DISCUSSION 2 : While You Read: Strategis for Close Reading

Understanding a work that is challenging requires a close reading—one in which we
make decisions about what the text means as we read it, keep track of the author’s
ideas and points, and connect these new ideas with what we already know. Marking
up the text while we read facilitates this process. Here are some suggested marks for
things you should look for while you are reading (but you should try to think of your

Tabel 6

While You Read: Strategis for Close Reading

Look for .... Mark it with....
The main question or issue in each aim / objective / main
chapter or section
Fundamental concepts and their highlighting / underlining
explanations or descriptions
Important conclusions. (You may use 3* / --> / X
more than one to rank the importance)
Unclear or confusing parts, faulty logic Q/?
Supporting data or information used as evidence
Supporting data or information used as View point / VP
Problematic assumptions being made Problematic/ prob
Greater implications of the argument or implication

What does it mean to intepret a text critically?

It means being a discerning reader who:

 questions what you read
 thinks about what the author wants you to believe and works to convince you
 decides whether the author’s views are worthy of agreement

However. as well as the use and quality of the writer’s supporting evidence. use of punctuation. tone and approach of the text. decide whether the writer is credible. Trying to get the reader to care about a subject. through the tone) 2. As you interpret the text. you inevitably draw upon your own experiences. as well as clues from the language. Trying to get the reader to align him/herself with a greater class of readers (e.” women. and brevity or length of passages. Is the writer knowledgeable? What biases or values may be playing a role in his/her argument?  the logic of the writer’s argument : It is important to ask yourself what the writer wants you to believe and whether the reasons and supporting evidence convince you of this viewpoint. How do the writer’s choices about language and style aid their argument? What do these choices reveal about the writer’s argument? . Trying to get the reader to identify with the author or evoke respect for the authority of the author (for example. Here are some things to consider in your analysis:  the authority of the writer : Using both the information that you have about the writer as a person (training. “the educated. choice and connotation of words. Are they effective?  consider the writer’s use of language and style :The writer makes many decisions concerning language and style that serve to influence your responses as a reader. sentence formation. political affiliation.  how the writer gets your interest : A writer may use one or more of the following strategies to get the reader intellectually and emotionally involved in the text: 1.g. life experiences). Using the assumed interests and values of the reader as a foundation for another argument Ask yourself which of these techniques the writer is using and how. anecdotes. Examine the following aspects of the writing: overall tone. Examine the credibility of the “facts” as well as the line of reasoning that ties the facts to the main assertion. or detailed descriptions) 3. as well as your knowledge of other texts. environmentalists) 4. the basis of your analysis must be rooted in the text itself.Asking questions about what you read requires your careful examination of the writer’s claims. cause or problem (perhaps by appealing to his/her emotions by using shocking statistics.

After reading the article. These binaries. What is the purpose and tone of the article? 5. 2. or pairs of opposites. what are your own thoughts and opinions about the issues raised in the article? . will reveal the ideology that informs the text. Is the author objective or does he/she try to convince the reader to have a certain opinion? If so. answer these questions to help you to reflect upon and analyze what you have read. Does the author try to appeal to the reader’s emotions? Does the author use any loaded words in the headline or the article? List these words and explain their effect on the reader. Does the author’s argument assume that the reader thinks in a particular way or has a particular world-view? What are the major underlying assumptions that the author makes. What kind of evidence is presented to support the author’s argument? Is it fact or opinion? What is the source of the information—does it come from an informed authority in the field? 4. answer these questions to help you to reflect upon and analyze what you have read: 1. After reading the article.the system of beliefs. 3. List and explain the reasons the author provides for his/her main argument. values. Does the author make“ jumps” or inferences based on his/her evidence? Is the line of reasoning logical? 8.that underlies the text. Then write down the opposite of each word. and do you think they are reasonable and acceptable to most people? 7. what viewpoint does the author try to convince you of? What reasons does the author provide for choosing this viewpoint? 6. consider the ideology that informs the text : Try to uncover the ideology -. and ideas about the world -. A simple way to do this is to write down words and ideas that are valued in the text or represented by the author in a positive way. Forgetting what the author thinks for a moment. 9. .

html ) Excerpt 1 (from an academic journal) The aim of the study was to describe how patients perceive involvement in decisions concerning their own treatment and nursing Is the methodology valid care. here? Critical readers would Sample question whether the sample size was big enough to fulfil A convenience sample of 12 patients was the aim of this study. Excerpt 2 (from an academic journal) Each interview was tape recorded and took between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. are inferring that the results gained from surveying these patients can be generalised to all patients. The major theme of represent a sufficient range 'toeing the line' was identified that provides of patients. Excerpt 3 (from an academic journal) The idea in this first sentence The value systems of individuals and of in a Nursing article is most societies can be said to have dominant probably informed by temporal focuses. asthe criterion for inclusion in the population sample perhaps created an unrepresentative group. the tape was listened overgeneralised the results to and transcribed. Where is the reference? spirits. During this period.uow. would also question whether The only criterion for inclusion in the study was the sample was a willingness to participate. here? hunches or working hypotheses were The author has used the findings from a very small identified which were explored in sample size. Has the author After each interview.au/reading/2c. They selected from three mixed-sex medical wards. or ancestors hold a dominant temporal focus on the past. visited upon the individual by angry gods. thus skewing the survey results. Societies in which causes Are these the author's ideas and consequences are disregarded in favour of presented as fact? The writer immediate gratification and symptom hold a . The authors its significant implications for nursing.Example of Critical Reading Analysis (Source http://unilearning. to support a insight into how patients view major line of argument about 'collaboration'. The remainder of this paper how patients view will focus on an exploration of this theme and collaboration. representative enough of the wider population. that may not subsequent interviews.edu. The personality type that is willing to participate in a study of this kind may suggest subjects that are already highly involved in patient participation. Societies in which hospital research in Sociology or sickness and other disasters are seen as Anthropology.

They must have author provide to support his tasks that are achievable within a specified or her argument? time frame. . without a champion. Neither are teams a cheap option. experience little anxiety relief at the removal of a symptom. Excerpt 4 (from a weekend newspaper article) What evidence does the Teams are not magic. Leadership is back in fashion? in fashion. should do the job. Explicit or strong leadership Is this assumed knowledge behaviour is seen as contrary to the notional within the discipline of equality of teams. not Is this the author's opinion or fact? the team. and need to plan and work toward future eventualities hold a future temporal focus. Societies that show interpretation were considerable anxiety about the implications absolutely the truth. support and credibility. A leader is the team's link What theory is it based with the wider organisation and the vital on? conduit for resources. But people in teams often argue that good teamwork makes leadership redundant. The team charged with 'management' has an impossible brief and will surely fail unless effort is spent spelling out what the management task involves and what constitutes success. They Is there evidence provided inevitably consume resources and time. Excerpt 5 (from a weekend newspaper article) A third illusion is that leaders are not Who says leadership is back necessary in good teams. Would you accept this as fact? Why? If an individual has the skills to do the job with the requisite creativity. then the individual. supporting this? Teams rarely resolve conflict. to of just an interpretation. Management? This illusion and the lack of leadership it produces is one of the worst things that can happen to a team. More often.here is writing as if his or her present temporal focus. instead and consequences of present situations. It ensures an obsession with internal power relations and a team This point is stated as fact. Do you agree with it? Teams need help to understand how their leadership requirements change and how to make the most of the leadership resources distributed among members. they pressure-cook it.

swinburneonline. Source:  https://www.edu/online-writing-center/resources/critical-reading-writing/general- reading/interpreting-texts-asking-questions/ Retrieved 6 January 2016 .swinburneonline.pdf  https://www.au/sites/www.esc.edu.au/files/pdf_doc uments/sample_critical_review.edu.