Unit N.

5: Understanding amplitude demodulation (AM demodulation)

Understanding the principle of amplitude demodulation (AM demodulation)

Objectives: Detecting the AM demodulation
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Evaluating the quality of detected signal in AM demodulation

Measuring and adjusting an demodulated signals

Minimum level of communication techniques understanding Medium level of electronics components and devices understanding .

Requisites: Understanding the amplitude modulation mechanism Error: Reference source not found High level of health and safety risks understanding .

Communication systems theoretical manual DL 3155M60 .

DL 3155AL2 or stabilized supply source 20MHz double trace oscilloscope .

Operative set of connection cables instruments: Error: Reference source not found Where we start from .

So.In previous experiment (Exp3) we where dealing with modulating a carrier with data signal (audio) through AM method. . we put the foundation of radio sender.

we would like to remember you the fastest formula for modulation index calculus. and to remove the carrier for efficient use of audio signal.carrier amplitude fm .the spectrum of the audio signal at the output of demodulating device For the practical evaluation.audio amplitude Ac . we are familiar with experimenting with De Lorenzo boards. The block diagram connection is shown next. . So.audio frequency fc . The experimental circuits are shown next. we need modulated signal. at receiver side. There is not place and time to talk about the area between dashed lines.full carrier Now. You will pay attention to the sender’s. The main parameters that describe the demodulation process are: Am . in order to experiment with demodulation.On the other side. Let’s build up the demodulating process. E . so previous experiments are welcomed and required. and receiver’s side. We are also familiar with connecting electronic modules. the basic idea is to receive such modulated signal.AM demodulation with analogue multiplier DSB .carrier frequency . Both parts represent the dream of all radio amateurs around the world.

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it is the simplest experiment for demodulating AM signal. .As you understand.

an auto mode of measuring. We did it. try to use such facility. In order to save time during acquiring data. You have right! If we make a zoom of the received signal (the output of module E). See the detail A! . and make any observations related to the obtained audio signal.Let’s run it and see what we get on the oscilloscope. test the result with your PC speakers. and we got next signal shapes. let’s say. Probably. analyze the work of demodulator. now let’s go dipper into received signal. Please measure signals. when you tested the audio signal with PC speakers. T ake a look to measuring scales. bring comment related. we will see a picture like next one. Well. If you have mood for that. There is the place for a little indication: most of oscilloscopes have a facility to adjust displaying parameters. you found some unpleasant sounds. and to shapes of the signals.

If you are not very familiar with scope functions. Quiz. or not. Now. please take out the measuring cable for original audio signal. Most of modern oscilloscopes have at list a FFT math function. My eyes tell me that the audio signal result is OK (the module E output). some time this simple processing stage is enough. and some harmonics.It is the time to analyze what is here. The easiest way is to use a spectral analyzer that will analyze all signals that composes such signal. There are some methods to do these. depending by next processing signals. Test yourself and be ready to accept new questions Please review the advantages of using DSB techniques of modulation/demodulation. in order to be sure you will analyze the E module output. Who influences the demodulated signal parameters? . run it and analyze the result. The FFT function tells me that the signal is composed by a 10 kHz signal (20 dB Vrms). Find it on your scope.

now we are trying to understand how to use successfully the SSB modulation. SSB. Now. So. DSB. By using De Lorenzo experimental board DL 3155M60 we have modulated signal with DSB. What kind of measure do you propose in order to ensure the quality of demodulated signal? E . there are a lot of applications that uses SSB modulation. In order to experiment using SSB detector. For our experiment we use a 10th order low pass filter. and it is necessary to remove on side of the modulated signal.module G to remove one side of AM signal.full carrier. it is the time to understand how to manipulate signals for energy saving in transmission process.SSB .detector Now. Next figure shows the “positions” of signal for better understanding how to remove one AM sideband. we have two sidebands. After that we can use a SSB detector. . we know what does mean AM. For instance. One method is based on adapting the modulation type in accordance with transmitted data.

The proposed experimental panel looks like next figure: . remember. The connection diagram of modules who are involved in this experiment is shown in upper figure.Well. we want to recuperate the audio signal that we have used in modulation process at the highest quality. That’s why we have to compare extracted audio signal with the original one.

Let’s run the experiment. From the beginning. and 50 kHz. . The reason of this is to test the adjustment work of 10th order low pass filter.4 kHz. I would like to prevent you that we need to test results almost at borders frequencies of audio generator.

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Please exercise this. . By switching between S1 and DSB from module B and testing the results on the output of module G. understand how to use 10th order low pass filter. by adjusting audio generator frequency. Adjust also the level of carrier in order to work with fine oscillations through the electronic module.First of all we exercise removing sidebands.

we can analyze its effect over the modulated signal. and module B switch.After taking some precautions. . By adjusting also the output voltage of the filter. we can play with audio generator frequency.

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Now. . It is the time to run the SSB detection experiment. we are sure that we have well SSB modulated signal.

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. the second measurement channel is connected to the output of general purpose amplifier.A particular detail: on this picture you will see that the output of module H is connected to the input of module D. I am kindly asking you to justify this action.

at both borders of tone generator is well recuperated. the border frequencies of the audio generator. Are you satisfied? I do! The audio signal. the output level of the filter The list of the experimental situation is not close. the border frequencies of the carrier. but it is recommended to check at list these. When you acquire the signals (the output of module B. after proper adjustments of the knobs. and the output module D). the level of the carrier.Please remember that we need to check some experimental situations: the level of audio signal. in order to be sure about SSB transmission process. . you will get some concluding figures.

in order to get nice shapes of the signal. Please also do some FFT processing of the output signal of the SSB detector in order to be sure that the signal is accurate .Please exercise with your experiment.

. or instantaneous automatic gain control (IAGC) is used during normal operation. DSB. Quiz. Who influences the demodulated signal parameters? What kind of extra measure do you propose in order to ensure the quality of demodulated signal? U . The complex form of automatic gain control (AGC). We should remember that. the gain control is a method for adjusting the receiver sensitivity for the best reception of signals of widely varying amplitudes. SSB.SSB receiver with AGC We are now familiar with AM. Test yourself and be ready to accept new questions Please review the advantages of using SSB techniques of modulation/demodulation.

you will observe that the output has two sockets Vam. We are continuing the experimentation from previous experiment. V1am. which is used in our experiment for simulating low level of RF signal. The experimenting board offer the possibility to experiment also AGC for low level of RF signal. .By analyzing the electronic circuit of AM modulator with analogue multiplier. by adding a ACG facility from module U. They belong to a voltage divider (1/10).

with few external components. Again.use the proper colour for the cable! The block diagram of the improvement of experimental SSB receiver is shown in next figure. The module is integrated in previous experiment diagram. Remember please. For the purpose of the experiment.The electronic module is built around integrate circuit LM13700 Dual Operational Transconductance Amplifiers with Linearizing Diodes and Buffers. As in previous experiment. The next figure shows the proposed experimental panel. That’s why we have to compare extracted audio signal with the original one. we are using the variable DC voltage. with only minor changes (the AM modulated signal is collected from V1am. For our purpose is used only one operational amplifier. The diagram is extremely simple. we exercise removing sidebands. instead of Vam). the issue is to recuperate the audio signal that we have used in modulation process at the highest quality. . The pin input 1 is used for controlling the gain for BIAS amplifier.

Please exercise this. Adjust also the level of carrier in order to work with fine oscillations through the electronic module. by adjusting audio generator frequency. understand how to use 10th order low pass filter. .By switching between S1 and DSB from module B and testing the results on the output of module G.

we are satisfied with results. the border frequencies of the audio generator. at both borders of tone generator is well recuperated. the output level of the filter Also in this case. When you acquire the signals (the output of module B. in order to be sure about SSB transmission process. the border frequencies of the carrier. The audio signal.Again. . the level of the carrier. the list of the experimental situation is not close. but it is recommended to check at list these. and the output module D). you will get some concluding figures. we should remember that we need to check some experimental situations: the level of audio signal. after proper adjustments of the knobs. Again.

Please also do some FFT processing of the output signal of the SSB detector in order to be sure that the signal is accurate. in order to get nice shapes of the signal.Please exercise with your experiment. .