CHE 6570

Lecture 1
CHE 6570

Fall 2012


Purpose of this course:

To provide fundamental tools which are used to
design / manage / operate a chemical plant safely


• Is it all about $$ ?

• Is its importance equal to production?

• SAFETY = Loss Prevention


Code of Engineering Ethics
(Crowl, Table 1-1, p. 5)

• AIChE Code of Professional Ethics
• Principle # 1: Use knowledge and skill for the
enhancement of human welfare.
• Principle #2: Be honest and impartial and serve with
fidelity the public, employers and clients.
• Canon # 1: Engineers shall hold paramount the safety,
health, and welfare of the public.


Metrics of Safety
• How to measure safety? Important factors?
• Metrics are needed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs.
• Hazards – have potential to cause damage to people, property or
• Risk – a function of likelihood & magnitude
• Understanding of risk, real & perceived, is needed for assessment of


Personnel Safety vs. Process Safety 6 .

7 . which results in or might reasonably have resulted in. deaths. evacuation or sheltering in place. significant property or environmental damage. injuries. Process Incident Definition A process incident is the sudden unintended release of or exposure to a hazardous substance.

000-2. 8 . Safety Pyramid 1-2 Fatalities due to “Incidents” 10-20 Serious Injuries 100-200 Minor injuries 1.000 Near Misses • Underlying causes of incidents at each level are often the same. where one generally has more data. • More serious incidents can be reduced by focusing on bottom of pyramid.

smaller is better! .000 hours exposure 100 years x 2000 hours/year FAR Fatal Accident Rate fatalities per 1000 employees and entire life = 108 hours exposure 50 years x 2000 hours/year x 1000 employees FR Fatality Rate per person per year (exposure poorly defined) For all of these indicators. Statistics-1 OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration incidence rate per 100 worker years = 200.

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26 7. Statistics-2 OSHA FAR Fatality Rate Chemical Industry 0.28 8 Coal Mining 0.7 Staying at Home 3 Travelling by Car 57 17 x 10-5 Rock Climbing 4000 4 x 10-5 20 Cigarettes / day 500 x 10-5 Struck by Meteorite 6 x 10-11 Struck by Lightning 1 x 10-7 Fire 150 x 10-7 Run over by Car 600 x 10-7 .2 Steel Industry 1.89 3.35 1.3 Agriculture 0.

400 .78 per day Public: 20.200 – 113 per day Work: 5. .100 – 14 per day Home: 28. Russia. mostly in China.200 – 253 per day World wide auto deaths: estimate at over 1 million per year.000 – 55 per day Total Deaths: 92. India. Statistics-3 1999 US Accident Fatalities: Motor Vehicle: 41.

by choice •Accept the risk of smoking •Voluntarily drive a motorcycle •Protest a plant with a much smaller risk 14 .Voluntary or Involuntary Risk •Concept of risk not well understood by public •Individual choices / decisions based on perceived risk •Accept risk by coercion vs.

Safety in the Chemical Industry • Risk is generally less than perceived by public. and often out of context with readily accepted everyday voluntary risks • Chemical industry is held to a higher than average safety standard • Continuous improvement towards an accident free workplace is necessary for credibility and the public trust 15 .

Loss Trends in Industry • Number and magnitude of losses increased from 1960’s through 1991 • Consistent with trend of larger & more complex plants and processes. perhaps due to 1992 OSHA regulations. p. Also higher pressures and temperatures. for 1992-1996 period. 18. • Decrease is shown in Crowl. Figure 1-9. 16 .




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36 + 53 injured. 20. England. much damage reactor out of control ( run away ) Seveso. no damage .9 atm 1974 vapor cloud 30 ton cyclohexane explosion & fire inventories (10 days) 28 killed. 1976 vapor cloud 2 kg dioxin 700 affected. Italy. 7. Significant disasters rupture inadequately supported bypass Flixborough. 1984 vapor cloud 25 ton toxic MIC 2000 killed. India. pipe. 155 o C.000 injured. 730 evacuated 25 2 km contaminated ( 40 factories ) not operating scrubber & flare system Bhopal.

Major Process Industry Accidents • Fires • Explosions • Toxic releases .

Lawsuits . Major Process Industry Incidents Incident Outcomes Consequences • Fires – Fatalities • Explosions – Injuries • Toxic Releases – Environ. Damage – Property Damage – Evacuations – Business Losses – Plant Closings – Fines.

Key Questions • Why do Accidents occur? • How do Accidents occur? • What must we do to keep them from happening? • When? .

Why do Accidents Occur? • We choose to handle dangerous process materials and energies – To make a living – To provide society with desirable products • As long as we choose to handle them. a potential for loss events exists Things can be done to reduce their likelihood and severity to negligible or tolerable levels .

Key Questions • Why do Accidents occur? • How do Accidents occur? • What must we do to keep them from happening? • When? .

000 Vapor cloud explosion Accident Pyramid 36% .Consequence --------- Hazard Hazard Probability Economic Fatalities Loss Fire High Low Intermediate Explosion Intermediate Inter. High Toxic Release Low High Low Explosions: 30% 1 Disabling Injury Other: 100 Minor Injury 3% 500 Property damage Fire No Damage 31% 10. Chemical Plant Accidents ------.

How Do Accidents Occur Most follow a 3-step sequence: •Initiation (event that starts the accident) •Propagation (the event(s) that maintain or expand the accident) •Termination (the event(s) that stop the sequence or diminish the extent) 33 .

Figure 1-7 Nature of Accidents .1 .

2 .Figure 1-8 Nature of Accidents .

Key Questions • Why do Accidents occur? • How do Accidents occur? • What must we do to keep them from happening? • When? .

What must we do to keep them from happening? Management SAFETY Culture Technical .

Consequences ? Y Accept system Fig. 10-1 . Risk Based Procedure System description Hazard identification Scenario identification Accident Accident probability consequences Risk determination RISK ASSESSMENT Risk & .What are the chances ? acceptable ? design .What can go wrong & how ? hazard N Modify .

. Inherently Safer Design Inherently safer designs permanently and inseparably reduce or eliminate process hazards that must be contained and controlled to avoid accidents.

A. Kletz. Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach (NY: Hemisphere. 1991) .” T. Inherently Safer Design “The essence of the inherently safer approach to plant design is the avoidance of hazards rather than their control by added-on protective equipment.

moderate conditions to reduce hazards. 22 41 . Table 1-9. p.see Crowl.Inherent Safety •Inherent safety involves prevention or reduction of hazards •Most impact can generally be made early at the design stages •Minimize amounts. substitute less hazardous chemicals. simplify to limit operator error.

Example .Crowl’s Lion Farm .

Scenario: Truck drives thru Lion cage fence. Crowl’s Lion Farm Hazard: Lions Incident : Driver loses control of pick-up truck. Lions walk thru hole in fence. Lions prowl around community. Incident Outcome: Local community is alarmed. people are attacked. . several dogs disappear.

control is simplified. and emergency response is eliminated. fences are reduced in strength. Crowl’s Lion Farm Inherently Safer Design Approach: If we are cultivating the lions for meat. the hazard is eliminated. . why not use lambs instead? This way.

Inherently Safer Design Strategies • MINIMIZE • SUBSTITUTE • MODERATE • SIMPLIFY .

Minimize = Reduce hazardous material/energy quantity – Reduces energy – Reduces potential accident severity .

Substitute = Replace with a less hazardous material – Reduces/eliminates available chemical energy – Reduces/eliminates potential accident severity .

Moderate = Use under less hazardous conditions – Available energy may be the same. concentrations. . pressures. this usually means lower temperatures. but – Passively reduces potential loss event impacts – For chemical processes. etc.

Simplify = Reduce unnecessary complexity – Reduces likelihood of an accident .

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Key Questions • Why do loss events occur? • How do loss events occur? • What must we do to keep loss events from happening? • When? .

Typical Process Life Cycle Stages .

Cost to change design Point in life-cycle where change made . When? Process safety must be integrated into the entire life-cycle of a plant. from conceptual design to decommissioning.

operator training. 214. p.see Figure 5-10. control systems. alarms. shutdown systems. management involvement.Incident Prevention •Safe operations depend on many aspects: design. it is much better to eliminate rather than to control hazards. detectors. 54 . •For safer and more economical processes. emergency response procedures .