Summary of My Notes
Ch 4
4 Period
Teacher​:​ Mrs. Morales
Starting Date:​ 11/7/2016   ​Ending Date: ​12/6/2016

Please make sure you are using Black, 12-pt  Times New Roman font.

Chapter 4

Sec. 4.1 - Factors and Prime Factorization
In this section, students learned how to write the prime factorization of a number. A prime
number is a whole number that is greater than 1 and has exactly two whole number factors, 1 and
itself. A composite number is a whole number that is greater than 1 and has more than two whole
number factors. The number 1 is neither prime nor composite. When writing a number as a
product of prime numbers, that is called a prime factorization, students use a diagram called a
factor tree to write the prime factorization of a number. Students also learned about monomials, a
monomial is a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to
whole number powers.

Example: 104

8 13

2 4 13

2 · 2 · 2 · 13

Sec. 4.2 - Greatest Common Factor
In this section, students learned how to find the greatest common factor of two or more whole
numbers. A common factor is a whole number that is a factor of two or more nonzero whole
numbers. The greatest common factor is the greatest common factor or for short, GCF. To find
the greatest common factors, students needed to list down the factors of each number. Then,
students were able to identify the greatest number that is on every list. Another method students
used to find the greatest common factor is to write down the prime factorization of each number,
the greatest common factor is the product of the common prime factors. Students also learned
how to identify relatively prime numbers. Two or more numbers are relatively prime if their

greatest common factor is 1. Students then end their lesson by learning how to find the greatest
common factor of monomials.

Examples: 6 and 18, GCF: 6 Relatively Prime Numbers:

6: 1, 2, 3, 6 12 and 13, 7 and 13, 2 and 5

18: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9

Sec. 4.3 - Equivalent Fractions
In this section, students learned how to write equivalent fractions. A fraction is a number of the
form ab, where a is the numerator and b is the denominator and the value of b cannot be 0. Two
fractions that represent the same number are called equivalent fractions. In order to write
equivalent fractions, multiply or divide the numerator and the denominator by the same nonzero
number. Students also learned how to write equivalent fractions in simplest form. A fraction in
simplest form is when the numerator and the denominator are relatively prime. To write a
fraction in simplest form, divide the numerator and the denominator by their GCF.

Examples: Equivalent Fractions Simplest Form

4/20 1/5

3/12 1/4

Sec. 4.4 Least Common Multiple
In this sections, students learned how to find the least common multiple of two numbers. A
multiple of a whole number is the product of the number and any nonzero whole number and a
multiple that is shared by two or more numbers is a common multiple. The least of the common
multiples of two or more numbers is the least common multiple (LCM). The least common
denominator (LCD) of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of the denominators.
By using and finding the LCD, it is easier to compare and order fractions.

Example: LCM of 3 and 5 LCM of 3 and 5: 15

3: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30

5: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40

Sec. 4.5 Rules of Exponents
In this section, students learned how to multiply and divide powers. Students learned the Product
of Powers Property: to multiply powers with the same base, add their exponents. There is also
another rule related for dividing powers with the same base. The Quotients of Powers: to divide
powers with the same base, subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the
numerator.

10 200
Examples: 23 · 29 = 212 10 50
= 10150

Sec. 4.6 Negative and Zero Exponents
In this sections, students learned how to work with negative and zero exponents. They learned
that for any nonzero number a, a0, = 1. If the exponential is negative in the numerator, the
exponential is actually positive in the denominator. If the exponential is negative in the
denominator,the exponential is actually positive in the numerator. Students learned that if there is
a negative exponent, they have to flip it into a positive.

Examples: 3−3 = 1
3
· 1
3
· 1
3
1000 0 = 1