You are on page 1of 10

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research (ISSN 1336-8672) Vol. 55, 2016, No. 1, pp.


Effect of temperature on -glucosidase, lipase inhibition activity
and other nutritional properties of Moringa oleifera leaves:
Intended to be used as daily antidiabetic therapeutic food

Leaves of Moringa oleifera have proven antidiabetic efficacy and are commonly consumed in the form of powder,
capsules and tablets. The present study was designed to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of -glucosidae, lipase
inhibition activities and other nutritional properties like total chlorophyll, carbohydrate, protein, phenolics, flavonoid
contents and antioxidant activities of M. oleifera leaves with an objective to be used as palatable therapeutic food for
easy and effective treatment of type 2 diabetes. The dried leaves powder of the plant was exposed to two different tem-
peratures (100 °C and 150 °C) at different time intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. The findings revealed that exposure
at 150 °C temperature for 15 min can be safely used for the preparation of processed foods from powdered leaves of
M. oleifera. At this point of treatment, less detrimental effects on -glucosidase and lipase inhibition activity, flavonoid
content and antioxidant activity were observed. On the other hand, total phenolic content, content of free amino acids
and radical-scavenging activities were increased. However, sharp reduction in carbohydrate content was observed at
this point, which makes this temperature and time suitable for the preparation of processed food with sustainable
antidiabetic properties.

diabetes; Moringa oleifera; therapeutic food; -glucosidase inhibition; temperature sensitivity

Diabetes is the third most prevalent severe parts of the world. However, effective control of
chronic disease across the world. According to the onset of diabetes and its complications has not
International Diabetes Federation, in 2014 there been established yet, which is a cause of worry for
were 387 million people affected with diabetes experts and researchers.
worldwide. This number is predicted to reach Although there are several drugs available in
592 million by 2035, of which 46% will still be the market, their long-time use may cause various
un-diagnosed [1]. It is a metabolic disorder criti- side effects. Hence, a large number of studies is in
cally affecting the population of both developed progress to find new natural sources, which are ef-
and developing countries. India has the highest fective in reducing the intensity of diabetes along
number of diabetic patients, and is being called with showing less or no side effects. In the last few
the diabetic capital of the world [2]. The complica- years, there has been an exponential growth in the
tions related to diabetes pose a significant health field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gain-
care burden (2.3-times higher) and are deterrent ing popularity worldwide because of their natu-
to overall quality of life, which makes this disease ral origin and less or no side effects. The World
8th leading cause of death across the world and Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21 000
resulting in huge economic losses [3, 4]. Recently, plants, which are used for medicinal purposes
its prevalence has reached epidemic levels in many around the world. Among these, 2 500 species are

Laxmi Parwani, Yashasvi Bohra, Saksham Gupta, Rajesh Kumar, Department of Biotechnology, Dr. B. Lal Institute of
Biotechnology, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India.
Correspondence author:
Laxmi Parwani, tel.: +919982216197, e- mail:

© 2016 National Agricultural and Food Centre (Slovakia) 69

Parwani. pp. 37 sustainable antidiabetic properties. Initial phase of process. It is also known as nature’s me- 13 dicine cabinet as different parts of this plant are Total chlorophyll estimation 14 used in the indigenous systems of human medicine Total chlorophyll was estimated by the method 15 for the treatment of a variety of human ailments. Further. Res. as it is a rich source of ascorbic acid and it also (1) 24 helps in insulin secretion [7]. room temperature. Leaves were further 1 ml Follin-Ciocalteu Reagent (1 : 10 dilution) 53 washed with 70% ethanol and distilled water to was added to 50 mg dried MLP sample. oleifera leaves. 10 min at 2 000 ×g and absorbance was measured der preparation. oleifera plants were identi. and then soaked in 1% saline For determination of total phenolics content. 2016. (3) 34 timum temperature and time for MLP processing. 42 Harvesting of M. 19 effects in traditional medicine practices due to the Mumbai. 54 remove dust and microorganisms present on the 4 ml of Na2CO3 (75 g·l-1) was added in the reac- 55 leaves surfaces. 55. (SD) was calculated using Microsoft Excel (Micro- 11 ceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety soft. USA) statistical tool.29. Processing of the 16. 10. Washington. is a multipurpose and ex. Redmond. Food Nutr. After removal of excess water.09 and 15. Mixture was centrifuged for 57 Grinding was done by domestic grinder for pow. which would have milligrams per kilogram. J. 52 solution (NaCl) for 5 min. L. Standard deviation 10 Moringa oleifera Lam. The protective effect 25 of leaf powder of M. oleifera in controlling diabe- (2) 26 tes has been studied extensively but no study till 27 date was reported on the use of M. [10] using 46 harvested in the morning. numbers 29 the management of diabetes. of PORRA et al. at 760 nm. It also boosts the rophyll a (Chla). respectively. Chlo- 20 presence of 46 antioxidants [6]. 34. 15 and 30 min in a hot air oven. tion mixture followed by incubation for 2 h at 56 leaves were dried in shed at room temperature. [8] using 96% methanol as an ex- 16 Leaves of this plant are popularly used for their re. India) using methanol as a blank. Gallic acid (0–400 μg·ml-1) was used 70 .1 mol·l-1 NaOH. All experiments 78 most claims are anecdotal and few have received were conducted in triplicate and values are pre- 9 adequate medical or scientific evaluation. 8. TC is expressed in 36 food for type 2 diabetic patients. bovine serum albumin solution as a standard 47 ing was performed on the same day to avoid any (0–200 μg·ml-1). 69–77 1 available in India. sented as arithmetic mean. 33 the present study was designed to evaluate the op. 48 loss of moisture from the leaves.54. 12 of potential uses. out of which 150 species are Temperature treatment 2 used commercially on a fairly large scale. 38 Estimation of carbohydrates 39 Total carbohydrates content in MLP was esti- 40 MATERIALS AND METHODS mated by the method of ROE [9] using a standard 41 curve of glucose (0–100 μg·ml-1). chlorophyll (TC) contents were calculated by the 22 mised in those who suffer from type 1 and 2 diabe. which usually becomes compro. Daily consumption of MLP measured at 665 nm and 652 nm. 32 is limited to the form of tablets or capsules.. oleifera leaves where concentrations of Chla and Chlb are ex- 28 powder (MLP) in the form of processed food for pressed in micrograms per millilitre. A665 and A652 are absorbance values 31 enhanced palatability. Stocks of 5 of diabetes [5]. Proteins content of the sample was esti- 45 fied and their young and old healthy leaves were mated by the method of LOWRY et al.28 represent exponent 30 material is required for longer shelf life and for coefficients. Absorbance of the extracted 17 markable nutritional and medicinal qualities along chlorophyll was measured at 652 nm and 665 nm 18 with their hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic by UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Systronics. Collected leaves 50 were washed thoroughly in running tap water to Total phenolics content 51 remove the dirt. following equations: 23 tes. washing 43 and powder preparation Total proteins estimation 44 Locally available M. There The effect of temperature on MLP was studied 3 are more than 400 different plants that have been by treating the leaves at 100 °C and 150 °C for 4 described as reputedly beneficial for the treatment 5. traction solvent. Most of these plants have been treated samples (50 mg·ml-1 concentration) were 6 claimed to possess hypoglycemic properties but prepared in 0. 35 in a safe way for the preparation of therapeutic where mMLP is weight of MLP. chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total 21 immune system. Vol. Thus. et al.

5. where A0 is the absorbance of control 0.3 ml methanol Na2CO3 (0. To molybdenum method as described by PRITO et al. Dried MLP was room temperature.1 ml sample was mixed with where AC is absorbance of the control and AS is 3. 71 .0 ml of AlCl3 (2% ethanolic luted with deionized water: 95% ethanol (1 : 1) to solution) and 3. hibition was calculated by Eq. this mixture. 28 mmol·l-1 so. The test tubes were incubated for 60 min at room temperature and absorbance Pancreatic lipase inhibition was measured at 515 nm. Blank was prepared using the same reaction mixture with enzyme and NPA re- ABTS•+ radical-scavenging activity placed by the buffer. expressed as percentage mined by the modified method of BUSTANJI et al.06 mmol·l-1 methanolic •DPPH solu. p-nitrophenyl--D-glucopyranoside (PNPG.3 ml sample from stock was added.5 h of incubation at room temperature. The mixture was incubated again incubated at 95 °C for 90 min and absorbance was at 37 °C for 15 min.0 ml of sodium acetate (50 g·l-1). 0. quench the long-lived ABTS•+ cations. prepared in Tris. 6.9 ml of 0. The percent •DPPH radical-scavenging activity -glucosidase inhibition (AGI) activity was calcu- The reduction of 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydra. TE in milligrams per kilogram. Data were expressed as dried leaves powder.4 ml of 5 mmol·l-1 potassium persulphate fol- Total flavonoids content was estimated by the lowed by incubation for 12–16 h in the dark at method of HANSAWASDI et al. 250 μl -glucosidase (1. Total phe. A blank with 0. The assay is nolics content was calculated as gallic acid equiva. the same reaction mixture was used per kilogram using a calibration curve of Trolox but the test sample was replaced by the buffer. In reaction mixture. Percent pancreatic lipase in- 2. calculated using Eq. 20 μl of the test sample was mixed with 6 ml of the the absorbance was measured at 440 nm.2’-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sul. lated by following equation zyl radical (•DPPH) solution in the presence of hydrogen-donating antiradicals of the sample was (5) tested by the method of MENSOR et al. modified method of RE et al.1 mol·l-1. [15]. pH and untreated MLP was evaluated by phospho. Measurement of total antioxidant activity Estimation of -glucosidase inhibition using phosphomolybdenum assay For determination of -glucosidase inhibition The total antioxidant activity of heat-treated activity.06 mmol·l-1 methanolic •DPPH only) and AS is 410 nm. After 2. 5 mmol·l-1. In standard (0–30 μg·ml-1). Further. in terms of Trolox equivalents (TE) in milligrams In control.4) was added to a 250 μl sample and incubated at 37 °C for 1 min. For this purpose. For the initiation of reaction. followed by addition of 1 ml measured at 695 nm. The tubes were action mixture. [14]. equal amount of buffer was added in place of -glucosidase and PNPG [16].25 U·ml-1) [13]. 0. tion in test tubes.02) at 734 nm. Volume of the mix- (4) ture was adjusted to 2 ml using Tris.2 ml) was added and absorbance was recorded at (0. dium phosphate and 4 mmol·l-1 ammonium mo. diluted ABTS•+ solution and absorbance was re- cetin was used as a standard (0–400 μg·ml-1) and corded after 1 min. 4 and compared with Trolox tin equivalents (QE) in milligrams per kilogram of standard (0–400 μg·ml-1).HCl buffer.9) was mixed with 100 μl of the test sample. and water was used as a blank. of radical-scavenging activity. Absorbance was measured at 410 nm. Quer. The •DPPH free radical Pancreatic lipase inhibition activity was deter- scavenging activity (RSA). The percentage of RSA was total flavonoids content was expressed as querce.HCl the following equation: buffer. 4-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA. 500 μl phosphate buffer (0. To this. ABTS•+ stock solution (7 mmol·l-1) was prepared with Total flavonoids content 2. followed by incubation at 37 °C for was mixed with 3 ml of the reaction solution (con. an absorbance of 0. 0. the same reaction mixture was the absorbance of the reaction mixture. 15 min. The ABTS•+ solution was di- mixed (50 mg) with 2.2 mmol·l-1) for termination of the was used.70 (+0. used but with buffer. [12]. 250 μl sisting of 0. pH 7.5 mmol·l-1) was added as a substrate in the re- lybdate in 100 ml distilled water). Temperature effects on antidiabetic associated properties of Moringa leaves as a standard for preparation of the calibration phonic acid) (ABTS) assay was performed by the curve. based on the ability of antioxidant molecules to lents (GAE) [11]. In control. blank. Lipase enzyme (500 μl. absorbance of the sample. Total antioxidant activity was expressed reaction. was calculated by [17].6 mol·l-1 sulfuric acid.

1).03 ± 2.41 ± 0.2% crude pro- 34 weight.87 ± 1. on amino acids and proteins contents in leaves 45 tes because hyperglycemic effects are directly re. carbohydrates.15 33. reflected by the increased absorption at 55 content was gradually lowered with respect to tem. gestibility. thus its assess.44 14 10 3. oleifera leaves. steaming. content. which further increased their di- 48 diet is recommended for diabetic patients to de.47 351. ported the effect of blanching methods. Temperature sensitivity of total chlorophyll.67 ± 6.47 ± 1. oleifera leaves powder. ate.02 224. leads to an increase in the content of free amino 54 bohydrates content in MLP. breakdown of peptide bonds in proteins. Minimum a temperature of 150 °C for 10 min.23 206. 38 sample treated at 150 °C for 30 min (Tab.20 ± 3.01 33. [19] 33 in untreated sample was found 6.07 216.32 ± 0. treated at 150 °C for 23 30 min (Tab.13 ± 9. 1). the absorption of carbohydrates in intestine and it 29 detoxifying and anti-inflammatory.44 78 5 4.27 ± 11. pp. where authors re- 42 activity of biomolecules.31 33. Vol.05 358..29 mg·kg-1) was observed in changes in the proteins content were observed.35 17 Total phenolics and flavonoids content is expressed as milligrams of gallic acid and quercetin equivalent.87 ± 1.04 288.97 26. 10. phenolics 2 and flavonoids content of M.12 ± 2.61 ± 0. and boiling + sodium bicarbon- 44 biomolecules playing a significant role in diabe.19 ± 2. content of essential amino acids in Moringa leaves. 30 and wound-healing properties.60 ± 0.79 ± 0. Moringa dried leaves powder contains 35.33 ± 0.10 188.77 ± 0. The A slight increase in the content was observed at 39 results showed the temperature sensitivity of chlo. 1. content is beneficial for the preparation of thera- 25 carbohydrates and proteins contents peutic food which can be recommended for dia- 26 Chlorophyll is widely present in plants and betic patients.47 ± 0. 2016. Treatment of leaves at temperatures of teins in dried Moringa leaves.85 ± 0.38 ± 6.14 460.12 32.80 33.09 358.93 352. Presence of free amino 56 perature and time. 32 [18]. proteins.02 557. Chlorophyll possesses alkalizing. a higher exposure. of M. J.90 351.73 350.02 32.4 mg·kg-1 of dry who reported the presence of 30.87 ± 0.86 28.02 28.14 32.93 ± 0. confirming suitability of shed at 150 °C (358 mg·kg-1).92 ± 4. 51 tary canal.12 ± 1.17 31. Food Nutr. 55. 3 Total Total Total Total Flavonoids Time 4 Temperature chlorophyll carbohydrates proteins phenolics content content [min] 5 [mg·kg-1] [mg·kg-1] [mg·kg-1] [mg·kg-1] [mg·kg-1] 6 Untreated 6.19 ± 0.31 30. 1). L. at times of 15 min and 30 min 40 rophyll molecules. 27 blue green algae and plays an important role in Large content of proteins in diet slows down 28 photosynthesis.13 ± 6.58 ± 0. MLP is a rich source of carbohydrates It can be stated that high temperature can cause 52 havings 557 mg·kg-1 total carbohydrates content.56 9 10 4.22 ± 2. Parwani. The results showed that blanching 46 lated to the faulty digestion of carbohydrates in had a great effect on amino acids and scores of 47 the body.36 198.05 33.94 30.61 350. Sample treated at 100 °C for acids can further increase the digestibility of pro- 57 5 min exhibited 460 mg·kg-1 total carbohydrates teins present in the sample.87 ± 19.73 ± 3.94 ± 0. Similar findings were re- 41 drying of Moringa leaves for maintenance of the ported by KIRANA et al.12 264. which further decreased and remained 72 .27 ± 0.44 11 12 30 3.45 ± 0.78 31. Blanching treatment can increase the 50 crease the carbohydrates absorption in alimen.56 32. The proteins con- 35 100 °C or 150 °C for 5. 18 19 20 21 22 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 188 mg·kg-1 in the sample.86 ± 1.82 ± 3.03 10 100 °C 15 4.29 ± 0. antioxidant can also prevent malnutrition in diabetic patients. respectively. as no major 37 chlorophyll content (1. [20]. 15 and 30 min decreased tent remained unaffected by heat treatment at 36 the content of chlorophyll gradually.45 351.40 ± 0.20 ± 0.39 ± 2. total chlorophyll content The results are comparable to MOYO et al.85 ± 0. In M.99 30. namely 43 On the other hand.74 ± 2.32 32. 69–77 1 Tab. 660 nm by Lowry method. carbohydrates are energy boiling. So the high protein-low carbohydrate Moringa leaves. which 53 When effect of temperature was evaluated on car.18 ± 0. Res. et al.13 ± 11.51 13 5 3. it was found that the acids.2% of 31 ment is important when diabetes is concerned total proteins in the untreated material (Tab.00 15 150 °C 15 2.85 ± 3. The decrease in carbohydrates 24 Effect of temperature on chlorophyll.23 16 30 1. oleifera.87 ± 1.91 350.

ther reduced to 30. be attributed to a decrease in phenolics content.51 3.17 90.89 ± 0. respectively). Most importantly. Total •DPPH ABTS•+ Temperature Time antioxidant activity radical-scavenging activity radical-scavenging activity [°C] [min] [mg·kg-1] [%] [mg·kg-1] Untreated 0. and also by thermal degradation of insoluble Trolox equivalent. treatment at both tempera.014 ± 1.03 150 15 0.012–0. and anti-inflammatory properties.012 ± 1. which could Tab.3% reduc- 15 min exposure (33 mg·kg-1 and 30 mg·kg-1.68 90. 2).43 1. Effect of temperature on flavonoids content electron-donating ability of the materials. 15 min.5 ± 0. They °C for 30 min and at 150 °C for 15 min or 30 min have a wide range of biological activities and showed gradual decrease in activity. 73 . animal models. [25]. [23] a total antioxidant activity of 0. Kim et al. Total antioxidant activity was evaluated as tions.8 ± 0.16 4.92 4. cancer and cardio-vascular diseases [21].18 10 0. However.6 ± 0.23 88. tures for 30 min reduced the content (29 mg·kg-1 and 27 mg·kg-1. Material treated at 100 secondary phenolic metabolite compounds. a change in activity was observed grapeseed extract and powdered grapeseed extract in a range of 0. 1).38 ± 0.99 3.19 ± 0. beverages can reduce the risk of incident diabetes Phenolics are responsible for reducing power or [24].01 ± 0.38 mg·kg-1 in a sample treated which increased at 100 °C and 150 °C till the at 150 °C temperature for 30 min (10.and fat-soluble antioxidants reactions.73 90. tective role in diabetes.14 ± 0.45 88. Their study explained that sample.018 ± 2. which further increased at 100 °C. The untreated material showed and bound phenolic compounds.42 ± 0. other diseases.8 ± 0.9 ± 0. Temperature effects on antidiabetic associated properties of Moringa leaves Effect of temperature on phenolics a considerable amount of research was carried and flavonoids contents out on their potential role in treating diabetes and Plant-derived antioxidants.89 91.6 ± 0. as demonstrated in various cause it down-regulates many degenerative proc.015 ± 0.75 3. 1 in MLP was evaluated and flavonoids content was shows the effect of temperature on total pheno. the sample treated at 150 °C for 15 min (Tab. The maximum flavonoids con- lics content of MLP. re. how.016 ± 4.21 88.19 5. crease in activity (at 100 °C. Initial de- was significantly increased by heat treatment. oleifera leaves powder.42 5 0.16 4. In un. in particular pheno.20 mg·kg-1 (Tab. The reduction was only 4. which was fur- treated material. The increase in Effect of temperature on total antioxidant capacity content can be explained by the browning of pig. due Flavonoids are naturally occurring plant to increase in browning. measured as QE. It is supposed that consumption of esses and can effectively lower the incidence of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich specific foods and diabetes.19 93.013 ± 1.10 10 0.87 mg·kg-1 was observed.02 Total antioxidant and ABTS•+ radical-scavenging activities are expressed as milligrams per kilograms of Trolox equivalent and •DPPH radical-scavenging activity is expressed as percent radical-scavenging activity.15 100 15 0. Tab.020 ± 1.09 30 0. and subsequent formation of green phos- the increase in phenolics content was related to phate/Mo(V) complex at acidic pH. flavonoids and lics.3 ± 0. have gained considerable interest due to their related natural compounds are known to encom- potential health benefits. the content was 28.66 2.9 ± 0. After also reported that total phenolics content in whole heat treatment.3 ± 0.013 ± 0. such as non-enzymatic browning reac. They play a pro- taining antioxidants is beneficial for health be. tent of 33.02 89.017 mg·kg-1. 5 min and 10 min) can ever. tion in content). Estimation of total antioxidant capacity was tion as previously described by WANGCHAROEN based on the reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V) by the and GOMOLMANEE [22]. Epidemiological studies pass antidiabetic potential due to their antioxidant have shown that consumption of plant parts con.017 ± 0. The method the formation of antioxidant products by thermal evaluates both water.85 mg·kg-1.16 30 0.3% in spectively). and radical scavenging activities ments and decrease was related to thermal oxida. heating at 200 °C decreased the total pheno. 2.21 ± 0. lics content in samples.5 ± 1. expressed as GAE. Temperature effects on total antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of M.41 ± 0.16 5 0.

3% radical scaveng. of carbohydrate digestion in alimentary canal [34]. Parwani. as previously reported by WANG. potassium permanganate or potassium per. oleifera leaves during drying in hot-air oven 78 gen species and chelate transition metals. et al. 34 donating antioxidant. 10 radical reactions [26]. bilities are expected in the present study. which is sen. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). which slightly 22 antiradical activity of the test sample. SURH [28] and ABTS•+ assays rapidly decreased in the first 13 reported that consumption of phenolic compounds 2. which decreases significantly on exposure anti diabetic drugs for treatment of type 2 diabe- 39 to proton radical scavengers [31]. •DPPH and phenolic and flavonoid content. the decrease 26 tion). respectively.6 mg·kg-1 of Trolox equivalent. 55. pp. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are used as oral 38 tion. J. Authors found that the values of •DPPH 12 dant properties of plant extracts [27]. 2). Reduction of the of these enzyme systems helps to reduce the rate 43 blue-green-coloured ABTS•+ solution by hydro. monosaccharides in the small intestine.2% for the same time interval 27 ity to inhibit the process of oxidation. Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in 57 5 min or 10 min. but antioxidant activity represents the abil. 44 gen-donating antioxidant is measured by the sup. Samples reduce the colour 35 of •DPPH due to their hydrogen-donating ability Effect of temperature on -glucosidase 36 [30]. 47 has the extra flexibility in that it can be used at natural glucosidase inhibitors from the dietary 48 different pH levels (unlike •DPPH. ization. Total phenolic content could •DPPH scavenging activity and ABTS•+ decolour- 11 be regarded as an important indication of antioxi. both of these pendent on the phenolic and flavonoid contents. whereas at 150 °C.5 h and then were quite constant. and 150 °C for 5 min. although some 14 present in natural foods may lower the risk of se. It decreased by 31. Food Nutr. which at 50 °C and 100 °C by 3 different methods. Res. Similar possi- 19 be beneficial for preparation of therapeutic food. when the sample was treated for 15 min or 30 min 3 oleifera leaves. tes mellitus. slightly increased (to 91. They can scavenge reactive oxy. The intestinal -glucosidases hydro- 40 nerated by the reaction of a strong oxidizing agent lyse complex carbohydrates to glucose and other 41 (e. values slightly increased at the end of the drying 15 rious health disorders because of the antioxidant process. Phenolics are CHAROEN and GOMOLMANEE [22]. Their study in- 5 powerful antioxidants and act in a structure-de.7%. 31 radicals are foreign to biological systems. 46 absorption spectrum [32]. the activity triglyceride absorption in the small intestine. •DPPH is one of the compounds that possess and pancreatic lipase inhibition activity 37 a proton free radical with a characteristic absorp. L. which will non-enzymatic browning reactions. 2016. Assessment of lipase inhibition activity in MLP 53 Evaluation of the effect of temperature on was aimed to identify the potential of the prod- 54 •DPPH scavenging activity of MLP showed that uct to cure obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The two ac. which are known to cause high risk of type 2 dia- 56 ing ability. vestigated antioxidant activities of three varieties 6 pendent manner. The but it may be related to the content of other non- 32 principle of •DPPH method is based on the re. ABTS•+ activity of untreated sample was 21 ing ability is related to the radical-scavenging or 5. At initial stage of drying. (Tab.g. which are 33 duction of •DPPH in the presence of a hydrogen.2–93. 20 Estimation of •DPPH and ABTS•+ scaveng. 100 °C for betes [36]. They correlated the increased activity 16 activity of these compounds. thus it is shown 29 ABTS•+ free radicals are commonly used to assess that ABTS•+ activity of the material is not de- 30 antiradical activity in vitro. 2 tion of non-phenolic antioxidant substances in M.. phenolic compounds in the material. 55 the untreated sample had 88. These results do not follow the trend of 28 tivities do not necessarily co-incide. According decreased as temperature and time of treatment 23 to TIRZITIS and BARTOSZ [29]. however. Inhibition 42 sulfate) with the ABTS•+ salt. of M. Presently used synthetic enzyme inhibitors cause 45 pression of its characteristic long-wave (734 nm) gastrointestinal side effects such as diarrhoea. antiradical activity were increased. (Tab. Vol. ABTS•+ is ge.. 2). in content was 71.8% and 89. The ABTS•+ method flatulence or abdominal bloating [35]. 69–77 1 be attributed to thermal oxidation and decomposi. 52 compounds [33]. plants can be used as an alternative for effective 50 sitive to acidic pH) and thus it is useful to study treatment of hyperglycemia with minimal or no 51 the effect of pH on antioxidant activity of various side effects.7% when du- 24 characterizes the ability of compounds to react ration of treatment was increased from 5 min to 25 with free radicals (in a single free radical reac. The present findings with the occurrence of antioxidant substances or 17 indicate a correlation between total antioxidant phenolic compounds by thermal reactions such as 18 activity and phenolics content of MLP. affected by heat treatment. name- 9 play vital roles in the initiation of deleterious free ly. 30 min at 100 °C. This was 88.5%) at later stages. 88. which enzyme is secreted from the pancreas into the in- 74 .6%. Therefore. Similar results were reported by WANG- 4 CHAROEN and GOMOLMANEE [22].

– Kharazmi. inhibition activity is affected by the duration of which can be consumed daily for easy and effective treatment. e26864. A. Similarly. S. 4. Thus. – Sandeep. oleifera leaves powder. D.idf. and •DPPH activity at this temperature and time treated material was 50. R. 1. Also the increased values in humans [37]. V.pone.3%. pp. These results demon. – Sundaram. makes it most suitable for therapeutic antidiabetic altered when the material was treated at 100 °C food preparation. This may be caused by inactivity and management of type 2 diabetes. 2). untreated sample. 2007.pdf> processed food preparation as. – Baradaran. untreated sample. 2011. E. which remained Varghese. – Haghdoost. 2014. 1–6. the knowledge about the for 5. 6th ed. C – control. S. International MLP. – Khamseh. phenolics content Alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity of un. S. IDF Diabetes Atlas. Javanbakht. M. A. 10. which remained un. <http://www. lipase inhibition ac- instruction on the knowledge among diabetic tivity along with other nutritional properties of patients in a selected community. C – control. 2015. and 30 min. M. Temperature effects on -glucosidase Fig. 1). < 150 °C for 5 min (Fig. – Sharma. Mohan. C. of the material. inhibition activity of ment at 150 °C for 15 min can be used safely for research-paper-0615/ijsrp-p4267. Brussels : International unaltered during the treatment of material at Diabetes Federation. DOI: 10. At 30 min. Temperature effects on antidiabetic associated properties of Moringa leaves 60 30 50 25 40 20 Inhibition [%] Inhibition [%] 30 15 20 10 10 5 Time [min] 5 10 15 30 5 10 15 30 Time [min] 5 10 15 30 5 10 15 30 C C Temperature 100 °C 150 °C Temperature 100 °C 150 °C Treatment conditions Treatment conditions Fig. Indian Journal of Medical Research. Longer heat treatment sites/default/files/Atlas-poster-2014_EN. – Sadeghi. – Deepa. – Rao.: A study to assess the effectiveness of foot care perature on -glucosidase. ISSN: 2250-3153. Findings revealed that heat treat. – Mashayekhi. pp.: Cost-of-illness analysis of type 2 diabe- CONCLUSIONS tes mellitus in Iran. of free amino acids content. Temperature effects on pancreatic lipase inhibition activity of M.nic. it was found that untreated material exhibited 24% inhibition activity.pdf> 2. A. The present study explored the effect of tem. R. <http://www. least detrimental effects were observed fatty acids.: Medicinal plants of India. A. which are associated to antidiabetic efficacy Journal of Scientific Research Publication. – Shah. oleifera leaves powder. pp. at this point of 5. PLoS One. H. pancreatic lipase inhibitors are in flavonoid content. 3.pdf> higher temperatures at longer treatment times. N. 10 or optimal temperature and time used for prepara- 15 min (Fig. which remained 1. P. when the effect of tem- perature on pancreatic lipase inhibition activity REFERENCES was assessed. B. Anilvince. B. E.: Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: 20% and 18% when treated at 150 °C for 15 min Indian scenario. Seth. Thus. 5.1371/journal. instability of the respective compounds at longer heat treatments. 6. V. This shows that the enzymatic help to increase the palatability of the material. and at 150 °C for 5. 125.ijsrp. 217–230.0026864. respectively. strate instability of the related compounds at october/Most_cited2. – decreased the values and activity. the activity was de. M. 15 or 30 min. ABTS•+ scavenging abil- considered to be valuable therapeutic agents for ity as well as -glucosidase and pancreatic lipase treating diet-induced obesity and associated risks inhibition activities. N. tion of therapeutic food from Moringa leaves will creased by 45%. testine and there it hydrolyses triglycerides into treatment. 75 .

– Urooj. 23. Sriwahyuni. – Menezes. <http://www. ciated with risk of type 2 diabetes in postmeno- 41 14. <http://www. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006. – Pellegrini. pp. New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary 51 26. H. 120. Bustanji.1016/S0005-2728(89)80347-0. 20. Y.12. <http://jn. – Rossi. 20. 2002. ISSN: 16 vents: Verification of the concentration of chlo. pp.1186/2008-2231-20-37.013. cle/view/96497/85820> 18 26 193. – Kriedemann. 15.foodres. 40.1076/ Medicinal Plants Research. 78 phbi. W. 48 applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolori.2. Y. Vol. contents and antioxidant capacity of 68 Chinese 54 badi Bazaz.: 50 zation assay. chem. 2016.1041.php/ajb/arti- 17 rophyll standards by atomic absorption spectrom. International Journal ic acid is a natural rexinoid--potential for treatment 11 of Crude Drug Research. 25 phenol reagent.: In vitro -glucosidase Research International. DOI: selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and 76 .: Screening of Brazilian plant extracts tent/136/12/3039. – 27. – Qiu. A. 363–370. A. Prieto. DOI: 10. T. 2235–2242. – Asghari. 353–363. DOI: 10. – Estiasih.1006/abio.1999. pp. Re. G. American Journal of Enology and Science and Technology. S. 10.: A study on the crude anti-diabetic drugs 18. T. 2010.1054/mehy. pp.: 14 Determination of accurate extinction coefficients Nutritional characterization of Moringa and simultaneous equations for assaying chloro. L. Biotechnology.full. – Aguilar. Mc Carty.) 23. – Coube. S.005. 2004.v2n1p101. M. Food 55 Hamburger. Wangcharoen. 137–145.05. E. K. – Saheli. 22 of Biological Chemistry.: Antioxidant 28 11. Moradi-Afrapoli. S. 2 pp. 7. C. M. S. 212. J.: The chlorophyll metabolite phytan- 10 used in Arabian folk medicine. – Jeong.1016/j.07. Sowndhararajan.: Antioxidant 24 10. DOI: 56 inhibitory activity of phenolic constituents from 10. Fresco. 144–158. P. Kim. – Jolly.12. J. F. Res.mijst.pdf> 43 for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free 25. – 38 complex-specific application to the determination Mink.1002/med. <http://www. S.1153. 32 12. 1955. H. S. – Dolata. 55. – Scrafford. – M. A. A. – Alkhatib. Food Chemistry. – Harijono. 2. P. 37 ity through the formation of phosphomolybdenum 24.1016/S0891. A. A. Journal of Nutrition. Analytical Biochemistry. 2011. – Gomolmanee. – Dos Santos. of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. L. – Pineda. Singleton.W. Y. K.nic.1271/bbb. 23 <http://www.. – Kawabata. 4. 1684–5315.full. – Proteggenta. – Leitao. DOI: 10. G. S. Moyo.: Inhibition of hormone sensitive Antihypertensive activity of the total alkaloids lipase and pancreatic lipase by Rosmarinus officinalis 5 from the leaves of Moringa oleifera. P. 17. – pp.: Antioxidant activity 10. S. – Barraj. 2006.5539/jfr. 1999. R. C. 319–325. Medical Hypotheses. DOI: 10.3109/13880208509069018. Y.jbc. – Malmir. 101–108. 3039–3045. 26. D.: -Amylase 363. R. R. C. – Hugo. B. Dangi. 217–219. A.sjbs. Y. P.687. Phytotherapy Research.20060. 384–394.: Spectro. DOI: 10. Food Nutr. 10. – 3 pdf> Hudaib.mju. pp. C. 335–343. – Ding. pp. – Kang. G.4019. J. – herbals suitable for medical or food uses. M. I.) leaves.pdf> 33 inhibitors from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. ISSN: Leitao. 97. – Tawah. 1233–1240. – Jacobs. F. – Park. 52 5849(98)00315-3. Parwani. 20. 56. pp. – Mirjani.: 19. U. A.: Polyphenols Ajani. H. 13 8. 2013. et al.2006. V.144. J.foodchem. – properties of various solvent extracts of mul- Randall. E.2012. R. H. – Thompson. P. M. 102. J. M. – Hadjiakhoondi.pdf> 21. – Farr.jbc. C. A. S. 2012.5897/JMPR10. J.012. – Diniz. L. 2925–12933. Lowry. DOI: 10. – Saeidnia. Arabshahi-Delouee. pp.: The determination of sugar in blood protein content and amino acid drumstick leaves 21 and spinal fluid with anthrone reagent. Food Chemistry. 472–479. – Marques. F. Daru Journal 28.: Dietary 39 of vitamin E. 57 aerial parts of Polygonum hyrcanicum. – pp. M.: Protein measurement with folin berry (Morus indica L. M. – pausal women. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.1002/ptr. and prevention of diabetes. – Mohammad. seed extracts. M. Mossa.2007. pp. 53 16. 16. <http://medind. Journal of Food Research.: Effect of heating conditions 34 2000. Roe.nutrition. Hansawasdi. 1989. polyphenols. N. – Almasri. 1999. – Biological Sciences. Medicinal Research Reviews. S. 975. S. 2007. R. Nettleton. DOI: 10. 2013. A. K. L. pp. R. – Borges. – Harnack. – Muchenje. 231–1237. – Masika. V. Mensor. 2006. Liu. L. – – 4 6. 127–130. J. Y. Journal of 6 Biology. T.1016/j. H.2000. DOI: 10.5847. pp. N. Ahn. L. T. N. pp. 64. (Moringa oleifera Lam. of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of grape 35 13. 2008. Saudi Journal of 46 15. DOI: 10. S. J. J. M. P.: 1–6.: Free radical 44 radical method.2005. 69–77 1 Indian Journal of Medical Research. M. scavenging activity from different extracts of leaves 45 pp. – Lee. ISSN: 31 Viticulture. pp. C. I. B. pp. 136. 337–341. G. – 19 pp. 12 DOI: 10.1016/j. 2011. O. 41. Journal of Biological Chemistry. DOI: 47 Pannala.) leaves.: Colorimetric of total activity changes during hot-air drying of Moringa 29 phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic oleifera leaves.1016/j. 1905-7873. DOI: 10. 265–275. 1041–1043.pdf> 22.: Anti-tumour promoting potential of of Pharmaceutical Science. S. M. A. H. Pharmaceutical extract and selected phenolic constituents. DOI: 10. DOI: 10. 747–766. 27 tent/193/1/265. N. Surh.027. P. C. M. 42 Reis. Maejo International Journal of 30 acid reagents. 9 7. 26. L. P. F. pp. – tea. pp. Porra. M. C. J. A. 2001.full. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry.: Effect of blanching treatment against 20 9. Journal (Moringa oleifera). Kirana. 144–148. – Nam. 36 photometric quantitation of antioxidant capac. – Rice Evans. C. – Kasai. 2013. pp. J. – Rosenbrough. 269. 9– – Narayanan. 1985. J. J. 1965. 1951. W. flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods are not asso- 40 pp. African Journal of 15 phylls a and b extracted with four different sol. pp.

<http://www.5897/AJPP2013. Received 7 September 2015.1271/bbb. <http://www. 1998. A.0383. – Rensen. M. A. Nature. J. S. Kumar. 805–879. 1997. N.isca.: Antioxidant determinations by the 20. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative radical and antioxidant activity: basic principles and Medicine. 1199–1200. pp.bbalip. – Havekes. 2013.62. – Takamura. – 10. E. 2009.20. S. 33. Journal of Medical Science. K. H.: Determination of anti. S. DOI: 37. G. Free Radical Research. S. A. S.: Effect of plasma 32. T. Singh. J. M. 15–26. 77 . use of a stable free radical. – Greenway. 1958. 2nd revised 26 November 2015. – Shanab. J. 528–539. 10. DOI: 10.1201. tomedicines on obesity: Importance of herbal pan- 31. 2010.: Current and potential pdf> drugs for treatment of obesity. 1091–1097. Bioscience Biotechnology Archive/v1/i9/4. plants: A good source of potent amylase inhibi- 29. DOI: new insights. 1791. assays of determination and mode of action. G. ISSN: 2320-7353. Miller. – Rice-Evans. 2013. Blois. pp.: Factors influencing triglyceride metabolism on lipid storage in adipose the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS+ tissue: studies using genetically engineered mouse radical cation assay. 36. 1st revised 20 October 2015. T. scavenging activity of foods by using 1. J. P. 195–199. Food 34. Voshol. P. B.3474. L. Bhat. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. L. – Bartosz. 26.1-diphe. Acta Biochemica Polonica. 2002. S. DOI: nyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. – Joshi. 181. M. Article ID 810207. F.1016/j. 7. – and Chemical Toxicology. N. tors.12. 479–485. 2011. 2011. 1. – Singh. DOI: 10. – Zinjarde. 30. Bray. – Matoba.2008. pp.: Antidiabetic Indian DOI: 10.3109/10715769709097799. 139–142. Tirzitis. M. Temperature effects on antidiabetic associated properties of Moringa leaves anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. – Terao. pp. M. – van Dijk. pp.: Therapeutic role of phy- pp. Romijn. 40.1210/edrv. pp. pp. 1201–1204.actabp. published online 4 February 2016. models. 75. Y. 35. accepted 4 January 2016. A. International Research HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical. DOI: 10. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Endocrine Reviews.6.ISCA-IRJMedS-2013-045.015. R.1093/ecam/nen040. Yamaguchi. pp. 1999. S.: Antioxidant com- pounds. K.1016/S0278-6915(02)00037-6. C. W. DOI: org/10. 62.: creatic lipase inhibitors.1038/1811199a0. – Bhargava. C.pdf> and Biochemistry. Shalaby. A.

However.Copyright of Journal of Food & Nutrition Research is the property of Food Research Institute (Slovakia) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. or email articles for individual use. download. . users may print.