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2017 Spring Semester

MS212 Thermodynamics of Materials
(소재열역학의 이해)

Byungha Shin (신병하)
Dept. of MSE, KAIST

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Course Information
Course Information
Teaching Staff
Prof. Byungha Shin (Teacher)
byungha@kaist.ac.kr, X 3315, W1-1 #3404
office hours: 16:00 – 17:30 on Tue and Thurs or by appointment

Mr. Giuk Jeong (Teaching Assistant)
zeuskhan@kaist.ac.kr, X 3355, W1-1 #2432

Mr. Joon Yun Kim (Teaching Assistant)
wnsdus@kaist.ac.kr, X 3355, W1-1 #2432

Meeting time and place
Time: 1:00 – 2:15 on Tues and Thurs
Location: E11 Creative Learning Bldg (창의학습관) #303

Textbook
Gaskel, “Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials”, 5th Ed.

Enthalpy. Heat Capacity.5 lectures) Chap 6. The Second Law of Thermodynamics (3 lectures) Chap 4. Auxiliary Functions (2. The Behavior of Solutions (3 lectures) Chap 10.5 lectures) Chap 3. Gibbs Free Energy Composition and Phase Diagram (3 lectures) .Course Information Syllabus Chap 1. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy (2 lectures) Chap 5. The First Law of Thermodynamics (1. Introduction and Definition of Terms (1 lecture) Chap 2. The Behavior of Gases (3 lectures) Chap 9. Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics (3 lectures) Chap 7. Phase Equilibrium in a One-Component System (3 lectures) Chap 8.

it will be helpful if students prepare a list of questions and send it to Prof.will be scheduled once every 2-3 weeks (Saturday afternoon. exact dates to be determined)? .in Korean language . Shin well ahead of each session . Course Schedule Course Information • No class on: 4/18 (Tues) & 4/20 (Thurs): Mid-term exam period 5/18 (Thurs): K-MRS spring meeting 5/23 (Tues) & 5/25 (Thurs): E-MRS spring meeting 6/5 (Tues): Memorial Day 6/13 (Tues) & 6/15 (Thurs): Final exam period • 2-3 Make-up classes will be scheduled: Saturday afternoon • Discussion sessions .to review and discuss materials covered in regular classes prior to each session (mostly answering students’ questions) .

1:00 pm – 4:00 pm or in the evening (extra time will be given to those who want it) Coverage of Exam Exams are open-book and open-note. Mid-term exam 1: Chaps. 12:30 pm – 2:30 pm or in the evening Final exam: 6/13 (Tues). 12:30 pm – 2:30 pm or in the evening Mid-term exam 2: 5/11 (Thurs). 1 – 4 Mid-term exam 1: Chaps. 5 – 7 Mid-term exam 1: Chaps. 1 – 10 .Grading Grading Weekly homework (total 8) 20% Mid-term exam 1 25% Mid-term exam 2 25% Final Exam 30% Bonus points for class participation +a Exam Dates and Time Mid-term exam 1: 3/30 (Thurs). but no internet and no smartphone.

Course How toInformation succeed in MS 212? • What counts in MS212 is understanding the basic concept. please read assigned sections of the textbook. • In preparation for each lecture. At the end of each lecture. • Active class participation. putting in a substantial amount of time each week. I will assign which sections to read for the next lecture. Don’t get overwhelmed by formulae and memorization of them is useless (exams are open-note and open-book) • Regular work. .

Eric Mazur at Harvard University .Course Information Class Participation Taken from presentation slides of Prof.

• Lecture notes will be uploaded to KLMS (http://klms.kaist.Announcement • Lecture notes will be given to you via email • Make sure email address that you put on KAIST portal is the one you are actually using.ac.kr/) prior to each lecture (a notification email will be sent once upload is done). .

P. It is the only physical theory concerning which I am convinced that. it will never be overthrown.” -. within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts. the more different kind of things it relates. Therefore.Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Greek for Greek “Heat” for “force” • Deals with ’heat’ and ‘work’ plus the material properties of substances which bear a relation to heat and work “… Not knowing the second law of thermodynamics is like never having read Shakespeare” -. Snow “ A theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises. the deep impression which classical thermodynamics made upon me.Albert Einstein .C. and the more extended is its area of applicability.

Importance of Thermodynamics .

Laws of Thermodynamics 0th law Define Temperature (T) 1st law Define Energy (U) “You can’t win. You lose! . you can only break even” 2nd law Define Entropy (S) “You can break even only at absolute zero” 3rd law Define absolute value of S “You cannot reach absolute zero” Conclusion: You can neither win nor break even.

but not mass • Isolated: Do not exchange anything Surroundings (Environment): The universe outside the system Boundary: The interface dividing the system from the surroundings Slide courtesy of Prof.Definition of Terms System: Any collection of matter that is we want to study • Open: Exchange energy and mass • Close: Exchange energy. WooChul Jung .

position. WooChul Jung . etc. pressure. No change in time and in space Slide courtesy of Prof. volume. • Homogeneous or Heterogeneous (in terms of phase) phase : finite volume in which the properties are uniformly constant • Number of components component: chemical species of fixed composition • Equilibrium or non-equilibrium equilibrium: There are no net flows of matter or of energy.Description of System • Microscopic properties molecule. e. velocity. density. etc.g. how many parameters to describe 1 mole of Ar gas? • Macroscopic properties (variables) temperature. mode of motion. no phase change.

V: _ volume of the system C: heat capacity V=V/n: molar volume c=C/m: specific heat capacity . m. • Extensive: dependent on the size of the system (V. etc. P.) • Intensive: independent on the size of the system (T.Macroscopic Properties • For simple compressible (such as gas) pure (1 component) substance. n. unit mole. only two independent macroscopic properties enough to uniquely specify the state of a system that is closed (fixed mass). r. or unit mass of the system.) • You can normalized extensive properties by unit volume. etc.

grc.html Slide courtesy of Prof.0th Law of Thermodynamics Hot + Cold = ? Warm Warm Heat if two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system. WooChul Jung .nasa. Image obtained from http://www. they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/thermo0.

15 • Slope: R (gas constant) = T 8.15oC: absolute zero • This defines a new temperature scale (Kelvin). (PV)F • T(K) = T(oC) + 273. freezing point. volume.Temperature? • Property that varies with T: Resistivity.15 PV (PV)B • T = -273. WooChul Jung . color.15oC 100oC Slide courtesy of Prof. etc.31451 J K-1 mol-1 -273. etc. Boyle’s Law (1660): V ∝ 1/P at constant T PV = f(T). triple point of H2O. a linear fcn of T Charles’ Law (1787): V ∝ T at constant P 1 ?? 1 1 Gay-Lussac’s law (1802): ? = = now. ?& ?? ) 267 273. • Reference points: Boiling point.

08205 L∙atm / (mol∙K) ? ?& 273. _ PV = nRT or PV = RT Unit consideration: Pressure = force / area 1 atm = 101.Equation of State of Ideal Gas Ideal gas: a theoretical gas composed of a set of randomly moving.314 J / (mol∙K) = 1.41 ?) ?= = = = 0.325 N/m2 Volume = area x distance (height) 1 L = 10-3 m3 1 L∙atm = 101.987 cal / (mol∙K) .325 N∙m2 = 101.325 J ?? ?& ?& (1 atm)(22.15 ? = 8. non-interacting point particles.

State Function How to describe going from one equilibrium state to the other? Equilibrium > State A . PA. VB.Phase (homo/hetero) .) kinetics. not by thermodynamics . etc.Macroscopic variables Equilibrium (TA.# of component .Macroscopic variables How fast is determined by (TB.) State B . etc. PB. VA.Phase (homo/hetero) > .# of component Slide courtesy of Prof. WooChul Jung .

P Equilibrium State B (TB & PB) PB Isothermal PA è PB Equilibrium PA State A Isobaric (TA & PA) TA è TB T TA TB Slide courtesy of Prof.State Function Path from one state to another • Adiabatic: no heat transfer with surroundings • Isobaric: constant pressure • Isothermal: constant temperature • Isochoric: constant volume • Isentropic: constant entropy • etc. WooChul Jung .

P): Already existing property like Gyeryong Mt. à State function ?? ?? ?? = ?? + ?? V ?? )< ?? >? 1 ?? ?? = ?? + ?? ?? >< ?? )? 2 A? >? )? ?? ?? @ ?? = @ ?? + @ ?? P1 P2 A< >< ?? )< )< ?? >? P )? >? T1 ?? ?? =@ ?? + @ ?? T2 )< ?? >< >< ?? )? T = ?B − ?D E ?? = 0 : path-independent State function dV: exact differential .State Function V = V(T.