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# MA4112

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Tutorial 1.4 Applications of differentiation

1. (GCE ‘O’ level Additional Maths Nov 89)

The perimeter of a rectangle has a constant value of 40 cm. One side, of length x
cm, is increasing at a rate of 0.5 cm s−1 . Find the rate at which the area is increasing
at the instant when x = 3.

Solution. We have A = x(20 − x). Thus,

 .

dA .

.

dx .

.

= (20 − 2x) · dt .

x=3 dt .

5 = 7 cm2 s−1 . 1 .x=3 = (20 − 6) · 0.

and its surface area is A cm2 .8t + 16)2 .8t + 16 and hence A = 4πr2 = 4π(0.8 cm s−1 . find the rate of increase of A when t = 5. . we have r = 0. After rising for t seconds its radius is r cm.8 cm s−1 . Given that the rate of increase of the radius is constant and has the value of 0. where A = 4πr2 . Solution. and the rate of increase of the radius is constant and has the value of 0.2. The initial radius of the balloon is 16 cm. Therefore. Since the initial radius of the balloon is 16 cm. (GCE ‘O’ level Additional Maths Nov 93) A spherical balloon is released from rest and expands as it rises.

.

dA .

.

.

8t + 16). = 6.4π(0.

.

dt t=5 .

2 . t=5 2 −1 = 128π cm s .

7 units per minute when x = 4. find (ii) the rate of change of x at this instant. Hence an approximate change in y is given by dx x . the approximate change in y as x increases from 4 to 4 + p. x and y. in terms of p. are related by the equation y = x + x2 . dy (i) Obtain an expression for dx and hence find. (i) = 1 − 3 . (GCE ‘O’ level Additional Maths June 99) 5 Two variables. where p is small. dy 10 Solution.3. Given that y is increasing at a rate of 2.

dy .

.

27 p .

= p. dx x=4 32 .

dy dy .

5 dx 10 dx .

Since dt . (ii) We have y = x + x2 implies dt = dt − x3 dt .

7 units per minute. = 2. x=4 we conclude that .

.

dx .

.

5 dx .

.

2. dt .7 = − .

x=4 32 dt .

2 units per minute.x=4 Hence the required rate of change is 3. 3 .

dθ Express in terms of t. t2 + (500 − 3t)2 4 . The point B is vertically above A. At time t = 0. the angle AP B is θ radians. the balloon is at A and the observe is at O. Hence   −1 AB θ = tan AP   −1 2t = tan 1000 − 6t   −1 t = tan 500 − 3t and so    dθ d −1 t = tan dt dt 500 − 3t   1 d t = 2 · 1+ t dt 500 − 3t 500−3t 1 (500 − 3t) · 1 − t · dtd (500 − 3t) = 2 · 1+ t (500 − 3t)2 500−3t 1 = . (GCE ‘A’ level Maths C June 87 (modified)) O and A are fixed points 1000 m apart on horizontal ground. dt Solution.4. The balloon is being observed from a moving point P on the line OA. At time t. we have OP = 6t and AB = 2t. At time t. and represents a balloon which is ascending at a steady rate of 2 ms−1 . The observation point P moves towards A with steady speed 6 ms−1 .