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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Primarily I Would Thank God


for being able to complete this
project with success, Then I Would
like to thank my environment
teacher Mrs. Whose
valuable guidance has been the
ones that helped me patch this
project and make it full proof
success his suggestions and his
instructions has served as the
major contributor towards the
completion of the project.
Then I would like to thank my
parents and friends who have
helped me with their valuable
suggestion and guidance has
been helpful in various phases of
the completion of the project.
Last but not the least I would
like to thank my classmates who
have helped me a
lot.

1.
Introduction
Millions of people throughout the world do not have access to
clean water for domestic purposes. In many parts of the world
conventional Piped water is either absent, unreliable or too
expensive. One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to
overcome the growing water shortage. Rainwater harvesting (RWH)
has thus regained its importance as a valuable alternative or
supplementary water resource, along with more conventional water
supply technologies. Much actual or potential water shortages can
be relieved if rainwater harvesting is Practiced more widely.
People collect and store rainwater in buckets, tanks, ponds and
wells. This is commonly referred to as rainwater harvesting and has
been practiced for centuries. Rainwater can be used for multiple
purposes ranging from irrigating crops to washing, cooking and
drinking.
Rainwater harvesting is a simple low-cost technique that requires
minimum specific expertise or knowledge and offers many benefits.
Collected rainwater can supplement other water sources when they
become scarce or are of low quality like brackish groundwater or
polluted surface water in the rainy season. It also provides a good
alternative and replacement in times of drought or when the water
table drops and wells go dry. One should, however, realize that
rainfall itself cannot be managed. Particularly in arid or semi-arid
areas, the prevailing climatic conditions make it of crucial
importance to use the limited amount of rainfall as efficiently as
possible. The collected rainwater is a valuable supplement that
would otherwise be lost by surface run-off or evaporation.
In many areas RWH has now been introduced as part of an
integrated water supply, where the town water supply is unreliable,
or where local water sources dry up for a part of the year. But RWH
can also be introduced as the sole water source for communities or
house holds. The technology is flexible and adaptable to a very wide
variety of conditions. It is used in the richest and the poorest
societies, as well as in the wettest and the driest regions on our
planet.
On feasibility both technical and otherwise. During the past decade
the technology has, however, quickly regained popularity as users
realize the benefits of a relatively clean, reliable and affordable
water source at home .

2. Summary:-
Every drop of rain water is like blessings of God to the people on
the earth. Fresh rain water falls on the ground like pearls, so
everyone should understand the importance of rain water
especially in developing regions and rural areas lack of natural
water resources. We should try to collect rain water without
wasting through rooftops and along streets run off. We should
bring our old traditional harvesting practices using new and
effective technologies to make easy water supply in all the
regions. As only hand pumps, wells, and other resources of
groundwater levels cannot fulfill the potable water need of
hundreds of thousands of people.

Rainwater harvesting is the most sustainable and effective way for


many years to make water available in the areas lacking water.
Rainwater harvesting is very low cost method along with lots of
benefits. It helps in various purposes like household works, field
irrigation, livestock, agriculture and animal husbandry.

It helps in rejuvenating the groundwater levels in both directly and


indirectly manner. Groundwater level can be replenished by rain
water harvesting methods of trenches, anicut, dug wells, contour,
etc. whereas other rain water harvesting methods like
underground water tanks, ponds, etc. help in reducing the use of
groundwater for at least four to six months. It is very effective in
the hilly regions and desert regions of the India and other
countries. More and clean rain water can be collected in the rainy
season by making large and clean water body.

3. Need for rainwater harvesting:-


Due to pollution of both groundwater and surface waters, and the
overall increased demand for water resources due to population
growth, many communities all over the world are approaching the
limits of the untraditional water resources. Therefore they have to
turn to alternative or new resources like rainwater harvesting
(RWH). Rainwater harvesting has regained importance as a valuable
alternative or supplementary water resource. Utilization of rainwater
is now an option along with more conventional water supply
technologies, particularly in rural areas, but increasingly in urban
areas as well.
RWH has proven to be of great value for arid and semi-arid
countries or regions, small coral and volcanic islands, and remote
and scattered human settlements.

Rainwater harvesting has been used for ages and examples can be
found in all the great civilizations throughout history. The technology
can be very simple or complex depending on the specific local
circumstances. Traditionally, in Uganda and in Sri Lanka rainwater is
collected from trees, using banana leaves or stems as gutters; up to
200 liters may be collected from a large tree in a single rain storm.
With the increasing availability of corrugated iron roofing in many
developing countries, people often place a small container under
their leaves to collect rainwater. One 20-litre container of clean
water captured from the roof can save a walk of many kilometers to
the nearest clean water source. Besides small containers, larger sub-
surface and surface tanks are used for collecting larger amounts of
rainwater.

3. Reasons for rainwater harvesting:-


The reasons for collecting and using rainwater for domestic
use are plentiful and varied:

Increasing water needs/demands:- The increased need


for water results in lower groundwater table sand depleted
reservoirs. Many piped water supply systems fail. The use of
rainwater is an useful alternative.

Variations in water availability:- The availability of


water from sources such as lakes, rivers and shallow
groundwater can fluctuate strongly. Collecting and storing
rainwater can provide water for domestic use in periods of water
shortage. Rainwater may also provide a solution when the water
quality is low or varies during the rainy season in rivers and
other surface water resources.

Advantage of collection and storage near the


place of use:- Traditional sources are located at some
distance from the community. Collecting and storing water close
to households improves the accessibility and convenience of
water supplies and has a positive impact on health. It can also
strengthen a sense of ownership.

Quality of water supplies:- Water supplies can become


polluted either through industrial or human wastes or by
intrusion of minerals such as arsenic, salt(coastal area) or
fluoride. Rainwater is generally of good quality.
4.Advantages and disadvantages
When considering the possibility of using rainwater catchment
systems for domestic supply, it is important to consider both the
advantages and disadvantages and to compare these with other
available options. RWH is a popular household option as the water
source is close by, convenient and requires a minimum of energy
to collect. An advantage for house hold systems is that users
themselves maintain and control their systems without the need to
rely on other members of the community. Since almost all roofing
material is acceptable for collecting water for house hold
purposes, worldwide many RWH systems have been implemented
successfully. However, RWH has some disadvantages. The main
disadvantage of RWH is that one can never be sure how much rain
will fall. Other disadvantages, like the relatively high investment
costs and the importance of maintenance, can largely be
overcome through proper design, ownership and by using as much
locally available material as possible to ensure sustainability (and
cost recovery). The involvement of the local private sector and
local authorities can facilitate up scaling of RWH. Some
advantages and disadvantages are given.

Advantages of rainwater harvesting:-


1. Relatively cheap materials can be used for construction of
containers and collecting surfaces
2. Construction methods are relatively straightforward
3. Low maintenance costs and requirements
4. Collected rainwater can be consumed without treatment
providing a clean collecting surface has been used
5. Provides a supply of safe water close to homes, schools or
clinics, encourages increased consumption, reduces the time
women and children spend collecting water, reduces back strain or
injuries from carrying heavy water containers.
6. Simple construction: Construction of RWH systems is simple
and local people can easily be trained to build these themselves.
This reduces costs and encourages more participation, ownership
and sustainability at community level.
7. Good Maintenance: Operation and maintenance of a
household catchment system are controlled solely by the tank
owners family. As such, this is a good alternative to poor
maintenance and monitoring of a centralized piped water supply.
8. Relatively good water quality: Rainwater is better than
other available or traditional sources (groundwater may be
unusable due to fluoride, salinity or arsenic).
9. Low environmental impact: Rainwater is a renewable
resource and no damage is done to the environment.
10. Convenience at household level: It provides water at the
point of consumption
11. Not affected by local geology or topography: Rainwater
collection always provides an alternative wherever rain falls.
12. Flexibility and adaptability of systems: to suit local
circumstances and budgets, including the increased availability of
low-cost tanks (e.g. made of Ferro cement, plastics or stone/bricks)

Disadvantages of rainwater harvesting:


1. Supplies can be contaminated by bird/animal droppings on
catchment surfaces and guttering structures unless they are
cleaned/flushed before use.
2. Poorly constructed water jars/containers can suffer from algal
growth and invasion by insects, lizards and rodents.
3. They can act as a breeding ground for disease vectors if they
are not properly maintained
4. High investment costs: The cost of rainwater catchment
systems is almost fully incurred during initial construction. Costs
can be reduced by simple construction and the use of local
materials.
5. Usage and maintenance: Proper operation and regular
maintenance is a very important factor that is often neglected.
Regular inspection, cleaning, and occasional repairs are essential
for the success of a system.
6. Water quality is vulnerable: Rainwater quality may be
affected by air pollution, animal or bird droppings, insects, dirt and
organic matter.
7. Supply is sensitive to droughts: Occurrence of long dry
spells and droughts can cause water supply problems.
8. Limited supply: The supply is limited by the amount of
rainfall and the size of the catchment area and storage reservoir.

5. Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting


Rainwater harvesting is a way of capturing and storing water
during rainy periods for use in times when there is little or no rain
available. In certain regions of the world, rain water harvesting can
be the difference between having a plentiful crop and dried up
vines. There are several objectives behind rainwater harvesting.

Increase Available Water During Dry Season: Many


ecosystems have wet and dry seasons. Because the dry seasons
can consist of weeks or months of little to no rain, it is important
to capture during the rainy season and have it available for use
during the dry season. Rainwater harvesting enables you to store
rain when it is prevalent to be used when there is no rain.

Reduce Flooding and Erosion: By capturing and storing large


amounts of rainwater in reservoirs, it is possible to reduce the
amount of runoff and limit the impact on the land of large rainfalls.
By capturing rainwater you are basically reducing the
amount of water that is flowing across the land, which reduces
flooding chances and the impact of erosion.

Prevent Over use of Aquifers: As cities and towns grow the


need for water increases. Many municipalities rely upon aquifers
deep below the ground for this water supply. The problem is it
takes a long time to replenish an aquifer if it is quickly drained. By
harvesting rainwater for later use, the demand on aquifers is
reduced, which enables them to remain full.

Save Money: Pumping water up from underground aquifers can


be a fairly expensive operation. It is estimated that for every one
meter rise in water level, there is a reduction of 0.4 KWH of
electricity usage. So by having water closer to the surface, or at
the surface in reservoirs, less electricity is needed to pump it so
less money is spent.

6.Methods of Rainwater Harvesting


Catchment :

Any surface or the paved areas can be treated as catchment.


Even the footpaths and roads can act as the catchment, as these
areas too receive the direct rainfall. Rooftops are the best among
them because of the large coefficient of run off generated from
them and there are less chances of contamination of water.

Conveyance :
Conveyance system basically includes rain gutters and down pipes
which collects the rain water from catchment to the storage tank.
These rain gutters are usually built during the time of construction.
They need to be designed appropriately as to avoid the loss of
water during the conveyance process.

Storage :
The most important part of the rain water harvesting is the
storage system. The storage system is designed according to the
amount of water that is to be stored. The design and site (location)
of the storage
or the recharge
system should
be properly
chosen. The
areas which
receives the
rain fall
frequently,
there a simple
storage system
could be
constructed, to meet the daily water requirements. Otherwise the
areas which receive the lesser rainfall, there the storage systems
are quite essential. Rain barrels, underground or open slumps are
mostly used to collect rain water. Make sure that the storage
system is properly sealed and does nor leak. Use Chlorine from
time to time to keep the water clean.

8.Observation & Finding


Principle #1: Begin with long and thoughtful observation.
Principle #2: Start harvesting rain at the top of your watershed,
then work your way down.
Principle #3: Always plan an overflow route, and manage overflow
as are source.
4. Start with small and simple strategies that harvest the rain as
close as possible to where it falls.
5. Spread, slow and infiltrate the flow of water into the soil.
6. Maximize living and organic groundcover.
7. Maximize beneficial relationships and efficiency by stacking
functions.

9.Conclusion
It is a very useful process during rainy season and during the
scarcity of water.by doing this process we can safe water for
domestic purpose, drinking purpose and for future needs.it is a
very simple and affordable process. with the decreasing
availability of water, rain water harvesting is the best option.

Appropriate Project funds were used to build a small water


harvesting system for the school garden and a drip irrigation
system for the reforestation in an area designated for the newly
constructed Visitors Center for the local forest reserve, Bosque de
Zrate, a nationally declared protected area.

10. Suggestion
The system now functions with very little water, and serves as an
example to community members as well as visitors to the reserve
of appropriate irrigation and water management techniques. As
the trees grow older and need less assistance, it is agreed that the
community will locate the tank under the roof of the Visitors
Center, harvesting rains that fall upon the large surface.

Seminar:-

In many regions of the world, clean

drinking water is not always available and this

is only possible with tremendous investment

costs and expenditure. Rainwater is a free

source and relatively clean and with proper

treatment can be even used as a potable water

source. Rainwater harvesting saves high-quality

drinking water sources and relieves the

pressure on sewers and the environment by

mitigating floods, soil erosions and replenishing

groundwater levels. In addition, rainwater

harvesting reduces the potable water


consumption and consequently, the volume of

generated waste water.

Rainwater harvesting systems can be installed

in both new and existing buildings and

harvested rainwater used for different

applications that do not require drinking water

quality such as toilet flushing, garden watering,

irrigation, cleaning and laundry washing.

Harvested rainwater is also used in many parts

of the world as a drinking water source. As

rainwater is very soft there is also less

consumption of washing and cleaning powder.

With rainwater harvesting, the savings in


potable water could amount up to 50% of the

total household consumption.

Kai. Sau. G.F Patil Junior


College

Project Submitted By:- Shaikh Shoeb


Saghir Ahmed
STD:- XIth G Subject:-
Environment
Topic:- Rainwater Harvesting
Guidance By:-
Academic Year:- 2016-17

Reference :- Internet: Wikipedia


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