developmental stage from the ages of
virulence Degree of pathogenicity of an infectious
21 to approximately 40 years.
microorganism (pathogen).
visceral pain Discomfort in the internal organs that is
less localized and more slowly transmitted than cutaneous Z
pain. Z-track (zigzag) technique Method of intramuscular
visual channel Transmission of messages through sight, injection to seal the medication in the muscle, preventing
observation, and perception. the drug from irritating the subcutaneous tissue.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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event’’: Prevention of wrong site. M. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Changing an ostomy pouching system. P. IL: Author. (2001).. Association of periOperative Nurses. Riethmuller. 641–647. New insight into urinary stress inconti- America.. P. 526–532. (1996). Kent. M. M. M. (1999). H. Jonides. MO: Mosby Gray. (2007). J. A. W. Louis. Parker. 105. Louis. tygoals. S. 38(7).. Responding to 4 gastroin. wrong procedure. C. S. Slunga B. 2(2). Kim. & Dochterman. 38(12).). (2008).. Roh. CO: Author.. Nursing2008. MO: Mosby Elsevier preoperative teaching. G. Garden York: Anchor Books. Hongwanishkul. C. J. Nursing Research. 6–21.). characteristics on urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Nordin. S. Pro. P. Louis.. and recommended practices. text rev. McIntosh. (2008). Lee.. D. Pensacola.. Bergdahl. Parks. Y.. . B. Operating theater plements (4th ed. Clinical Nursing Research 4(1). Textbook of medical physiology (11th 17–22. 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K. 69(5). (1999).. J. MO: Mosby. A. Killen. M.Licensed to: iChapters User REFERENCES 1381 Phillips. Louis.). J. AORN Journal. C. An interactive approach (2nd ed. AIDS..). Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. Critical thinking in nursing: ed. Berry and Kohn’s operating room techniques (10th Rubenfeld. (1999). 50–53. Hamlet. A. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins..). & Uruburu. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 450–466. Slattery. May not be copied. . attitudes about HIV. C. (1994). Philadelphia: Lippincott. F. scanned. in whole or in part. (2004). J. Ethical perception and resulting action in periop- Nurses’ knowledge. Philadelphia: of Nursing. (1999). or duplicated. American Journal Rothrock. erative nurses. Due to electronic rights. The RN first assistant (3rd ed. AORN Journal. 991–1003. Reeder. (1998). 98(11). Schroeter. 59(2).. G. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. King. & Scheffer. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.. A. K. The epidemic hazards of nursing. All Rights Reserved. St. B. N.

300–301. F. 220 254. 170–71 Activity intolerance. 301. 581. 1057 in. nursing diagnosis in. 582. 205 secondary. 387t–388t defined. 934–35. 19 (AIDS). 948 in dying process. 581–84. 82t. scanned. 882–83 in toddlers. 95 landmarks of. 168 functional assessment for. 116 Abdominal-girth measurement. 756. 1067. 332–33 assistance with. 284 folk medicine practices in. 168–72 Activity level. those followed by p indicate procedure. 661 Adaptation. 948. 1045 of a drug. vented. 765 older adults. 1303 professional. 948. 615 for IV therapy. 845 Aboriginals Acid-base balance. in documentation. 301–2 respiratory. 1063 sexual. 835. 292–94 metabolic. 925 880 child. etiology. 1066t. 329 Activities of daily living (ADLs) for. 948f in therapeutic relationship. 882 Abdominal breathing. 1106 Abdomen evaluation and. in oxygenation deficit. 582f Acculturation. 393t disturbances in. 582f individual. 925–26 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). those followed by t indicate table. A in preschoolers. 301f. 60 Active listening. 519 Accreditation. 757t Accountability collaboration in assisting with. 171–72 nursing interventions and. Abuse Acid-base buffer systems. 923 Acute illness. 381 Actual nursing diagnosis. 843 Abduction. 544 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pain management. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX Page numbers followed by f indicate figure. 582f student. 487–88. legislative. May not be copied. 224–25. 358–59 Abdominal distention. All Rights Reserved. 948. 936t–937t. 1090 spouse or partner. 440 domestic violence. 335. 282. factors affecting. . 175f Activity restrictions. 48 regulators of. 33 defined. 996. 303t Acidic environment. 254 Active euthanasia. Due to electronic rights.. 1108 Abdellah. defined. 934–35. physical examination Acquired immunity. 172. 946. 843. 1058t Accelerated degree programs. 336t–337t. 300–302. 853t 1383 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 946. 1109. 1092 Adolescents. or duplicated. 301f. 342t Administration set Acceptance Activated partial thromboplastin time health hazards of. 750f electrolytes disturbances and. 924t. 270t Administrative law. 657 Active transport. 369 defined. in therapeutic relationship. 925–26 in pain management. 923. 487t (APTT). 1109f Abbreviations. 169 Activity theory of aging. 1054–55 nutritional. 925f complementary and alternative therapies in infants. 338–44 client safety and. Acute pain Absorption 937 defined. 996f 927t–932t. 1090 Acid. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 1067f characteristics of. 1012–13 Accuracy. 166. in whole or in part. 1045 Abstract. 934f. 932–34 recurrent. 188 Accidents Active range of motion. 582. in immune defense. 936t Adjuvant medications Abused clients. 1098–1100 quadrants of. 159 in health history. 935. 331 assistive devices for. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 1057–58. 583t–584t organizational. 835f. cardiac output and. 168 875 preoperative examination of. defined. 303t Acidosis Addiction. 926. 948f Access. 225 Acupressure. 662 defined. 923 Acupuncture. 923 to pain medications. 948f Access codes. 750. 936t–937t Adduction. to health care. 81. 145 physical examination of.

634 Adventitious breath sounds. See also Complementary Analysis. defined. 480t. 366t with crutches. 506t–507t 622 Anal sphincter. 1122f. 1006–7 Aloe vera. 1164t assistance with. 1247 Ampule Adverse drug reactions Algor mortis. May not be copied. 791p–794p to various herbs. 1075 902p–906p American Hospital Association. 344. 937. 683. 834 Anemia. 1000. 409f Heimlich maneuver. 669 Airway(s) on nursing diagnosis. serum. 1121t sexually transmitted diseases in. 903p–904p nursing definition. 1063–64 effects on pain. 42–43 mobility issues and. changes associated with. 345t 878t on standards of practice. 395t Allodynia. 1121–22. medication administration by. 221 sleep in. 1098t. 1326–27 on standards of care. 1075 interventions for. 1063–64 food preferences of. 882. 1299t Agglutinins. Patient Care substance abuse in. 174. 1060t–1061t African American drug. 659 weight bearing status. 905p code of ethics. 882. 1060t defining. 935. 607. 923 Amputation. 480t. 616 assistive devices for. 407t. 1007 myths of. 872–73. 358–59 with walker. 169 Adults infant. 169t Advance care medical directive. 878f Nursing’s Agenda for Health Care Reform. 246 home safety risk appraisal for. 1299–1300. 237 for. 878–79. 1064–65 Age Allopathic medicine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs chronological. 56t sleep and. 576 Analgesics. 850t defined. 1098t. 221 suctioning. 432f Airborne precautions. 1099 types of. 293t Airborne transmission. 365f. 1122t. 869. in whole or in part. to blood transfusion. 344. 81 in fluid and electrolyte balance. 1060t.Licensed to: iChapters User 1384 INDEX defined. 902p–903p American Nurses Association (ANA). 506–7. 1122f. 776–77. 616 1122t Aneurysm. 1059. 622 776f in older adults. 571–72. 368 Alkalosis medication withdrawing from. 79 young. complementary and alternative opioids. 1121. 1118–23. 687f. 1119. 384t in health history. 1212 Allen test. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 339–41. 176t Alcohol use nonessential. 1057–64. 1050 Alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. 169. perception. 1190 respiratory depression and. 392. 206–7 suicide risk in. 1299t in wound healing. 1061t. 1099 medication and. 343–44 chest thrusts. 1298–99. 768–69 combining. 1122f. 616 with cane. 862f Anesthesia. 1187. defined. 871t in urinary incontinence. Due to electronic rights. 1102 general. 358 vs. defined. 1013 Amino acids 15 Alcoholism. 1300–1303 Alveolar gas exchange. 926 and alternative medicine Analytes. 427. or duplicated. 1103 Aerobic metabolism. 393t preoperative assessment of. 1074 Amniocentesis. 111 loss and grief associated with. 865 defined. 868 preoperative considerations. 608 oxygenation and. regional. Albumin. 1062–63. 1120 pain and. 900p–901p on nursing research. self-concept and. defined. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 1118–20. 1059. 204 complementary and alternative therapies small child. 1063 Afferent nerve pathway. 482 artificial on nursing process. 358t defined. 996 metabolic. 1235 elimination and. 1299t in sensation. 996 Affect. 877f–878f. 869. 958 addiction and tolerance in. 669 Aging client preparation. 607. 783 respiratory. 347. 172. 1298 1212–13 assessment of. Ambulation. 1002 role in health care team. 433 ineffective. 64t sleep in. 335 Agglutinogens. 359. 1050 theories of. 1048 for neuropathic pain. 1305–6 Agglutination. 197. 1002 Advance practice nurse (APN). 55–57. therapeutic serum levels. 905p–906p on informatics competencies. 1120 481t 360–67. 1123. 493 in medication administration. 368f defined. 366f. 1058t characteristics of. 197 Advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). 303 1155p–1156p home safety risk appraisal for. 1057–58. 940–41. characteristics of. 575t–576t. 836t patient controlled. 876–79. 368. local. 348t–350t oxygen administration by. 341 conscious adult. 655–56 medicine. 358. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 1118–23 defined. 765 essential. 1122t. 754. 94 epidural. 351t–353t. defined. eating disorders in. 1300–1303 local. 607. 404. 1151p–1154p mobility issues and. 1122t. 427f. 1000. 687t 1156p–1157p sexual information for. 1059. older. See Older adults clearance 60–61 self-concept in. 1211. 1062–63 folk medicine practices in. 853t unconscious adult. 904p Partnership. 481–82. 1060t–1061t Affective learning domain. 1121–23. 936t Anaerobic metabolism. 338–39 Aggregates. 1235 Alternative therapies. 1118 nutritional considerations for. 1296 342t–343t emergency interventions for. 935. 173t teaching. 902p–903p on certification. Standards of Practice. 861–62. 1298–99. oxygenation deficits and. 1061–62 effects on client safety. 1300 Ageism. 1058–59 effects on vital signs. . client teaching. 754 Alkaline phosphatase. 426–27. and cognition. 404t Allergic reaction. 409. 573 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 360t preambulation exercise. 996 Aerosol. Airway obstruction Ambulatory surgery clinics. 879 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). defined. 836 (NSAIDs). 359 1148p–1151p provider of. 79 middle-aged. Ambulatory treatment centers. 1058t. scanned. 1122f. 1080p–1083p effects on nutrition. 937t Anabolism. 432. 1120 loss and grief associated with. 1211f Allergies administration routes. All Rights Reserved.

680–81. in whole or in part. 679 for stress and anxiety. 878–79. in mobility deficits. 1106f nursing. 263. 325t in mobility deficits. 1181 Angiography. in immune defense. 634. 276t alterations. 97–98 Auscultatory gap. 205 Anticipatory stress. 510t. 95–96 Angiogenesis. 636–37 Assisted suicide. 1217 in sensation. 1102–6. 620 surgical. 90 cardiac. 934 1102–3 Autoimmune disorders. 1109. 1169f defined. 1010t–1012t. 79–81. 585. 89–106 for ambulation. 631t Ascites. . 595–96. 193 Assistive devices. 523 Arterial blood gases (ABGs). 96 of lungs. 328. 1074 formats for. 868f. defined. 469. 106 of heart. 835f. 191. 91. defined. 878f in pressure ulcers. 586f As evidenced by (AEB). 616. 634 Assessment errors. 384t–385t postoperative phase. defined. 660 of body temperature. 338. 158–59. and cognition Auditory acuity. 582. 662 by infant. 1211 models for. 900p–901p physical examination in. 79–81 Atherosclerotic plaque. 623 defined. 199. 285–86 sleep and. or duplicated. 16t. 1122t Antioxidants. 1217–18 560t–561t communication and. 621 techniques. 1006 food preferences of. 1119. 528p Arthritis. 263t Apical pulse. 115 surgery and restraint application. sleep. 1106 Auditory channel. 835. 585 ongoing. 1114t Antiseptic hand rub. 515. 470t Ankle Aseptic technique. 1121–23. 665–67 of abdomen. 166–1169. 487. 596t data documentation in. 863 Arterial ulcers. 484 Auditory learners. defined. 864f levels of. 758–60 key concepts. 97–98 Atrial fibrillation. defined. 276. 637. 494 Arterial puncture. 636 in terminally ill clients. 458–59 defined. 863. 783 effects on vital signs. 1317 Anomic aphasia. scanned. 175. 583t Apothecary system. 506. 70 Apgar assessment tool. 636–37 95–96 1013f bone marrow. 92 Awareness. 90f health care. 329f 118–19 Anticipatory grief. 848. 1076 Anions. 46 folk medicine practices in. 997 524p–528p for client positioning. 370 Axillary temperature. 637f in wound care. 1086 nursing care plan for. 1122f. 444 functional Audit. 177t in acid-base disturbances. 1009–13. 661 arterial puncture for. 395t preoperative surgery phase. 449–50 anatomy of. 1318–19 spiritual. 871t Aromatherapy. 520 in injury or infection risk. 630. Autocratic leadership style. 429. 1311. 90 Attending behaviors. 1235f data collection in. 1003 laboratory and diagnostic testing in. 90–91. 545 Arousal. 1163 types of. 846. 872t nutritional. 1023 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 392. 480 Aspiration and biopsy. 96 Atrioventricular (VA) node. 670 communication and. 1105–6 Autonomy. 395–96 Associate nursing degree programs. Anthropometric measurements. 1240–44 Attitudes nursing process for. 440 data interpretation in. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 488 Antibodies cerebrospinal fluid. 1104t–1105t. 254 nursing diagnosis for. 79. 634. assessment of. Anonymity. 488 Atrophy. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). May not be copied. 98. 1050–54. Due to electronic rights. 98. 1321. 322. 430t Angry clients. 1109f Antiembolism stockings. 1106. 867. 98 Atomizer. medication administration by. 158f Aphasia. 636 purpose of. 268 in oxygenation deficits. 697p–699p Asian Americans intraoperative phase. 92–93 of blood pressure. 521t administration. 202. 1075–76 health history in. 1106f in physical examination. 573. nursing research and. 93–95 Auscultation Apnea monitor. 410 Apnea. 1211–12 Arteriosclerosis. 90 1186–87. All Rights Reserved. 949f oxygen administration by. 630 Asepsis. 220 comprehensive. 276t characteristics of. Antigens. 574t Appetite. in nursing diagnosis. 949. defined. 140–41 Ayurveda. 869–72. 77 oxygenation deficit and. 202t normal values for. classification of. 393t 1322t–1323t. 1168 observation in. 1099 stress and. 459 data verification. 616 defined. 1011–13. 1052t. 558. 1114. 659 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST). 277t functional. 80f. 521. Antivirus software. 291–92 277t–278t medical. 1313f Assessment. Aspiration. 445t death and. 573 in older adults. in communication. assessment of. perception. 610–11 neurological. in mobility deficits. 465. 937–41 critical thinking and. 887 Angina pectoris. 670 in client teaching. 508 data organization in. 1003 Anxiety data for. assessment of. 514–15. 96. 1053f–1054f Angiocatheter. 1117. 876 focused. 441 Assault. 449–55 in fluid imbalance. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. in medication interview in. 679–81 of self-concept. 624 musculoskeletal. in mobility deficits. 17 anatomy of. 487t Artifacts. wound healing and. 409–12 for client transfer. 274. 1300–1303 Anthropogenic. 570t–571t.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1385 Anger. defined. 99f–105f Atherosclerosis. 875 Artificial airway pain. 451t in elimination. 610–11 1013f Autoregulation. 276 support surfaces in pressure ulcers. communication with. Autopsy. 679 sexual. in dying process. 530p–531p of grieving person. 99f–105f mobility issues and. 4. 679–80 in sleep disturbances. 1224 mobility. defined. 91–96 Atelectasis. 871. 1323 Anorexia nervosa. 574 key concepts. 1188t Anus cultural considerations. in physical examination. 1119f Antiseptic handwash. 866 physical examination of.

1088 oxygen transport in. 623–24. 862–63. 1090. 619f. or duplicated. 609–10. 956. 503–6. 956 Bacteriuria. 1234f–1235f 1249–50 central lines. 935. 1115f Blood chemistry nursing diagnosis in. 1073–74 types of blood products. 955–58 Bowlby’s theory about grief. 514–15. 922t–923t body temperature. 487. 636 assessment of. 1177 Biopsy. 1314–15 excess. 689. imbalance. 1143p–1145p assessment of. 524p–528p transfer from bed to stretcher. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). body alignment and. 1176f. 729p–732p categories for levels. 286 Baths. 623t Body mass index (BMI). defined. 502 circulation of. 503. 920 720p–723p procedure for. 625. See Blood Body systems model. 920 Baseline values. 986p–990p Brachial artery. 619–20. assisting with client. 688f types of cells. 95 Blood defined. 691 Blood component therapy. capillary puncture. 1116. 881.Licensed to: iChapters User 1386 INDEX B Bioethics. 689 prostate specific antigen. 617. 881 Biofeedback. 648p–650p lifting and transferring. 1098t changing occupied bed. 956t Balance Biological theories. 1089f. 1065. 1108 619f. 1097. 688 blood lipids. 504t coagulation flow chart for. 478 Binders. 1258 Bed rails arterial puncture for. 1238–40. 1112t–1113t Barrel chest. 1099 complete blood count (CBC). . 505f distribution of electrolytes in. 720p–723p Blood chemistry. 203 implanted port. 291 maintaining. 506t rest. 505–6 assessment in. 358 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). 289t in stool. 533p–536p distribution of. 521. 617f diversions for. defined. 1239f double-bagging technique. 503 1119f. 613t. See also interventions in. 671. 392. 31t types. defined. 523 Body water Bed bath. 689 enzymes. diastolic. 384t–388t. 619f defined. 619–24. 1024–25 spinal. 424–25. 616. preoperative. 617. 193 therapeutic drug monitoring. 664 bed. 507t behavioral control of. 1088 394t–395t Blue Cross/Blue Shield. sleep and. 935. 1234–35.. 634. 689–90. 509 alterations in. 1176. Beliefs. 620t Body-mind medicine. 1117–18. May not be copied. 612 behavioral interventions for. 553t transfusion Body temperature. 839 purpose of. 748 assessment and preparation. 1244–45 Behavioral interventions. 200–201 for oxygen delivery. 1104t–1105t Barton. 839–40. 957–58 Back rub. 1177 administration of. 616f movement of. 477 sickle cell test. 840–41. 1103 Bargaining. 840f Beard. 521t nursing process for. auscultation. 937t Blood transfusion. 634. 619. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. in wound care. 923 Blanching. 837 tub. in dying process. 17 in pain management. Due to electronic rights. 1127p–1129p therapeutic. 191. 1233–34 1098t Base. 504t Bed Blood glucose. 614f influences on hygiene. 617. 1239–40 Beneficence. 620–22. 955–56. in whole or in part. 1180 Body fluid Baseline data. 1166 Body composition. 610–11 factors affecting. 618t Bowel incontinence. 718p systolic. 921 Bed linens sites. 1110–15. in wound care. 70 hematologic function studies. 506 Botanicals. 1011 partial. 97–98 Beau’s line. 1175. 615t 1245–46 Benchmarking. maintaining ideal. 624 Body-movement techniques. 619. 1240–44 Bedpan. 503. in physical examination. 1255f Bicarbonate type and crossmatch. Basal metabolic rate (BMR). neurological control of. 16t. 505 Bowel elimination disposal of soiled. 1249–50 Bereavement. mobility issues and. 325f changing unoccupied bed. 513–17 1140p–1143p nursing considerations. 920. client care. 689. 936t–937t 638p–641p Bowel preparation. 522 defined. See Herbs 724p–728p hemodynamic regulators of. 688 serum electrolytes. 1243 Biological clock. blood pressure assessment. 424f herbal. maintaining ideal. 616–17. 617. 956 533p–536p Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 923t venipuncture for. 622 Bodymind. 768 bone marrow. 288–89 Battery. 1110 self-help. 514t side rails as hazard. 865 Body image Basic human needs. 925f Base of support. 1235–36 as hazard. 854p–856p Biological agents. 688–89. 924t. C. 616–17 nursing diagnosis in. 614. palpation. 429 Basic needs theory. 1259p–1261p Blood testing evaluation in. 870f Bitters. Bioavailability. 688–89. defined. 673f Blood pressure. 12 Bandages. 648p–650p alterations in. in elimination issues. 688–89. 659 safety considerations. 641p–644p physiology of. 428f cleaning. of aging. 8 Black wounds. age-related variations in. 997 Bladder. in nutritional assessment of. cultural. 636–37 Body alignment. 1114. 717p postural changes effects on. 611. 505–6 assessment of. 510t. 1176f. 520 Body weight. 614–15. 1246–58 use of. 621t–622t Body mechanics. 673f blood chemistry. 520–23. 688–89. 688f arterial blood gases. scanned. 322. 1255. 611–12 planning and outcome identification in. 515 transfer from bed to wheelchair. 619–24 pregnancy and. in medication administration. measurement of. 523t Bonding. age-related variations in. 289. 610f. 937. assisting with. rectal stimulation for. 590 Biological variations. 1090f Bar coding. 521t conversion equivalents for. 955 Baccalaureate nursing programs. 627 assessment. 624 in self-concept. 428–29. 1254 deficit. 840t. 1088. 1097. 1245 in body fluid. 1014 body alignment and. 688 glucose. All Rights Reserved. 1066t reactions to. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 487t Bisexuality. 613–14.

1029–30. 996 Breathing. 868 peripherally inserted. 577f digestion of. 949f mouth-to-mouth. 404 Breast nursing definition. aspiration of. 1006 for deficient fluid volume. 1261p–1263p ineffective. 1252–53. See also Central Bulimia. 62. 997 for pneumonia. 693 1182t–1183t normal serum range for. or duplicated. 201–2 deep. 63t–65t Cavities. 772. 911p–912p. 869 defined. 1079–80 Brain Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. 567 postoperative monitoring. 864f Catheterization. 863 Catheters exercises Cardiac landmarks. 195 functions of. 270t lymph drainage patterns around. 63. 519 Cardiac angiography. 980p–983p Buccal medication administration. 276t continuum of. 935. 581 Carbohydrates. 1021 1026–27. Cane. 338f Canadian Reports. abnormal findings. on nursing education. 576. nursing education in. 949–51. defined. 959–60 catheters Bundle branch block. 58–59 Brushing hair. 1208f Butterfly needle. 589–90 Cachexia. 494–95 anatomy of. for IV therapy. Carotenemia. 1209t Canadian Nurses Association (CNA). 248–49 Cell death. 611–12. 361 costal (thoracic). 863. L. 417 changing dressing. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 975p–976p 787p–791p for constipation. 620t for memory impairment. All Rights Reserved. 939 for breastfeeding. 1005f Care provider. 1225–26 Bradycardia. 1273p–1279p Breath sounds Cardiovascular system self-catheterization. 1209f 1004. 1212f code of ethics. cardiac. 338. 505 changing dressing. 1028f Cerebellar function. 417 deficit. 641p–644p 575t lymph nodes. 1253f characteristics of. 922t for ineffective role performance. 504–5. 1103 1030f in mobility. 842 Bruising. 975p–976p incentive spirometry. 879–80 Cardiac catheterization. defined. 882 condom. nurse as. 13 in therapeutic relationship. 873–74 children. in fluid imbalance. 881–82 peripheral-short. scanned. 12–13 levels of. 247t development. 1122t. 1253f patterns of. 874–75. 251. defined. 513 for impaired skin integrity. 169–70 theoretical perspectives on. 577t–580t. 228 Breastfeeding. 861f intervention to increase. 879–80 infant. 955 Breckinridge. See also Plan of care (CMS). 950t controlled. 785–86 Central lines. 1000. 1001t Cascara sagrada bark. defined. in whole or in part. 576. 870f Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 58 Carter. 630 Categorical imperative. 578t Capillary puncture. 925 for deep vein thrombosis. physical examination of. 362 types of. for terminally ill client. 1208. 1181. defined. 869 Brown report. 574 for excess fluid volume. 549t Caregiver. for confused older adult. 519 Cardiac cycle. 995f Case management. 942 flushing. 934–35. May not be copied. 434 637f Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 955 intermittent positive-pressure. 611–12. 62f Centering. 252 anatomy of. 1250. 980p–983p deep. . 302t male. 630 Catharsis. 1325 Catheter sepsis. 1122f. on male genitalia. 690 Bronchoscopy.. for pressure ulcers risk. 450 teaching postoperative. 880 heart failure and. 173t Caring. 579t–580t Capitated rates. disturbances in. 572f central. 874t fragmentation of. 1168f for imbalanced nutrition components of. 573 Care plans. 915p–916p irrigation of. 10 Care Cations. Central parenteral nutrition (CPN). 960–61 Central nervous system (CNS) Burns. 1121. 868 peripherally inserted central. 1328p decreased. types of. 246 communication and. 637. Due to electronic rights. damage to. 312 language areas of. 574. 1250f. 773f. 372–74 flushing. 871t age-related changes in. in older adults.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1387 Braden scale. 571–72. 577f on standards of practice. 1258 quadrants of. 929t–930t. 885–87 Bradypnea. 879–80. M. 1253 adventitious. See also Respiration(s) excess. 951. 300. 519 immobility effects on. 335. 247–48. 546 581 1155p–1156p Carotid arteries. 251f physical examination of. client care. 949. 913p–915p inserting male. Calcium. 907p–911p. transport and excretion. 914p–916p inserting female. assessment of. 1059 Brown. 1190f Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 15 for sleep disturbances. 1328p Cardiac conduction system. 576. 951 Buffer systems. 611–12. 204 barriers to learning and. 325–26 Carbonic acid process of. 936t Cataracts. 581 Carbon dioxide. 228–30 nursing care plan for. 1100–1101. B. defined. 1253 intervention to improve. 883 medications for. 1208. 620 Broca’s aphasia. 1208. 611. 913p–916p coude´. 144 self-examination. 12–13 in high technology environment. 518 Calorie. 949. 950t Buccal cavity. 861 one rescuer. 1189. 581f Candidiasis. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 933 for injury risk. 951 mechanics of. 1256–58 peripherally inserted. 630 diaphragmatic (abdominal). 883t urinary. 882. 880 defined. 252. 62–65.. 519 Canada. 135–36. 879–80 Cardiac output. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). defined. 949–51. 936t Catabolism.. 1268p–1272p work of. ambulation with. E. 458–59 Central catheters. 595 therapeutic use of self. 691 for anxiety. 62f. 256 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Bruits. 588t. 1101f urine collection from. 860. 558 two rescuers. abnormal. 644p–645p normal. 65 Ceiling effect. 1264p–1268p Breath odors. 1090–91 C more than body requirements. 949f less than body requirements.

263t defined. 226 types of. 418 nurse as. 1115f Change. 1165 116–18 Chickweed. 591–92 Chiropractic therapy. 565t teaching. airway obstruction emergency procedure evaluation of. 342t. 612–13. 1025 Chinese medicine. 876. 402–3 Chest Circulation. 784 SOAP. 870f systemic and pulmonary. 864f–865f reducing dietary fat. 293t to improve breathing patterns. 371 source-oriented. 227 Chronic pain infant accident prevention. 301f. 862–63. 1115 Chancroid. 1007 barrel. 70 Children Client care Closed method. 402t conscious adult. 1073 pain management. 1045 key concepts. 448f defined. 1112t–1113t alterations nutritional considerations in. 681. 447–48. 455 Charting Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease healthy diet. 863. scanned. 188–90. 677. 432 physiotherapy. 905p–906p nurse-client relationship. 413 general reminders. 1054. documentation for. 222 Chest x-ray. 1098–99. 840 restraints and. 1075 intraoperative. 1073 purpose of. 300–301. 835. 1319–20 Cervical lymph nodes. 426. 1045–46 legal considerations. 449t Cholesterol. 595 Chlamydia. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 673 Cineradiography. 1186f Chancre. 1110–15. 681 402t–405t Chest thrusts Clean-voided urine collection. nurse as. 835f. 853t assistive devices for. 1310–14. 1109 configuration and posture. 1114. 329 narrative. 548t Circadian rhythms. 1134p–1137p Coercive power. 226 acute. 628–29 progressive muscle relaxation. 1138p–1140p Chakras. 835f as vulnerable population. 415. 256. 416f focus. 408. 1120 paradigms and. 713p–716p for. 448 Choking. 181t 481 cardiac output and. 449 client teaching and. . 402–5. 328. 1023 in pressure ulcers. 695p–696p Cleaning baths. 1246 resistance to. 208 Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS). 688f teaching-learning process. 882 Cognition mobility issues and. 663–64 913p–916p Client educator. 1187 Client advocacy. 904f 645p–648p urinary elimination alterations. 410f SOAPIE. 1045–46 older adults skin alterations. 939. total. 358. of fingers. 659 Chylomicrons. 880 Cleansing. 1078 restraint application. 874t male. 446–47 in body fluid. 176t Child abuse. topics for. 1045 for older adults. 449 Chronic illness evaluation of. 563t Chvostek’s sign. 620t ambulation. 623t diagnostic testing. 923t Client status. 1246 unconscious adult. 416. 1098t common. 214–15 in oxygenation deficits. 454 Cherry angioma. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 647p Clinical judgment. palpation of. 1114. 688–89. 1186. 329f bowel elimination alterations. tubes. 544t Chamomile. 265 evaluating web information. 939f preoperative. 1165–66 sleep disturbances. 205 characteristics of. 426f. 1054–55 nursing process and. May not be copied. in bed. 1303 Clean-contaminated wounds. 1008 types of. Chronobiology. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 867f home care and. 884 by exception. 1072f nasal inhalers. 1215–19. 646p–747p Client transfer. 169 pain assessment in. 263. 480t–482t. 623 cultural competence in. 98. infant. 877f Civil law. 871f for. 365 Checklist format. 613. 448. Chi. Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM). 405 problem-oriented. 543. 226 nursing diagnosis in. in whole or in part. 415f. 1308. 249. communication. 358t poison prevention. 446–47 coronary artery disease risk and. 1248 assessment of. 934 Client teaching. 408f moving in bed. 446 disturbances in. 613 Clinical information systems. 409–18. 677f complementary and alternative therapies Client positioning Clubbing. 1114t Codes of ethics. 176t self-concept and. 284 guided imagery. Due to electronic rights. for documentation. 227 nonmalignant. 226–27 nursing care plan for. 195 Clove hitch knot. 447. 622 eating disorder prevention. 401–18 overcoming barriers to. 852 defined. 46. 418 PIE. 1175f cardiopulmonary resuscitation for. 433 preoperative examination of. in nursing diagnosis. 396 stress and. for donning gloves. 871. 1002 1312f–1314f Chemical restraints. 629f infant or child. 1006–7 in elimination issues. 303t Client advocate. in evaluation. 250t Closed suction drainage systems. 865. or duplicated. 1215t–1218t Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 1002 dietary considerations for older adults. 604t. 407t. 608t theories about. 1174. 204 loss and grief associated with. 405. 448–49 normal serum range for.Licensed to: iChapters User 1388 INDEX Certification. 448t Cholinesterase. 144 Clostridium difficile. 870f heart as pump for. 432 1112t–1113t Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist sexual information for. 61 for physical examination. 865f self-concept in children. 226 persistent. 227 (COPD). 1311t. 834–35. 885 Channels. 834–35. 1070–71. 342t side rail use. 863. 904f female. Chemical agents. 679 Cheeks. 879 (CRNA). 864f safety at home. 154 707f–708f. inspection of. 623. life energy. 1054t for impaired mobility. 176t sleep in. 629. 1056 101f–104f Chronological age. 843 Clean wounds. 1054f. 339 Change agent Chronemics. 446–49 Chloride Client’s rights. 606t. 189t self-concept in older adults. 402. 256 Clinical pathways. 155 defined.

445 Complementary therapies. See also Herbs Cognitive development. in health history. 228. 835f Condyloma acuminatum. 853t applications for. 1224 vs. 880 633f preoperative. 237–40 Combination format. 77. 47 Communicable agent. perception. Computerized documentation. defined. allopathic medicine. in pain interdisciplinary. 276–78. 659 in surgery older adults. 1209f–1210f. 264t nursing and. 1224. 216. 1109 Complication. 625 Community nursing organizations (CNOs). defined. 631. Colostomy. 239–40 Colonoscopy. 252 interventions. 130–31 in wound healing. 1305–6. 839–40. 214 oral care for. 1178t with vulnerable populations. 836t benefits of. intraoperative phase. wound healing and. 303 Complete proteins. 82 defined. 1124 physiology of. 276t Communicable diseases. 1187 energetic-touch healing. 1078 Cohesiveness. 884–85 Cognitive dimension. 264–65. 251 oxygenation deficits and. 1225t Cognitive skills. 837 Condylomata lata. May not be copied. 255. 270t–272t spiritual therapies. 1074 in elimination issues. 303–4 Computerized care plan. 659 historical influences on. 592 previous. 1255 61–62. 404t with older adults. 261–78 humor. 266–68 in pressure ulcer care. 884 840f Conditions. 90 in nutritional imbalance. 856 1219. stages of. 24. 838f factors affecting. 77t leadership and. 1208 cultural differences in. 834 dry. 98. Conceptual framework. 216–17 music. 924t disaster preparedness. 1250. 1069t Cognitive function. 848. 248f throughout the life cycle. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 836 nursing diagnosis. 924t key concepts. management. 265f in pain management. 275t integrative therapy. 140 process of. 1208. 1221t critical thinking and. 1171 contemporary trends. 262f. 471 medication administration. 1047 Community considerations Complicated grief. 94 holism and nursing. components of. 1163 Community health. 1068 in oxygenation deficits. 1249 Reconciliation Act (COBRA). 851f 1211 factors influencing. 1179t–1180t Community. 1108 cultural competence in home care. 1256. 266 therapeutic. 614. 588 in mental status assessment. 305–6 nursing and use of. 848 Concluding phase. 222 spiritual care and.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1389 evaluation. or duplicated. 632f. 317t levels of. 371 in sensation. 770 nursing diagnosis and. 1000 Colic. 170 Concept. medication modes of. 268 nutritional therapies. assessment of. for Collaborative problems. 592 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. in wound care. 1224 Communication. 1250f. 1244 Community health nursing. medication administration and. 24. 277t–278t. 1261p–1263p sleep and. 19–20. documentation as. 1220t caring and. 852 Cognitive-behavioral interventions. 1289p–1291p Comorbidity. screening for. measures body-movement techniques. 304–5 legal considerations. 170 Computer use. 1190 administration and. 44 Comfort aromatherapy. See also in evaluation. 850 interventions. 837. 615t moist. defined. 1219. 1307t pain management. 659 public health. 847t. 739p–740p defined. 486 Collaboration assistive devices in home. 65t 229f changing pouch for. 850–51. Due to electronic rights. 304t validity of online. in whole or in part. 691 833–56 Conceptualization. 391 medications. 82. nursing and. 248. 112 safety and. 1178f with unconscious client. scanned. defined. for documentation. 59 Computerized physician order entry (CPOE). 837–39. 415 Complementary and alternative in infusion therapy. 237–40 Colonization. defined. 836–37 Condom catheter. 1078 Computer-controlled dispensing system. 265–66. 454 paraverbal. 838t planning and outcome identification. 851f Cognitive impairments. 1187. 82t shelter. 1065–68. 687–88 Cognitive learning domain. in implementation. 350 Computed tomography (CT) scan. 133 client role stressors. and cognition Cognitive reframing. 766f Collagen. 1179t 278 Complete blood count (CBC). 1221t blocks to. 262 in mobility deficits. 765. 484. 1055 incontinence in home. of therapeutic relationship. 874t in wound healing. 587–88 pet therapy. 1224 Competency Computer literacy. 279 1023–26. 852. 1209t. . 1015–16 hypothermia in homeless. defined. 659 in fluid imbalance. 1258 Conduct and Utilization of Research in Comfrey. 1212–13 defined. 845–46 Cold therapy. 834–36. 404. 274. 772 Compromised host. 769–70 components of. 840–45 Nursing (CURN). 176 oxygenation deficits and. 277t. 397 Comprehensive assessment. 1066t key concepts. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 851. 1317–18 oxygen in the home. 691. 383. 304. 268–69. 1211–12 277t–278t mind-body medicine research. 254 alterations. 315–16. 262–64. in goals. 384t–388t mind-body techniques. 263t key concepts. All Rights Reserved. 371 215 communication with. 228f. 1068. potential. 1170 relaxing home environment. 303–5 Computer information Colloid osmotic pressure. 159 client teaching. 837 defined. 943 confused client. 516 Comprehensive Omnibus Budget in pain management. licensure and. 958 Conduction aphasia. 1176–78 touch as. defined. 262 for sleep disturbances. Comatose client Compassion. 1224 medicine in mobility deficits. 44 105f Complementary and alternative medicine. 846–48. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. client care. 219–20 Colloids. 274. 45 Combing hair. 136 Colorectal cancer.

188 characteristics of. 78 physical examination and. 384t–388t. 76–77 defined. 443 dominant. 1066t nutritional considerations in. 91. 623. 507 documentation and. 523 Continuity theory of aging. of health care. 574 in medication administration. 310 and. 46 types of. Continent urinary diversion. 46 intervention. 1300–1303 care of deceased. 65 defined. 381 subjective. 1245 communication and. 1215t. 484 in immune defense. 119 Contrast-mediated radiography. 664–65 Deamination. 380t Conscious procedural sedation. 659 in nursing process. 1008f autopsy. 230. 868 Credibility. 176 Culture Consciousness. 70 nursing research and. 589–90 nursing process and. . 117–18 organization. 62–65. nursing diagnosis for. 485t Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 1062 creativity and. 1208. assessment of. 764 Cultural assimilation. surgical. in whole or in part. 381 communication with. 1255 126–27 Dandelion. 33 defined. nursing diagnosis in. 178 Contact transmission. 606–7 Crisis. 382. 1222–24 Creativity. 546 in older adults. 264 in assessment. 155 Contract law. 382 Congestive heart failure. 683. 879–80 in nursing diagnosis. 70. 451t in growth and development. 69t. 191. 1325 sources. 99f–105f ineffective. 1328p–1329p in vital signs. 628 Constipation. 380. or duplicated. 76–79 Cutaneous pain. 687t nursing leadership and. 193 Crackles. 868f Coronary artery disease (CAD) hygiene and. See also Documentation behaviors. 391–92. 628 informed. 945 in evaluation. 866. 199 Coughing sleep and. 1247t 277t–278t Cyanosis. 1074 cause of. 1216 folk medicine and. 443–44. 274 with loss. 98. 443–44 concepts. 588t. 78 DASH diet. 1008. scanned. 92t Controlled breathing exercises. 367–68 in health. 63t–65t Crystalloids. 62f. defined. 68. 231f–234f. quality management and. 366t Creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 66 1151p–1154p collection. 626t–627t. 221 loss as. 86t D Contaminated wounds. 358 Cross-functional team. 219–20 teaching postoperative. 97 Continuous quality improvement (CQI). ambulation with. 634f Consumer demand. Cross-linkage theory of aging. 273 of a child. 487–93 lipids and. 256 Cultural diversity. 274. Due to electronic rights. 98. 35 verification. 381 defined. quality management due to immobility. 1103. 1280p–1286p Critical thinking. 78t Cytoscope. 365. 171 Coping Cultural considerations Data documentation. 382 Confused client Cranial nerves. 192f defined. 199 Cost. 32t. 383. 749 Cultural care. 1254t. leadership and. clustering. 91–98 1312–13 Crutches. in pain management. 660–61 in therapeutic communication. 77. 662 defined. 80. nurse as. 35 in computer information.Licensed to: iChapters User 1390 INDEX Confidentiality teaching effective. 1045 nursing care plan for. 1238–39 in goals. 81 Cutaneous stimulation. 189–90 Crystalloid solutions. 171 Convalescent stage. 312 Daydreaming. 78–79 Cytomegalovirus (CMV). 395 Data Bank’s Proactive Disclosure Service Coordination. 76 and. 276–78. 871t defined. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 380t Consent balancing factors in. 85. 623t in nutrition. 1210f dominant values and. 945–46 forms for recording. 685f. 70f Data Continuous passive motion (CPM) device. urine excretion test. 78 value of. 233 Contractures. 44 defined. 395–97 Prototype (PDS). 96 use of. 1122t. 372–74 Creatinine. 870 opioid-induced. 18 problem solving and. 629 defined. 444 in communication. 91–96 Continuum of care. Consent form. 92t schedule for. 443t organizing phenomena of. 117 objective. 1247. 362–63 components of. 1065. 1050 care after. 454. documentation considerations. 133–34 development of. 282 Deadspace. blood transfusions Construct. defined. 1106f Cues interpretation. 31t.. 1166 planning and outcome identification. defined. 519 in preoperative assessment. 1307–8 Criteria 389–90 Conservation theory. 91. 229 Customer satisfaction. 66 evaluation and. 1245 decision making and. 382f sensory overload and. 91. 493–95 Costal (thoracic) breathing. 380–81. 621 key concepts. 59 pain and. 358 in assessment. 455f organizational. 79–81. 156 Contact precautions. 1238 Critical pathway. 443f defined. 1256–58 in assessment. critical thinking and. 1102 Critical period. 225–26 Counselor. 194 Cultural competence Data Bank. S. 484. 571–72. 130 Customer. 191f. 1000 defined. 1253–54. 1123. defined. 397–98 nursing care plan. 1211–12 Criminal law. 957 Consultation. 379–98 legal considerations. 393t older adult. 67–68 enema for. 155 administration of. 277t assessment of. 770 Death. 80. National Practitioner. defined. 870–71 perceived. 130–31 Culture and sensitivity tests. May not be copied. 876 transcultural caring theory. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. All Rights Reserved. 1025 Continuing education. of infectious process. 1014 in U. 97–98 Controlled substances Cullen’s sign. 519. 476 68. 589.

846–47 physiological changes in body. 233. 1247t religion traditions related to. 1000 Decision-support software. scanned. 941 in fluid imbalance. 431 aspiration and biopsy. assessment of. 17–18 Delegation. 54 nutrition and fluid therapy in. 1251–52 legal considerations. 413 Disabled clients. 1000 preparedness. in dying process. 199–200. 134f history. 632–33 for diagnostic testing. 487. 208–9. 78–79 in therapeutic communication. 607–8. 1181 Developmental considerations. 750–51 Degrees. 94 872t–874t defined. 590. 193–94 medical. 58–59. 304–5 Deep breathing exercises. 1164t Disclosure. 216–17 Denial radioactive studies. 201–2 Diarrhea. 1214 Defense mechanisms. 631 as communication. 589. screening for. 1247. 607t–608t in pain management. 735p–737p Diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing. 634f. 488 Department of Health and Human Services nursing diagnosis in. 994–95. 134. 10 laboratory testing. or duplicated. 544 ethical. 1010t–1012t organ donation. 233 ineffective. 234t Deep tendon reflexes. 519 of medication error. 199 Depression Dietary fiber. self-concept and. 115 client care during. 94–95 Diploma nursing programs. 939–41. 487–88. 996. 1254–55 hypotonic. 1003–4 stages of dying and. 99f–105f defined. 735p–737p Diaphragm. 785–86 defined. 46 Deep vein thrombosis (DVT). 609 in dying process. 1233–34 Differentiated nursing practice. All Rights Reserved. 1255f hypertonic. J. 605–7. 487. in intravenous (IV) therapy. 484 (DHHS). 219–22 assisting with self-care. 199–200 Dependent variable.. 650–51 Dock. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 1186t cycle Digestion. 1235 nursing. health traumatic. Disaster Declarative knowledge. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 177. 1017t pronouncement of. 636–37 Distraction Defining characteristics. confidentiality and. 681 Defecation. 493–94 Dependence Diastole. 622. 310 Diffusion. Due to electronic rights. 1021 Dextrose. 451t Radiology key concepts. 634. 444 Diagnostic errors. 506 nursing process and. 8 isotonic. defined. 601–51 Dissolution. 1066t Definition. 442 Deglutition. 635t–636t bowel. 871–72. 310 Disaccharides. 366t Dietary reference intake (DRI). 589f Diethyllhexyl phthalates (DEHP). 487t Dermatome map. 495 chemical. 632 in assessment. defined. 630–31 legal considerations. 446 therapy. 16t. 488–93. 10 Delano. care of. 616 in infection. 863 nurse’s self-care and. 16t critical thinking and. nervous control of. 608t. 273 Dirty and infected wounds. 519 of medication administration. 215 Developmental transitions. 81. 115 client care after. nursing diagnosis in assessment. 15–17. 770 in client teaching. in whole or in part. 667–68 Dix. 633 Diuretics. L. 406f implementation and. 45 hazards of.. 660–62 Diagnostic testing. 1255. See also Nursing diagnosis Disinfection. 81. 119–20 Disseminated intravascular coagulation common. 925f defined. 231f–234f. 240–41 Denture care ultrasound. May not be copied. 941 key concepts. in older adults. 366t in nutritional imbalance. 230. 489t. 484 Detrusor muscle. 866 in pressure ulcers. 935 Discharge planning. 76 428–29. 229f Democratic leadership style. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 628–30. 199 in grief. 175. 179f magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 1051 and. 127. 98. 480t–482t Digestive enzymes. 358 Defamation. 504. 81–83. 940f urinary. 228f. 1003 482t–483t. nursing care Diagnosis. 1185–86. 1166 defined. 872f. 1000 Discipline. 222 Disorientation. See also forms for recording data. for enteral tube cleaning. 19 Debridement Development. 605t–606t Distress. 208f Developmental tasks. 142 nonnuclear scan studies. 1016. 484 in older adults.. 879–80 Diabetes ketoacidosis. physical examination in. 503 electrodiagnostic studies. 681 Defendant. full. 482. 622t Decision making in health history. nursing diagnosis and. 228. 1239 methods. drug. nursing diagnosis for. in nursing diagnosis. 603f. 82t Disease prevention activities. 25 591t–592t wound healing and. 484 Descriptive research design. 365. 480–82. 81t Disinfectants. 765 Diastolic blood pressure. D. 603–5. glucose in. 178f Laboratory testing Documentation considerations in. 287 plan for. client teaching and. 995 client preparation for. 1328p Diabetes mellitus Discharge summary. 225–26 Demographic information. 177t in oxygenation deficits. 248. movement of. 487t Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). 405. 1243–44 Diversions Dehydration endoscopy. 365. 883t Dehiscence. 148 teaching postoperative. 81t. 750 self-concept and healthy. of a drug. 634. defined. 603t Distribution. 1013–14 computerized. . See also Life defect. See also Doctoral nursing programs. 1065. 226–30 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 1165 in elimination issues. defined. 110 Disengagement theory of aging. 487t radiologic studies. 428f defined.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1391 ethical considerations. 190 Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). 941 injury or infection risk and. 304 DeClogger. 176–78. 44 macrobiotic. 763 providing. 606t. 225 Deontology. 948 unexpected. 1245 grieving and. 604t. 1009. 446t Diagnostic label. 78 Developmental delays. of a drug. 176 medication administration and. 230. 96 pain and. 608–28. 995f Deceased. 765 Diet. See also Nutrition 491t–492t Dependent nursing intervention. 924t. 493 Depersonalization. 114–15 (DIC). 216–17 Dementia.

199 Elbow. 921. 1256. 1250–51 Electroencephalography (EEG). 478. age-related changes in. 1023 Dyspnea. 752 assessment in. 1172t–1174t. 479 containment devices. 1102 refeeding syndrome. 620t Enteral tube feeding. 217–22 Eating disorders. . 300. 1068 external structures of. 619–20. May not be copied. See Client teaching. 620t administration of. of a drug. 549t Emergency measures. 1099 Ear(s) planning and outcome identification. skin integrity. 301f. 686f. 1291 purpose of. in therapeutic communication. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 1036p–1039p interactions. 1251–52 mobility issues and. 540 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 772–74. 1231–91. 661 safety considerations. preoperative. 1031p–1035p Duration. See also Terminally Double-barrel stoma. 1250 for physical examination. scanned. 559t rectal stimulation. Domestic violence. 900p–901p 1174 stress testing. 197. 1254t. 921 Energy. 768–69 dissolution of. 1244–45 injury or infection risk in home. 1255 wet-to-damp. 507 E medications. 1038p nomenclature. 923t administration of. 945 addiction and. Entry-level educational program. 1258 anxiety and. defined. 1249–50 defined. 634f. See also Bowel intermittent bolus. 221 interventions tube insertion.. 773 paroxysmal nocturnal. 1235–36 fluid imbalance and. 1048 for physical examination. All Rights Reserved. 1252–53. 1018f. 338–39 Embryonic stage. safe operation of. 1247 formulas for. Dysfunctional grief. factors influencing action of. 381 education of clients. 450 health maintenance. 1252. 1253t in infection chain. 1020–21 therapeutic monitoring. 879 Dressings. 942 273–74 types of documents. 633 Enemas. 1171 reporting. 687t Electrolytes. 1236–40. 718p 678f End-of-life care. 1258 medication administration through. 558. 624 1239f DeClogger for. reaction. 754 behavioral interventions for. 235–36 Echocardiogram. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 922t. 921f Engle’s theory about grief. 320 reimbursement and. or duplicated. 633 suctioning. 149 medication administration. 1021–22 Duty. in therapeutic relationship. 515 nutrition and fluid therapy. 1018f Duvall. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 585f of nurses. common. 938 Empathy. 1237t. 1019. 218t in fluid imbalance. 488–89. 924t End stoma. 303t pitting. assessment of. 840–45 Medications defined. 597 813p–814p surgical management. 4.. 839. 453t. 1246–48 effects on vital signs. 633 Endotracheal tube. 1195p–1197p Electrochemical gradient. 15 Dysuria. 635t–636t surgical. 182 Doppler ultrasound. Endocrine system. 1019–20 Durable power of attorney. in whole or in part. 1198p–1201p Electrodiagnostic studies. 1316 clinical manifestations of. 363 Double-bagging. 782–83. signal-averaged. 678. 633 Endorphins. 1036p–1037p over-the-counter. 381 Efferent nerve pathway. 302t complementary and alternative Enteral tubes Dying. 769 elimination. 932–34 Enteral medication administration. 754–55 normal ranges of routine. See also Medication administration. 1255 Electrical hazards. 754 Electronic health record (EHR). 772–74. 874t Endoscopy. 631 Electrical equipment. 1238t. 1021 tolerance. 1327–28 Edema Emotions. 763–64 alterations in. 543. 182 in U. 926 1023 food-drug interactions. See Death. in wound care. 1250–51. 1253–54. 544t in oxygenation deficits. 223–26 physical examination of. 1211f defined. 768 serum testing. 633 oxygen administration by. defined. 752 disturbances. 630 Emotional state. 755 factors affecting balance. 751–55 elimination 1037p–1038p supply and storage. 938 270t Dominant culture Education. 478t classification. in wound healing. 1254t Droplet precautions. 1255–56 principle of effective. Urinary intermittent gavage feeding. 765–66 immobility effects on. oxygenation and. effects on client safety. 300–302. 751 Elimination. 506 enemas. 874t 656–57 postoperative. 1320 ill clients Draping Electrocardiography. 222 Ecchymosis (bruise). 217. 559t–561t key concepts. 1016 Drug abuse factors affecting. 190 catheterization. 667. 997 allergies. 1019–20 Dysrhythmia. 692–94 1245–46 in pain management. E. 182 Do not resuscitate order (DNR). 1255f Enterostomy. anatomy of. 894p–897p dry. 1018–21 history. 921. 1253f types of. 865 care of. intraoperative. 754. 1211. surgery in oxygenation deficits. 922t Energetic-touch healing. in adolescents.Licensed to: iChapters User 1392 INDEX of nursing interventions. 875 diversions. 659 nursing diagnosis in. S. 1171. 683. 1019 by nurses. 926. 519 1250f–1251f types of. 927t–932t. 1280p–1286p Drug. 1023 Dullness. 1102 Dribble pads. 1244 1280p–1286p Environment evaluation in. 582 in immune defense. 1254 for physical examination. Due to electronic rights. 765 habits. of bed linen. Terminally ill clients medicine. 619. 253. 1254–55. Nursing Empowerment defined. 634. 669 Ear canal temperature. 1253–54. 1319–20 radionuclide studies. 215 continuous gavage feeding. 633 Endurance. complications of. 1097. 1240–44 tube removal. 1018–19. 878f.

622. cultural differences in. 154f teaching postoperative. of a joint. 673. 46 for spiritual needs. 1067 1213. 997 healing.. 741p–743p scarce resources and. peer. 589 614f in PIE charting. 239 principles. 555t–556t Essential oils. 157f Extension. 1097–98 sleep and. All Rights Reserved. 202–4. E. 754. physical examination of. 1249 in client teaching. 1120 for surgical interventions. Euthanasia. 49f nursing roles and. 1068 External respiration. of therapeutic relationship. 205. 442 elimination and.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1393 in sensation. 694 defined. 1106–7 Eustress. 129t Erb’s point. 30. 1317f of client care. 517 preambulation. 782. 1324–25 bioethics. administration of. 33 digestive. 622t goals and expected outcomes and. 453t in sleep disturbances. 546 outcome. 207 evidence reports. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 655 in older adults. 84–85 250–51 diagnostic. 1092t Enzymes in elimination. in urinary incontinence. defined. 1238 Ethical considerations. 692. 1306. 455 artificial care. 754. 118–19 in nursing process. 313t–314t in mobility deficits. 1162 death and. 1092. 157. 193 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 181t Errors multidisciplinary collaboration in. 155 E-prescribing. 154–55. 786 nursing diagnosis and. 156–59 Exudate client’s rights. 572. 741p–745p Ethical reasoning. 674t–675t folk medicine practices in. 958 Existentialism. 1124 Expert power. 1106–7 European American as complementary and alternative assisting client with. 1074 accountability and. 811p key concepts. 278 for stress reduction. 1191 Extraurethral urinary incontinence. 1163 key concepts. 743p–745p Ethics postoperative phase. 507 58. 1026 Exploratory research design. in communication. 1321 contact care. 161–62 evaluation and. codes of. 42. assessment of. 154 types of. 200–201 quality of care and. 620–22. 45 reporting. 119–20 in nutritional imbalances. 159 Extinction. 64t Erythema. 49–50. 200–209 process. 155 Expected outcomes Epidemiology. 1008 Exclusive provider organizations (EPOs). 49f Face. 200 determining. 42 medication administration. perception. 20 surgery and care. 486–87 components of. administration of. 375 Extended care facilities. 202t nursing research and. . 294 Eyedrops. 154 range of motion (ROM). 159 physiological benefits of. 415–16. communication and. 519 Exercise(s). 149 Exploitative phase. perception. 1061t. 155–56 Experimental research design. 381 Evisceration. 128 Epithelialization. 503. 556t concepts. 312–13. 554. Environmental hazards. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 508 Risk Assessment Tool (RAT) for. 1121f characteristics of. 1077–78 for body temperature alteration. 920–21. 554t–557t videography research and. 391. 839 prevention of. or duplicated. 208–9. 129. 464 Ethnocentrism. 50 810p–813p dilemmas. nursing diagnosis and. 115 of a drug. 157f assessment of. 1165 Facial expression. and cognition defined. 848 in pressure ulcer care. 207 structure. 83. 159 Expert witness. May not be copied. 45 external structures of. 488 alterations. 393t effects on vital signs. 157f Extubation. 1316 812p–813p committees. 920f Eschar. 204 preoperative phase. 1090 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). assessment. 1092. 503 in nursing diagnosis nursing interventions and. 1308. 31t defined. 205 in pain management. 396 1328p–1332p Environmentalist theory. 208 in sleep disturbances. 1163–64 euthanasia. 677–78 cultural competence in. Faith effects on vital signs. 208 intraoperative phase. 862 Erythrocytes (red blood cells). 207 for stress and anxiety. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 551–52 Ethnicity. 1310. defined. 613–14. 385t medicine. 572f methods of. 304 grieving process and. 381 Excretion. in whole or in part. 1248–49 blood testing for. 692. 1166 planning and. Due to electronic rights. 811p–812p nursing research and. 1080 Eye ointment. 201–2 trends in. 452f 384t–388t. 671. 50 values and. 195 medication. 227 Extracellular fluid. 418 1093t–1097t Environmental control. 471–72 Eye(s) refusal of treatment. 153–62 physical fitness and. 129–30 Epidural analgesics. 845–46 Etiology. 392t components of. 208f defined. and cognition. 1120. 618t in pain management. 621t–622t in fluid imbalance. 134 Extraocular muscle. 613t. 1236 False imprisonment. 751 Fall Eupnea. 667. 204 Evidence reports. 939 decision making. 48–50 F theories about. 49–50. 546. 205 sexuality and. 157–58. 1091–98 assessment for risk. 452. 1224 types of. 1327–28 disk medication administration. 207–8 informatics and. 205 in sensation. 58t defined. 208 Evaluative research design. 1062–63 in injury or infection risk. 200–201 Evidence-based practice in fluid imbalance. scanned. See Medication errors nursing audit. 1218 Evaluation. 156–57. 1258 in urinary incontinence. 45 Erikson. 158–59. 1316–17. 267–68 effects on nutrition. 190. 158f Expiration. 215 in medication administration.

920f–921f Full-thickness wound. 1122f. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 320 postoperative. in communication. 735p Foot. 926 in pressure ulcers. to blood transfusion. 996. 958 Friction self-concept and. 920–23. 1092t. 997 influences on health. T. 290–91 Fixation. 945 363 Flow rate. 1004. 395t Genital care. 203–4 Flushing anatomy of. 1298–99. 1019 Gestures. 1217–18 Fecal incontinence. 255 Food Guide Pyramid. All Rights Reserved. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 507 cardiorespiratory. 938 General survey. 944–45 Fee-for-service reimbursement. types of. 953. client care. 1101 Fiber. 97 Federal legislation. 389t. 960–61 in fluid balance. Feeding. . 1246 Functional team. preoperative. 922t. language. cultural considerations. assessment of. 298f. 440. 1004f General anesthesia. 312. 57 Fluid therapy G Felony. defined. 998t 942–43 in mobility deficits. 846. See also Enteral tube feeding forced. 923t Freud. 1183t structure. 925f Fragmentation of care. 957 Fluid intake and output alterations. perception. 1049f Fire prevention. scanned. 514t threats to. 1327 impaired. 678 Focused assessment. 298–99. 937–41 nursing care plan for. in IV therapy. 923. Functional assessment Fat-soluble vitamins. 616 Fluoroscopy. 924t a central catheter. in therapeutic relationship. 362–63 patterns of. 1017f body compartment. 690 preoperative preparation. 484..Licensed to: iChapters User 1394 INDEX Family acid-base balance in. 690–91. for intravenous solutions. development of. 263–64 Fluid(s) Functional urinary incontinence. 300–302. 442f a cannula. about medication measurement of. 607. 997 key concepts. 90f Gender Firewall. 391–92. 301t assessment in. 1034p–1035p restricted. dietary. 590–92. in fluid imbalance. 190 Germinal stage.. 941–42 Full disclosure. 389. C. Due to electronic rights. 542–45 Flexner Report. 1102 Female reproductive system (IV) therapy Gait belt use. 920–23 Fractures. 1212 Fowler. 299t key concepts. 586f Genital warts. 389 Fitness. 1119. 689. 1005–6 identity. M. 313t roles and functions. 1049–50. 1150p age-related changes in. and cognition Febrile reaction. 303 complementary and alternative medicine Fraud. 318t Fluid balance. 195 Germicide. 921. 441f Flexibility. providing. 590. 628 Gastrointestinal tract Fidelity. 1009 General adaptation syndrome. 300–302 nursing diagnosis in. 924t. 953–54 Forced fluids. 1325–26 immobility effects on. 1103 characteristics of healthy. S. 302t in. 1314–15 Fibrinogen level. 1302–3 Floating. 871. 363–64 oral. 591–92 Fluid volume Garlic. 681 calculation of. 773 Fingers. 938 Functional health patterns. 1166 Family medical history. 485t body water distribution in. 1126f cultural differences in. 319–20 Flow sheets. 268 Fluency. 942 Fever risk for. defined. 941–42 Gas exchange Fetal alcohol syndrome. providing. 301f. or duplicated. 390t body fluid movement in. 1247t Fluoride treatments. 11 Food preferences. 342t Flossing. 881–82 Frostbite. 194 developmental theories. 1234f Filtration. 923. 322 nursing care plan for. 343t Flow-control devices. 939–41. 1097 genetically modified. 63. 663 postoperative monitoring of.. 1237–38. 921. 1106f Fatty acids. 941 age-related changes in. 94 planning and outcome identification in. 953 structure of. 517 excess. 923 in sensation. 188 in elimination issues. 230. 958 Free radicals. 920f 1245 Feeding tube. 335. 921 Franklin. 1247. 514 nursing care plan for. 220 Folk medicine. 749 in urinary incontinence. 90–91. 7 Food-frequency questionnaire. 493. 940f Free radical scavengers. 920. See also Intravenous Gait. 921. 312 organic. 871f Focus charting. 1299t Flexion. 1103 Gingivitis. 690 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 944–45 Gallops. 303t physiology of. 1009 Genital herpes simplex. J. 925f hip. 68 Feedback. 283–84 diagnostic testing in. May not be copied. 299 evaluation in. of a joint. 690 Genitourinary system. 1016. 227 Gate theory of pain. 1097–98 Food effects on vital signs. 339f intravenous. for enteral tube feeding. 1181. 732p–734p Floras. 945 small-bore. 593t deficient. 300. 1090 Food intake. in whole or in part. 10 defined. 46 violence. 393t cultural differences in. 317. See Bowel incontinence in fluid balance. anatomy of. 316. 299. 273 Fleidner. 65 death of a child. 945–58. Forensic specialist. 495 monitoring. 452 factors affecting. 142–43 administration. 959–60 decreased. 1005–6 in therapeutic communication. 874 Fetal stage. 319t Gilligan. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 441. 920–21. 925–26. 1111 terminally ill clients and. 305–6 electrolytes in. Foot care. 923 viral hemorrhagic. 1002 regulators of. 976p–979p Formal contract. 195 392. in communication. 962p–964p Functional nursing. 997. 1251–52 Female genitalia. 1234–35. age-related changes in.. 659–60 Food record. 943–44.. 231f–233f Formulas. 1026 physical examination of. 990 in skin breakdown. 1106. 1125. 942 Gastrointestinal system neurogenic. clubbing of. 975p–976p Gastrostomy tube. 995f Fight-or-flight response. 871 lesions associated with. assistance with.

62. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. 681.. 288 factors affecting. and cognition. 478–80 (CNOs). A. 10 nurse as instrument of. 585. 1217. 560t–561t of sexuality. 65 Healthy People initiatives. 128. 479t. 845–46 Health maintenance organizations (HMOs). 707p defined. providing. 546. 351t. 83 Havinghurst. 287 Grandparenting. 285–86 Health-seeking behaviors. 477 continuum of care. H responses to changes in. 94 symptoms. 286 management. 714p–716p community. nursing care of. 1240. 589 defined. Gonorrhea. 996 surgical hand antisepsis. 619f. 289f. 61 age-related changes. M. 558. 1218 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. 282. 842–43. 266t factors influencing. 1009. 619. 1010t–1011t Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Handwash. 55t. 588. 1241t–1242t Glucose Hand in fluid imbalance. 58t Goodrich. 284–86 Gown. 313. 65–68 management of. 453–55 reason for seeking. 289–90. 283–84 nursing role in. and quality prayer. 846f defined. line of. defined. 679–80 in mobility assessment. 10. 197–98 707p–708p. 1114f in wound care. 14 open method for donning. 288–89 Grand theory. 10 models of. 63t–65t pediatric. 1214t in elimination issues. 477 sexuality and. 12 energetic-touch. or duplicated. testing for. in sensation. Health disease prevention activities. 622 Handwashing. in whole or in part. May not be copied. 288 Greenwald. 938 blood chemistry for. 1109 Gravity. 312 Grieving process. 362 Growth and development. proxy. 852 defined. 303–5 health protection activities. 846. 128. 311t public. 282 mobility and. self-concept and. . 1088 family influences on. 59–60 in therapeutic communication. 289t sexual. 310 private. 480–84. 1218t Hair. testing for. evaluation of web. 60–61 701p–705p. 680–81. in fluid imbalance. 1000. R. 54 1213 communication. See also Wellness Good Samaritan Acts. 840–45 in older adults. 63t–65t client perception of. 1102 metabolism. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 57–59 Hearing aid care. 714p–716p Halitosis. 60–62 1217t settings for. 320t normal. theories about. Hallucinations Health care reform. 71 Hearing impaired clients principles of. 1168 components of. 55–57. 691–96. 1246–48 Goldmark report. 371–72 Goniometer. 66–67 touch. 390–92. 314t–315t Health Insurance Portability and evaluation and.Licensed to: iChapters User INDEX 1395 Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). 310. 690 Health Care Professionals’ Competencies. 480t–483t Health care Health protection activities. 844t diagnosis. 197 in nursing. 266f. 61 assessment of. 197 communication with. 319. 428t work. 1216t factors influencing. 618t Health information. 869–70. 116 Government reimbursement plans. 287 Government regulation. 1302–3 Health maintenance Goal setting. 283t as primary prevention. 20. 62f. 312–13. 128–29 Hand-wrist splints. 752 Health Care Improvement Act. 939 nutritional. antiseptic. 680–81. 1000 types of. 477–87 needs and. 477–78. donning surgical. 290–94 defined. 13.. 1098–1100 477t–478t cultural disparities in. 56t Global aphasia. long-term. 414. 61–62 altered. anatomy of. 291 vulnerable populations and. 284–86 health behaviors and. 370 (G6PD). 286–87 types of. 71–72 Hearing Growth. 693–94 older adults. A. 129–30 Haptoglobin. 617. 273 dynamics. 665–66 648p–650p hygiene. All Rights Reserved.. 699p–701p in oxygenation deficits. 310–12 reimbursement methods. perception. Half-life. 61 Gloves Hale. body alignment and. 551–66 219–20 short-term. 1002f veins of. 284. 276t Hair care. 311t jargon. 62–65. of a drug. 870t Glycolysis. 129t physical examination of. 55. 282 key concepts.. 663–64 closed method for donning. 670. changes in. nursing agenda for. 392t in sensation. 247 activities. 129t preoperative examination of. 11f Health care-associated infection. 193. 267t key concepts. 287 58–59 behaviors. 265 fragmentation of care. 692f for vulnerable populations. 54f. 62 Grief. 415 assessment of. 837 58. Group(s) defined. 281–94. 274. 1216. 587f faith. defined. 155 Head and neck Accountability Act (HIPAA). 367 continuum of. 63. 56t client teaching and. and cognition Goal attainment theory. 546. defined. 1221–22 Guided imagery. 31t 710p–713p alterations. 342t nature of. 413 Healing in elimination. in client teaching. scanned. 1212 Health history. 618t. 294–95 Graphesthesia. physical examination of. 670 in older adults. 585f in injury or infection risk. 681. 414f theoretical perspectives of. 670. 1216 Goals. 66 in mobility issues. 310–12. 284f holistic beings and. 852–54 Health promotion. 265–66. 284–86 reactions to. 361 trends in. 427–28. 277t 313t–317t. 552t team. 54–55. 94 Grieving person. 484–87 delivery systems in growth and development. some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). 93–95 Gluconeogenesis. 315–17 quality management in. 479t community nursing organizations Health status types of. 480