You are on page 1of 12

1AC

. Advocacy Nisarg and I interrogate the epistemological underpinnings of the United States federal government’s ocean exploration to decolonize knowledge around past oppression done to Indian Americans to realize how we can combat our oppression today.

html For two years now I’ve been trying to piece together a part of that story – of my brothers and sisters. Virginia was governed by an elite group . the Virginia Gazette.a few key families. began publication in 1736 in the colonial capital of Williamsburg.asianamerican. But what we do know from examining newspaper records is that at least a few of them had the guts to run away from servitude when they reached a point where they could no longer tolerate the sassiness. By today’s standards The Virginia Gazette of 1736 would look gray and ponderous. Assisi 06 (Francis C. the first Indian Americans. They went from Col. belonging to his Master. it was a choking point.com/displayArticleS. Slavery was institutionalized in the colony of Virginia between 1640 and 1662 primarily through laws enacted by the Virginia Assembly and approved by the Royal Governor and the British monarch. author for IndoLink. runaway slaves. who grasped for freedom. some of whom had connections with the British East India Company. When a slave or servant ran away. Sheriffs and other county officials years from 1737 to 1771 at also often advertised the capture of runaways or suspected runaways. the establishment and codification of slavery in Virginia became the model for the other colonies. Information was also taken from English papers and other colonial sheets. It stated that an unnamed East Indian. In the thirty-five least five East Indian slaves who ran away can be identified in slave advertisements appearing in the Virginia Gazette. belonging to a Gloucester businessman named John Heylyn. Lewis's to Gloucester Town. small young Fellow. and took a Pair of Pistols. no photographs. Cards 1.indolink.net/article10. And it is their blood that has mingled with that of the Native Americans. The first advertisement. News in the Gazette was taken largely from letters written abroad and recently arrived in the hands of the printer himself or friendly readers. There was news. branded with a Dott. IndoLink is the first and largest ethnic internet media network serving South- Asians and Indians worldwide since 1995. the advertisements for the return of runaway slaves placed in the Virginia Gazette from 1736 onwards gives us the first record of slaves from India who tried to escape. where they robb'd a House. “Tracking South Asian American Slaves”. shops opening.’ An advertisement appearing on 4th August 1768 noted that any one apprehending an east India Indian named Thomas Greenwich of Richmond County would be . It is possible that we will never know their true names or their original home in India or what happened to their children and their children’s children. which was inserted by Col John Lewis of Gloucester County. appeared on 17th April 1737. And for a town that never had a newspaper before. Court records unearthed from the state archives in Maryland have proved that merchant seamen employed by the British East India Company brought people from the Indian subcontinent to colonial America as slaves or as servants. and 'tis supposed some other Things. IndoLink. the Afro-Americans and the Euro-Americans. who survived the wounds of slavery in the land of the free and the brave.runaway slaves who gasped for their freedom. and violence of those who owned them. it was welcome. and strayed horses. The Indian was described as follows: ‘He is a well-made. deserted spouses. 2006.The United States federal government institutionalized slavery against the brown body and then forgot about it . In essence.php? id=071204025816)//NVG In the quest to identify and track down the earliest Indian Americans I came upon a remarkable bit of evidence that has been ignored by Asian American historians: slave records. insolence. What little local news there was consisted primarily of advertisements of recent ship arrivals. had escaped along with ‘a mulatto fellow named George’ and whoever brought them back would be suitably rewarded. http://www. a Horse Whip. masters often placed remarkably detailed advertisements for their return. But for the slaves. Assisi. Although history books may do little to debunk the myths of colonial America. 32 years after the first American newspaper started publication in the metropolis of Boston. Details of that discovery are to be found online: http://www. He went away on a strong well-made Grey Stallion. They were the brave ones who sought to be free – among America’s freedom fighters.South Asian history in America has never been heard and we rewrite our history by acknowledging the first Indian Americans . with Brass Buttons. wore his own Hair (which he may have cut off in order to disguise himself. no fancy page makeup. There were no headlines. The first paper. He is supposed to have on an Olive-colour'd German Serge Coat.

In particular. Pearson.rewarded with 40 shillings. Sugata." Indeed. Chaudhuri.edu/5. and has unfortunately been all too characteristic of many recent attempts at global. Bose is not satisfied with merely addressing Indian Ocean historiography. and global frames without succumbing to "the high degree of abstraction. was of a very dark complexion and had long black hair. He was described as wearing an old blue jacket and cotton breeches and a check shirt. 113.1/br_low. In 1984. 2008.N." which tends to obscure real people. In order to fully explore the lives of the runaways. 3). oceanic.html)//NVG As Kären Wigen explains in "Oceans of History. other material such as court records. many of the Virginia runaway slave ads were reprinted in a four-volume compilation edited by Lathan Algerna Windley. which is long and black. More recently Prof Thomas Costa of the University of Virginia. ignores their historical agency. June 2006. All this is bound to help future scholars and students of American history. and balance the competing narratives of local. the sea is being given a history.press. away from Western monopoly through our non-linear narratives. has a thin visage. Skepticism that Sugata Bose enters into the intellectual arenas of oceanic and global history with his latest book. imperial. and a remarkable set of fine white teeth’. Drawing upon the now classic seascape template provided by Fernand Braudel's investigations of the Mediterranean basin and the well-established. both described as ‘convicts’ and owned by Thomas Hodge of Lancaster County. wears his own hair. regional. Indian Americans stand on the cusp of rewriting their history by acknowledging the full complement of their heritage – including that of the runaway slaves who gasped for their freedom. national.The sea that carried our ancestors here has a history ignored by Western scholarship in the view that Indian Ocean narratives are broken – we must use the oceanic space as a key venue to articulate a different universalism." who have tended to falsely characterize it as "a contemporary development about a quarter . newspaper advertisements for runaway servants provide just a glimpse of the earliest Indian American slaves. Georgia State University. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (2006). even as the history of the world is being retold from the perspective of the sea" (American Historical Review. Vol. We are told that this East Indian was a little over 5ft 6”. this burgeoning field confronts even the most intrepid scholar with a daunting array of unresolved observers have methodological puzzles. and comparative histories. William Colston the slave owner who placed the ad described the Indian as ‘a well made fellow about 5 feet 4 inches high. beside what the law allows’. longer outside time. oceanic. contributions to Indian Ocean research undertaken by such scholars as K. and Sanjay Subrahmanyam. however. and personal papers of slave owners can help us illuminate their lives as individuals." while maritime regions have typically been slighted by stubbornly continental and the sea is swinging into view. plantation accounts. a history professor at Morgan State University. along with a Virginia-born Negro named Alexander Richardson. Kenneth McPherson. The report went on to speculate that ‘they will endeavor to get on board some vessel The 18th-century in order to get out of the country’. skeptical (22-23) Thus. He also bravely tackles the history of globalization in the hopes that it can eventually be pried "from the clutches of social scientists and journalists. M. and scholars since have made extensive use of his compilations. Ashin Dasgupta. it is with a healthy dose of methodological questioned how responsible scholars are to move between. World History Connected. However. Despite these advances. diaries. Windley's accomplishment in gathering up and publishing the ads was enormous. A third advertisement appearing in February 1771 announced that a 22 year old East Indian. "no area-studies-driven conceptions of geography. connect. letters.N. 2 . Bose offers bold new perspectives which redefine both the "spatial boundaries" and "temporal thresholds" of Indian Ocean history during the age of European imperialism and anti-colonial nationalism. "across the discipline. a very sly look. The reward was set at ‘5 pounds. ran away from the sloop Betsy. http://worldhistoryconnected. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire”. Low 08 (Michael Christopher Low. No. With this evidence now available. initiated the Runaway Slaves project providing a digital database of runaway and captured slave advertisements from 18th-century Virginia newspapers. “Book Review Bose. if sometimes underappreciated.illinois.

(23-24) From roughly 1850 to 1950." we must turn our attention to the often fragmentary. this system has tended to "arbitrarily project certain legacies of colonial power onto the domain of knowledge in the post-colonial era. he contends that: "The peoples of the Indian Ocean made their own history. Bose artfully explores these "latitudinal connections" through "a series of non- linear narratives. by the latter half of the eighteenth century the unity of Indian Ocean basin was "ruptured" by the "establishment of European political and economic domination.century old" (276)." (7) Thus. invested in traditional rulers in post-1857 India." (272) Though he acknowledges the West's economic and political supremacy during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Bose sets sail with Lord Curzon. Bose sets out to illustrate "the relevance and resilience of the Indian Ocean space in modern times." Moreover.N. in order to convey a sense of colonialism's role in violently restructuring states and frontiers and redefining the meaning of sovereignty. seemingly all Indian Ocean historians agree by the end of the eighteenth century roughly a millennium of cultural." As a result. particularly British." In other words." (5-7) Bose is similarly suspicious of macro-perspectives such as Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory. "dominance without hegemony. and the oceanic space supplied a key venue for articulating different universalisms from the one to which Europe claimed a monopoly. or that whether the Indian Ocean's demise is recorded as occurring in 1750 or 1800. Bose reminds us of Ranajit Guha's famous subaltern maxim. In response to these lacunae. despite the impact of imperial domination and economic globalization . leaving the region's scholarship stunted and unnecessarily confined to investigations of the premodern and early modern periods. so adept at defying the constraints of arbitrary spatial boundaries imposed by conventional area studies. Chaudhuri or those of M. listening in on the viceroy of India's 1903 journey to the Persian Gulf. Bose also traces the expansion of a system of false sovereignty. colonial influences have also shaped the "regional entities known today as the Middle East. albeit not without having to contend with economic exploitation and political oppression. environmental. "latitudinal connections" between India and the rest of the Indian Ocean basin. soldiers and sailors. Like a "seascape artist." dipping his brush into "the sources of many archives. and Southeast Asia. it is in Chapter 2." in order to reveal the contours of a "more textured and complex" canvas .N. have been by and large remarkably diffident about crossing the great temporal divide of the eighteenth century. As a result of this consensus." (273) In order to recover these alternative narratives." (23) While Chapter 1 outlines the methodological framework. In doing so. political. Pearson." patiently painting "in broad strokes. patriots and expatriates." (20) In fact. capitalists and laborers. Bose subtly redefines the Indian Ocean as an "interregional arena. South Asia. which underpin the rubric of area studies in the Western academy. domination. and cultural relationships. and religious integration had been torn asunder and reoriented under European." These cross-cutting stories carefully balance the "broad patterns or interregional networks" against "individual tales of proconsuls and pirates. "The Gulf between Precolonial and Colonial Empires. layered concepts of shared sovereignty common among the precolonial states of the Indian Ocean basin with more rigid notions of unitary sovereignty imported from Europe." Bose contends that lingering colonial boundaries still "obstruct the study of comparisons and links across regions. "Indian Ocean historians." He laments that such approaches have also contributed to the widely-held assumption that as the globalizing capitalist system spread beyond Europe. which while overcoming some of the limitations of area-studies regions. but equally important. Bose articulates a new plane of analysis between national and regional histories and the history of globalization. pilgrims and poets. Bose juxtaposes the loosely constructed. " have tended to view an omnipotent West as the main locus of historical initiative and are too diffuse to take adequate account of the rich and complex interregional arenas of economic. economic. and subsequently extended to the paracolonial sheikdoms of the Persian Gulf's so-called Pirate Coast." Bose situates this concept "somewhere between the generalities of a 'world system' and the specificities of particular regions. most historians have abandoned the modern Indian Ocean as a unit of analysis." where Bose begins to display the masterful storytelling that makes this book so special. whether one consults the works of K. Bose advises that rather than continuing to follow "the longitudinal axis that linked metropolitan Britain and colonial India. .

The author thus challenges the primacy given to the territorial nation-state in existing literature on nationalism. flourishing both within and without the attention of the colonial empires entrenched in South Asia. flows of Indian indentured labor and Indian soldiers to various destinations across the Indian Ocean and beyond. religion. within anticolonial. religious as well as cultural. is its celebration of "universalism. Gandhi and Subhas Chandra Bose. The author argues that this interregional arena retained its validity as a unit of study even in an era of globalization." such as Mohandas K. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Gandhi and Bose. imagined and perceived an Indian homeland. gave exclusive emphasis to networks of maritime trade. first. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (review). Volume 38. class. travels of "expatriate patriots. etc.We understand the Indian ocean as an interregional arena – our non- linear narratives challenge territorial nation-state concepts and allow us expatriates to celebrate our homeland. Southeast Asia. an Indian Muslim. and the Middle East at the time. and Chapters 2 through 7 describe the kaleidoscope of activities that linked together various parts of the Indian Ocean world: the trading and banking activities of Indian entrepreneurs in Burma. and the most powerful. East Africa. draws attention to the fact that the territorially delimited nation-state may not necessarily be the most relevant or appropriate entity for a better and more comprehensive understanding of nationalist identity and imagination. to various destinations. Chatterjee 08 (Kumkum Chatterjee. 499-500) This book of unusual breadth and ambition provides a panoramic view of a diverse range of connections (economic. arguing strongly for "forms of patriotism that celebrated memorialized homelands [and] were expendable and transportable by migrant communities" (51). and suggested that the advent of European dominance spelled the ultimate termination of these connections. Malaya. pg. The core ideas in this work involve. nationalist movements. drawing attention to the Indian Ocean world as an example of what Bose describes as an "interregional arena"—a sphere positioned between the local and the global. Bose convincingly dispels these notions by demonstrating that the networks connecting Indian Ocean societies were re- ordered and re-adjusted during the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. respectively. and cultural) that tied together various societies around the Indian Ocean littoral. The introductory chapter sets out the principal conceptual and historiographical parameters of the book. The second core idea. The ultimate point of the book. political. . East Africa.D from Calcutta University in Calcutta (Kolkata) and taught in the History Department at Penn State from 1989. Particularly interesting is the discussion of how the two iconic figures of Indian nationalism. to the Hajj and other Muslim holy places illustrates his affiliation to an Islamic universalism." The travels of Khwaja Hasan Nizami. derived valuable lessons about how to accommodate "internal" differences of caste. or Indian labor serving in the mines and plantations outside India. Winter 2008. The description of the travel experiences of the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore to Bali and Iran illuminate a universalism based on shared historical connections and a common cultural heritage. during their stays in South Africa and Southeast Asia. and the Persian Gulf. and pilgrimages.3 . Ph. during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. however. Number 3. Bose seeks to show how Indian soldiers serving overseas. Bose correctly points out that much of the pre-existing scholarship about the Indian Ocean focused on the pre-nineteenth-century period.

had been a key integrative element in the overarching unity to the Indian Ocean during the premodern and early modern periods." as opposed to more territorially "rooted. the first mass nationalist movement to span all of India. and artfully reorganizing them under the single rubric of diasporic or expatriate patriotism.we were forced to leave the shores of India but we discovered our Indian identity.edu/5. and a myriad of colonial political and sanitary surveillance measures. the very act of performing the hajj became a crucial anticolonial activity. Tagore also imagined the Indian Ocean interregional arena to be a common milieu invested with a distinctive unity of poetry and culture. Piecing together Bose "explores censored war-time letters of Indian subalterns. were in fact joined in a kind of symbiotic relationship. particularly the rituals of the hajj. He also reminds us that it is precisely this alternative brand of Pan-Islamic sovereignty that provides the impetus for the Khalifat Movement of 1919." Tagore described his travels as intellectual quest. In Chapter 6. where Bose saves the best for last. were also crucial outlets for the expression of anticolonial sentiments. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire”." (31) In Chapter 4. "[fighting] for the freedom of their distant imaginary homeland. early modern. proving that regardless of whether or not the economic and political unity of the Indian Ocean was disturbed by European intervention and the forces of globalization. and colonial eras. However. By reading the accounts of the hajjis against the colonial archive. http://worldhistoryconnected. "Waging War for King and Country.4 . Indian expatriates tended to "discover their Indian-ness after leaving Here.html)//NVG In the second half of the book.press. Tagore sought to trace "the lineaments of universal brotherhood of Sufi poets bridging the Arabian Sea. chasing different Southeast Asian adaptations of the great Hindu epics. the interplay among loyalties to empire. Georgia State University. however. rather than acting as opposing forces. he also shows how anticolonial ideologies were simultaneously "tethered by the idea of homeland while strengthened by extraterritorial affiliations. 149-150) It is in Chapters 6 and 7. the great Bengali poet who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. Low 08 (Michael Christopher Low. the religious and cultural bonds of this interregional arena retained their . 2008. Bose documents how despite having to run a gauntlet of deprivations. and various kinds of memoirs." aspects of India's anticolonial politics by looking at how migrant communities in South Africa and Southeast Asia. a search for the "cultural contours" of a "Greater India. In these two beautifully written." Bose points out that Islam. "emphasizing how an exploration of the historic unity of Indo-Persian culture had given new meaning to "the evening of his life." (233-235) As in the case of the hajj. Bose describes how the articulation and pursuit of alternative visions of universalism." Bose traces the divided loyalties of Indian soldiers swept up by the events of World Wars I and II. which was. a symbolic reminder of Allah's divine sovereignty." (32) In Chapter 5." Visiting the tombs of the Persia's greatest poets. Bose's use of Tagore's Indian Ocean journeys deftly establishes a sense of deeply-rooted cultural and religious affinities and continuities reconnecting the premodern. and refreshingly original chapters." Bose expands on these themes. religion." Bose demonstrates how nationalism and universalism. he challenges us to explore "mobile. after all.illinois. taking what might otherwise be considered unoriginal stories about the opposing strands of patriotism exhibited by Mohandas Gandhi and the Indian National Army's leader Subhas Chandra Bose. the flow of pilgrims continued unabated during the colonial era. Bose explores how the shores of India. depositions in courts-martial. Bose turns to "the role of extraterritorial identity and universalist aspiration among the people of the Indian Ocean arena." whose "dreams and goals were never fully constrained by the territorial frontiers of colonial states ." This quest would take him across the Bay of Bengal to Malaya and Java. "Pilgrims' Progress under Colonial Rules.We must explore mobile anticolonial politics that affect Indian expatriate identity . (33. “Book Review Bose. Sugata." Bose follows a different sort of pilgrimage by tracing the oceanic journeys of Rabindranath Tagore. "A Different Universalism?: Oceanic Voyages of Poet as Pilgrim. it was his pilgrimage to Iran to which Tagore attached the greatest importance. Although his Bengali contemporaries referred to him as biswakabi (global poet). "Expatriate Patriots: Anticolonial Imagination and Action. the Ramayana and the Mahabarata. and nation" in order to better understand the "simultaneous pulls of universalism and nationalism. whether religious or cultural. Bose points out that in the twilight of his life." helped to shape and define Indian nationality. Hafiz and Saadi.1/br_low." Thus. By doing so. diseases. In Chapter 7. deeply evocative. World History Connected. scams. For South Asians lamenting both India's and the rest of the Islamic world's (particularly the Ottoman sultan-caliph's) loss of temporal sovereignty in the face of Western imperialism.

A Hundred Horizons : The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire”. “The Indian Ocean in the "New Thalassology": Review essay based on Sugata Bose. And the Indian Ocean gets lost somewhere in this bewildering sweep of humanity. Bose concludes that European modernity did not have a monopoly on universal aspirations or the terms of globalization. argued that the spatial imagination is also a political one. The framework is similar to that of Paul Gilroy on the Atlantic. Issue 76. II. pp. It has also been possessed of a long and distinguished tradition of scholarship. Archipel. Bose locates a counter hegemonic discourse in the life.distinctiveness. the poet-pilgrim Rabindranath Tagore. 2008. scholars claim that it has of late lapsed into a neglected area of research. back in fashion as historical studies. I. are As the 2006 forum “Oceans of History” in the American Historical Review proves. The result is a political history of oceanic transits in the British Empire. Nevertheless. works and travels of the nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose. Hyderabad Central University. and national cultures merely "the jealous guardians of their own distinctiveness. nor were local. global hegemony and negotiations of historical discourse. postmodern and postcolonial turns in politics and culture have disassembled triumphal temporal narratives of liberal regimes and reasserted the geopolitical assumptions behind spatial arrays of power. The lesser folk are not ignored either. a radically distinct universalizing discourse and something of an extra territorial identity existed among peoples around the Indian Ocean during British rule. pace Foucault. those of the poorer Hajj pilgrims from India to the Middle East and back. maintains that a different universalism. Thus. Hyderabad.We have an extraterritorial identity that we claim with a geographic focus on the Indian Ocean – we provide a different framework outside of Eurocentricism. and the Hajj pilgrims Khwaja Hasan Nizami and Abdul Majid Daryabadi. 6 and Edward Alpers pleads for an injection of imagination into this space . of the Indian Ocean as space and place. 5 Michael Pearson calls for a good dose of ozone into Indian Ocean studies. 4 To resurrect this area. 3 In actual fact A Hundred Horizons joins a long line of distinguished scholarship on colonial India. Department of History. and life-stories with geography: “The historical imagination is never completely spaceless.” 8 And he. As the general perception is that Indian Ocean . and how we approach them. Volume 76 ." (268-270) 5 . Andre Wink brings a geographic focus by opening up the environmental scale of the Indian Ocean area. the activist politician Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. the moderate Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale. regional. India. 291-306)//NVG oceans. 2 this essay only attempts to understand Bose’s vision in A Hundred Horizons. Rila 08 (Mukherjee Rila. to detail his grasp of Bose the state of historiography of this ocean and thereby to critically assess the new departures his volume intends. 1 One problem facing Indian Ocean historians has always been how to balance the ebb and flow of movement and change with the power structures that prevent or control them. New spatial and temporal vistas have suddenly opened up. Professor of History. The Indian Ocean has long been an ocean marked by the movement of peoples and commodities. but the focus is the Indian Ocean as seen from Southasia. 9 Bose’s Indian Ocean is imbued with colonial and counter colonial politics. While the larger academic issue is the state of Indian Ocean studies in the new scholarship. who enunciated clearly the burden of temporality in geography." As it turns out. as well as the supposed trajectories of the multitude of unnamed Indian soldiers who fought throughout the world for the British Empire. associated historical imagination with space. Unfortunately Bose’s characters are not half as colourful as those of Gilroy. Bose imagines the spatial itineraries of indentured labourers from India to Natal. School of Social Sciences. Decolonization. they too "wished to participate and contribute to larger arenas of cultural exchange. 7 Edward Soja.

albeit not without having to contend with economic exploitation and political oppression. as Bose rightly recognises. the creation and destruction of environmental Edens. “The Indian Ocean in the "New Thalassology": Review essay based on Sugata Bose. So a deployment of maritime categories has strong potential to highlight these processes and their effects. the rise of the colonial laboratories. which has lingered as colonialism’s most poisoned legacy” 15 and. the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean slave trades. Bose argues that Europeans merely achieved “dominance without hegemony” in the Indian Ocean. India. pilgrimage. even if histories written for the “first global age” from 1400 to 1800. that of the establishment of British stewardship of the ocean in the nineteenth century. 291-306)//NVG Bose produces a nuanced corrective to the dominant view established by leading historians of the ocean. Yet. Maritime optics bring focus to processes such as the intensity of Bollywood diffusion. Safavid and Mughal dominions and their successor states. School of Social Sciences. migration. again. Hyderabad. departures and transits. the Columbian exchange. Bose sets himself a commendable task: the resurrection of the Indian Ocean as category in historical scholarship via negotiable spaces that he uncovers as a non linear narrative unfolds. Rila 08 (Mukherjee Rila. Department of History. A Hundred Horizons : The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire”. and the oceanic space supplied a key venue for articulating different universalisms from the one to which Europe claimed monopoly. although a part of global processes . Borrowing from Ranajit Guha. such as Kenneth McPherson and Michael Pearson that European global empires broke or subordinated preexisting Indian Ocean linkages while fusing the region to the world economy. Port cities and their harbours are sites for connections for they tell the story of exchanges through navigational entrances. Hyderabad Central University. and exchange. Despite a lull in Indian Ocean studies. Oceans are attractive units for global history and ocean and sea basins are useful units of analysis 13 because they figure historically as some of the principal avenues of commercial. and the construction of global networks of trade. Volume 76 .The current understanding is that the Indian Ocean has been broken of its history – however. Professor of History. communication. Its story has often been told from a single originary point. the organization of plantation societies in the Americas and Oceania. 2008. and cultural exchanges. assume uncritically the foundational moment of colonialism and work backward to study it in . This is clearly debatable. pace Wallerstein. pp. which narratives uncover. As Bose contends: “The Indian Ocean realm experienced a sea change in the concept of sovereignty in the age of high imperialism.” 16 Ocean. founder of India’s subaltern studies collective. 14 Basins provide for a common matrix of interconnected places and events. the history of the Indian Ocean continues to be a global history. “The notion of indivisible and unitary sovereignty imposed under colonial conditions from Europe represented a major break from ideas of good governance and legitimacy that had been All histories of the Indian widespread in the Ottoman. Hundred Horizons is a timely intervention. the European global empires did NOT break Indian Ocean histories – Europeans maintained dominance without hegemony. because it cannot be studied in terms of national frames. the history of the Indian Ocean has been maligned in scholarship.” 6 . Archipel. Issue 76.studies are in urgent need of resuscitation. the formation of diasporic communities. We investigate the Indian Ocean slave trade to uncover narratives of slavery and colonialism that still leave an imprint on today’s Indian Americans. but let us now look at this space that A Hundred Horizons journeys through . 10 I submit that despite his claims—“The peoples of the Indian Ocean made their own history. biological.

When Linda wrote ‘‘multicultural students strug. particularly white teachers. Further she stated that since the early 1970s ‘‘educators began to describe urban school populations as ‘multicultural. she revealed her tendency to assumptions about the Other from an uncritical position of see life through a white racial lens. Then—Manchester Metropolitan U. this malign change marked not only the European domination of the Indian Ocean but also the construction of a particularistic historiography over this space. He recognizes that there can be no meta history of the Indian Ocean and its peoples.’’ This statement reveals the unstated assumptions that Andrea makes about black students (i. she unproblemmati.terms of categories more familiar to colonial history.cally wrote in the same paper. It is almost as if my success was jump-started from the beginning. ‘‘Like so many other young black males. not necessarily counter consciousness. From a history of the Indian Ocean. Pearson argued for a history of the Indian Ocean as opposed to a history in the Indian Ocean.’ I didn’t realize that she grew up the same way as I did. One. I questioned her knowledge of American culture just because of the way her eyes looked and the darkness of her hair. I had access to jobs that probably were not available to people of other cultures. When Margaret in another assignment for the ‘‘Diversity and the Learner’’ class wrote of her impressions of a young woman with a Korean mother but who grew up in the United States. technological diffusion.’’ she revealed two beliefs that are assumed but rarely stated by many white teachers. middle class. that there is. 19 Their histories may be seen as “connective”.gle most with communicating and making friends. and class inequi. John has no father in his everyday life. Yet. finance and labour flows. They think that by looking past skin colour they are above racist attitudes and actions. ‘‘Is it ever going to stop?’’ was a question asked by one of my students referring to the continued emphasis on multicultural education. 18 Pearson saw the emergence of the “in” as the turning-point in the history of the Indian Ocean. demographic shifts and migration. Teaching and Teacher Education 24 (2008) p. be they warfare. or worse fail to see ourselves as ‘‘raced’’ thereby continuing a racial discourse that identifies all non-whites as ‘‘Other. or at-risk students’’ (pp. profoundly influenced by wider matters coming from outside its geographical boundaries. In a review of educa... Two. the role of port cities and maritime communities. instead. 5). ‘‘I looked at her as the ‘Korean girl.’ a label .’’ We must seriously expose and critique any position that fosters the view articulated by Frankenberg (1996).ties. “connected” or “braided” histories from the South African coast to the China seas. I was educated in Catholic schools. 70’s. Now—Gonzaga U. 21 7 . She made whiteness. 72–73). as elsewhere. and is thereby silent regarding how such assumptions impact the ways in which she makes judgements about the students and their families that she works with. and 80’s.structed attitudes and remain blind to our position as whites in a racial discourse.Questions of pedagogy come first—determines whiteness in the debate space Mazzei 8 (Lisa A. Silence speaks: Whiteness Revealed in the Absence of Voice. hence his travellers who traverse the ocean. are unaware of our own socially con. racial identity. multicultural education is for those who are other than white and is of most benefit for those students who are non.e. Weiner (1993) asserted that in each of the three periods. an internal one using Indian Ocean-wide comparisons. 17 Pace Horden and Purcell. in fact many are appalled at racist attitudes and actions by others and sometimes angrily ask why we have to keep talking about the inequities they believe are no longer important or relate to them. It is a valid question and one which gives pause to hope that but it will not arrive as long as teachers. 1125-1136)//LA They are not knowingly racist. race.’’ When Andrea wrote ‘‘my life as a young.’’ she acknowledged the advantage that white privilege and affluence afforded. these designated multicultural students are behind or lacking in some way. regarding gender. The temporality of social life in the Indian Ocean. 20 But the various spatial and temporal dimensions are not addressed fully. These advantages were present in the opportunities available to me. The list is endless and Pearson refers to these as histories in the Indian Ocean. to a history in the Indian Ocean. a multiplicity of histories (possibilities) that unfold in various temporal and spatial dimensions. that they do not live with their fathers). The common thread is imperialism. trade.tional research that focused on the preparation of teachers for urban schools of the 60’s. Bose accepts the malign influence the latter exerts over studies of the Indian Ocean.native English speaking students. Caucasian American provided advantages that were not there for others in minority cultures. the discussion was framed as ‘‘preparing teachers of deprived. is rooted in spatial contingency in much the same way as the spatiality of social life is rooted in temporal/historical contingency. ‘‘It is interesting that one can in fact (re)tell a white life through a racial lens y Seeing blackness was not seeing whiteness’’ (p. and a corresponding need to discuss attitudes such a day might come. disadvantaged.

73). We must understand that when we ‘‘don’t notice’’ or when we ‘‘don’t talk about it’’ we.Even if there’s a risk it diminishes the in-round experience. dependent on a racially inhabited silence that perpetuates stereotypes of the Other also serves to define ‘‘different’’ through a racial lens which is both culturally determined by and uncritical of its racial position. Navigating Opportunity: Policy Debate in the 21st Century. one potentially enriching element in intercollegiate debate involves the possibility of argumentation that simultaneously challenges the loci of agreement for debate and enhances deliberative discussion. the experience is an invaluable one for the student when measured over a longer period of time. PhD and debate director at the University of Georgia.” or the process of defending and setting competing parameters. PhD and debate director at the University of Georgia. In other words. those decisions occur implicitly or prior to the contest round itself. 8 . agreement may be partially constituted through acceptance of speech times and the existence of a common topic. in fact.In round discussions of debate are essential to the activity Panetta 10 (Panetta. Edward M. Being able to fully defend a perspective. matter to even talk about race? Isn’t it best if we don’t notice it?’’ we can no longer remain silent or uncritical. The “debate about debate.’’ we are engaging in a and my student rationalized that this is because math is pretty universal and the English language is not. While this may create some discomfort for participants at the moment a debate is decided. relies on a nascent public space open to a critique of itself and its own expectations. when Jennifer asks ‘‘why [does] it that ignored the absence of white students in urban school systems’’ (p. but the role of the judge and the value of particular forms of evidence are debated in the round. including the framing of that perspective. published 2010“Controversies in Debate Pedagogy: Working Paper”. as when two teams agree that narrating personal experience is the most meaningful way to defend or reject the resolution. This discourse. Edward M. is certainly built on mutual agreement and common notions of how debates take place. Wake Forest National Debate Conference)FS Those who are committed to the traditional conception of intercollegiate policy debate should. can occur in many ways. are talking about it. non-traditional forms of debate are essential to exposing debaters to a wide range of scholarship—that outweighs Panetta 10 (Panetta.. Evolving critical methodologies and argumentative styles that push existing limits create content that follows academic innovations and deepens awareness of . both teacher educators and students. but it is equally built on the capability of debating the validity of its own construction. 9 . the possibility of debating about the very practices of debates—how to evaluate arguments. When one of the cooperating teachers responded to a question by Linda that the Asian children ‘‘struggle with the language arts but never the subject of math. published 2010“Controversies in Debate Pedagogy: Working Paper”. Wake Forest National Debate Conference)FS Just as there are benefits to accepting points of stasis prior to a debate. In a diverse world. This built-in space for reflection gives the debate community access to a set of skills such as critical thinking and the application of creativity. At times. The public space of debate. both of which are significant for a deliberative process that matters to everyone and maintains flexibility. the role of the resolution. then racial discourse as experienced through a white lens. Navigating Opportunity: Policy Debate in the 21st Century. the meaning of advocacy— is one of debate’s essential characteristics. In other instances. celebrate the opportunity to test argumentation against a diverse range of objections. conceived more as a public intersection than as a predetermined vision of what a public should be.. Finally. our students will come face-to-face with a variety of approaches to cases of controversy over their lifetimes.

scholarship and research programs that might not be familiar academic offerings at the student’s own university. . Conducting research that is presented and evaluated outside of the classroom environment creates genuine interdisciplinary encounters. All academic institutions (particularly communication departments) run the risk of solidifying a particular paradigm or approach too strongly.