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Algebra Readiness

Summary of My Notes

Ch 4

4 Period

Teacher: Mrs. Morales

Starting Date: 11/7/2016 Ending Date: 12/6/2016

1

Please make sure you are using Black, 12-pt Times New Roman font.

Chapter 4

Sec. 4.1 - Factors and Prime Factorization

In this section, students learned how to write the prime factorization of a number. A prime

number is a whole number that is greater than 1 and has exactly two whole number factors, 1 and

itself. A composite number is a whole number that is greater than 1 and has more than two whole

number factors. The number 1 is neither prime nor composite. When writing a number as a

product of prime numbers, that is called a prime factorization, students use a diagram called a

factor tree to write the prime factorization of a number. Students also learned about monomials, a

monomial is a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to

whole number powers.

Example: 104

8 13

2 4 13

2 · 2 · 2 · 13

Sec. 4.2 - Greatest Common Factor

In this section, students learned how to find the greatest common factor of two or more whole

numbers. A common factor is a whole number that is a factor of two or more nonzero whole

numbers. The greatest common factor is the greatest common factor or for short, GCF. To find

the greatest common factors, students needed to list down the factors of each number. Then,

students were able to identify the greatest number that is on every list. Another method students

used to find the greatest common factor is to write down the prime factorization of each number,

the greatest common factor is the product of the common prime factors. Students also learned

how to identify relatively prime numbers. Two or more numbers are relatively prime if their

2

greatest common factor is 1. Students then end their lesson by learning how to find the greatest

common factor of monomials.

Examples: 6 and 18, GCF: 6 Relatively Prime Numbers:

6: 1, 2, 3, 6 12 and 13, 7 and 13, 2 and 5

18: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9

Sec. 4.3 - Equivalent Fractions

In this section, students learned how to write equivalent fractions. A fraction is a number of the

form ab, where a is the numerator and b is the denominator and the value of b cannot be 0. Two

fractions that represent the same number are called equivalent fractions. In order to write

equivalent fractions, multiply or divide the numerator and the denominator by the same nonzero

number. Students also learned how to write equivalent fractions in simplest form. A fraction in

simplest form is when the numerator and the denominator are relatively prime. To write a

fraction in simplest form, divide the numerator and the denominator by their GCF.

Examples: Equivalent Fractions Simplest Form

4/20 1/5

3/12 1/4

Sec. 4.4 Least Common Multiple

In this sections, students learned how to find the least common multiple of two numbers. A

multiple of a whole number is the product of the number and any nonzero whole number and a

multiple that is shared by two or more numbers is a common multiple. The least of the common

multiples of two or more numbers is the least common multiple (LCM). The least common

denominator (LCD) of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of the denominators.

By using and finding the LCD, it is easier to compare and order fractions.

Example: LCM of 3 and 5 LCM of 3 and 5: 15

3: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30

3

5: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40

Sec. 4.5 Rules of Exponents

In this section, students learned how to multiply and divide powers. Students learned the Product

of Powers Property: to multiply powers with the same base, add their exponents. There is also

another rule related for dividing powers with the same base. The Quotients of Powers: to divide

powers with the same base, subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the

numerator.

10 200

Examples: 23 · 29 = 212 10 50

= 10150

Sec. 4.6 Negative and Zero Exponents

In this sections, students learned how to work with negative and zero exponents. They learned

that for any nonzero number a, a0, = 1. If the exponential is negative in the numerator, the

exponential is actually positive in the denominator. If the exponential is negative in the

denominator,the exponential is actually positive in the numerator. Students learned that if there is

a negative exponent, they have to flip it into a positive.

Examples: 3−3 = 1

3

· 1

3

· 1

3

1000 0 = 1

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