Joints Joints in the human body, are

classified into three main
types; fibrous joints
(immovable), cartilaginous
joints a(slightly moveable) and
synovial joints (moveable).

Synovial Joints A synovial joint (also known as a
“diarthrosis”) is the most common
and the most moveable type of joint.
It is characterized by capsules
surrounding the articulating surfaces
and the lubricating synovial fluid
within those synovial cavities.

A condition involving loss of cartilage at
joints whereby bone becomes exposed
and damaged. The main symptoms of
osteoarthritis are joint pain, tenderness,
stiffness, and locking. Osteoarthritis (a
joint disease) is often confused with
osteoporosis, which is a bone disease
characterized by low bone mass and
done deterioration.

Bursitis Inflammation of the small fluid
sacs (bursae) found at the
friction points between
tendons, ligaments and bones.

Cartilage A flexible connective tissue found at
the joints, and in the rib cage, the
ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes,
and the intervertebral discs.
Cartilage is not as rigid as bone but is
stiffer than muscle. Cartilage does
not contain blood vessels (it is
Dislocation A dislocation occurs when a bone is
displaced from its original location.
For example, a shoulder dislocation
occurs when the humorous “pops
out” of the glenoid fossa, resulting in
a tear in the ligament and joint
capsule. The most common
dislocation occurs at the finger joint.

Seperation A separation does not directly affect
the joint itself, but rather the
connecting tissue. A shoulder
separation resulting from a fall or
blow, for example, involves a tear in
one of the ligaments that connects
the collarbone to the shoulder blade.
Landmark A feature of a bone such as a
ridge, bump, groove,
depression, or prominence
that serves as a guide to the
location of other body

Fractures Bone breaks are classified as
simple, compound, or
comminuted. A stress fracture
is a tiny crack in a bone.

Osteoporosis A disease characterized by low bone
mass and bone deterioration.
Osteoporosis is often confused with
osteoarthritis, because the names
are similar Osteoporosis is a bone
disease, osteoarthritis is a disease of
the joints and surrounding tissue.

Articular System The joints of the human body
and the surrounding tissues.

Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton
(126 bones) includes the
movable limbs and the
supporting structures (girdles).
As such, the appendicular
skeleton plays a key role in
allowing us to move about.
Anatomical Position The standard position
(standing straight, looking
forward, arms at your side,
and hands facing forward)
used to describe the locations
and relationships of
anatomical parts on your body.

Anatomical Planes The anatomical position is further
standardized by dividing the body into
three anatomical planes, which are
imaginary flat surfaces passing through
the body or organ
 Frontal Plane: vertical & extends from
one side of the body to the other
 Transverse Plane: horizontal & divides
the body into upper and lower
 Sagittal Plane: vertical and extends

Anatomical Axes The human body is also divided into
anatomical axes; an axis is an imaginary
line (point of rotation) that passes through
a joint or the body to describe movement
 Horizontal Axis: extends from one side
of the body to the other
 Polar Axis: vertical, running from head
to toe
 Antero-posterior Axis: extends from
the front of the body to the back

Human Skeleton The adult human skeleton is made up
of 206 bones, accounting fot about
14% of total body weight, although
humans start life with more bones
then that – about 300 bones at birth.
Over time, several bones fuse as
growth takes place (such as in the
skull and lower part of the vertebral

Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton (80 bones)
is comprised mainly of the
vertebral column (the spine),
much of the skull, and the rib