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A Resplendent Tradition

:

Contemplation and Individuality in Contemporary Lakota Quill and Beadwork

Charlotte Brindley
FLK 561: Folk Arts and Technology
Dr. Evans
Semester Project
30 November 2016

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Chief Joseph wrote, “The winds which pass through these aged pines we hear the

moaning of departed ghosts, and if the voice of our people could have been heard, that act

would never have been done” (Sturgis 2003:45). The writings of Chief Joseph have made

Stella Broome realize many things. For one, it has made her contemplate how entire

cultures could be decimated and lost, and secondly, how her own culture has faced a

similar fate, and how she sees it fading away before her very eyes. It is a disheartening

thing to discern, and one can feel helpless against the rapid winds of Time. But Stella feels

there is one thing she can do to preserve her culture: her art.

Sitting at a table in her living room with her array of supplies spread before her, she

choses her materials from a selection of tiny glass beads, cuts of leather, and porcupine

quills. Her hand works meticulously at the intricate beadwork, creating designs with rows

upon rows of the tiny glass beads, until the rows achieve a luminescent shine. This is the

sight I often saw growing up of Stella Broome, a close friend of mine as well as the mother

of one of my dearest childhood friends. With her long, wavy raven black hair and large,

kind eyes, she was always willing to share instruction about her art and even taught me a

few of her techniques. From a Lakota reservation in South Dakota, Stella has continued the

tradition of using beadwork and porcupine quills in her art that was initially inspired by

the crafts of her mother and grandmother, and has studied the traditional arts on her own.

Her works speak of another time, but also of the living tradition that she continues.

Combining the traditional uses of beadwork and quilling, Stella creates a Lakota art that is

at once orthodox but at the same time innovative with her own appropriation of materials

and vision for its purpose, displaying personal inspiration within this ancient tradition.
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Stella Broome grew up on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota,

the fourth largest Indian reservation in the United States by land mass. In 2002, her family

moved to Sumner County, Tennessee, where I lived, and Stella’s daughter and I were

classmates. We became childhood friends and that eventually lead to the long friendship

our families have enjoyed for many years. As a child when I would visit her house, I

remember Stella’s sets of supplies in her living room where she made her creations. Stella

would tell her daughter and I ghost stories from the reservation, and she even introduced

us to her beadwork and helped us make our own art using her materials. Through her

vivid ghost stories, she painted a mental picture for me of life on her reservation, the

environment she came from, and the general attitudes and sentiments of the people in her

community.

Stella was raised in a family where many of the females practiced beading. Her

grandmother lived with her family and beaded many small jewelry pieces, including small

moccasins. Stella learned this from her mother, but over time, she was compelled to learn

more about her ancestry, roots, and culture by creating art in the traditional manner,

because the creations of her mother and grandmother were not inspired by historical

traditions, but were contemporary and more suited for tourists. In the reservation era of

Lakota history, while there may have been a decline in men’s art forms, women’s arts

flourished in the early twentieth history, and the mélange of women’s art can even been

seen in contemporary times (Bol). The things made in Stella’s family were apart of this

diversity.

Stella expressed that a contributing factor to her mother’s lack of focus on Lakota

traditions—everything from the symbolic nature of the art to the language—was due to the
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predominately Roman Catholic community, and her father’s lack of understanding of

Lakota culture, who was white. He did not want his wife to talk in the Lakota tongue

because he could not understand it, and it was strange to him. Stella’s mother “did not

erase it—Lakota culture—but did not teach it, either.” She felt the desire to fully embrace

her heritage, because on the reservation, she felt white. Her father was white, and she was

learning about the histories and traditions of the Lakota in a university setting that had not

been taught to her in depth. Now living in Tennessee in “white America”, she is perceived

as a minority, and she sees a Native American when she looks in the mirror. Another

compelling reason, she feels, to embrace her heritage, is that most people on the

reservations are unaware and lack an understanding of Lakota history, and she deems it a

responsibility to keep it alive, because it is slowly slipping away. It was only in the 1960s

that Native American arts were taken into serious consideration by art historians and

taught at universities, yet still approached with a limited scope (Philips 2013:97). Stella

indicated frustration that she deems Lakota history is not taught as “American history” in

university courses.

Thus, Stella felt a need to revitalize the craft in her own life. It was a longing of hers

to create Lakota art that was representative of Pre-European contact. The writings of Chief

Joseph and his melancholic musings on the vanishing of Lakota culture moved her. She

wanted to sew with sinew, create quill embroidery, and it was only after she left the

reservation that she sought authenticity in her culture’s artistic traditions. Authenticity is a

central theme to her art, something primordial that would help her connect with a long ago

time. It was something to remind her of her past amongst the rush of globalization, the

melting pot of American culture, and what she feels to be a disregard for Native American
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history, culture, and traditions. “There are only two million of us,” Stella said, “in this time

of multiculturalism.”

Her daughter, Patricia Collins, has casually been learning the techniques over the

past few years. Though not on the same level of expertise as her mother, Patricia has been

experimenting with beadwork and has made dream catchers and decorative, beaded

tassels. Patricia expressed that in recent years, the art is becoming more important to her,

and said, “…I feel that my culture is slowly dying, and I don’t want to lose it.” Located far

from where she was born in a culture completely detached from her own, she said that

creating the art helps her go into her own world, and the concentration the beading

requires offers solace, focus, and a calming of the mind. Now with a daughter of her own

and with a desire to connect with her heritage on an artistic level, Patricia expressed that

she wants to pass the knowledge down to her daughter as well, and to teach her about

where she comes from.

But when I visited Stella, she said, “Charlotte, I don’t have that much to show you.”

She expressed, “I have no proof of my art. I have made so many things, but I don’t have

anything.” Stella described an elaborate cover she made for a friend’s 18th century flintlock

rifle. The entire piece was ornately embroidered with richly hued quills. She also

described a beautifully beaded necklace she made for her sister. “It was beautiful,” she

said. She verbally illustrated the central radial design and the delicate netting of beads

carefully woven around it. The precious necklace had been buried with her grandmother,

because her sister felt it was special enough. Stella also mused on an intricately quill

embroidered purse she had made for her sister. She never photographs her art, and never

keeps a record. The vast majority of her creations have been made with a particular
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individual in mind, and it has gone to them. The only trace of her art in her own home are

her supplies and the very few things she has made for personal use. The meaning of her

work cannot be based on aesthetics and its visual appeal alone: the intention and its

purpose is a large part of what it is and represents (Philips 2013:99). Otherwise, besides

the memory of the recipients of her gifts, there is little evidence that Stella Broome is a

carrier of this rich artistic practice and has made works of art that speak of her talent and

dedication.

The rows of emerald and sapphire hued glass beads are tightly stitched together,

and the concentration of these delicate shades glow softly in the light, and the narrow

slivers of gold and silver beads that separate these blocks of color glint in the sun. Such is

the resplendent sight of many of Stella’s beaded works, the glorious beadwork that crowns

many of her creations. Short needles with razor edges smoothly stab into the thick leather

to attach these minuscule pieces of glass. The rows of beads are tight and compact, and it

creates another, cool-to-the-touch skin atop the leather.

The first thing one may notice of Stella’s portfolio—of what she does have and what

has been given to my family—are the illustriously beaded pieces, pieces that range from

jewelry, tassels, and wallets, to more traditional items like knife sheaths, and even dolls.

Her beadwork is compact and tight. As I struggled to keep the stitches straight in a small

bracelet she was helping me with many years ago, she gave me one of her special needles.

The needle is especially made for sewing into leather, and is shorter than the conventional

sewing needle. Instead of a sharpened point, the end is a minuscule razor blade. At the

time, I recall Stella telling me there was only one craft store in Bismarck, North Dakota, that

actually sold this needle. Years later, I do not know if that is necessarily true, but it is a
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twenty-first century departure from the bone needles used by Lakota women in the past.

During the 19th century, Lakota women would have used these bone needles to attach the

rows of beads to the buckskin. The leather would have been penetrated with an awl first,

and then the beads would be attached through these holes.

For the vast majority of her materials, Stella acquires them from a craft store called

Prairie Edge in Rapid City, South Dakota. It is there that she finds the appropriate

materials, because the available supplies in Tennessee are not the caliber of what she seeks

for her art. The store carries the beads she wants, as well as the leather that is prepared in

the appropriate way. She says conventional seed beads are irregular in their shape, but the

beads at Prairie Edge have a uniform consistency in their shape, which works better with

the tight beadwork. Though Stella has acquired some of her leather from Prairie edge

because of the convenience, she also has her own supply. In South Dakota, her brother

hunts deer, and she acquired some buckskin from him. Her brother scrapped and tanned

the skins for her, and she has them in her shed to cut and use whenever she needs to.

Stella does not do her beadwork on separate cloths and then attach it to the leather.

The beads are directly stitched upon the material in bands. This stitch, traditional in

Lakota beadwork, is called the “lazy-stitch” because it is stitched atop the leather. As a

result, when one examines her work, no bead is stitched individually, but they are attached

in groups, ranging from just a few beads each to twelve in a row. In every beaded piece I

have observed of Stella’s, I have only seen the lazy-stitch, and it is the only stitch she has

ever mentioned when speaking of beadwork techniques. Traditionally, as in Stella’s art, the

patterns are usually geometric and incorporate straight lines (Harris). A knife sheath that

she gave to my family (Fig. 1) is a clear example of bold, geometric designs, and the lazy-
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Fig 1: Stella Broome, Beaded knife sheath (Detail)

stitch is easy to discern. For her stitches, Stella uses a linen or cotton thread, but she has

used sinew before, a thread made from animal ligaments. Using sinew is important to her

because it was the way all stitching was done, but it is very hard to use, so she has only

used it three times. She has purchased sinew thread before and has not prepared it, but

she has observed with her own eyes how it is made. Stella spoke of the long process

required for Lakota women to create art—from scrapping the buckskin, to making the

sinew, etc.—without modern conveniences, and for the amount of things she wants to

make, she said it would require an abundance of time, and the entire process would “take

so long.”

In Lakota art, beadwork became the primary means of adornment for objects after

1830 because they were introduced to tribes through white traders. The Lakota used
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beads to decorate everything from shirts, cradles saddle bags, moccasins, to head bands. In

the earlier part of the century, larger “pony” beads were in widespread use. The beads

were Venetian and Bohemian, and designs that used these beads were bold, geometric, and

corresponded to the earlier quill designs. Around 1840 tiny “seed” beads became popular

with Lakota bead workers, and have even been the bead of choice up till the present day.

The seed beads were available through traders in bunches on strings and in a wide array of

colors. By 1870, translucent beads and beads gilt with gold and silver became available

(Lyford 1940:58). Stella uses some opaque beads on her work, but most of her pieces use

the translucent beads, and she often uses the gold and silver beads to illuminate her

designs. A knife sheath and wallet gifted to my parents years ago display Stella’s liberal use

of the gilt beads, and those beads give the patterns a luminescent layer (Figs. 2 and 3 ).

Because of the advent of beads in the Central Plains, quill embroidery became

mostly obsolete, and the traditions and knowledge of the art—from acquiring the quills to

the preparation of vegetable dyes—almost disappeared (Lyford 1940:42). Prior to that

time, porcupine quills were the main material for decoration for centuries, and often these

quills were dyed various colors. In Lakota society, a woman could gain social status by

displaying skill in quill embroidery. The use of various animals, including porcupines, for

creation of everyday items eventually lead to parts of the animals being used as adornment

on everyday garments, and this eventually evolved into a unique form of embellishment in

North American tribes (Theisz 1981:79)

Quills, as expected, are acquired differently in the twenty-first century. In a craft

store in South Dakota, Stella told me, a small package of quills is very expensive. Often,

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Fig. 2: Stella Broome, Beaded knife sheath

Fig. 3: Stella Broome, Beaded wallet
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quills sell for one dollar apiece. But the embroidery technique is difficult, and the quills are

delicate. When using thread while quilling, it can be easy to bring the thread the wrong

way and break the quill. Thus, as Stella described, quilling can be costly because one is

more than likely to make a mistake.

Stella told me a story about how she once acquired porcupine quills for some of her

projects, and it was not in a craft shop. Once, near her home in Tennessee, she happened

upon a freshly dead porcupine on the side of the road. It had not yet started to decompose,

so she collected the remains of the deceased creature, put it in the back of her car, and

brought it home with her. She soaked the porcupine in water overnight, and the next day

removed the quills from the carcass. As a result, she has a large supply of quills ready for

use. Lakota men would have hunted the porcupine by chasing it up a tree or into a hole, and

while the animal was roasted and eaten, the quills would have been removed (Lyford

1940:42). With a laugh, Stella said that she asks her friends to look out for deceased

porcupines so she can collect the quills.

She told me that the various quills serve different purposes. The finer and smaller

quills are used for delicate detail work, and the larger, coarse quills are used for filling in

large spaces. Traditionally, Lakota quill artists divided quills into four categories: the

coarsest came from the tail of the porcupine; next, came the quills from the animals back;

then the slender quills came from the neck; and finally, the smallest and finest quills were

taken from the belly (Lyford 1940:41). In the end, the deceased porcupine she found

provided her with enough quills for several projects, which was abundantly more than

what could have been acquired at a specialty store. Like Lakota women in the past, Stella

keeps her quills separated by size in containers (Lyford 1940:42). She described her way
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of adorning leather with quills. Each quill is tubular and round, and they need to be

flattened for use. She puts a quill in her mouth and soaks it until it becomes soft. As she

does this, she embroiders another quill into the buckskin. When the quill becomes soft

enough, she flattens it with her teeth or nails. In traditional quillwork, the quills were often

colored with plant dyes. Stella uses fabric dye to color her quills.

Hanging in Stella’s living room is a glass display case. Resting against soft red felt is

a magnificent antique quilled knife sheath with its original hand forged blade (Fig. 4). On a

visit to Stella’s home, I asked her to tell me about it. It was eye-catching, was very beautiful

and looked like a relic that belonged in a museum. Very casually, Stella took down the

display case and showed the knife and its sheath. She said, “Even though it is Crow, I will

still say it is the finest quilling I have ever seen.” The decorative sheath displayed tight,

intricate quilling in red, brown, and white. I was delighted when Stella said the artifact was

from the 1880s, and every facet of the piece was original.

The knife sheath was in such excellent condition that I was surprised it was antique.

Sewn with sinew, a tissue from an animal’s ligament, the pattern displays the Crow Snake

Clan symbol, and the handle of the dagger is wrapped in a trade cloth. The colored quills

would have been dyed with plants, and are stitched into the soft leather with incredible

tightness, compactness, and exacting precision. Most impressive is the condensed weaving

of the quills in the central white circle of the design (Fig. 5). There is nothing in the myriad

of quill embroidery that is not perfect, and even the smallest part of the pattern that uses

the shortest length of quill is done as if the eye goes to it first. Even the decorative fringe

with swatches of horse hair use the smallest and most delicate of quills as decorative bands

on the narrow slivers of leather, and are used as delicate loops on the ends. The sheath is a
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Fig. 4: Crow quill embroidered knife sheath, c. 1880, from the collection of Stella Broome

Fig. 5: Crow quill embroidered knife sheath (detail), c. 1880, from the collection of Stella
Broome
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resplendent work of art, and hanging in the living room, it must have served as inspiration

for Stella’s own quillwork. The sheath is an embodiment of the quillwork tradition in North

America, and is representative of the immense skill required for the craft.

The use of quills in contemporary Lakota art is not common, and most artists use

beads, because it replaced quills as the primary means of decoration in the 19th century.

Most artists who continue quill embroidery do so in very experimental ways that go

beyond the traditional items that are typically decorated, such as knife sheaths and

pouches (Theisz 1981: 81). Stella took an art class about Lakota art in the late 1990s, and

in the class she learned about quillwork. She took this class because she wanted a better

understanding of Lakota art history, techniques, and the various and multilayered meaning

of the patterns. This interest in the class had its roots in her longing to connect more

deeply to her culture.

During her coursework, Stella had a dream about making a large decorative

garment with her sister using quills. She told her instructor about the dream, and her

teacher said, “It had come to her” because not just anyone can do quillwork. Stella said, of

all the Lakota people she knows, this elderly lady was the only one who practiced quill

embroidery. According to Lakota mythology, there is Double Woman, a figure said to

appear in dreams of women, and Double Woman inspires those women to do beadwork.

Double Woman represents the complex dualities of womanhood, and is a patron to female

artists and quill workers (Wallaert 2006:7). In Lakota society, quilling was prestigious and

a woman could gain social status by practicing the art. Women who had the dream may

have pursued the career, even though the art required extensive expertise (Theisz

1981:77-78). Stella described that according to folklore, it is quilling that keeps the world
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together and prevents it from falling apart. In her own interpretation, Stella said that the

quilling entity embroiders on a cliff, but a coyote comes and unravels her work after she

completes it. So, the woman begins again, and as Stella says, “The sun rises and the world

sees another day.” Because of her dream and the stories associated with it, Stella decided

to learn quill embroidery. She said that the dream convinced her she should pursue the art,

and that it was meant to be. Though she has made elaborately quilled pieces like gun

covers, moccasins, bags, and hair adornments, she has given it all away. But Stella also

combines quills with her beadwork.

An example of her combining quill embroidery and beading is in a knife sheath

acquired by my father (Fig. 6). He was taken aback by the beauty of two of her beaded

knife sheaths, and the two of them agreed on a trade. An artist by profession, he exchanged

one of his drawings that was of a similar monetary value to both of her sheaths. In one of

these sheaths the quills are harmoniously juxtaposed with the primary colors of the cool

skin of the translucent beads, and the quills are embroidered in the diagonal pattern. One

of the strands of quills are dyed red, thus is complements and ties in the quills with the red

beads present throughout the quillwork. On casual inspection, the quill design seems to

resemble and arrow, or the design could simply be present to accolade the length of the

sheath itself. Concerning innovation within the art form, Henry Glassie wrote, “While the

elite artist may be willing to risk his standing to appear ahead of his times, it is only a rare

folk artist who strives for innovation; his replication is an affirmation of a tradition. This

does not mean…that there is no margin for variation within a folk tradition (Glassie

1972:259). It was due to the dream that Stella decided to learn quill embroidery

independently, and by her own initiative to combine it with the bands of glass beads. While
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Fig. 6: Stella Broome, Beaded and quilled knife sheath

Fig. 6 (detail)
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Fig. 7: Stella Broome, Beaded and quilled pouch

it is staying within the confines of the aesthetics of the tradition, Stella still found a way to

express her individuality and find new ways to combine the two different techniques.

Stella showed me a small leather pouch, and the pouch was one of the most intricate

and decorative examples I have seen of her pieces (Fig. 7). After seeing my expression of

awe, Stella immediately said that the pouch was “Too much.” Indeed, it was an elaborate

specimen, but this also combined quills with beadwork in a baroque yet delicate way. The

intricate beadwork boasts a blue circle flanked by red, black, and white beads, and the

bottom of the pouch dangles with red dyed quills fasted to the leather itself with a string of

black beads. This highly embellished pouch effortlessly combines the beads and quilts.
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Traditionally, the quills are not cut in such a way to become dangling fringe secured by

beads. In these hanging quills, the dark pattern of the shaft is even exposed, perhaps to

reflect the black beads throughout the rest of the design. Upon asking Stella further about

this ornate pouch, she said that she takes the traditional designs and traditional methods

and creates something that is uniquely her vision, her own design, and her own innovation.

But she also stressed that the pouch was by no means traditional in the Lakota manner. It

was too fanciful to be Lakota and combined too many elements.

But the innovation in Stella’s works do not necessarily rest in her unique

combination of materials, but rather in her use of the patterns and symbols for the

individual she makes it for. “It takes me a few days to make something,” Stella says, “and

when I make it, I only think of that person. I pray for that person when I make something

for them.” She prays for the individual because of her Christian faith. Almost everything

she has made she has made for someone else, and as a result, she has “no proof” of her art.

There are some colors and designs that are used exclusively for men and women, but most

of all, she choses a combination of design elements that would suit the individuals. “When I

think of that person,” she says, “I think of what they might like, and their tastes.” She used

an example of a beaded knife sheath she made for my father. “When I made it, I picked

what I thought he would like.”

When I turned fifteen, Stella made a beaded pouch for me (Fig. 8). It is pale, almost

white leather adorned with warm colored beads. The top edge of the pouch is embroidered

with beads, and in the center of the object is a square that contains the Holy Trinity with a

yellow sun behind the three crosses. Though the design would not be found in the

traditional repository of Lakota designs, Stella used her own experiences and our shared
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belief to create her own, unique design. Because of the thought and symbolism put into the

object, I use the pouch to house sentimental objects.

Fig. 8 (and detail): Stella Broome, Beaded pouch, from the collection of author

Thus, the choices she makes for the designs and patterns of her pieces rely almost

solely on what would suit the individual it is intended for, her personal experience, and

that is where her variation stems from. “If I only used the colors I wanted,” Stella said,

“everything would be pink and purple! But I can’t use those colors for everyone.” Beyond a

combination of stylistic elements meant for the recipient of the gift, Stella sometimes uses

symbols and colors that are equated with men and women. She has made a pair of quilled

moccasins for a young girl, and around the perimeter of the shoe is a red band. The red
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band is associated with females and represents menstruation. But she doesn’t usually

incorporate the symbolic meaning of designs, such as a turtle representing a connection

with a child, or an hourglass shape signifying eternity, for most people she creates things

for are not familiar with designs and their meanings. The finished design is her own

personal vision and what would suit the receiver.

With the initial idea of writing this paper, I never thought of contemplating the

fading of Lakota culture and the despondent sentiments associated with this realization. At

first, I wanted to examine Stella’s personal approach to her art, how she used her materials,

how she creates her pieces, and how she learned it. But in truth, that is only one small

piece in the large kaleidoscope of this artistic tradition. Identity, belonging, authenticity,

and contemplation is a central theme to Stella’s works. From the very beginning, it was the

withering of Lakota traditions, folklore, arts, and customs that compelled Stella to pursue

her art. And when she spoke of this truth, I could hear it in her voice. This embellishment

of leather with translucent beads and brightly hued porcupine quills is an attempt to

connect with a world that does not exist anymore. In a society that overlooks her culture—

and according to her—whose own people are oblivious to their cultural traditions and

histories, it brings the past into the present. Stella’s art is poignant, and it speaks to the

viewer with whispers of a distant world that thrived not long ago, yet now survives only in

pieces. Chief Joseph, at his surrender in the Bear Paw Mountains, wrote, “I hear my voice in

the depths of the forest, but no answering voice comes back to me. All is silent around me.

My words must therefore be few. I can say no more” (Sturgis 2003:45).

Stella conveyed, in reference to the writings of Chief Joseph, that she wanted to

know at what moment it happened. At what moment that it was realized Lakota culture
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was almost completely lost. “The government was completely against them, the Indians,”

she said, “they were thought of as hostile, and didn’t have any rights.” This compelled her

to study in her own time the life of the people who lived on the reservations in the 19th

century, and about the traditions that were lost. She asked rhetorically yet dismally, “How

did we lose it all?”

In her own way, Stella has pieced together her people’s past with beautiful,

resplendent materials. Though her art is strongly rooted in the past and seeks to recreate

that realm, it is still overwhelmed by her own innovation. Her choices for colors, designs,

and patterns are not completely dictated by the norms of the past. Lakota art has already

evolved in the past two centuries by the experimentation of new materials previously

unknown. Stella’s vision and choice of colors, designs, and materials are influenced by the

individual she has in mind, even if it does not conform to customary Lakota motifs. Her art

is two faced. It is deeply steeped in this quest for authenticity and self-discovery. But at

the same time, it is continuing this tradition, and that is only possible through innovation.

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Bibliography

Bol, Marsha. 1989. “Gender in art: a comparison of Lakota women’s and men’s art,
1820-1920.” PhD diss., The University of New Mexico.

Glassie, Henry. 1972. “Folk Art.” In Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction. Edited by
Richard Dorson. 253-280. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Harris, Stephanie. “Lakota Beadwork and the Medicine Wheel.” Indigenous Religious
Traditions. Accessioned September 27, 2016.
http://sites.coloradocollege.edu/indigenoustraditions/6-%E2%80%A2-
independent-projects/lakota-beadwork-and-the-medicine-wheel/

Lyford, Carrie A. 1940. Sioux Quill and Beadwork: Designs and Techniques. New
York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Philips, Ruth. 2013. In Native American Art in the 21st Century: Makers, Meanings,
Histories. Edited by W. Jackson Rushing III. 97-112. New York: Routledge.

Sturgis, Amy. 2003. Presidents from Hayes Through McKinley: Debating the Issues in
Pro and Con Primary Documents. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Theisz, Ron. 1981. Lakota Art is an American Art: Readings in Traditional and
Contemporary Sioux Art. Spearfish: Black Hills State College, Center for
Indian Studies.

Wallaert, Héléne Wallaert. 2006. Beads and a Vision: Waking Dreams and Induced
Dreams as a Source of Knowledge for Beadwork Making. An Ethnographic Account
from Sioux Country. Plains Anthropologist 51 (197): 3-15.



Images:

Figure 1: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded Knife Sheath--Created by Stella Broome”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 2: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded Knife Sheath--Created by Stella Broome”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 3: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded Wallet--Created by Stella Broome”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 4: Brindley, Charlotte. “Crow Knife Sheath, c. 1880”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 5: Brindley, Charlotte. “Crow Knife Sheath c. 1880” (detail)”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 6: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded and Quilled Knife Sheath--Created by Stella
Broome”. 2016. Jpg.
Figure 7: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded and Quilled Pouch--Created by Stella Broome”. 2016.
Jpg.
Figure 8: Brindley, Charlotte. “Beaded Pouch--Created by Stella Broome”. 2016. Jpg.