You are on page 1of 152

FEBRUAR 'I( 1960

-Electronics HU30 GERNSBACK, Editor

Electronic.Vol'tage Regulator
For Your Car

Motors Balanced
By titut anics

New Circuit Kills
P -A Howl
See page 4 f :ï o7uoSr,*'!

e . " the world's most complete
line of VOMs for every purpose!

Model 639 -N Case $9.50. Handsome,
black cowhide leather. Center -cover flaps snap
back for full view of scales and complete access
to instrument without removal from case.

Model Pt. T- 225 -A -33 Tester Stand
$0.50. Metal, holds tester in approximately
45° angle; facilitates easy reading.
ance AC circuits usually requiring VTVM. 38 MODEL
Probe for High Voltage Testing ranges. Molded insulated case. 310
$14.50. For models 630, 630-A, 630-PL, 630 -
APL, and 631. Completely insulated polystyrene; Interior View showing advanced engineering
guard -type handle. 111" long; 48 hi-voltage features of all Triplett VOMs. Molded mounting
wire lead with banana plug at tester end. Avail- for resistors and shunts allows direct connec-
able in 0- 12,000 AC or DC volts, and 0- 30,000 tions without cabling. Eliminates shorts. Longer
AC or DC volts. life.
Model 10 Clamp -On Adapter $14.50.
Model 630 -T $54.50. Specially designed Model 630 $44.50. Popular, streamlined; Checks line loads with model 310 (can also be
for telephone maintenance. 2% accuracy on DC. long Teter scales for easy reading. Outstanding used with 6 other models). Instant. accurate,
Fused protected circuit protects resistors and linea ohm scale; low reading .1 ohm, high 100 safe. No circuit breaking or work interruption.
meter in ohms ranges. Special neck strap holds megs. Single king -size selector- switch minimizes Easy range switching. Available in 6 AC Ammeter
instrument, freeing both hands. Banana jack incorect settings, burnouts. High sensitivity: ranges: 0-6-12-30-60-120-300. Clips around
connectors eliminate all shock hazard. Com- 20,000 ohms per volt DC; 5,000 AC. Molded, single wire to read AC. Amperes direct. Use with
pletely insulated case protects from ground. fully insulated case. adapter 101 to instantly divide 2- conductor
cords. Molded case fully insulated, black plastic Model 631 Combination VOM and
Model 666 -R Pocket VOM $29.50. with engraved white markings. VTVM $64.50. Two fundamental units at
Hand size, ideal for electrical maintenance. With Model 630 -A $54.50. Laboratory type; the price of a single tester. The No.1 instrument
recessed range knob it fith easily into case. AC 'h% resistors for greater accuracy. Long mir- Model 630 -APL $54.50. Laboratory type for all electronic men. Battery operation assures
rectifier pre-calibrated unit for easy replacement. rored scale eliminates parallax. Banana jacks, with /% resistors, more accurate movement. VTVM stability and long life. Sensitivity PLUS.
Banana jacks at panel top prevent leads falling low resistance connections; high flux magnet Long mirrored scales eliminate parallax. Un- 1.2 volt(VTVM) range is equal to more than nine
over meter dial. Single king -size selector switch increases ruggedness. Single king -size selector breakable window. Single king -size switch mini- million ohms per volt. Large easy to read meter
minimizes incorrect settings, burnouts. 20 ranges. switch minimizes incorrect settings, burnouts. mizes incorrect settings, burnouts. 5 to 500,000 with unbreakable face. Single king -size selector
Molded case streamlined, fully insulated. Molded fully insulated case. cps frequency response in AC measurements. switch minimizes incorrect settings. burnouts.
DC Polarity Reversing switch. High sensitivity: Molded case fully insulated.
Model 666 -HH Pocket VOM $27.50. 5000 ohms per volt AC; 20,000 ohms per volt
Compact, hand -size; 3" meter integral with Model 630 -PL $44.50. Instant -vision, DC. Molded case fully insulated. Model 310 $34.50. The only complete
panel, adjusted to 400 microamperes at 250 wider spread scales; streamlined case; hand- miniature VOM with 20,000 ohms per volt and
millivolts. Only 3 jacks necessary for all ranges. some modern design. Unbreakable window. Model 630 -NA $74.50. Super Deluxe selector range switch. Self- shielded against
19 ranges. Outstanding linear ohm scale; low reading .1 with 70 ranges -nearly double conventional strong magnetic field. Rugged, high torque. bar-
ohm; high to 100 megs. Single king -size selector types. Frequency compensated from 35 cps to ring instrument. Unbreakable plastic meter
Model 625 -NA $54.50. Dual sensitivity switch minimizes incorrect settings, burnouts. 20 kc. Temperature compensated. Accurate window. Converts to common probe-frees one
for extra ranges; large mirror scale for super 5 to 500,000 cps frequency response in AC within 11/2% full scale reading on DC. Large hand -by fitting interchangeable test prod into
readability. 3 -color meter scale 5" long. 6" in- measurements. DC Polarity Reversing switch. open front meter easy to read. Unbreakable top. Standard sensitivity 20,000 ohms per volt
strument, 0 -50 microamp. AC volts at 10,000 High sensitivity: 5,000 ohms per volt AC; 20,000 window. Mirrored scale. Meter protection against DC, and 5,000 ohms per volt AC. Accuracy 3%
0/V for checking many audio and high imped- ohms per volt DC. overloads. Molded fully insulated case. DC. Molded fully insulated case.

First to last


- +-.
.. -72 ,
_. ,

.. .

_.° -..

We don't pack an engineer into each new Citation Kit but ...
... the engineering built into each kit Rigid terminal boards are provided for THE CITATION II, 120 Watt Stereo-
is so precise that the unit constructed mounting resistors and condensers. Once phonic Power Amplifier, has a peak power
in the home will be the equal of the mounted, these components are suspended output of 260 Watts! This remarkable in-
factory -produced instrument. tightly between turret lugs. Lead length strument will reproduce frequencies as low
as 5 cycles virtually without phase shift, and
is sharply defined. The uniform spacing of
It is far more difficult to design a kit frequencies as high as 100,000 cycles with-
than to produce a completely manufac- components and uniform lead length out any evidence of instability or ringing.
tured product. In the plant the engineer insure the overall stability of the unit. At normal listening levels, the only measur-
can control his design from the moment Improper routing of leads, particularly able distortion in this unit comes from the
of inception until the final packaging. The long leads, can result in unstable perform- laboratory testing equipment. (The Citation
kit builder has only his tools, his ingenuity ance. To prevent this, the Citation II is II - $159.95; Factory-Wired - $219.95;
and little, if any, test equipment. equipped with a template to construct a Charcoal Brown Enclosure, AC -2 -
Cable Harness. The result: each wire is All prices slightly higher in the West.
Therefore, the complex process of in-
plant production and control which guar- just the right length and in just the right
place to achieve perfect performance. Harman -Kardon has prepared a free detailed
antees the fine finished product must report on both of these remarkable new instru-
somehow be embedded in the kit design. These truly remarkable achievements in ments which we will be pleased to send to you.
Control Engineering are only a few of the Simply write to Dept. RE -2, Citation Kit
The Citation engineering group at many exciting new developments in kit Division, Harman -Kardon, Inc., Westbury, L. I.
Harman-Kardon, headed by Stewart design from the Citation Division of
Hegeman, has succeeded in doing just this
in the design of the new Citation I, Stereo- Harman -Karclon.
phonic Preamplifier Control Center and THE CITATION I, Stereophonic Pre-
amplifier Control Center, is a brilliantly
Citation II, 120 Watt Stereophonic Power designed instrument, reflecting engineering
Amplifier. advances found only in the best professional
Only heavy duty components, operating equipment. The control over program mate-
at tight tolerances, have been selected for rial offered by the new Citation I enables the
the Citation Kits. As a result, even if every user to perfectly re- create every character-
component is operated at its limit remote istic of the original performance. ( The Cita-
as this possibility is the instruments will tion I- $139.95; Factory -Wired $239.95;
Walnut Enclosure, WW -1 $29.95.)-
perform well within their specifications.

Build the Very Best CITATION KITS by harman kardon
FEBRUARY, 1960 3

Harvey Gernsback.Y.iÏ Fli)la i RADIO -ELECTRONICS is indexed in Applied Science & Technology Index (Formerly Industrial Arts Index) RADIO -ELECTRONICS.. Part II.. Cooper Wm. XXXI. Pat. Vol.S. Subscription Dept. How They Work. February.... Queen onstrates the action of his 38 Transistor Substitution Box -Leonard J. 4 RADIO -ELECTRONICS . Circulation Manager 116 No.00 for two years. Part II. Smith y 118 Rapid Cabinet Repair -Edwin Bohr .Richard S. R. W2YIZ Adam J.. 1960 OIER 5011hRS OE EIECiRONIC PHRIISHII rRàdio-EIeronics Fermerp RADIOCRAFT lecorwatieq SNORT WAVE CRAFT TELEVISION NEWS RADIO & TELEVISION EDITORIAL 33 Microelectronics -Hugo Gernsback ON THE COVER TEST INSTRUMENTS /Story Dr.. Newsstand Sales 125 A Tough Dog! -James A. Noll Editorial Director 54 Photoelectric Register Controls .00 for three years. 1MM. No.. INC. Office. Fred Robert Fallath 128 Economy Code Oscillator -James Martin Promotion Manager 150 Business and People 142 New Tubes and Semiconductors 22 Correspondence 6 News Briefs 154 New Books 148 Noteworthy Circuits 130 Technicians' News Average Paid Circulation 152 New Literature 133 Technotes Over 187. and Publisher 51 ITV Lens and Lighting Systems -Edward M.Conducted by Jack Darr Production Manager 83 FM -TV Dx in 1959. POSTMASTER: If undeliverable. illustration Director Col Ehrlich ELECTRONICS Art Director 96 Micromodules .00 for one year: $9. International and Pan -American Copyright Convention..Y. M. New York 11. FEBRUARY. Schroeder 43 Tape Recorder Word Puzzle-John A. Trademark registered U. Telephone Algonquin 5 -7755. Hugo Gernsback. M. po. Executive.Director.60 for three years. M. Queen 62 Servicing Chroma Demodulators.All other countries $5. 31:: co for three years. Pan -American countries $5. Published monthly at Mt.. Scott 47 Design Your Own Preamp. Inc. Inc. Graham Associate Editor TELEVISION I. G.Band -Switching Preselector-Robert Abbatecola. Maxwell G. Griffith.. $14. Fred Shunaman Allan Lvtel Managing Editor 58 Electronic Balancing for Better Motors -J. $10. Alieuo. Smith Elizabeth Stalcup 77 TV Service Clinic.. Morris. D'Airo signal -shifting acoustic feed- back preventer. hitting. Dillev . Chairman nt the Board. SUBSCRIPTIONS: Address correspondence to Radio -Electronics.Director. send Fons 3579 to: RADIO.. W.ELECTRONICS. Editorial and Advertising Offices. Part II. ill. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: U. 57. New York 11. I ODNrLI 1. R.. Advertising Sales John J. by Gernsback Publications. Essex Robert F. Crowhurst 50 New Discs and Tapes -Reviewed by Chester Santon Hugo Gernsback INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS M. Harvey Gernsback Editor.Y.00 for two years.Tech. Middleton Editorial Associate 74 Spotting Video If Oscillation -Warren J.Robert B. W 7 MPQ Lee Robinson )/ 107 All. 154 West 14th St.. To trace 39 Clamp Type Ac Microammeter on scope shows signal build- up without shifting: bottom AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY trace is some signal with 40 Stop Feedback in Public -Address Systems (Cover Feature) . When requesting a change of address. Lamson RADIO Aliauo Eastern Sales Manager 115 Electronic Alarms in Clock Radios -Henry O. Second -ria. III. N. New York 11. Scat W2PWG.. M. Morris. Technical Editor WHAT'S NEW Larry Steckler Associate Editor 61 Pictorial Report of New Developments Charles B.. please tar- nish an address label Iront a recent Issue Allow one month for change of address. All rights reserved under Universal.Albert Stratmoen Telephone Laboratories dem- 37 Portable Power Supply -I.Transistor Voltage Regulator for Your Car -Daniel Meyer .S. I'. 154 West 14th St. N..txge paid at Mt. GERNSBACK PUBLICATIONS.000 136 New Patents 145 Try This One 138 New Products 149 50 Years Ago HR.Robert G. S.. 154 West 14th St. possessions and Canada. Secretary.. Comstock 44 RCA's Two -Way Stereo Amplifier-Robert F. $4 00 for one year.rnsback Publications. BRANCH ADVERTISING OFFICES and FOREIGN AGENTS listed on page 155. Lyon McLaughlin 88 TV Minus Rf -L. $10.-0 he e.. N.00 for two year. Today and Tomorrow-Jordan \IcQuav Fred Neinast Staff Artist 101 Mouse Transmits Own Temperature ..50 a year. 2. President. on page Schroeder of Bell 40) 34 Single -Control Multimeter.Norman H.

' 1 start NOW in our big.Fidelity 100 experiments.LOWER COST. Broadcasting and charge..americanradiohistory. INTERESTING.Training that is proved and tested in Resident School shops and laboratories.. rr 11} NAME AGE Electronic equipment . FREE BOOK "Your Future in 1. No salesman will call. Automation. Other schools make several courses out of the material in our ONE MASTER COURSE . GET THE BENEFITS OF OUR OVER Communications EARN AS YOU ... Radar & Micro -Waves 11 picture tube is included at no extra 8. Government Missile Projects. veloped and tested in our own Resi. CALIF..Method 19 Big Kits -YOURS TO KEEP! spare time at home. Check box in coupon for NATIONAL SCHOOLS Check if interested ONLY in Resident School training at Los Angeles.. You ad. VOU OET. Radar. and you pay more for less training than you get in our course at ONE LOW TUITION! a You get all information I) TOP PAY. WITH NATIONAL SCHOOLS SHOP..METHOD HOME LESSONS AND INSTRUCTION MATERIAL ARE TRAINING. perform more than while you are thinking about your 4. NATIONAL SCHOOLS SHOP. Unlimited Consultation positions. including Servicing. IF S. It doesn't cost you anything 5. most complete facilities offered by ç. PRACTICAL. Expert.Jj 'ADDRESS any school.and part time job while you learn. FCC License complete TV set from the ground up. including many numerous illustrations and diagrams. friendly instructors.. Broadcasting and Communications. by a School that is the OLDEST and LARGEST of its kind in the world. Sound Recording and Hi. Help CITY ZONE STATE in finding home near school . Instruction and Guidance ited opportunities.. Dept RG-20 LOS ANGELES 37. 3.Radio -Electronics" and 2.. NOW° at a price you can afford! 0-116- BETTER. to investigate! 6. Automation and Computers that is yours to keep! A big.You learn ALL PHASES of Television -Radio-Electronics. Job Placement Service technical jobs leading to supervisory All instruction material has been de. LIFETIME SECURITY CAN BE YOURS! your own decision at . "Opportunity" Book and sample lesson... Radio AM & FM experimental and test units. %VETERANS: Give date of Discharge Los Angeles 37.. Do it TODAY.. Calif.MORE COMPLETE.. full information.professionally installed finest.. Radio. Graduate Employment Service.. t a_ il[rOki "L¡I. and Electronics industry ! WILL CALL Trained technicians are in growing demand at excellent pay.. UNLIMITED OPPORTUNITIES by mail You make. Television.' ' 'rlfy.. Laboratories and EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR KITS AND PARTS WE SEND YOU. Electronics for Guided Missiles vance step by step. modern Shops. home! NO SALESMAN ' You are needed in the Television. Labs and Radio-Pr Here you work with latest rrrr.... for these unlim. Diploma-Recognized by Industry YOU LEARN BY BUILDING EQUIPMENT WITH dent School Shops. the world's TV capital. FEBRUARY. LOWER (OST. Personal attention. including Color TV fessional quality for building various Television. and you build a future.. trains you in your Every National Schools Shop. lesson is made easy to understand by Friendly. MORE COMPLETE..rrn41tt . Well show you 50 YEARS EXPERIENCE how to earn extra money right from the start. and equipment.. with newly added lessons UP -TO -DATE. FIGUEROA Rush free TV -Radio ST. 1960 5 www. Manufacturing. Your Studios. SUCCESS! National Schools course includes SEND FOR INFORMATION TODAY it can .. Many of our students pay Approved for for their course -and more -while GI Training NATIONAL TEÇ PRAT SCHOOLS() studying. new TV 7. FREE Sample ALL PHASES. So can you! WORLD -WIDE TRAINING SINCE 1905 MAIL NOW TO RESIDENT TRAINING AT LOS ANGELES ' NATIONAL SCHOOLS.. thorough Practical training -YOU mean the difference between SUCCESS SHOP -METHOD HOME TRAINING LEARN BY DOING! We send you and failure for you! Send for your COVERS ALL PHASES OF INDUSTRY complete standard equipment of pro.METHOD HOME TRAINING! BETTER. ' If you wish to take your training in our Resident School at Los Angeles.

MIT professor who recently pat. upper definitely decided but officials said it signed and installed by Western Union sideband. was celebrated through the processing machines for receiving and SSB Filters. Y. Nyquist will receive products. KPFK. with jazz. Feb." Milton Snitzer. 24 hours after the order is placed. 1910. following each talk. folk music. Dr. is the antenna test setup at Technical Ap. cover. chemical transistors would be American -made. New officers of the IRE for 1960 in- clude Ronald McFarlan. J. no. Dyer. cial occasions. abilia on the historic event.eighth segment of a sphere covered KPFA -FM is now nearly self.. MEDICAL ELECTRONICS took another step forward with the introduction of an optical probe consisting of thousands of minute spun -glass fibers bound to- gether.000 paid subscribers to to revolutionize distribution of high . Pratt will get the Founder's ented a speaker system which uses a Pacifica in Berkeley. The Raytheon plan includes data . w pliance Corp. where a 3. goes the suggestion of Dr. not can accept a typical order in 17 min.advertising station. WBAI -FM. and de. Seventy-six engineers a corner of the room. and J. Ratcliffe. and eventually in the offices of The station will broadcast classical J. Each of the fibers picks up light from a minute section of the sur- face ahead of it and transmits it to the other end. Caven- dish Labs (England). was pre- Tel -O. award. Feb. in Los Angeles in mid -1959 and Among them is William Sichak of ITT. with a small lens focusing on their ends.m. Emerson said its anywhere in the United States within belonging to Louis Schweitzer. MARS TECHNICAL NET schedule for Opera House in New York City Jan. children's E. "High - wide and 3 hours deep. which is bestowed only on spe- with 22 identical small cones. good music station portable set. $250." Herbert TRANSISTOR TELEVISION set by Emer- American Airlines. Gewartowski. controlling invento. February: Feb. "Quartz Crystals in 13. installed first in the 25 district offices Foundation. Award. will be elevated to the rank of Fellow. Somewhat similar systems. The price it to a jet plane at the airport in 45 FM STATION was given away in New was expected to be near that of Philco's minutes. data transmission. since 1949. authority on feedback analysis. Harry Nyquist. to become a listener -spon. 1959. ANECHOIC RF TEST RANGE. Pa. shows and public affairs programs also the society's 1960 Medal of Honor "for aired. Calif. fill it in 90 minutes and deliver Philco's 2 -inch tube -with-lens. A similar operation has been run by back. vice president. Norton. whose picture appeared on our Febru- ary.. consultant to Datamatic and Raytheon. Sessions will continue each Wednes. making it possible to fill orders York. A. Airborne Instruments. have been in private use for concept in distribution pioneered by several years. N.500 paying listeners. a small optically enlarged one like utes." W. Amar G. this winter. with Haraden Pratt. 3. the Institute's second highest one.Fidelity Amplifi. Exhibit included all collectable memor. whole spherical surface moves in unison FM. J.. A. in effect. J.ELECTRONICS . vice president. son was scheduled to go into production setting up the system. engineer and industrialist. FIRST BROADCAST of opera made by Raytheon spreads w distribution of Lee de Forest from the Metropolitan other similar merchandise. The mosaic of spots of light (Continued on page 10) 6 RAD O. the cifica opened a second station. president. which make the entire country "5 hours ers. EST. Size of screen was not Special punch -card equipment de. Div.000 -foot valley between transmitter and receiver location provides near -free -field condi- tions for checking new antenna designs. who cooperated in Hawkins. Feb. Nalos. with discussion via net radio would be a full -size picture tube. "Design Philosophy of a Modern SSB hibit by the New York Pa'lic Library. between two hilltops in Sherbourne. with 7. and negative feed- Bose. Transceiver. value low -bulk merchandise if a new in corners. LI\ liveries largely by jet cargo planes "Distortion in High. month of January with a special ex- dispatching orders. 24. Listeners will be asked (but not fundamental contributions to a quanti- NO MORE WOOFERS & TWEETERS? So pressed) to send in $12 a year to spon. Benton. along of Raytheon's Distributor Products sored. N. Towers installed can handle antennas up to 60 feet in diameter." Chick Carny. A. 4030 kc. ews riefs ELECTRONICS AND JETS may combine to make those bass notes boom right." Mr. E. has almost 5. day at 9 p. 10. tative understanding of thermal noise. placed in ing. Rajchman." according to Power Transmitter Stations. ries and keeping accounts. sor the station.Riginator equipment will be sented by him to nonprofit Pacifica IRE WILL HONOR Dr. not usually date. K. and all major distributors of Raytheon music. Effectively. 17.

DeVry Tech's service..0 Foremast Electronics Training Centers" Please give me your FREE booklet.H. and many other major projects -all designed to provide outstanding practical toward fine careers in Electronics. fionet information-pcacked publica Send for FREE BOOKLET TODAY SPACE IfAvft Malt G dc. If you are subject to military training.) begin to earn real money servic- program also have should prove very ing Radio and Television sets.. "Electronics in Space Travel. Ltd. III. .. servicing.-joaITk4. It's Build and keep this BIG COLOR almost like having an instructor at your side! DeJry Engineered TJ set easily converted to U. almost a "must" for TV stalling. includes training helpful.. in- inch COLOR OSCILLOSCOPE -servicing. . the information we the TV .Vry Tech of Canada. FREE! coupo n to Accredited Member of Notional Home Study Council DeVRY TECHNICAL INSTITUTE One of North America s 4141 Belmont Ave.Radio -Electronics offers 1 "SCOPE' REAL PROMISE! In this fast -growing field. but without you may then in your spare time. 626 Roselawn Ave. Chicago 41. wireless microphone . PLUS MANY OTH . ad AV COLOR the appealing field of Television. r ACT NOW. operating. EARN WHILE YOU LEARN After you get part of DeVry Tech's (DsVry otters another home training with equipment at home. clear. Chicago or Toronto Labora- tories.. experience at home. Name Age PLEASE PRINT Street Apt. In Spare Time at Home -Prepare for a Better Job-or Your Own Business in One of the Many Branches of You build and ELECTRONICS - keep this valuable Vacuum Tube 11111111111111 RADIO . No previous technical experi- .offering the kind of a future that an untrained man often dreams about. Dept.F. trained Electronic technicians find You build and keep this 5. or in our modern Lew. 1960 7 www. OU YHE SET Build over 300 practical projects from many shipments of T SAM é EMPLOYMENT SERVICE Radio -Electronic parts." and tell me how may prepare to enter one or more branches I of Electronics.TELEVISION RADAR VOLTMETER d rik INCH If you are seeking a better job or o business of your own. You build and operate TV -Radio that has helped thousands of our graduates circuits . Nothing else like it! .. . ILLINOIS City 2044 Zone State Canadian residents address D.ane:id needed. make important points crystal INCH Send for FREE details. many good -paying.americanradiohistory.. Speeds your learning. QeVirf NSTTUTE CHICAGO 41. RE -2.. in Color Television Your GUIDE to Profitable Job Opportunities Learn -By -Doing projects TV -Radio Broadcast Technician Color Television Specialist Radar Operator Laboratory Technician Airline Radio Man Computer Specialist Quality Control Manager Your Own Sales & Service Shop .. . Mail coupon to day. Toronto 12. interesting jobs in manufacturing.0 ence or advanced education ./... Equally important is the fact that these are GOOD JOBS. Ontario FEBRUARY. Prepare for this profit- - WP able field in your spare time wit at home.

Gives "inter-corn" convenience in forward.000 c. DEPRESS THE FRONT BAR for push . 8 RADIO-ELECTFONICS www. TORONTO. Iowa IN CANADA: CANADIAN MARCONI CO.p. free for work. AA LIFT THE MIKE. P. Wired to operate both relay and mike circuits at a touch. Addi. ONTARIO AND BRANCHES EXPORT: AD ADRIEMA. The Model 250 "Lift-Switch" is a high impedance dynamic mike with a smooth response from 60 to 10. Both hands are vates lift switch when necessary. IT'S LIVE. convenience and ease of operation than any other microphone Here's a mike you can sell to meet the needs of any customer. N.. to -talk. MOVE THE LEVER -LOCK SWITCH tional slide lock switch in base deacti. List price is $49.A.. Jxclusive 3-way switching puts the M:': 'IL 250 in class ay itself Offers more versatility. write today to: THE MICROPHONE COMPANY 933 17th St. Cedar Rapids. For complete information on the Model 250 and specifications for the 6 other crystal and dynamic models. Exclusive 3-way switching arrangement --- 4. a . paging. INC. 85 BROAD ST.Y. It's ideal for dispatch. control tower and amateur use..s. NEW YORK B.. The mike is live..E. N.50. and an output level of -52 db.americanradiohistory.

NEW JERSEY SEND IMMEDIATELY FOR OUR NEW ALL INCLUSIVE REPLACEMENT CATALOG. F E B R U A R Y . I 9 6 0 9 www. Astron Guaranteed Twist Prong Capacitors are available through all better distributors now displaying the Red Seal.Prong" and "Minimite" electrolytic capacitors BUILD YOUR REPUTATION with the only capacitor line that offers a full TWO year performance guarantee quality and The Red Seal is your guide to economy. Look for the Red Seal Capacitor Display Cabinet at your " DISTRIBUTOR" ALSTIFItaION C O R P 0 R A T 255 GRANT AVENUE EAST NEWARK.americanradiohistory. FOR THE FIRST reffete 2 year guarantee on ASTRON " .

Feb. Ill. N.Y. C. reworking the video circuit.. Virginia. Feb. Philadelphia.. 25 -27. Feb. 3 -5. Cleveland Institute Training Results in success with com- Details on all events supplied by sponsoring organizations. Groves. El Mira- Get Your FCC License dor Hotel. Ho.30 for repairs he didn't make. and more money for you when times are good adder circuit designed for use in a bal- listic missile computer. These units are not the smallest that can be made. Mar. Scintillation Counter Symposium. Washington. Parc des Expositions. Feb. 18-21. Training is Job Insurance when employment is tough to find N. mercial FCC examinations . NEWS BRIEFS (Continued from page 6) is scanned. Palm Springs. M. When vu:i Coliseum & Waldorf Astoria Hotel. ERA Southern California Chapter Dis- tributor . Paris. Pa. IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIIIII VIII IIIIIIII9111II IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII1 !IIIIIIIP. Calif.C..C. 2 -4.Automation Conference and Exhibit. Feb.. Cleveland. 10 -12. 18 -20. Calif. although his bill included such items as "rework- ing" a sound circuit. 11 -13. easily . New York.Manufac- turer Conference. or your money back EIA Spring Conference. It is 50 times smaller than conventional units. successfully complete the Master Course. International Electronic Parts Show.. Los Angeles.T. 25 -26. Solid State Circuits Conference. N. Feb.Representative . Calif. Lowery was given 15 days in jail. We Guarantee Annual EIA Industrial Relations Con- to train you until you receive ference. 24 -26. Chicago. 2.1111IIIIIIIIIIII 11111hí! IIIII1F111111IFII IIIIIIII1111111í1IIIIIII11I1I1111111I !11111 FRAUD was charged IN TV REPAIR against Fairfax County. FCC License (Commercial) with a radar endorsement.Representative . The new electronic devices can be handled by you no more than the same ones built with standard components were demon.!!!!!ulluuu!!uu!u!!u!II!u1 Calendar of Events ISAInstrument. Drake Hotel. meas- ures only 1/z x i/s x 1 inch and contains 85 components. Found guilty by Judge J. then displayed up to 35 times life -size on TV monitors. Lowery for charging $36. Porte de Versailles. Mar. plant. ERA National Convention. Mar.. Feb. one unnecessarily. dIIIl11V. restoring high voltage and adjusting the channel selector. Engineeririgi: nt1 Scientific Cen- An FCC License can be ter. Ambassador Hotel. D. ow to Get Dental and surgical work previously unavailable for observation can now be examined by doctors or classes while operations are in progress. tools of the electronics technician and prepare you for a First Class IRE National Convention.Manufacturer Conference.. Palm Springs. A detective testified at the trial that all Lowery actually did was replace two small tubes. 19 -23. Guard Armory. 11 -12.Y. Distributor . . Ohio. and quickly. Washington. The Master Course in Electronics will provide you with the mental tel Statler. 16. FIND OUT HOW: MICROMINIATURE CIRCUITS that cost 1. Feb. Cleveland ElectroVsg Conference. To solve the problems that will stump your fellow technicians strated at a press conference by Aero- vox's Hi -Q division at their Olean. Hollywood. 21 -24. if you fail to pass the Hi -Fi Show FCC examination.'. D. D. Feb. plus a suspended sentence for a year.''. The photo shows a complete . Houston. you will receive a full refund of all tuition IHFM Hi -Fi Show. Ill. 3. Tex. serv- ice dealer T. Sam Houston Coliseum. France. Hollywood Beach Your FCC License Hotel. EP &EM Educational Seminar. Fla. Winter Convention on Military Elec- tronics. Feb."'. Feb. Niles."IIII" . 16 -18. but are the smallest ones that can be made at a (Continued on page 14) 10 RADIO -ELECTRONICS . National payments. University of Pennsylvania. Washington.

in ElectronocS 1.." Irving L..americanradiohistory. Laing.. School. (Commercial) an FCC License your Guarantee of Success in Electronics in a Minimum of Time here's proof of good jobs Irving Laing: "Your lessons are helping me a lot in my Navy work. Michigan.T.5887 Robson. You cover topics that were not presented by Get all 3 FREE the Navy at the E.V. Ohio Please send Booklets prepared to help FREE I me get ahead in Electronics. Detroit 27. Your course has helped greatly to get my 2nd class FCC ticket. 4900 Euclid Ave. Cleveland 3. 1960 11 www.. engineer at WTVS and W DTI2 O pp o rl unitoos in . I am now a radio and T. have had train - I I ing or experience in Electronics as indicated below: Military Broadcasting I Radio -TV Servicing Home Experimenting ( I Manufacturing Telephone Company I LI Amateur Radio ID Other In what kind of work are you In what branch of Electronics now engaged' are you interested" I I I Nome Age I Address I City Zone State Desk RE 38B FEBRUARY. Michigan for You Accredited by The National Home Study Council Cleveland Institute of Electronics Desk RE 38B.

That's why the new CBS 5U4GB plates are of non. fila.. are larger. always. Reverse current mounts . not filaments (FORGET YOUR LOW-VOLTAGE RECTIFIER PROBLEMS) "My new plates don't heat up and start acting like filaments. Here's typical proof. That is right. industrial and picture tubes transistors and diodes audio components and phonographs CBS ELECTRONICS Danvers.emissive material. proved in performance by leading TV and radio set manu- ment is stripped . Dynamic "blast" tests brutally cycle proved in performance the tube between 4 and 6.. You. And you aren't pestered with premature Back emission from overheated plate failures. less than one milliampere! Receiving. TOTAL RELIABILITY. The new CBS 5U4GB offers you total reliability ures. too. facturers. ONE WAY ELECTRONS My new plates 4 behave like plates ... . These and many other advance engineered fea....ELECTRONICS ... Inc. They can't because my plate material is designed not to emit HOW BACK EMISSION wrong -way electrons.. Just replace with CBS .8 volts with 800 volts plate potential. tures make the new CBS 5U4GB the r best you can buy.. Massachusetts A Division of Columbia Broadcasting System.overheats .. tubes. Yet back emission is just measurable .. can profit from the total reliability of CBS burns out. So back emission can't build up and burn IS ELIMINATED out my filament.. and run cooler. 12 RADIO. ." to filament causes most rectifier fail..

98 If you now own a stereo phonograph.98 (l'opular) or $9. REGULAR HIGH FIDELITY! which you receive free each month. Dept. Don Mills. a stereo phonograph THE CORNERSTONE OF ANY STEREO LIBRARY. in the following Division of the Club: with amazingly realistic "concert hall" fidelity (check one box only) FREE BONUS RECORDS GIVEN REGULARLY: If Stereo Popular through the miracle of stereophonic sound! Stereo Classical you wish to continue as a member after pur.. Indiana nificent Columbia 7. selections) for the regular high -fidelity records CANADA: address 1111 Leslie St. plus a small mailing and handling charge. authorized to accept subscriptions.98 now. 1960 13 www. or plan Columbia and Epic records to be offered in to purchase one .and-gold cloth. COLUMBIA RECORD CLUB.. to you at the regular Beethoven Symphonies. . $5. NOTE: Stereo recerds temporaries and present must be played onllon day critics. Classical Popular Show Music Jazz ing recordings from every field of music.. musical Divisions.98. check below the musical Division of your choice. You agree to purchase 6 selections from more than 150 regular high - fidelity records to be offered in the next 12 months. program notes.98. your membership at any time thereafter.. Ontario you accept. 1900 1 FEBRUARY. . fill in below: Dealer's Name MORE THAN 1. Deluxe Beethoven Set for only $5. (Classical and Original Cast selections.98 this mag. - we sincerely urge fidelity. You may discontinue tunity to obtain -for only $5.98). I agree to purchase six selections from the more than 150 TO RECEIVE YOUR BEETHOVEN SET FOR ONLY chasing six records." (. COLUMBIA RECORD CLUB offers with pride the greatest musical achievement since the introduction of stereo records The first complete recordings of the 9 SYMPHONIES of BEETHOVEN conducted by BRUNO WALTER reproduced in glorious STEREO ALL 98 a noble exposition of Beethoven FOR ONLY as seen by one of the greatest of his REGULAR RETAIL - prophets" High Fidelity Magazine VALUE. L5 -DA (STER) a5 -DG (REG) © Columbia Recorde Sales Corp. IND. These ALSO AVAILABLE IN selections are described in the Club Magazine. L w "Columbia.98 (Classical and Original Cast ALASKA and HAWAII: write for special membership plan Your only membership obligation is to pur.000 FAMILIES NOW ENJOY THE MUSIC PROGRAM OF and Address S9 COLUMBIA RECORD CLUB TERRE HAUTE.98 Please send me. list price plus small mailing and handling charge. 'Epic. Dr. records to be offered during the coming 12 months.americanradiohistory.. rSEND NO MONEY -Mail this coupon now to receive the 9 Beethoven Symphonies for only $5. at once. and you pay only $3. . here is a unique oppor. If I decide to continue my membership. . Club's staff of music experts selects outstand. Classical or Stereo Popular - whichever one MAIL THE COUPON TODAY! Since the number of Beethoven Seis we can distribute on this If you wish to receive your Beethoven Set in regular high - best suits your musical taste. $41. HOW THE CLUB OPERATES: Each month the special offer is limited you to mail the coupon at once. Enroll me ers. you may re- Name .State NO record in any particular month.. for which I am to be billed only performances by one of his greatest interpret. Ifyou want this membership credited to an established Columbia or chase six selections from the more than 150 Epic record dealer.simply fill in and mail the coupon Be sure to indicate which one of the bia or Epic stereo Bonus record of your choice free for every two selections you buy. The plan is exactly the same as outlined above .98 "A collection which stands as near the pinnacle of perfection as any human if you join the Club now and agree to purchase product ever can" as few as six selections from the more than 150 -San Francisco Chronicle to be made available during the coming 12 months DELUXE PACKAGE Seven 12" Columbia stereo records in a luxurious box. I am to receive a 12" Columbia or Epic stereo Bonus record of my choice FREE for every two Club's two Divisions you wish to join: Stereo additional selections I buy.Record Set containing all The records you want are mailed and billed list price of $4.. you will receive a Colum.. the Deluxe 7.take any of the other rec- or take. $5. If you have a standard phonograph. Marcas regular $5. and reproduced . plus asmall mailing and handling charge..Please Print) You may accept the monthly selection for ceive the regular high -fidelity version of this your Division . the coming 12 months. anecdotes and re- views by Beethoven's con.Record Stereo Set of nine Beethoven Symphonies in glowing . except that you loin any one of the Club's four regular Address ords offered (classical or popular) City ZONE. Check appropriate box in coupon.. Also includes 48 -page booklet with previously unpublished photographs. 210-9 Terre Haute.000. Bruno Walter . covered with white leather- like Fabrikoid and lustrous black." ®.

Soviet scientists expect to send rockets e1 SPRING ST.320 inch long.34'6C.1 pf. According to Dr.750 t'i-oughout the world for thf-ir a l'vanced inch long. Two advanced types of capacitors now in production -Cerafil and Cerol- were also . Leads. Y. and shortly afterward two men with some modifications and ireprovemerts to these circuits. This may be followed by another rocket in which two men and two women will make a trip around the moon lasting a half-year. well known make the MULLARD EL. The Cerafil line covers values from 10 ppf to 0. T ade Mark superiority even to he finest components. Rechtin.090 inch in di- ameter and 0.400 stereo -120 watts monophonic: gives a special inch in diameter and 1. they measure . N.210 1l linear output pentcde wh ch is capable of 60 inch in diameter and 0.h°11ar6i watts push -pull in Class ABI (60 watts per channel length. Both are ceramics and are made in a way that makes great size reduction possible.ARD high quality audio ciiruits is preserved conveniently under which a Soviet satellite carrying in one book. and the 2 -pf units are 0. Four introductory chapters c . The rest of the book comprises months. INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONICS CORP. protective coating and color coding are the final steps. USSR SPACE TIMETABLE may be far ahead of ours.1 pf at this foi today's stereo amplifiers. As it is not practical to make Cerafil engineeriig and reliability. Soviet ' Ci:cuitt for Audio Amplifiers" is a new MU[LARD publ..cation in which the space scientists have presented a plan wide range of MUL6. constructional details. (Continued on page 18) 14 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. orbit the earth for 2 weeks. said in a speech in which he also declared that contin- MULLARD Electron Tubes are available at your uing space programs at their present distributor or write to Technical Services Division.50 f-on your dealer or by mail from our Technical Services Division. a thin film of ceramic dielectric is formed and over the dielectric goes another metallized layer for the other electrode. liecrity coupled with a uniformity that is already at 100 volts at 85°C.310-inch diameter and 0. are in great demand capacitors larger than 0.44 inches long. Eberhardt Rechtin. circuit äescriptions.34/6CA7 the first choice for superb sound reproduct on. time. already acc?ai nod units are 0. To make a Cerafil capacitor. Circuit and interchangeability data for all Propulsion Laboratory.1 -pf MULLARD tubes and car-:uits. and o number of a television camera will make a round completely new The tube's outer surface is metallized. trip to the moon. 7. This All Cerafil and Cerol units are rated Mu lard Ltd. level is largely a waste of money. NEW YORK 12. Over the metallized surface. and some performante figures of 12 MULLARD circuits. The 0.001- µf units. This extremely 2 pf. considerations of high quality sound reproduction with monophonic equipment or with stereophonic systems. The 0. These circuits include well -known MULLARD designs. Up through the . In 1961. A single finished tube or a parallel combination makes up the finished unit. Design and build your stereo equipment wound telecommunications chief of the Jet MULLARD. Onlr 52. and the metal- lized layer acts as one of the electrodes. Ur.1 pf- is the MULLARD EL. within the next few praE. Aerovox has developed a rolled Heading the preferred type ceramic -dielectric capacitor for is for power output tubes the larger capacitance values of 0.690 inch in ite4i. Aerovox starts off with a ceramic tube about 1/32 inch in diameter.americanradiohistory.1 -pf capacitors are 0. to Mars and Venus. depending on its capacitance. - dullardTs STEREO NEWS BRIEFS (Continued from page 10) price comparable with standard ver- sions. devoted to theoretical and two men will.

Clip the coupon below and mail it to the Grantham School nearest you. Calif. Z Seattle (Phone: MA 2 -7227. Western Ave.. Mo. we train you quickly and thoroughly -teach Government evidence of your qualifications in electronics. Get your First Class Commercial F. Kansas City. \Io. Hollywood 27.C.C. D.C. examination for a first class license. This is the highest class Our free booklet gives details of how you can prepare quickly of radiotelephone license available. uWitiaitt F.C. but most of our full -time resident students get their first class licenses in 12 weeks limited. license ployers are eager to hire licensed technicians. and you can improve your practical ability while except commercial broadcast station equipment. NW Washington WASH. 1960 15 . Calif.C. step .C. if you already have The FIRST CLASS radiotelephone license qualifies you to practical experience. ____ !Phone.C. or less. The sions of Grantham School of Electronics offer the same rapid organization of the subject matter is such that you progress. This license is Federal classes.C. Western Hollywood 408 Marion 3123 Gillham Rd.C.C.C.C.C.C. you a great deal of electronics and prepare you to pass the F. Grantham School of Electronics for a FIRST CLASS F.7727: To: GRANTHAM SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS 1 408 Marion Street SEATTLE Seattle 4.C. Kansas City 9. either by home study or in by -step. - maintains four complete Divisions located in Hollywood. LIC /za OMMERCIAL OPERATOR / A I E NS jo't Jobs eg Electronics F. license to that practical experi- install. Each point is covered simply and in detail. J 1 Address . Name Age 82119th Street. the Grantham course can add a thorough knowledge of theory and an F.. license quickly.C.C.. commercial (not amateur) license is your ticket to Grantham training is offered by correspondence or in resident higher pay and more interesting employment. Either way. Nash. LICENSE. W. maintain and operate most all radiotelephone equipment of employment. in that it qualifies you to take the second class examination. its territories and possessions. this F. 1 MO. maintain and operate every type of radiotelephone equipment ence-a most important step in qualifying you for higher pay and (except amateur) including all radio and television stations in the greater job security. Washington 6. Seattle. dnd Washington. The Most of our correspondence students take longer than 12 weeks to scope of authority covered by a third class license is extremely finish the course and get their first class licenses. CALIF.C. license. HO 7. is the quick.C. rr'irlcnt classes. I understand there 1 KANSAS CITY = 1 is no obligation and no salesman will call. easy way to prove to your employer that you are worth more money.C. 1 N.C. GRANTHAM TRAINING PREPARES YOU FOUR COMPLETE SCHOOLS: To better serve our many students The Grantham Communications Electronics Course prepares you throughout the entire country. United States. on the job earning a salary. C. license. Resident Classes o4 -B I FEBRUARY.6320!.I my commercial F. Kansas City 821 -19th. license preparation. Em.C. coruses in F. license plus The SECOND CLASS radiotelephone license qualifies you to the electronic theory we teach you will qualify you for certain types install. On the other hand.C. All Divi- with emphasis on making the subject easy to understand. and it does this by TEACH- ING you electronics. License in 12 weeks by training at rant/tam Sch OF ELECTRONICS for FREE Booklet CLIP COUPON and mail HOLLYWOOD 1505 N. license in as little at 12 weeks. If you are a beginner in electronics. LI. to your specific objective -a first class F.C. o 1505 N. in envelope or paste on postal card.THE KEY TO BETTER JOBS CORRESPONDENCE OR RESIDENCE CLASSES An F.C. oU (Phone: JE 1.. 1 1 Z Please send me your free booklet telling how I can get 1 3123 Gillham Road o. WHICH LICENSE FOR WHICH JOB? Our training (either in resident classes or by correspondence) The THIRD CLASS radiotelephone license is of value primarily prepares you for a first class F. for a better job in the rapidly expanding electronics industry. Wash. Your first class F. 2 1 c City State (Phone: ST 3 -3614) I I am interested in: Home Study.

starting January 18. They have the only written Performance Guarantee in the Winegard performance is protected by U.S.95. $29. Winegard Gold Anodizing Winegard's special 7 cycle bright gold anodizing inside and out (not a cheap flash finish) hardens 1. 2. First with the ad- 3.S. by millions of happy users. 2.. dealers can sell! Feature the leader and be one! Three Color'Ceptor models meet all needs: CL -4. (Check local listings for time and station." Tune in Paul Harvey News. Monday through Friday 5:55 E. $38. vancements the public wants and sales. S. by pros- dealer still keeps his profit. in salt spray tests. SCL -4. PAT. pering dealers everywhere.S.minded ing. seals out corrosion and weathering.984 Dealers have learned to trust Winegard dealers make more money for three important reasons. I suggest you stock up on Color' Ceptors now to take advantage of Winegard's advertising and make more profit in 1960. easiest to install.) *U.95.T. They have the best performing.90 Y . confirmed by leading consumer re- full list price of antenna refunded by Winegard -and the searchers. best constructed and neatest looking antenna on the market in the antenna surface. Gov't specifications the Winegard Gold Color'Ceptor.105 Profit with the Antenna CANADA 511. CL -4X (with power pack) $44. WINEGARD Antenna Dealers to Make 1960 PAUL HARVEY Sells Winegard Gold Color'Ceptor Antennas on National ABC Radio Network "I'll be telling your customers why the Winegard Gold Color'Ceptor TV antenna is America's best antenna buy. ABC Network. They get the antenna industry's biggest advertising back. exceeds U.700. industry that guarantees 100% customer satisfaction or *patents.

..with your 'Finegan. Use your "Bucks" to get the sales helps that will do you the most good. Metal outdoor store Balloons -With Winegard sign with hanger.: Radio .Ka' Successful a stronger and better than ever! Forming pTV YOUR NAME HERE DEALER SALES HELPS 11 íuaeggard BEST RECEPTION / to connect Winegard's ad powerhouse to your cash register.. One "Buck" goes ANTENNAS with each Color'Ceptor you order. but ALL YEAR LONG! Big Winegard Gold Color'Ceptor ads in the biggest COLOR: NE WACO IWfallaMll&SttwR. Burlington. 3 -color metal road sign . The Antenna Industry's biggest and . selling message- WINEGARD CO..... most helpful advertising keeps hammering away.. Iowa ADDRESS www.7 .. Paul Harvey on Network R16 PM a. Get these sales helps (delivery prepaid) with FREE "PRO.. .. GOLD TV & FM MOTION BUCKS ". Burlington.. twwruoMr WC FAR hl WAN AL Cr: (('i'Ìit1ines consumer magazines .. GOLD TV and FM ANTENNAS FOR BEST RECEPTION L. pressure.. Win egard 3013 -2 Scotten.Get Biggest Ad Backing Biggest Profit Year Ever! NOT here today and gone tomorrow. Giant 6 -ft.f=l DEALER NAME Illuminated window and Gold anodized telescopic counter sign. To use in your store. 3009 -1 . h L` a''L""`. the sales begin.americanradiohistory. Iowa RUSH full color brochure showing Winegard's new antenna dealer sales aids .sensitive.. antenna display mast. /01. NAME ANTENNA SYSTEMS POSITION FIRM WINEGARD CO.. and tell me how can get them free! I Send literature on Winegard's complete line of FM and TV antennas. outside your store.. name on it. and out where COLO ANTEMNAS J Truck decals. No water.

pulse. now in production by Designed for under -dash mounting in all 12 -volt automobiles. 18 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. Ltd. Output is 15 watts push - onotone Electronic Applications Division. and includes afc. ELMSFORD. famed as the radio opera- tor who sent the first radio distress signal to save a ship at sea (1909) . C2 -20 ®R pull. used which would "register heartbeats..americanradiohistory. was hon- orary chairman of the board.. Toronto . as a wire- less operator for 7 years... at the time of his death. he became president for. 1959. 9.. contact Atlas Radio Corp. might eventually be devel- oped "to serve as long -time replacement for organs that become defective through injury or age. speakers... ('huff said!) FM CAR RADIO is Motorola. 13 worked for the Marconi Co. blood Cartridges have been pressure. NEW YORK In Canada.000 replacement purposes. "Miniaturized electronic components. chairman of the hoard in 1952 have specified Sonotone 65 and." 662 Altogether over . he thought. with an alarm system. microphones. phonographs. JACK BINNS. Binns was born in England and ceramic cartridge 1ST was invented by Sonotone. Joining the Hazel- different manufacturers tine Corp.. in 1924. David Sarnoff in his crystal ball as re- models of high -quality placements for damaged body parts. who stated that Amer- ica has shaken off its complacency be- cause of recent Russian advances. Mr. died December 8. NEWS BRIEFS (Continued from page 14) What's the A more hopeful note was struck by Noah Dietrich. the model FM -900 uses seven tubes. with the result that all 1. ELECTRONIC LUNGS." He also pre- dicted an electronic "dashboard " -a Sonotone Ceramic home device ]i]ce the bathroom scale. It works off regular AM car an- tenna.. in-1942. Leading makers of fine ceramic cartridges. electronic tubes. He later was a reporter for the New York American and then worked on the staff of the New York Tribune." f or original and warning when to call the doctor. . at the age of 75. three transistors.. Today.. Dept.000. He predicted that we will now entirely eclipse Russian advances in missiles latest score and space. HEART and other vital organs were seen by Gen. head of the Houston Fearless Corp. His CQD summoned aid to the sink- ing ship Republic.600 passengers and the crew were on cartridges? taken off the ship before it sunk. years ago.

11. :159. 36 W. Stereo tape recorder output. Burke. S. 3.years meeting which deals with radio 4. O. Completely separate Bass and Treble controls on each channel. Dr.8% at full which promises to solve some of the power output. Third channel output. D. OLIVER E. Buckley was an out- standing scientist and administrator who also had served the US in minter- . 15.95* rola." And Radio Condenser Corp.C. Separate Tone Controls Make These The Most Versatile Amplifiers You Can Buy! H. according to predictions by Standard Coil President J. Mt. RE-2 Maynard.3 %. Gross of the desired to sepa- US to he secretary general for next 3 1. Other advanced features the Edison Medal of the American include special balancing facilities and separate tone controls on each channel Institute of Electrical Engineers and this nation's highest civilian award. to let you adjust for tonal differences in speakers and room acoustics. Provision for connecting two phono cartridges. All the features man and others.* ous advisory capacities. BUCKLEY. City State Export: Tetesco International. C. The Signal Corps has Specifications: Distortion (first order difference Name made working diodes of the material tone) less than 0. 9.. will also replace some low.H. Frequency Response: 20 cps to 30. Sylvania. H. officials say that at least 6 manufac- turers are considering production of FM car sets. Play a mono- phonic source through both channels simul- taneously. Output and sep- er. INTERNATIONAL Telecommunications Used where it is Union (ITU) elected G. Harmonic Distortion: 0. 7. Zenith and Moto. S 169. it includes a third channel to give optimum realism in stereo play- Hawaii and Alaska. of the 299 plus many more. He held 43 patents. rate heat pro- 2. 1960 21 HEAR THE FABULOUS LONDON -SCOTT INTEGRATED STEREO ARM AND CARTRIDGE www.95' Third Channel Output.95° reverse switch. cifications on all new H. ducing power amplifiers from control location years as it adjourned its once. died Dec. 10.C. Scott stereo of transoceanic phone cables to Europe. FEBRUARY. It is backed by Added to set makers producing 23. Phase able in integrated amplifiers. NEWS BRIEFS (Continued) FM car radios will also be offered by 3 NEW STEREO AMPLIFIERS other makers.H. N. 10.Atlantic voice radio contact (1915) and research leading to laying tile" by editors of all leading hi fi magazines. qi H. Filament supply to virtually eliminate hum. Prior to service with the ITU. H. tl l 1. arate tone controls usually found only in much flection. Like all H.priced 21 -inch sets using 114° de. Scott's reputation for quality and engi- inch sets were RCA. FROM "the industry is near a breakthrough on practical use of FM radios in auto- mobiles. Previously using 23. SCOTT PowJermill Road. Separate record scratch and rumble filters. Nvhich can operate at crossover. amplifiers. END 10 microvolts on low level input.000 cps. Among other honors he received were back and a signal for driving extension speak systems. Visual signal light or where higher power is required than avail- spectrum allocations. 5. 14 at the age of 72. Hoff. Mass. Special Rush me new catalog and complete technical spe- temperatures up to seven times as high balancing circuit. H.SCOTI DR. pensation for direct connection of tape playback Gross headed the FCC's International heads. 222 24 Watt Stereo Amplifier %vhich will join its big brother 23 -inch This budget priced stereo picture tube this year. 12. Admiral. Loudness compensation.inchers were 130 Stereo Preamplifier Westinghouse. more expensive equipment. Dept. Scott's 299 Stereo Amplifier has been acclaimed "world's most versa- trans. Special switching to use your stereo Technical Div. 6. 14. N Y.americanradiohistory. is seen likely to amplifier has replace a large share of the 17-inch such features as market. Dual 20 watt power stages. Bell Labs presi- dent and board chairman until his retirement in 1952. Can be used as an electronic IT. Slichtly to her West of Rockies. Accessory case extra. 13. 40th St. 1 Ix. The 19 -inch screen will appear Third Channel in portables. Scott. neering leadership.every. lium phosphide. H. Scott components as can silicon. panel. 19 -INCH TV TUBE with square corners. the Medal of . it can work in 110° circuits. Com. His early work included production and testing of power tubes for the first 299 Watt 40 Stereo Amplifier $199. NEW SEMICONDUCTOR material is gal - pickup on monophonic records. H. Noise and Hum: Hum better than Address severe high -heat problems of guided 80db below full power output: noise equivalent to missiles and space electronics.

looking for throughout the country to service our industrial service business. turned thumbs down on these projects. Newark 4. Thus 90 problem of information centers. during topics to be discussed in Tung-Sol's are based on the metric system. The crux of the development has been Electric Inc. Unfortunately. 1. Electronic Facts" (December. It has been established that manu- facturers of industrial electronic equip- ment need independent service organi- zations. For 14 years I have applied to single -side bane] operation. A micron is a unit in the metric sys. Write and specify which you would of industrial electronic equipment like to receive. Ampli. ple. highly informative series. nents and equipment. Tung -Sol micron does not. NOT MICRON! Ridgewood.americanradiohistory. and it during its initial stages. For exam. each other.C. MICRO -INCH. expected with this system: Thyratron Operation. The service technician must wear his sales- articles on industrial electronics equip. Think what Management in general has therefore confusion would be wrought by the un. system. 1959. after all an economical term. Every issue Jordan Controls Co. Dear Editor: The problem is a matter of adequate communication and lack of salesman- Regarding Lester Berry's letter on ship. J. I believe that this is one of the more (Continued on page 26) 22 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. The two must get together. crammed -full of vital technical infor. I have found the most frustrating Dear Editor: factor to be the lack of funds to demon- You can still get back issues of Tung -Sol Lester Berry's letter in your Decem. tomer with complete confidence. These articles may stimulate on depending upon him so the manufac- career in industrial electronics. Industriai Servicemen-Free We hope that you will continue your in handling industrial customers. Amplifiers and Choppers when they mean micro -inch. lishment of centers such as you advo- In other words. and the equipment manufacturer need Milwaukee 9. Hampton Ave. Such cross. The manufacturer must be sold servicing industrial electronic equip. which is justified from a practical viewpoint. Md.000090 page 27) with interest and would like Mobile Communications with a special issue devoted inch. 120 microns The principal factor preventing estab- Temperature Control Systems. Tung -Sol Tips mailing list. RONALD WAGNER There is no easy answer. microns equals 0. New Jersey. manufacturers and magazines such as CENTERS Coming up soon are wide -ranging your own have been describing tape Dear Editor: articles on: head gap widths in terms of "micron" I read your editorial "Millions of D. C. sometimes shun the radio TV service Present systems require 24 typists. this attitude Write today asking to be put on the does mean a millionth of an inch. Tips which you might have missed. a micron is almost 40 cate is that there is a considerable Closed Circuit Television.4. This would take care its equipment or asks for technical in.refer- trial electronic equipment is desperately enced abstracts would be in form to be ELECTRON TUBES TUN G-SOL SEMICONDUCTORS looking for independent service oper- ators to service the equipment he sells. to add to it. PHILIP N. fiers. Wis.780 cross -referenced abstracts a day. This may seem short -sighted. our company is presently looking able to handle industrial servicing. As an individual worker in the Back Issues INDUSTRIAL SERVICING field. which the micron is a part.0047 inch -very sizable gaps! Weight Control and Hatching. should put equipment. or 90 millionths of an inch. considerable study and research to the Induction Heating Systems. including: (1) Semiconductor Rectifiers: ber issue in regard to industrial service An example of the advances to be (2) Gas -Filled Rectifiers: (3) Theory of requires an answer. SANDS understanding of industrial compo. strate the complete system. published monthly. would be . (4) Practical Appli- cations of Thyratrons: (5) Photo -Electric There is no doubt that manufacturers Just 3 typist -operators could process Theory and Operations: (8) A.. Everything from Dear Editor: theory of operation to application. BRIDGES an automated cross -reference indexing Rockville.0035 inch. for qualified service organizations The service technician. mation aimed at giving you a broad LEO G. It isn't that the fully informed feel that way. plus technician who inquires about servicing several file clerks. because the public relations filed by machine or by any other method. English -language journals presently The typical manufacturer of indus. N. of which no benefits can be expected. Inc. fact remains that the service technician of Tung -Sol's monthly feature is 3235 W. times as big as a micro -inch! amount of time and expense required And these are just a few of the many All scientific work and measurements in setting up such a program. kind of work. man's hat and sell the manufacturer If you're a serviceman planning a ment. and that many TV service shop WANTS INDUSTRIAL proprietors are interested in industrial TECHNICIANS business. However.1". of the roughly 240 important electronic formation. portunity to get Tung -Sol Tips . treme caution. the larly and without cost. But. I have noticed that tape recorder RESEARCH INFORMATION installation and maintenance. tem. "90 microns" instead of . but since formation designed specifically to give for the term "micron "! Micro -inch is the program would not bolster profits you the facts you need for your job. you service organizations into doing this turer can in turn sell him to the cus- can't afford to miss out on this op. With every issue you'll be building thinking introduction of a new meaning your own valuable storehouse of in. the A Valuable Service for We would like very much to hear manufacturer looks upon him as a from technicians and get their views tradesman in whipcords with no finesse and opinions on this sort of service. a millionth of a meter. on a better front. but the bad press the industry has re- ceived causes manufacturers to use ex- illI I . on the idea of a TV service shop being ment. aren't all they should be (for the TV service industry) many of these manu- facturers are afraid to turn over their Correspondence customers to a TV service shop.

thing you receive.... the explanation is simple! We believe Radio . Include New <'. lessons and equipment alike. most up to date home study training in Radio -Television! Unbelievable? No.. -K to step into good paying jobs or a profitable business of their own! Our new Tohdp you learn (oat the practical side of Radio-Television. We urge you to act at once. III. You get valuable kits of You build this powerful two -band superhetero- parts and equipment for priceless shop :bench test meter.. let facts speak for themselves.are needed at once! Perhaps you've thought about entering this interesting.. Now -just $6 enrolls you for America's finest.. built and tested HOME STUDY TRAINING IN SPARE TIME in 5 sections. 20 salesman will bother you.w. I \ -a complete Radigeleuision vision Training Plan. Chicago 26. 18.TELEVISION SERVICE TECHNICIAN NOW-Just 4 ...this fine at home in spare time. but lack of ready money held you .. LET US PROVE HOW EASILY YOU CAN LEARN! Radio -Television needs YOU! And Sprayberry is ready to man can train you on better.. modern oscilloscope. Under world -famous 27 -year old Sprayberry Plan. You have everything to step into a fine job or your own Radio -Television Service Business...Television must have the additional men it needs as quickly as possible.range +. The new Sprayberry Training Television Re- ceiver..i i Volt -Ohm.. and that no salesman will call upon me. Let us prove the kind of opportunity that's in store for you! SPRAYBERRY Academy of Radio -Television 1512 Jarvis Avenue.. Chicago 26..Television new Spray - IN Dept. NAME Age. Offer Limited Only a limited number of students may be accepted on this liberal and unusual basis. COMPLETE KITS This great industry is begging 25 of PARTS at EQUIPMENT for trained men . is all yours keep. top paying field. that any ambitious the afford. berry tester Please rush all information on your ALL-NEW Radio -Tel. we send you expertly engi- plan opens the doors of Radio -Television wide to neered training kite to test and assemble for every ambitious man who is ready to act at once! interesting.. 1512 W. trained Radio -Television Service Techni- shop-bench practice! cians. Illinois Mail This Coupon Now -No Salesman Will Call You build the NCO To MAO MOND Sprayberry Academy of Radio. Andtoevery- dyne radio receiver... valuable Men by the thousands. Just $6 starts you! Mail coupon today . Millinm- met. Dept.americanradiohistory..... This is your big oppor- tunity to get the training you need ..mail the coupon be- low and get complete details plus our big new catalog and an actual Sam ltlelesson -all free. No obligat ion . easier terms.. You keep on with your present job and income.. I ADDRESS CITY ZONE STATE .. tRA1Nt6 KAN &log and Sample Lesson FREE. Starts You Training in BIG.o-. You train as fast or as slowly as you wish. 20 -G. I understand this does not obligate n. Complete Facts Free -Act Now.. OM INIMUI MIMI MOM -11111111-1-IIIM FE3.. We are willing to do our part by making Sprayberry Training available for less money down and on easier terms than ever before. Jarvis Ave. WE'RE MAKING IT EASIER THAN EVER TO BECOME A WELL PAID RADIO..RUARY 1960 23 www. you learn entirely Now offered .

Lecture and lab. Louis Dallas Salt Lake City 1 -25 Atlanta Detroit 2 -1 Union 2-8 Omaha Memphis 2-15 Pittsburgh Jacksonville Los Angeles 2 -22 Pittsburgh Cincinnati 2-29 Kansas City 3-7 Tarrytown Charlotte Kansas City Dallas Portland 3-14 Cleveland 3-21 Omaha El Paso 3-28 Boston Atlanta Los Angeles 4-4 Boston Chicago Minneapolis 4-11 Minneapolis Houston 4 -18 Union Washington Milwaukee Houston San Francisco 4 -25 Washington 5-2 Cincinnati Omaha Portland 5-9 Buffalo Okla. © Hybrid - type Automobile Radios -low voltage tube and output tran- sistor circuits. will mean a great deal to you -and to your customers. Louis 5 -23 Los Angeles 6 -6 Tarrytown Chicago Dallas 6 -13 New Orleans San Francisco 6 -20 Philadelphia Denver 6 -27 Cleveland Memphis Salt Lake City 24 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. General Motors Corporation. RADIO Attention: Service Manager. © Lecture and lab practice on "Signal Seeker" and "Wonder Bar" auto radio tuners and trigger circuits. City 5-16 Atlanta Detroit St. OTwi- light Sentinel Automatic Head- Delco Electronics -One Week - light Switch lecture and lab. Q Auto Bring yourself up to date on transistors and other modern electronic equip- ment with personalized instruction at the Delco Electronic training school - Portable Radios lectures on circuitry of both 1959 and 1960 to be held soon at a General Motors Training Center near you. Register now through your local Delco Electronic Parts Distributor or write directly to Delco Radio Division. DELCO The Delco Radio diploma.americanradiohistory. © Transistor Circuit ABOUT TRANSISTORS ? - . COURSES OF STUDY OFFERED AT NO COST TO YOU: Q Transistor Fundamentals complete coverage of transistor - theory without the use of math- HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ematics.shooting lecture and lab work analyzing defects in transistor circuits. - The Delco Electronics -One Week Advanced Training Schools will be conducted in the General Motors Training Centers indicated below. O Guide -Matic Headlamp Control (Autronic Attend the - Eye) lecture and lab.shooting proced- ures for dead or weak low voltage - auto radios factory developed techniques that are foolproof. Indiana. auto portable radios. DELCO ELECTRONICS TRAINING SCHOOL SCHEDULE DATE REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 REGION 4 REGION 5 REGION 6 1 -11 Philadelphia New Orleans Chicago 1-18 St. One of them is near you. -Advanced Training School No tuition charge No laboratory fees OGarage Door Operators lecture and lab work including - Textbooks supplied the new Delco Radio all - transistor control units. awarded only to those who successfully complete the courses. Kokomo. O Trouble. Classes are conducted by graduate engineers with special training in your field.

standard .7 mil diamond when using the Magneramic 31. is tem hum problems. While most stereo amplifiers are now designed with input sensitivities to match the typical 5-millivolt output of Mounting Centers: '' Terminals: 4. "FACTS ABOUT THE ELECTRO -VOICE MAGNERAMIC CARTRIDGE. conventional methods of hum Electro -Voice introducing the new Magneramic 31 Series elimination used in monaural magnetic cartridges become stereo cartridge using ceramic elements? The reason is that Electro -Voice is genuinely convinced that a precision ceramic cartridge is the finest type that can be difficult or impossible to apply to stereo magnetics. now on the market.millivolt output and couples directly into any "magnetic" preamp unit. perfectly at any stylus pressure from 2 to 20 grams.efficiency speakers coupled with and loudspeakers. gieweirefeCre NEW MAGNERAMIC has ceramic elements ! For more than 35 years. Output: 8 millivolts Recommended Load: 22.millivolt input. definitely superior to the magnetic type. It feeds into the preamp input -jack specified for magnetic cartridges and does not require GREATER FLEXIBILITY - The 31 Series cartridge will operate adaptors or circuit modifications.. Thus. nearly all monaural amplifiers were designed for at least 8.000 ohms HIGHER OUTPUT . Lead Zirconium Titanate (Ceramic) Weight: 8 grams sity. The same stylus assembly can be used for operation on both turntable and record changers. be driven to full output with a magnetic stereo cartridge.000 to 47. l'erlieal: 3. The Electro-Voice Magneramic 31 MD7 cartridge directly The superiority of the Magneramic 31 is demonstrated in replaces any monophonic or stereophonic magnetic cartridge these three areas. or vice Compliance.5 x 10-' cm /dyne - record changers. BUCHANAN. These cannot Wont more information? Write to Dept. performance need not be SPECIFICATIONS . Record wear is the only criterion in setting stylus pressure cartridge operation is not affected.0110 cps ± 2 db compromised by using a special. Also. Electro -Voice has been a leader in the development and manufacture of dynamic microphones FREEDOM FROM HUM to - The increased amplifier gain required satisfactorily drive low. 20E for the booklet entitled. MAGNERAMIC 31 MD7 Response Range: 20 to 15. Why then. The Magneramic 31 completely eliminates these problems it is non -inductive and has adequate output. why the most advanced professional cartridge.magnetic . MICHIGAN FEBRUARY. This higher output should especially be considered by those planning conversion to stereo utilizing existent monaural amplifiers. gierelileCe INC. stiff stylus assembly for Compliance.00 and fits both magnetic stereo cartridges. 1960 25 www. with this extensive experience decreased cartridge output has significantly increased sys- in designing and producing electro. Along with the trend toward less efficient speaker systems. - made today .' The Magneramic 31 develops a full 8.5 x 10 -' cm /dyne Isolation: 28 db EI 1000 cycles Tracking Force: 2 to 4 grams in transcription army 4 to 6 grams in changer arms versa.050' connectors Audiophile Net: $24. more amplifier power has become a neces- (Magnetic phono inputs) Elements: 2. Lateral: 3..americanradiohistory. when converting from a changer to a turntable. replacement of the stylus assembly is not necessary Styli: .

. Fla. and I will.501 -D.501 -S.30. but seldom Weathers Tonearm MT-5 went into lighting circuits..000 cps in changers and other tonearms. if you continue Weathers components. made ing an industrial electronics section. For example.. Signal -to -noise Ratio -60 db Two years ago I saw an article on how Output per channel possible through the use of Weathers Ring Filter 15 millivolts into magnetic input Technique-the most efficient means of securing to build a color organ which used Audiophile Net separation between channels . Weathers Compliance 10 x 10 6 cm /dyne INDUSTRIAL INFORMATION Dynamic Moving Mass milligrams ceramic cartridge does not fight with record Tracking Force. with an experi- StereoRamic Cartridge comes fully wired and ready for use. Barrington. HILL tracking force assures low record wear. New York 13. Sapphire S 9.1 -2 grams . 1 0 Professional arms grooves. DIVISION OF ADVANCE INDUSTRIES. A. Finish Ebony with gold trim For a long time I have been buying Overall length Pivot to Stylus Tip Length 13 inches 9yß inches your magazine at newsstands every Recommended Overhang yt inch time I saw an interesting article. 25 db complete lack of needle talk and chatter. smooth -treading performance Dear Editor: 2 -6 grams. Made of than abstract circuitry in our industrial the finest basswood which electronics articles. too. Sydnor ( "Relays in Industry. etc. PRITCHARD Arlington. Audiophile Net $38. ... though the principles were explained. N.50 RADIO -ELECTRONICS has been so inter- esting the last three issues that I have decided to be one of your permanent Ask your dealer for a FREE HOME DEMONSTRATION of subscribers. Inc. advance -designed for use Frequency Response 20. INC. Micro -Touch Stereo Tonearm is designed exclusively for Weathers is unnecessary! I can imagine an article on building a theater switchboard would be of interest StereoRamic Cartridge and is an exact to people working in little -theater duplicate of the arm created for the groups throughout the country. low record wear C. Later Shielded. I divided the channels into 15 per speaker. WEATHERS STEREO COMPONENTS CORRESPONDENCE (Continued from p. Editor) gives maximum strength t with minimum weight.ELECTRONICS Maga- zine.50 ing to treble. theater lighting and dimming." StereoRamic November. 401 Broadway. mid -range and bass. .75 I improved on this. N. especially is balanced perfectly . RE -2 to keep the magazine loaded with up- "Weathers Technical Magic Is Sound" to -date information on new gadgets and developments in the electronics WEATHERS INDUSTRIES field. 22) combine HIGH QUALITY REPRODUCTION and important advances available to re- search engineering. Los Angeles.. balance What I am working up to is that I knew little about thyratrons and had to study up on them. then 20 and finally 30. Best wishes for continued success. Calif. better than 25 db. Weathers C. I also noticed so accurate that references to magnetic amplifiers and. mental unit of 8 channels. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS Decor Editor: I am very glad to see an industrial section in RADIO. against hum. which depend on this principle. Y. page 52). It is not being utilized. so I now have a stereo color organ. SPECIFICATIONS FAN MAIL Comes complete with Arm Bearing System Viscous Damping Dear Editor: Tracking Force Easily adjusted 1 to 8 grams stereo leads. I found books that gave circuits for arc welders.. Gloucester Pike. which I expanded to 10. When I went into stereo. I got very little information.Changers and other type arms I am interested to see you are start- Stylus 0 7 mil diamond or sapphire means less wear for your records. MALDONADO Export: Joseph Plasencia. HAROLD MALE New Westminster A new achievement in ceramic British Columbia SPECIFICATIONS cartridge performance . Dept.americanradiohistory.Diamond S17. There is a very great need for a Cartridge C -501 magazine on industrial circuits of all kinds. or write today for illustrated . Superbly constructed for to describe actual equipment rather cueing ease. JESUS M. 1959. and does not appear likely to be adopted in our lifetime. Va. famous FM 1 -gram system.. Bradenton. Its effortless. J. This 1 -gram DON F. especially the article on relays by WEATHERS Alvin G. END 26 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. Shock mounting isolates the tonearm resonance (It is very definitely our intention down to 15 cps. thyratrons to operate lights correspond- C. 66 E.. There is a Separation. The Weathers turntable leveling it seems that no practical circuits with practical values are given.

Accessories t4n w . over $200. fastest shipment. Dept.2 -B 100 N.americanradiohistory. '460 27 www.. "Convenience Engineered" for easiest assembly.«EOa . 2 DOWN on orders up to $50..saving prices. only $10 down MONEY -SAVING KNIGHT -KITS -the very best in build-your. ALLIED'S 1960 ELECTRONIC SUPPLY CATALOG value-packed. . 1 cN"G1.. Western Ave.send for it! your complete money.o. TV Tubes. you can buy. Complete selection of Stereo hi -fi kits. Also see the world's largest selection of electronic supply guide famous -name hi-fi components and money- saving ALLIED. Huge Listings of Parts. Build. guaranteed satisfaction.o a« .recommended com- plete hi -fi systems. own electronic equipment -designed to save you up to 50 %. Transmitters and Station Gear Test and Laboratory Instruments tot ìN-J.«r^'T . only $5 down on ALLIED exclusives: orders up to $200. Tools.Your -Own KNIGHT -KITS for Every Need Values in Recorders and Supplies Latest Public Address Systems. Books ______-----..0016 pç«« Amateur Receivers. Select ..0. Paging and Intercom Equipment p. yet far lower in cost. KNIGHT -KITS are an exclusive ALLIED product money.11. ALLIED RADIO Name tit _ our 396 fear Address World's Largest Electronic Supply House City Zone State J FEBRUARY. Hobbyist kits.super -value KNIGHT components or complete systems and save send for the leading most.. expert -the finest KNIGHT° STEREO HI-FI -truly the best for less personal help.8. Antennas.1114. 1 ALLIED RADIO CORP. Chicago 80. Test Instrument and Amateur Get every buying advantage at ALLIED: lowest kits. Send FREE 1960 ALLIED Catalog.. O10p 00.saving guide to EVERYTHING IN ELECTRONICS Latest Stereo Hi -Fi Systems Everything in Hi -Fi Components - ' Money -Saving. Up to 24 months to pay.E . Tubes. . the only kits covered by Money -Back Guarantee. III.

"SAGE field engineers have many opportunities for education beyond the 'basic' train- EXTENSIVE ELECTRONICS SCHOOLING. "The job of IBM field engineers is know of another company where a technician can go farther or to keep SAGE computers running. Now. 1955. they may be selected for further training to learn as technically advanced as I could ask for. His present posi. The SAGE computer analyzes radar data with uncanny Bill Miles. how the company can help speed you toward them or even tion: Group Manager." MANY EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. They were im. In May. My future looks brighter than it ever did. and the heart of SAGE is a real -time computer made HURDLING THE DEGREE BARRIER. responsible for keeping one of higher goals. Miles was a deeper knowledge of electronics and added to my professional asked to outline his thinking on how far he could go in stature. which lasts 20 weeks. The work turned out to UTILIZING HIS NAVAL RAINING. I'm a flying objects as friend or foe. It means anticipating trouble before it occurs. "This involves receive more recognition.. To 28 RADIO -ELECTRONICS . he re. "I felt that I'd gone about as far as a technician could accuracy. The teaching was in the field. but my lack of a degree kept me from the kind of a career I wanted. . "I investigated several big companies. responsible for 20 field engineers." maintaining. and checking computer units. at the same time pursuing ordinarily done by graduate engineers ." America's largest electronic computers in top operating ASSIGNED TO SAGE SITE. Of all the companies I know. without a degree. checks it against available air traffic information. what plans you've made to reach your goals... Here's his story. I just couldn't hurdle that education barrier. he joined ing.. "After a year or two IBM and began an extended training course. education but by your native talents. I had a chance to do work as a Naval Aviation Radar Technician. your goals are." recalls by IBM. IBM shows real interest in you as an individual: what electronics at IBM ." says Bill Miles. Bill Miles spent three years he exactly what I was looking for. signed to a SAGE site... SAGE is an important link in America's air defense. testing. Each daN. views the progress he's since made. presents visual displays to assist the Air Force in identifying Now. he worked as a TV serviceman.. After his training." he explains. Bill Miles was as- condition. than at IBM. work usually denied to men without a degree. thanks to IBM. Group Manager on the SAGE project.I gained how the complete SAGE electronic computer system works. without a degree." Bill of engineering responsibility . "A few years ago. but I couldn't find them. Then I answered an ad similar to this. I don't UPGRADING TECHNICIANS. Field Engineer William G... levels dictated not by your formal Miles says. After discharge from service. "I knew there were good career appears to be one of the few which upgrades technicians to levels opportunities around somewhere." pressed with my ability. I have a solid electronics education. and without a degree. IBM an engineering education at night. Two years ago. How far can you go in electronics .

as you may already know. high school-or equivalent experience -you may be eligible for 20 weeks' training as a Computer Units Field Engineer. Everything IBM has ever promised about Discussing counseling methods advancement in field engineering. Heyer Dept. In his four years with IBM. Personal interviews arranged in all areas of the United States. "The com- pany is quick to recognize a man's contributions and quick to reward him. This means lots of opportunities for new men who show potential for advancement along clearly defined routes both in the technical and managerial areas. You'll receive a prompt reply. While train- ing you will also receive a living allowance. Bill Miles has received several promotions." he says. at IBM you receive company -paid benefits that set standards for industry today. I've seen happen-either to me with personnel management. "My advancement is an example of IBM's policy of promoting from within. 1960 29 www.americanradiohistory. 649N Federal Systems Division IBM Corp." RAPID ADVANCE TO GROUP MANAGER. Kingston. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION FEBRUARY.. N. H. you can go as far as your abilities and ambition will take you. Starting salaries are based on your education and experience. N. or to someone I know. From then . There are no limits - set on your future. Bill Miles reviews two -year -old article about his IBM career. WRITE TODAY TO: Mr." Demonstrating how SAGE If you have a minimum of 3 years' technical schooling after operating console works. He is now Group Manager at a SAGE site. without a degree'? keep up with the most advanced electronic developments. they may also attend classes during working hours. Y. And.

At Bell solid shown above). Suppose you are approach helps provide the world's finest telephone service one of a group of 150 telephone subscribers. Telephone engineers discovered at the turn of the cen- stance. the mathematical into your local Bell Telephone exchange. as in throwing dice? of you talking at once are again about 100 to 1. 15 or more of them will come to rest Telephone Laboratories. the same as the probability that side "A" of an matically predict what will happen when events of chance icosahedron will be on top. that if you roll 150 icosahedrons (the 20 -faced tury that telephone users obey Bernoulli's formula. The achievements of makes a three -minute call during the busiest hour of the these mathematicians again illustrate how Bell Labora- day. Thus it His answer was the classical Bernoulli binomial distri. would be extravagant to supply your group with 150 trunk bution-a basic formula in the mathematics of probability circuits when 15 are sufficient for good service. probability that you or any other subscriber will be busy dered a question early in the 18th century. Since three minutes is one -twentieth of an hour. pon. is 1 in 20. Can you mathe. the great Swiss mathematician. JACT7ES BERNOULI A THE OF ODDS He solved a telephone traffic problem two centuries ago Jacques Bernoulli. All over the Bell System. BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES World center of communications research and development 30 R Anln_Fl FCTRnNICS . (published in 1713). each of whom using the least possible equipment. the mathematics of probability into a tool of tremendous Identical laws of probability govern the calls coming economic value. The laws of probability say. the tories works to improve your telephone service. mathematicians have developed with side "A" on top only about once in a hundred times. for in. The odds against 15 or more take place.

Identical Williamson-type. "spot" or "partial" checking. mike. *Less cover.. Wired $114.50. Jensen 8" woofer. Without exag.50. " -ELECTRONICS bandpass. IMPORTANT NOTE: All EICO kits built silicon diode rectifier power supply. HWD: 23" x New HF87 70 -Watt Stereo Power Amplifier: Dual 11" x 9 ".95. Includes covers and F. ture. push -pull New AM Tuner HFT94. and 32 ohm speaker taps.95.T. HWD: 36 "." Ganged level controls. 151/4 ". & sensitivity. tape head.50. 20. System Q of 1/2 for smooth. Inputs for birch $47.. FM. match- ing Jensen compression. One each auxiliary A & B ceramic /crystal stereo pick-ups. Unfinished channels. Pre. extremely versatile.driver exponential horn HI-FI REVIEW. 21/4 cu. "Fine for stereo" MODERN HI -Fl." FM /AMH Tuner . HWD: 24 ". Provider 28W monophonically.E. Smooth clean bass. prealigned. independent bass & treble controls for each Cover $3. full limiting sides) cabinet. & FM. Wired $94. tion. est frequency & best transient response.Hirsch -Houck Labs (HIGH FIDELITY Magazine) FM Tuner HFT90 AM Tuner HFT94 2 Advanced engineering Finest quality components "Beginner -Tested. separate balance control.protected 25W peak. 31/2" cone tweeter. nected EL34 output stages & surgistor. Kit $59. Tuned RF stage for high selectivity Speaker System HFS1 WORLD LAB -TESTED. Selector according to our instructions. EICO factory -assembled equipment. 99. 8" mid -range advertisements. Clutch. Bellows. cone renowned EICO HFT90 tuner with excellent lion. Matches HFT90. 4. Kit $34. transient response. & treble controls inde.multiplex stereo thru self. MON.concentric level & tone controls. master stereo preamplifier -control unit. tempera. 111/2 ". tuning indicator. Incl. AUDIOCRAFT. FEBRUARY. Kit $39. Kit $69.95 *. Stereo Records Bonus. IM distortion 1% at 70W. Wired $109. Se- EL84 power amplifiers. stereo Preamplifier HF85 70W Stereo Power Amplifier HF87 28W Stereo Power Amplifier HF86 "The overall design of the HF -81 is conservative. 11/a cu. con- 16. 3-Way Speaker System HFS3 Includes cover. factory -assembled unit is 100% final.95. useful response. 30.143/e ". Fill out coupon on other side for FREE CATALOG. AM -FM stereo. Walnut.E.5 uy for 30 db quieting. 1960 31 www. 6.multiplex. Completely factory.000 cps clean.americanradiohistory. Bellows. In EICO's final - FM Tuner HFT90: Prewired. amplifier circuit.E. - right "off the shelf " from 1500 neighborhood EICO dealers.95. impedance. prevent obsolescence. Dis- tortion borders on unmeasurable even at high AM tuning facilities. sides) cabinet.38 volts. LE. Wired $65.). Wired $65. Inputs for phono. Kit $74. Use factory -built cabinet. mahogany or teak $59. 32- 14. honest and functional. channel.tested HF86 28W Stereo Power Amplifier Kit $43. nothing is left to chance. Preferred variable crossover.95. feedback type tone control .95. bass.95. tiens as published in EICO literature and geration.95. Stereo Integrated Amplifier AF4 12W Mono Integrated Amplifier HF12 Other Mono Integrated Amp ¡fiers: 50." easy step -by -step instructions LIFETIME servi :e & calibration guarantee at nominal cost IN STOCK - compare. 121/2 ". one of the very finest stereo amplifiers cursion 12" woofer (22 cps res. All EICO factory -assembled available regardless of price. New HFS3 3 -Way Speaker System Semi-Kit com. It is a good value considered purely on its own merits. and all switch chooses mono or stereo service. tape head. "Excellent" - SATURDAY lects "hi -fi" wide (20c . plete with factory -built 3/4" veneered plywood (4 form to the high standards and specifIca- trols. Ultra-linear con. .95.000 cps within 1 db of 70W.000 cps clean.9kc @ -3 db) or Bookshelf REVIEW. HF12 Mono Integrated Amplifier provides com- 35W power amplifiers of the highest quality.built. quality. highs. Wired $64.000 cps range. low -cost problems. birch $72. a bargain. precision eye -tronic® tuning. Includes with a pair of HFS -5 Speaker Systems for good tweeter. wired throughout -. 16 ohms throughout for each feature and function no - Wired $74. 7 -8 PM.95.position stereo /mono selec- pensator. ft. Inputs for phono.5 uy for 20 db plete with factory -built 3/4" veneered plywood (4 Ask your dealer about EICO'S exclusive quieting.). basic sensitivity 0. "Eminently musical" full power to provide utmost clarity on full orchestra & organ.95.contained dual 14W amplifiers to a outputs. Switched -in loudness com. TV. FMmulti stereo. Price $39. Includes cover. Wired $57. tweeter.compensated "front end" is drift-free. Use with self . HF85 Stereo Preamplifier is a complete. 5/a" excur.95. self -powered for New FM /AM tuner HFT92 combines the res. from 25 uv. mahogany or teak $87. IF bandwidth 260 kc at 6 db points. Sys- tem Q of 1/2 for smoothest frequency & best output levels. wired exclusive precision eye -tronic® traveling New HFS5 2 -Way Speaker System Semi -Kit com. Highly stable Williamson -type power nut $139.95. L STEN TO THE EICO HOUR. controls any stereo source & feeds it Both cathode follower & FM. HFS1 Bookshelf Speaker System complete with input in each channel. useful pendent for each channel or ganged for both New AF -4 Stereo Amplifier provides clean 4W response. Very low distor- pair of speakers. each recommended).50.. Cover & F.95. Sensitivity: 1. Incl. Mahogany or wal- - harmonic distortion less than 1% from 20 to circuit. crisp extended cover. THURS. Blond $144. "One of the best buys in high fidelity kits.95. 70. then take home any EICO equipment . 3-4 PM. 137/e ".12. 45-14. and a better one when its price is considered as well.T. .5 MC.95. "Extreme flexibility . F.95. Unfinished test techniques.suspension. tor. Wired $ printed circuitry. Uses top -quality output transformers for undis. 2 -Way Speaker System HFS5 Kit $39.. Power output: 12W continuous. full -inch ex. speaker with high internal damping cone for equipment is completely and meticulously band - powered stereo preamplifier -control unit (HF85 smooth response. amplifies. HI -Fl MUSIC AT HOME. ducted -port enclosure. SAT. plete "front -end" facilities and true high fidel- HFS2 Omni -Directional Speaker System (not illus. HWD: 261/2 ". 8..) torted response across the entire audio range at ity performance. AM. & 20W (use 2 for stereo) PASS INPUT SEL. FUNCTION SEL Stereo Amplifier -Preamplifier HF81 HF81 Stereo Amplifier -Preamplifier selects. HIGH FIDELITY.95 *. Kit $39.station narrow (20c -Skc @ -3 db) 2 -Way quality . 2. "Outstanding weak.95. 101/2". ft ducted -port enclosure. per channel or 8W total output. WBAI -FM." . 8" woofer (45 cps & 31/2" flexibility & to avoid powe.95. tuner and crystal /ceramic cartridge. and SAT.suspension. input level con.95.T. Level. Kit $38. 8 ohms.

5 xtal marker osc. posite indication of Gm. 0 -50% by 400 cps Colpitts osc. 60-225 mc on harmonic band. 5.75 Address 4 TURN PAGE FOR MORE EICO VALUES 500 megs. with HVP probe.90 audio.95 KIT $69. Auto sync. Q Send free Stereo Hi-Fi Guide.5 mc. $3. V -O -M=536 xfmrs. RF Fine. 33. Wired $27. Measure directly p -p voltage adapter). & ampl.2 ohms to 1000 megs. 140.75 $4.95 Kit $12..checks Box =1140 roll -chart transistor equipt. 7 non -skip ranges on pot. rately. Transistorized Wired $5. =1020 ' Fast.americanradiohistory.95 Oscilloscope 4425: kit $44. directly plate -modulated E Features DC amplifiers! Flat from DC to 4.biased increductor for excellent line. CRA int. direct -coupled & push-pull throughout. 1400.95 dealer. N. PRF probe).95 Kit $29.7 Tube Tester =625 1 Kit $34. 10 six -position lever every function.95 $6.. Hum and leakage eliminated. Narrow range phasing con. Wired $19. Ohms: 0. Calibration without re. RF 4200. Simul. slug -tuned coils for max. 42.95 City Zone State power factor Low Capacity $3. Direct $2. Pre -set TV V & H positions. Attenuators: Marker Size. Extremely flat RF output. IF Eqpt.. Corn. AF output to 10 v..95 Complete with steel cover 6 handle C g RF SIGNAL GENERATOR #324 KIT $26.95 Adapter $4.95 Pix Tube Test =1060 Kit $38.95 5" PUSH -PULL WIRED $49. Colpitts RF osc.your best buy is A DYNAMIC CONDUCTANCE B TUBE & TRANSISTOR TV-FM SWEEP GENERATOR TESTER #666 AND MARKER #368 KIT $69. 10 pushbuttons: rapid insert of any tube element in accuracy. Direct or cap.. switches: freepoint connection of each tube pin.95 WIRED $39. Turret-mounted. moving from cabinet. Ext. gain ext. 1500 (up to 30. edge -lit engraved lucite screen with dimmer control.95 Supply for Kit $3. 14.I. Exceptional tuning accuracy. Sens. Variable Z 3 megs. pend) 5" OSCILLOSCOPE #460 KIT $79. 50.95 Incl.driven rollchart. Direct reading of inter -element by K. Kit $13. 100 kc (ext. L. taneous selection of any one of 4 combinations of Coarse (4 -step decade). push -pull Kit $19.000 Ohms /Volt Wired. 3 ranges of trol for accurate alignment. Variable depth of usable to 10 mc. Gp & peak emission.95 pilot lamps. 1. plus many more outstanding ranges: 3-216 mc. 420.95 6V & 12V Battery New Transistor NEW Tube & Eliminator 20. Fine and Coarse (3 -step) RF attenuators.75 $3.95 WIRED $129. 3 screen voltages.95 Tester =612 series string type Wired $49.95 R -C Combination illuminated Extra -filtered for 1000 Ohms /Volt Prealigned RF. n 1959 Wired $29. 500.75 $5.Y. can't -burn -out circuit. marker of complex & sine waves: 0-4. bands and 1 harmonic band! -*1.000 v.95 E D PEAK-TO-PEAK COLOR & MONOCHROME YTVM g232 DC TO 5 MC LAB & TV UNIPROBE (pat. amplifier: only 3. fund.: 25 my /in. Send me FREE Catalog. Comparator =950B Probe -1 $6.Y. FREE CATALOG shows you HOW TO SAVE 50% on 65 models of top quality professional test equipment.compensated attenuator up to 1000:1. mod. 15. inputs. mod.50 Wired $47. 1. Vert. Zero center.95 Wired $14. DC /RMS sine volts: 0-1.50 KIT $29. Kit $19.95 Probe -2 $4.0 v needed for 30% 4-step freq. less 9V batt.95 Series /Parallel tubes Wired $38.95 $3.95 Kit $24.95 Wired $29.00 Nietharn Blvd. RF output 100. 5 fund. $49. tests 600 mil & Charger =1050 NEW Power & Bias Kit $29. $4. coupling. Sweep: perfectly linear 10 cps . arity. New gear. n -pn and p -n -p transistors. 10 mmfd -5000 mfd.5 ohms . lim.7"--.E. provision. N. name of neighborhood 33-0D Northern . Scope Probes Demodulator. & 250 mc with 3 plate voltages. cap.75 mc tip selects DC or AC -Ohms.90 EICO C -2 !R. or unbal. bands.95 Wired $75. features. etc.95 I.T. 150.50. sweep D um-probe -exclusive with EICO - only 1 probe performs all functions: half -turn of probe bal.C. pi Entirely electronic sweep circuit with accu - mod. leakage test circuit.000 uv. F.95 radio /TV tubes.follower for improved mod. Show me HOW TO SAVE 50% on O test Instruments Q HiFi Q Ham Gear. I. Adapter $4.95 WIRED $119.95 V -0 -M =565 Portable Radio RA -6 CRT Fil. xtal supplied.The specs prove it.95 WIRED $109.. 7EICC R -C * 41 Bridge & R-C -L VTVM Probes RF High Voltage Kit Wired Peak -to -Peak. MAIL COUPON NOW! 4-1.95 High Voltage Add 5% in the West. input leakage in ohms. 41/2" continuously variable grid voltage (with 5% accurate C 150 ice to 435 me with ONE generator in 6 meter.95 Name Reads 0.75 32 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www.5 % freq. Variable marker range: 2. Sensitive 200 ua meter. 4.). for range to 1 cps). 6" spkr.75 $5.95 A Tests all receiving tubes (picture tubes with in 3 fund. ac- curacy.5.C.

and more important. General Electric. sputtered velopment that presages a revolution far greater than even or evaporated in a high vacuum under considerable heat. and micro -weight. An insulating film. 1 9 6 0 33 www. will most likely appear by 1965 or earlier. mid. if necessary. unlikely as it sounds. sprayed metal film. ponent can go right on top of the first one. 1953 . a de. then the first step may be ready the laboratories have components so small that they repeated. Or. steadily shrunk in size. that at this moment the art already has The microfilms that make this revolutionary art possible moved into molecular electronics -termed by some research today are fashioned from either silicon or germanium. they can also well as other advantages -for instance. They are certain to be incor- molecule to measure 1 inch thick!. In fact. one or two molecules To grasp this new advance fully. thimble! turers and service technicians for generations. then forms an oxide film on them. "Miniradios. . and later the elec. becomes possible. considerably less than 1 inch square. "Microtubes. * It even becomes possible to build amplifiers and switching During the past few years.electronic medical appliances and each other by spraying various amounts of oxygen. "Miniature Radios. another component ponents are already facts today in the laboratory. ana tneretore woula rorm muco tmnner FEBRUARY." January.-H. then did not assure you that the little speck you glimpsed under build the component on top of it." November. 1944 . nents. Westinghouse. Hence such sophisticated "micro - terials. At present. Yet. either by direct contact or by reasons for it. That we really have to do with micro. We know the molecule is the smallest particle of matter Yet microbatteries with a serviceable electrical output are that can exist by itself and still retain all the properties of an early and foreseeable possibility.000 films the thickness of one 1945 are a reality today. "intermittents" that have plagued manufac. "Shrinking Radio. may then be sprayed on. 1956 and many others. whenever required.G. only under a high -power microscope. "Minitelevision. and of vast importance: Military and coming rugged that they will be practically indestructible. components have steadily shrunk. cannot be a failure in future electronic gear. economics -ahuge shrinking in ma. as the first step. The next required com- the microscope was a transistor or a capacitor or a resistor. the desired circuit. Their space requirements are so stringent and so vital that large minuscule size." September. This is of utmost threat to life. structible components that never wear out -will usher in Although batteries for portable electronic gear have a new age for the art. We speak of atomic the original element. capacitor. batteries here. the shrinking of practically devices for computers that are so tiny that they can be seen all electronic parts has accelerated at an unprecedented rate. their power output of microfilms so thin that they measure only one molecule would be so microscopic that they would never be able to thick. as well. practically inde.000. safeguards the structure size and failures of components are matters of continuous against shock and mechanical stress. We capacitors. There is no difficulty in building them down scopic dimensions will be better appreciated when we realize to molecular size.americanradiohistory. fashion. It becomes clear now why such micro-assemblies are so Third. as nected and interconnected to other assemblies. in weight and.. thick. techniques it becomes feasible to build complete radio chassis there will be little of the ancient disease of miscontacts or so tiny that hundreds of them can be placed in a single even worse. . the components. Bell Laboratories. Atomic batteries predicted by us in that it takes nearly 1. depending upon you probably would not believe it. chemical type dry cells probably What really is microelectronics? Stripped of most scien. Normally. And if they could." August. Yet such microcom. so rapidly. there are various techniques -all more IBM. bio. . Texas Instruments are only a few of the pioneering or less experimental -for fashioning the various compo- researchers who are now deeply in microelectronics. By the can be fashioned alongside the first one. Editor MICROELECrI'RONICS . the reduction of size and weight. as an anachronism and technical barbarism.. Resistors and transistors are created in similar scopic size! Nor do they look at all like the usual units. Radio -Electronics Hugo Gernsback. of silicon and germanium have diameters in the order of one ten -millionth lue ug ua-e was ossea on the molecule of ordinary water (H20). that behave exactly as their big brothers. Hence they cannot be tolerated-there just importance for military and space applications. While such microelectronic assemblies can readily be con- In microelectronics. 1931 . if the scientist who demonstrates the item to you One may start with a metallic or insulating base. The various components can readily be insulated from such as hearing aids.1960's. Microradios. intervals. Hence. which others. A few such steps will result in a workable micro- cannot be seen by the naked eye -they are truly of micro. in the coming microelectronics day crude wiring or even printed circuits are. art." November. resistors and even transistors of single or have reported its progress on this page at regular multiple . it is possible to fashion tronic art.. it is certain that in the future other materials will be used RCA. the advent of the transistor. let us report that al. be electrically connected to their respective power supply. A Major Revolution in Electronics Is Shaping . microelectronic assemblies during the next 10 years. porated along with other components into self -powered *See "Midget Radio Sets." January. they will probably be for sale in civilian items. but laboratories molectronics. practically all -if not all-soldering will have disap. and so forth. By proper manipulation. . in fact. the raw materials are sprayed. It can be seen that in using these and other more refined peared. consequently. will be connected elec- Why this frantic reduction in size? There are excellent trically with each other. wiring" will no longer be the bothersome factor our present - Second. it is the production and adaptation foreseeable future. First. will not be able to contract down to molecular size in the tific and technical terms. in cost. Atoms inc. EVER since the beginning of radio. drive even the smallest speaker for more than a few seconds. 1944 1947 .

4V o_ the ohms section of conventional instru- I0.milliammeter is the most universally used electronic test instrument.24.700 ohms ohms 120K R4.4MEG ohmmeter or resistance bridge to within 1% or better 150V .ro R4 -7.5 RI.o No zero.30 L34 V RI8 .insulated banana lacks 24.5 o O 1. deposited carbon R5 15 R5.136R's in series R2015 to 600K R12 15 with 1 cell removed from each) I BATT 2 -1. deposited carbon 5V R6-1.4K MS -20 -3 or equivalent) Case./2 -inch scale (Precise Devel- O VU R K VU opment M -50 or equivalent) 5 -3 -deck 3 -pole 20.500 ohms R14 -4.120. deposited carbon 300K R7 -3 megohms.5 MEG R7 150 RIl.000R o R2 I0.05 K 57 moved from BATT I) DI.5 M.500 R2.28.000 ohms. This article describes the features R16 and construction of a vom that should -/wo appeal to both the experienced man and 43 Il RI7 + the beginner. However. bakelite 6 13/16 x 5 9/16 x 2 5/16" with panel o (Allied Radio 86P287 and 86P289 or equivalent) OFF OFF OFF Miscellaneous hardware Circuit of lile 1.650 ohms 300V R16 -43 ohms fL R9 75 G RI7 -4.000 ohms. 600. I000R o Zero -adjust controls are needed in 13. 2.136R -re- t.5 megohms.000 ohms.4 volts (Two Mallory TR.25.34 volts (I cell of Mallory TR. deposited carbon R12. deposited carbon 1.5K¿ .IN34 -A K 7.5V o C r.7K zinc type) used as power sources are I R3 1. It has three features not W-0 15MA BATT<^.3 ohms. 4.adjust control for the ohms .400 ohms RS 300 ?'o RI5 -2.control unit RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. 2.430 section R19 -M/N-0 LR 0- R15 --NW r LR j Maximum current in the ohms 1440 2.5 V 7. wirewound 9M£6 R19 -144 ohms RIO 750 R20 -1.4 megohms. deposited carbon DC VOLTS 12. IO LR The same linear scale for ac and O 10 LR o b+ ff dc ranges OHMS 1000 R BATTI .651( R177}} (LORANGE) section limited to 500 µa o- 25.700 ohms R3. deposited carbon RIO-2. if one can get a meter movement for which the proper scales and design have been worked out. wirewound 750V RI8-0.050 ohms 0 750 V 0 FAA/v-0 All resistors i/2 watt -10% units are selected with 2.meter.americanradiohistory. found in commercial models: .000 R ments because the dry cells (carbon - 266.position nonshorting rotary (JBT 4.43 ohms.-.8 -6 megohms.carbon and wirewound units BATT -13.266.TEST INSTRUMENTS SINGT A unit without a zero control made pos- Bible by mercury batteries C ULTIMETER By ALBERT STRATMOEN THE volt-ohm.300. 50 ea.57. Rlro50 AC VOLTS except for deposited. deposited carbon R6 75 75V R9-9 megohms.000 ohms o 150V 3 MEG RH.rNNr-o 150MA Ç-' 150 __. the project becomes prac- tical. It is usually pur- chased ready -made or in kit form because the time involved in designing and constructing one is great enough to make it impractical.5V rR7i5 JI.-NW-0 28.

1.nuost coccr. it doesn't matter. R12 ments are fine for measuring voltage R15 and high values of resistance but aren't suited for low resistance and current. Mercury batteries are far superior for this purpose as their 1.3 volts during their use- ful lifetime. 1960 :15 www. but. R12 Building the vom The first step in constructing the in- strument is to mount the parts on the panel.01 ohm with a maximum current of 50 ma. volts. by using a backup circuit for the two lowest ranges. a variable re- sistor is needed to compensate for the variation. Their output varies from almost 1.voltage sources. This reads as low R2 as . de ma and db. checked against an EICO vtvm at assorted ac and dc voltages. when no resistance is connected to the test leads. It also measures direct current RII from 50 ma to 10 amps. and 750 -volt ranges. The 50 -ma chain for the low ohms range of most meters is pretty heavy for mercury batteries. as it ages its internal resist- ance increases and the output voltage drops on the ranges using more current. was within 2 %. issue of RIO RADIO. When the ex- ternal resistance is equal to the meter's BATT 2 internal resistance. For reading very low re. making it necessary to adjust the zero control constantly when changing ranges. shown are hard to read.5 -. the meter is decreased. the main reason for having an ohms -adjust control does not apply when mercury cells are used as a power source. the meter is shunted on the low-resistance range to 500 µa. This panel is in two layers. 50 -µa move. ac and do the meter with the unknown resistance. If you that the author's unit is an excellent multimeter. One is the bakelite panel that comes with the case. the pointer will be RI RI BATTI R4 DI RB at exactly half scale-in this instru- ment. The reading bakelite case. In addition.34 volts per cell remains constant during their use- ful lifetime. To read lower resistance values than would be possible with this value of half-scale indication. When - the battery is new. and the other is a plexiglas sheet of the same size. Therefore. TEST INSTRUMENTS not constant. So. low resistances are measured by passing high current -up to 50 ma on the lowest range through the unknown resistance. glas and fastening the strips with meter FEBRUARY.. However.americanradiohistory. On low resistance can engrave bakelite. D2 That is why I have only three current R19 ranges and use the saved switch posi- tions for voltage and resistance. I recommend a sep- arate instrument such as the one de- scribed in the August.6 (when new) to about 1. Accuracy. As I brought R15 R20 out in this earlier article. It isn't difficult Tests conducted by a member of the staff of RADIO. I ing various I% precision resistors accuracy is within 2%. 75 -.300 ohms. They can be made clearer by adding calibrations for teries by taping them to strips of plexi.ELECTRONICS. ohms. The range dial is sandwiched between these and is a BENCH photographic reduction. Each component of resistors built up from several drops as the resistance shunted across units is marked with the resistor number. making 130 ohms the half-scale value for this range. R9 sistance values. you will not need ranges the meter did not go to exactly full scale. The lowest re- sistance that can be read on this range is 1 ohm. The meter scales as mounted the two large mercury bat. The backup circuit passes full -scale current through the meter and shunts (Abu. Therefore.ELECTRONICS showed to draw one of the proper size. the 7. current is limited to 500 µa. but when checked by measw- the plexiglas or the paper drawing. c) deal -9on" ing insiro. the meter indicates full (Below) A three -gang switch and associated wiring fills the meter's scale (infinite resistance).com . 1953.

5 -6. match a standard VU meter by adding borrow a good ohmmeter or resistance rent leaks through during this period. Even silicon diodes that may cult to measure accurately. so ing R12. remove the 700-ohm resistor in DB +16 +22 +42 +54 series with the meter coil.6 -volt heaters value. Con. You may ohms for larger currents act this way. R14 until the readings VU types are more lively due to less the scale has been calibrated for a agree with your standard.voltage ohms. Install R10 and R11 and set meter. selecting the voltage ranges by indi- The multipliers for the dc ranges If we try to make the ac ranges as cating the uses for each: (R3 to R9) are mostly deposited car. If you are using tion and have measured these resistors line or 0. One of these cells is 7. diodes increase in for. 7. These > 300 1. This is mainly because 750-multiple of 150. The wire . Design factors higher ranges for decibels. I resistance to bring it up to 1. This is a Wiring details big advantage. But if you damping and possibly more torque. ing current through both meters in that is just right or you can use some 000 ohms near zero current. But if we 15 -12 -volt storage batteries. Ac ranges same reading as your standard volt. but it requires paying tones. The shunt resistors for dc are diffi- high -value radial -lead carbon resistors. The 5 -pa point below 1. the 500-pa shunt. mercury cells. The arc is 90 °.4 -volt tubes the ac multipliers (R10 and R11) are sistors than rectifiers represents a con. I found that 4. Two factors to con. bridge and select them from a stock of However. 750 1000 tery. make a new aluminum backing for the scale as the original is punched for slide -in scales. There are quite a few .000 ohms per volt tubes nect a 10. reasonable linearity. 7. Before pasting in the E 7. you could add some series usual 5% accuracy for ac meters.americanradiohistory.12. Note that except for tra diode that shorts the meter and meter because of the more sluggish the deposited -carbon resistors all are of rectifier during the undesired half. De ranges bon. R One cell is removed from each bat. Then replace the variable con.5 contact the ends of the batteries and o 750 10 000 form convenient terminal posts. To have as much room for these as possible. True. cutting them down to a total of R Range scale shown ten cells. of meter movements' characteristics_ END 36 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. in. filaments for the meter resistance. you should be within the do not indicate zero at this level but resistance. so this meter edge pointer. Standard VU meters another make meter and it has a lower accurately. I found series. This applies only for steady separate meter scale for ac. For best results check stall R19. add the appro- common carbon resistors. siderable part of the arc. mount the range switch and its knob and the banana jacks. bias of output the range switch to 150 volts ac. of 1. with a crosswise hole that was tapped 150 7. heaters of higher.5 -6 -volt storage batteries standard values. For steady tones you can nonstandard values. Only two of which the rectifiers act more like re. input to rectifiers on the 15.300 -ohm movement and is accurate have done a good job on the ohms sec. will be very close to a standard VU soldered in place. when dealing with currents For the higher ranges. for male speech the readings All other components can now be attention to rectifier linearity. 2. but the backup cir- cuit works best with low resistances.5 150 used for the three low ranges and the vu 15 other becomes a spare.3 -volt heaters trol with a fixed resistor of the same wanted to approximate the standard 15. 0 db is 1 mw in a 600 -ohm for only this value.transformerless plate voltages a temporary R20 and set it to minimum. audio work. tant.000 ohms. Remove this cell from the Ul J 150 10 o actual size.000 ohms 300-transformer type plate voltages Touch the test leads to the ac line and per volt would be better. You will notice that I do not use a will indicate zero VU when the level is 1 milliwatt. this effect becomes less impor. It should be approximately 1. 30 copper wire wound on forms made of resistance. For 1. the single cell is mounted in OFF 1.5 15 150 750 scale. you could improve accuracy on a multimeter. have a back resistance of 10. Evidently it brings the meter resistance up to an even 2. at 6 db down from 10 -mw. You will have to cycle helps improve linearity as no cur. we run into line. R13. It is wise to actual size. positive end of each battery and you > LR will have a tab on the center electrode á 15 LR you can solder to.TEST INSTRUMENTS mounting bolts.000. therefore losing their effi. 7.000 -ohm variable resistor as is the greatest sensitivity that will give 150. ciency. movement.5 ó for 6 -32 bolts instead of nuts. 9 -volt sider for ac are rectifier efficiency and decrease the sensitivity by shunting the transistor supplies linearity.5 and VU range by adjust. series or parallel arrangement to get that 1N34's are as good as any for this I would like to give my reasons for the exact value. sensitive as possible. of 5 pa or less. especially Starting with the ohms section. 150-ac line.5 -dry cells. If you have a really accurate ac lems when one tries to have a VU range tubes voltmeter.000 R17 and R18. The ex.5 a fuse clip that has been soldered to a piece of brass. R3 is an odd value to compensate arity problems. but it would 750-multiple of 150 adjust the pot until the meter gives the load some circuits excessively. The meter scale can be cemented in place either before or after you mount Meter face shown the meter on the panel. purpose. Next. them against a good standard by pass- find a nominal 150 -ohm carbon resistor Their back resistance may drop to 20.050 VU meters.775 volt as zero to use the Be sure to get one with a lance or knife . 75-multiple of 15. I used brass pillars 75 15 cr.775 volt. mount the meter as high on the panel as you can. ward resistance and decrease in back box on the meter scale. The VU range is not shunted as VU-telephone and low-level audio meter. had to use 0.500 ohms in series with the test leads. linearity isn't as important and I 7. As shown in the photo.300 ohms. However. priate number of decibels shown in the wound resistors are made up from No.

your best connect to the same transistor. 6. inches. electrolytic.miniature phone jack. CH -1. C3-200 µf. electrolytic. If this power supply will be used labeled B1. The case looks crowded. with spst switch 1. 3. the D-cell will deliver end. the drain available for this purpose. 6. Cl. Since ripple frequency is quite CI -10 µf. Its resistance is set as high as possible for the amount of J5 = V2 power needed. 250 volts. RI -pot. of power.americanradiohistory.2 and OSCILLATORS T IN1693(4) 9. Contrast this with nearly 250 ma. The voltage is stepped up. Base and collector windings are it is put to use. Potentiometer Rl controls the input to the oscillator. miniature T. BZ and Cl must cuit. Note the power transistors mounted on the rear of the case. 5 -pin jacks. Thus the 1. I find a Burgess this power source. insulated J6-pin jack uninsulated up to 200 volts peak at high tempera. 2. 15 volts.transistor power supply transformer. 2 -2N554 fectively.5 volts Four inexpensive diodes make up the J6 JI JI. It replaces expensive the regulated voltage taps. 3. miniature VI. 12 volt dc C2 -. 65 ma from rectifier high.1 volts with excellent regulation. A maximum of about 20 rent is only about 1 ma. An aging D-cell lowers this self and for the transistors you energize. 6. 1/2 52 -spdt slide low. THIS supply is suitable for transis.5 volts from the D -cell and any of D5-IN 753 Case. using a Motorola mounting kit set by a Zener diode. 1N753 IN757 gizes a transistor oscillator. will be about 60 to 100 ma.5 V BATT a meter into jack J1. At light loads.5 henries. BATT -1. disc ceramic input.5 volts may be combined with any of the Circuit of the simple portable power supply. 5 x 3 x 2 inches D6-I N757 Miscellaneous hardware the stepped -up voltages. 200 .7 volts. END FEBRUARY. QUEEN EDITORIAL ASSOCIATE 'The finished unit is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand.5 V 1. Transistors are mounted at one maximum. to save battery power. 1960 al www. even a low inductance filters ef.0I µf. + You can measure the drain by plugging 1.5. The power source CH is a size -D flashlight cell which ener. miniature (Triad TY -68S or equivalent) C4-100 pf. This means before recharging is needed. 25 volts. electrolytic. others. which ex- polarity of the transformer is impor. There is also a semiregulated out- put of about 20 volts. tion.5.flyback cir. At 250-ma drain it lasts 10 hours flashlight cell.2 and 9.IN1693 Holder for battery the 1. The choke's resistance must be R2-220 watt ohms.5 gives 4. If bet is to use one of the new rechargeable Here are some of the advantages of more than 20 ma is taken from one of nickel. rectified and then regu- lated by a Zener diode. C2. normally closed bridge rectifier. the output CD -7 very satisfactory for this applica- batteries and needs only a common drops sharply.1 volts regulated and about 20 volts semiregulated de are the PORTABLE outputs of this 5 x 3 x 2 -inch device POWER SUPPLY By I. B2. It provides 1. 35 ohms Mounting kit for transistor There is no direct connection between DI.cadmium cells. but cannot affect the voltage At full drain. ma is available from the regulated greater safety for the power supply it- The power box measures 5 x 3 x 2 voltages. 4. The short -circuit cur. but there is plenty of room for all the parts. tery voltage begins to drop as soon as tends cell life to 30 hours or more.2 volts minus 1. so it has built -in safety. this one puts out a limited amount often and at moderate drains. For example. TEST INSTRUMENTS 1. 500 volts. tant. Like a TV .000 ohms SI -spst on R I ture. Each one can handle J2. 4. Correct direct battery operation where the bat. 2N554(2) TRIAD TY -68-S tor circuits.

38 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. the positive answers it gives save enough servicing time to pay for it very quickly. being checked out. The transistors suggested in the parts list represent the average units used in transistor radios. A transistor substitution box is. All wiring must be quite rigid and as short as possible. A cigar box or aluminum chassis box can be used to mount the selector switch and transistors.position rotary. 2N484. two transistors are p -n -p's and one is Front panel of the transistor substitution box. 2N214 Large -signal audio . r stitute array. one transistor is a p -n -p and the other is an n -p -n. In the rf group. an n -p -n. Chart at right bows which transistor is in use. Gems. power and rf types. at first sight so much so as to appear impractical.americanradiohistory. Included are general - purpose. It has taken a right- ful place in my workshop. nonshorting V7 -2N256 VI-2N107 V8 -CK768 V2-2N 170 V9 -2N484 THIS transistor substitution box has V3-2N 132 V10 -2N147 V4-2N214 Chassis box to suit proved to be a pretty valuable piece VS -2N217 Miscellaneous hardware of equipment on a number of occa- sions when transistor circuits were Circuit of the substituter. The power transistor must be mounted on a heat sink and kept as far as possible from other transistors. there are substitutes for 10 transistors. transistors other than those in the schematic and listed back Library. But until we get a great deal more familiar with transistor receivers and can spot a bad transistor more easily. The types that are finally chosen and used should match the particular requirements of the user. Author used *Author Servicing Transistor Radios. on the box's front panel to match his own special requirements. much more expensive than the more usual capacitor or resistor sub. 2. 2N147 Note that in the first three groups. large -signal audio.8 9 ®BASE 11 9Ob 10 SUBSTITUTION ®COLLECTOR 12 J3EMITTER BOX 2N147 2N484 CK768 2N256 2N213 By LEONARD J. 2N107 2N170 2N132 2N214 2N2i7 Just flip a switch to select the one V4 V5 you want 5 31415 TRANSISTOR 2 ö 4AA ip -0+1 OFFc. The combination shown in the sche- matic covers most practical applica- tions. D'AIRO* JI. while the power transistor is a p -n -p (since most applications use a p -n -p unit). alongside the resistance. These transistors are: General purpose 2N107. 2N170 Small.signal audio 2N132. amplifiers and related equipment. small -signal audio. END Inside the substitution box. Selection is for useful characteristics and any com- bination may be used. In this unit. ' '. of course. capacitance and inductance substitution boxes. 2N213 Power 2N256 Rf CK768. TEST INSTRUMENTS 10 transistors at your fingertips. 3-3 -way binding posts or tip jacks V6 -2N2I3 SI-2 -pole 12.

TEST INSTRUMENTS CLAMP TYPE AC MICROAMMETER THE circuit shows a portable bat- tery-powered ac microammeter de- veloped by the National Bureau of CORE DIMENSIONS Standards. about FEBRUARY.7 K 4. enameled wire. 20 4700 4700 + \-200µA o--" 2 25 K ALL TRANSISTORS ALL CAPACITORS 6V SHIELDED RCA CABLE 2N105 PROBE. k /8'i{ 3/321". A 200 pa the girls look tall / TV RFPAIR.2K 2. + ME R ++ 2 2 2.americanradiohistory.loaded bakelite clamp. One wind. and picks up the actual current. flat-chested?" The transformer core is mounted in a spring.000 cycles linear for a particular primary current. The transformer's output is fed to the first part of the meter's circuitry (see Fig. ALL DIODES T(SEE TEXT) DOTS INDICATE 1N34 -A CORRESPONDING ENDS OF RANGE RANGE. The core consists of C and I sections of 0. the the I is contained in the lower jaw. Each winding consists of 250 turns of No. 2).shaped section of the core.014 -inch silicon -steel laminations 3/32" with dimensions as in Fig.") TRANSFORMER WINDINGS Fig. of course. forms part of a feedback circuit which provides frequency equalization. Fig. Two intermediate stages. mizes sensitivity to external magnetic measured. 1960 39 www. each using two direct -coupled "Is there any way transistor amplifiers deliver the needed you can adjust it so ACME gain -about 20 db per stage. The other winding. while The matching faces of these parts are '°" transformer's primary is. the ter. clothespin (Fig. properly on the projecting legs of the ing of transformer T is the secondary The legs of the C project downward C and close the gap as the clamp closes. I 1. a two -transistor preamp. 1 -a and head photo). Gain in this stage is cut down by feed- back which provides frequency stabili- zation and reduces phase shift at the higher frequencies. END tiary. It is built as shown in Fig. 2-Circuits of the all transistor meter. providing rotary movement in the plane fields.2K V4 2 2 V6 2 EXT OFF o TO EXT METER 100 K o-s 200 MA 25011 15 K 10 o-. transformer. It will measure cur- rents between 200 pa and 200 ma over a frequency range of 50 to 100. 1 -Con- struction and 3/7 7//32' The jaws of the probe contain the mounting most difficult part of the unit pickup -a details of the pickup transformer.1 a -- b 1K 500 µµf 500 µµf 4.7 K 22K 22 K -I. 1 -b. so that the I will seat itself C. A ground. Shielding with Mumetal mini- conductor carrying the current to be pin passes through the center of the I.7 K 4. The from the upper jaw of the clamp. Both are wound on the the size and shape of an ordinary of the jaws. 44 Ile 5/16"---. This winding makes the transformer's output between 100 and 100. do meter is the indicator and is driven and skinny and through a full -wave bridge.000 .

R. the answer seems to preamplifier or power amplifier.. etc. supplying the Hill. SCHROEDER * FEEDBACK is one of the funda. If it sticks out 10 tween two points in a room by putting db above the otherwise flat response of a loudspeaker at one point. all we need to know about ing from the listener's standpoint. Basically. understand its effect and to minimize rendering the system not only useless This happens when loudspeaker and it. attenuate it." predominantly direct sound feedback. Nobody fighting the instability resulting from reconciling sufficient amplification with who has any feeling for the principles positive feedback in a public. floor. there is remember two things: Not so. is a clear example of positive feedback Of course. microphones and speakers. So loop. the a very popular proposal. we are running ciple have been on the market for some his further intake is an example of counter to the very purpose of PA time and we need not concern ourselves negative feedback. a we have positive feedback leading to promise can be improved by equalizing plant-almost anything one might instability which shows up as audible the response peak of the speaker. loudspeaker air microphone. -what room acous- not. In other words. has a strong response peak (a res. (Also. the basic task of somehow speaker into the microphone. N. Usually. party who feels stimulated in propor. Imagine a PA system plagued with tians call the reverberant sound. is not increased by the means that the output of a something into the microphone in the first place narrow response peak. not to with this case any more except to generally leads to a stable situation.address stability when loudspeakers and micro. Then the acteristics of steady -state frequency this question is simple: the sound from maximum permissible gain for stable responses of rooms. bouncing off the walls of the room and permissible amplifier gain is 10 db less mental facts of life. loud- house. greater stable sound amplification. voice is concerned but actually annoy. except at fre- acts on itself. One obtains the the loudspeaker(s) gets back into the operation is given by the height of steady -state frequency response be- microphone-either directly or after that response peak. is still to be solved. Com- guest at a cocktail party who feels the be simple: turn the amplifier gain mercial amplifiers that use this prin- effect of a drink and decides to reduce down! Here. positive feedback. competition between two basic require. involved would place the microphone system. It leads to the well -known "sing. one could sidestep the Another powerful antidote for acous- leading to complete instability in the whole feedback problem by putting the tic feedback is the use of directional original mechanical sense of the word. the speakers and microphones have some hotter it gets.americanradiohistory. and almost instinc- leading to instability is a burning cost involved. apart from the considerable is used extensively. Without it we other obstacles. a micro- Bell Telephone Laboratories. in the field. Once the fire has started. can be done by incorporating an adjust- inhibiting (negative feedback) or The next question is: what can one able anti -resonance in the system's stimulating (positive feedback). on the wouldn't run. used in existing PA systems. reflected from the walls. And that's speaking from an isolation booth!) possible radiates directly from the what this story is concerned with: fire. It imagine. The loudness. Murray the loop path of microphoneamplifier phone at the other. fication on one side and stability on Equalizing such response peaks allows tion to his previous consumption. ceiling. Suppose further that the speaker Luckily. Inc. in public . other. however. maximum speaker with a tone of slowly varying 40 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. The action can be either howling. usually. phones operate in the same sound field right in front of the loudspeaker. Several proposals Unfortunately. feedback from the speaker exceeds what went other hand. To ing" and often outright "howling. address (PA) systems it certainly is discuss these first. audience. Thus. eliminating the direct Feedback in PA systems to improve this situation have been sound feedback does not get rid of all While feedback is desirable and even made in the past and are successfully feedback. this time the loudness stability com- a human being. the faster the rest of speaker might fear that the credibility degree of directionality and people the house will burn down-unless the of what he has to say is impaired by place them so that as little sound as firefighters arrive in time. The something can be a machine. a group of people. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY STOP The inventor of a completely new system of acoustic feed- back elimination tells how it works in a story prepared FEED B ACK especially for this magazine Lin PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS By M. with (reinforcing) the original input. we must learn a little about room as far as amplifying the speaker's microphone are fairly close to each acoustics. A do about it? Again. systems. orator in a glass-walled isolation booth. There is still the indirect essential in many instances. This method Another example of positive feedback However. Peaked responses are poison for PA Imagine another guest at the same ments of a PA system: sufficient . thus forming a feedback and if this feedback sound is in phase quencies close to the resonance. Negative feedback systems-to amplify sound. room acoustics are some of the char- Why does it happen? The answer to onance) at some frequency. J. We shall sound. This the other side. this does not look like tively. If the total sound than what it would be without that couldn't live and our machines amplitude reaching the microphone resonance peak.

If rooms had flat responses Now that we know that frequency (the dashed line in Fig. case of the myriad peaks of a room. Wente's own á 20 P-v AVERAGE time of the room and W is the band- width of the PA system. according to Fig. if W = 5. a loud. on tolerable. And nals. the answer to both these average gain of the room response. the power amplifier. involuntary fre. the permissible of transmitting intelligible speech. But. 35 in level are as much as 40 db. 4) . This theoretical becomes completely impossible in the prediction is borne out by the measure- wave will continuously grow in ampli.n d7 www.f From a subjective point of view. 2.5 db looked at the response records. Every time we make a long. perhaps incapable Thus. from the feedback (B) (A) components of the signal by a small point of view it is as if the peaks of but constant amount. as shown in Fig. among the thousands of peaks of a comes less and less pleasing. for simi- room cannot be equalized. Dr. the such peaks in the audio range. the signal frequency is (I) it no longer cares how jagged the room again shifted by +5 cycles and is now response is or. say. the response of a the second trip around. 3. the signal - gaverage = 11. This is shown in Fig. shifting is worth about 6 db of in- FFRRIIARY Ol. If in Fig.distance call. The frequency . is there of a signal as it goes round and round such a modification that is at the same the feedback loop is no longer deter- time imperceptible to the audience? mined by the possibly very high gain POWER This sounds like asking too much. Frequency shifting does the power . while still stable. A small ó15 PV Here T is the average reverberation section of such a frequency is repro- duced in Fig. Thus. +5 cycles. it com- 1 quency response between two points in Telephone engineers have found that pletely flattens it. for every trip around the feed. 1.035 cycles P MIKE its feedback stability is determined not is again about -10 db. Furthermore. to put it differently. while it is not too difficult amplifier (A) is connected to the out. back loop. these peaks are not 3). 12. They move about as the location because. gaverage.' In fact." fier gain may show a variation of more Nevertheless. increase in gain when using frequency response a PA system operating in a room has to cope with and. More specifically. In Dr. Any For example. the fixed. there are a large number 30 Because of the double logarithm. put of the microphone amplifier (B) to equalize a single peak. 2-Over an 80 -cycle spread. this is the kind of than 30 db. "Does it help ?" To answer it. quency shifts as large as 20 cycles are still tolerable. a room has several thousand back loop.718 words: "Within this small range of 25 -the base of the natural logarithms. Thus. so 1. Wente was very much surprised at what he saw when he 10 gmax 10 loge [loge TW] .. frequency and recording the output of An approximate theoretical formula' the microphone with a level (decibel) 5 has been derived for the difference be- recorder.. frequency room. a certain phase condition' has to be fulfilled. The gain for this frequency is Fig. The maximum quency shifts occur all the time in single -sideband telephony. C. 3-The frequency shifter is inserted gmax. performance has to be evaluated differ- make things worse. from If we cannot do anything about the room.8 db. at its original frequency but by the MICROPHONE AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER fortunately.030 cycles for which the lar subjective acceptability. As the signal AMPLIFIER SHIFTER equal to the difference between gmax we assume a simple 1. loop gain must remain below approxi- of the person speaking. we may ask -10 db. FEEDBACK The amplification or loudness of the PA system plus the room is given by the average level. is shifted by. a few cycles per second. as we nearly imperceptible and that fre. be- The frequency.the response had disappeared and been LEVEL MECHANICAL SWEEPING shift apparatus may be inserted be. the frequency of our signal mately -3 db for the "singing" to be the loudspeaker or the audience is var. it is raised by a slight amount. the ied.1 db. small frequency shifts of speech sig-feedback stability is concerned. questions is yes. the performance of t In addition to the loop gain exceeding zero the PA system. However. is about speaker. gmax gaverage = 12. tude for every trip around the feed- Typically. one can always find several for which this condition is fulfilled if the maximum loop a subjective point of view. (2) by the peaks of the response but by the In short. by g. MICROPHONE FREO gain could be raised by an amount we refer again to Fig. In other words.used to fill up the valleys of the re- RECORDER (DECIBELS) DRIVÉ OSCILLATOR tween the microphone amplifier and sponse curve. AUDIENCE pointed out above. the microphone. The gain for 1. in excess of +3 db. gaverage + 2. 1 -How to get the steady -state fre.loop gain. ampli. Thus. For gains to live with it.. the of peaks and valleys and the variations result depends little on T and W. 1 the input of the power between the microphone amplifier and Fig. g. Without frequency shifting. gain can be raised to +3 db.shifting idea db. With frequency shifting. one may say that from a sta- Fig. 2. or incorporated in either one. as a very poor one. 2) or if they shifting does not hurt us.5 db in the example of wave.000 cycles communications engineer looking at this transmission curve would classify 40 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 10801090 and T = 1 sec. the picture is completely changed ently. our sine shifting is about 12 db. our voice PATHS -- --- -> permissible stable gain is limited by arrives at its destination shifted by a MIKE the highest response peak. to form a PA system and if the gain speaker's resonance for instance. We just have quency is 1. bility point of view. Such gMAX tween the maximum and the average Ó gain-the extra stable gain to be ex- an experiment was performed by E. 2. ments (Fig. at least as far as a room.035 cycles. the cumulative amplification average level.americanradiohistory. And so forth. frequency. No matter Fig. On the third trip around the ROOM whether we can modify the signal so feedback loop. indicated by a dashed line in Fig. how jagged the response is. the seemingly impossible. However.' To With frequency shifting (see Fig.. the tion is. the next ques- could be flattened by some trick. Wente' at Bell Telephone Laboratories 5 pected from frequency shifting: in 1935. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY about the signal radiated by the loud. 2. while the room response is ac- The trick is to shift all frequency tually unchanged. the corresponding transmission system 1010 FRED (CYCLES) - For T = 2 sec. it is just poison.025 -cycle sine and gaverage. are that is what we are interested in. perhaps we can do something gain exceeds zero db by a small amount. indicated few cycles in frequency. And e = 2.

the speaker's location.30 KC V21 OUT 42 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. 2H. 20 kc.24 V25 V26. was used in our experi..23. These meas. Fig. more reliable and less ation times of about 1 second. constant -frequency shift is single -side. Kuttruff and R. The distance between the response ments and demonstrations. NEGATIVE 5rLOSC INTEGRATOR =9r° TRIGGERED FLIP -FLOP o MOD V16 =90° (90° SHIFT) a BUFFER Fig. In particular. D. and Mr. the amount of the shift. J.15 V10. Note that the Jr. Acustica. In phase shift permits about a 12 -db in. Rather. as illustrated in Fig. or by deriving the second carrier fre. it should be 2. p. The average reverbera. fore it is shifted enough in frequency tween the two carriers close to the de. It is advisable to use fre. the method described 'M. extra stable gain that can be realized Frequency shifting offers a powerful p.14. Pierce and E. 5..5. I am also indebted the average distance between the peaks sine wave by "quadrature modulation" to Drs. changes in the audience or of -020 -16 -12 -8 -4 40 8 II 12 16 20 nificance. 4 shows the tion. This promises time. Fletcher. 4 (1954). Speech and Hearing in Communica- toriums and rooms. J. namely flip -flops. Because of the ex. 3 -6 -db margin against undesirable sub- shifting is so helpful. Schroeder. here could be of benefit to many people (Beiheft 2). Am. 123. In this manner. 126. Proceedings of Third Interna- urements were made in the Bell Tele. by our measurements in various audi. Fig. p. 4 (1954). R. Mr. The fact that negative against accidental increases in feedback AF=- T =. frequency -shift apparatus. say. tion of which formed the basis of the a good value for the frequency shift is quency from the first one and a 5 -cycle present invention. is preferable.995 KC LOW-PASS IN AMPL FILTER OUT P JI AMPLIFIER MOD FOLLOWER FILTER MOD V28. 4-From the viewpoint of stability. the This can be done with crystal -controlled signal may have built up to a very large oscillators. Obviously. say.. this manner the gain would never be crease in gain. is to keep the difference frequency be. Vol. by frequency shifting as a function of protection against howling caused by +H. 594 ray Hill.. 5M. Schroeder. J. the lower sideband. Thus. shifting has to be operated several dec- the answer. Ai shifts give somewhat better results that may be caused by heating up of w 2 than positive shifts has no general sig. to reach the next valley point of -a sired amount -5 cycles in our example. each case which direction of the shift the frequency shifter is inoperative. a fre. Erwin Meyer. FILTER a SHAPER V18. the question natu. For larger shifts. West helped me with the measure- peaks and adjacent valleys of a room is building a frequency shifter with crys. I I (1932). How- close to 1 second.9 MIKE MIKE 20 KC EMITTER SSO 19. In addition. value for the frequency shift is 4 or quency shifter will be described in de. A word of caution 'H.americanradiohistory. E. using sisted me in the construction of the after one trip around the feedback loop. 3) be.. W. After creased gain plus several decibels of A convenient method of effecting a setting the gain potentiometer and additional margin against howling. An optimum or. p. 1E. The upper sideband cause a PA system without frequency Here again a look at Fig. ing only a minute amount. J. in this auditorium is very -audiences and speakers alike. my professor at Goettingen University. A circuit of this kind. H. the extra gain exclusively for greater amplifica- W8 stable gain remains between 9. N. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. 19. system would have a safety margin of Optimum frequency shift The signal is first amplitude -modulated about 10 db against instability and a Now that we know that frequency upon a carrier frequency of.AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY 14 tion time. Such intelligent FREQUENCY SHIFT (CYCLES) quency shifters which can shift both use could be enforced by providing ac- upward and downward and to decide in cess to the volume control only when Fig. Acoust. phone Laboratories Auditorium at Mur. Thiele. if we are shift. T. tional Congress on Acoustics. all its frequency components shifted by it will take the signal many trips +5 cycles. one should re- Jm 6 f I ( 12 db. say 1 cycle. Acustica.8. Van Nostrand Co. like any invention. R. for bringing me into contact with the interesting problems of steady -state low . Bell Syst. the solu- amplitude. This prediction is confirmed tail in a forthcoming publication. The improved fre. The only technical problem Acknowledgements around the feedback loop (Fig.' Since most rooms have reverber. and valleys.995 kc. acoustic feedback. switching in the frequency shifting. tremely widespread use of public . Vol. Tech. 2 provides is then demodulated by a carrier of. Vol.5 and tion (loudness). one z10 that a shift of this magnitude is indeed should not exploit the additional stable sufficient. p. J. much simpler.19. David. This means that the actual shift is not very critical as long as it is more serve a certain portion of the extra stable gain as an additional insurance e 4 than 4/T cycles.20 POSITIVE r TRIGGERED p_0 s 4 -0° FLIP -FLOP V7.12 shifting PA system. I am grateful to Dr. adjusted to a value above the singing Single -sideband frequency shifting point (except by deaf people). In the meantime. Elsevier Publish- ing Co. negative feedback control. 29 transistors.6 V13. 5. A bandpass filter with a sharp lower jective effects. 352. a good References critical equipment. there is a rally arises as to whether there is an cutoff (SSB FILTER 20KC -30KC) removes considerable increase in loudness be- optimum value for the amount of shift. the theoretically ever. ments. Amsterdam (1960) (to be published). for quency component that starts out at a 20 -kc oscillators are made up from a drawing my attention to the acoustic point of high gain reaches a point of 40 -kc oscillator and frequency-dividing feedback problem. Nyquist. address systems. amplifiers.11. 5-Block diagram of phase - V4. We are now E. The resulting signal has ibels below the singing point. New York (1953).27 20 KC.29 IOKC V 2 ?. C.12 r required shift is 4 cycles. Wente. Vol. END roughly 4 divided by the reverberation tal controlled oscillators. in any case. Soc. R. 4 shows used intelligently. 7 (1935). 614 (Beiheft 2). sound transmission in rooms. 5 cycles. the band modulation as shown in Fig. Hines as- low gain as quickly as possible.

The electromechanical device which the stop both reels simul. A type of plastic which serves as a . A microphone (slang). A slow unsteadiness of sound vol- ume and pitch caused by variations A 22 . base for some recording tapes. The tape recorder part that places WARY WV Ellr magnetic variations on tape. too! 5 (Answer on page 132) jAr 11/MIL/ /Mr 7 ACROSS 1. the 50 -kw station claimed it station on the air. 13. A tape recorder with fast 14 saves one's patience in waiting to hear the playback. 10. you must watch the tape and use it over again 22. with distortion less classical selections. and visable to select a faster tape speed Laboratories. To put intelligence on tape. Material which serves as a base for most recording tapes. prominent high -fidelity are selling more commercial time than to improve frequency equipment maker.provides better high. 12. head of McIntosh of regular listeners appreciably. When the stop button is depressed. r A/ 23 Ar in the tape's speed as it travels by the record or playback head. When recording.coupled" audio out. 18. or roller around which the tape is "the highest -fidelity station in the WLW has changed its programming passes to keep it correctly posi. A playback head with a narrow . provides power to turn the reels taneously. Frank McIntosh. To cut out portions of tape and eliminate unwanted material. one remove the recorded intelligence. the record indicator to pre.3%. They are called . station is providing as high -quality lamp that serves the same function. FEBRUARY. tion. world. END should choose a recorder that is easy to High. If tape recording is hobby or interest. vent distortion due to overmodula. The reel on which tape is wound McIntosh "unity. A A. 14. you will find your this V V7/74/// puzzle fun to do. effect. A recorder which is capable of giving a three -dimensional sound 15. show music and 6. 21.500 cycles. 9. 14.speed units. Many recorders have two speeds. and move the recording tape. Jumper cord used to record from to 21. The spools on which tape is wound.coated plastic or paper ribbon. TV or record player. He said that the others have a tuning eye or neon some FM broadcasters have been doing. 16." ager says they've increased the number 7. 3. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY TAPE RECORDER By JOHN A. 19.." The statement also carried from the top 40 tunes and rock'n'roll to tioned. In selecting a tape recorder. The metallic oxide on recording tape. during playback and recording. Join two pieces of recording mate. Apparently 8. 1960 43 www. Some recorders have a tape $300.000. than 0. 6. The current which flows through DOWN 15.. 4. these details: "within i-1 db from 17 one of standard tunes. 23. it is ad. COMSTOCK WORD PUZZLE ERE is a sound -on -tape puzzle for H you to work that is made up en- tirely of tape-recording words and 2 "V 3 4 terminology. Most recorders are dual ly because it is possible to dexing.Fidelity AM Broadcast Station 2. rial. 5. high fidelity can be profitable. After the reworking job. Tape may be used almost indefinite- ning of a reel. and a challenge. WLW in Cincinnati has rebuilt its put circuit. Iron.. 20. Some recorders have a VU meter as equipment completely for hi -fi sound tests on the rebuilt equipment and the a record level while an an attempt to parallel on AM what broadcast signal. Often used for in. Type of tape added at the begin. The business man- radio. and inventor of the before the changeover.americanradiohistory. made measurements and 3.frequency 13 response than a head with a wide one. If music is to be recorded. A passed over a tape will the recording head and sets up a 1. varying magnetic field.oxide. which cost transmission to its listeners as any 4. A 17. almost any number of times.

In single. monophonic records. This system reversing the primary connections to new circuits have been devised to elim. Basically. inate the amplifier for the second AM FM phonograph combinations. S is open and the two ampli- and reproduces one channel with the is phased to deliver equal and out -of. in the December. These signals are records and tapes have been tively in parallel. Bachman and Hollywood.chassis opment described here." and V101 -b. fed to the grids of preamplifiers V101 -a widely available at reasonable scribed in "Two -Way Stereo Amplifier. simply by adding another speaker. the cost has been slightly consists of two single -ended amplifiers satisfactory stereo or monophonic play- greater than that of a monophonic operating independently for stereo and back so the phase of the output signals amplifier with equivalent frequency as a single push -pull amplifier for in one of the channels is inverted by response and total power output. fiers are entirely separate and inde- output tubes working in parallel and phase signal voltages from stereo and pendent. phile. reproducing equipment by Bauer.ELECTRONICS www. During stereo Columbia accepts stereo input signals The cartridge used with the amplifier playback. SCOTT TECHNICAL EDITOR FEEDBACK i- V 101.AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY WAY STEREO AMPLIFIER Unique cure'. it Speakers must operate in phase for models. 1958. DURING a year that stereophonic the other channel with the tubes effec. Thus.americanradiohistory. Basic circuit the output transformers. sponding taps on the secondaries of The circuit developed by CBS . the trans- 44 RADIO. I/2 6CG7 1/2 6CG7 6V6 -GT IST AF AMPL 2ND AF AMPL OUTPUT BALANCE CONTROL FEEDBACK Fig. is used in some recent Victrolas and one of the output transformers. issue.the customer add a speaker and flip a switch to change his single -channel push -pull amplifier into a dual single -ended job for stereo reproduction By ROBERT F. They are amplified by prices. This circuit is de. 1. at the plates of power amplifiers V104 plete monophonic amplifiers on the same The second circuit is the RCA devel.b 1/2 6CG7 PRE AMP TREBLE V 105 6V6 -GT OUTPUT LOUDNESS V102 -b V 103-b 1/2 6CG7 Y 1/2 6CG7 IST AF AMPL 2NDAFAMPL STEREO CARTRIDGE LEFT CHANNEL yo RIGHT CHANNEL V lot -a 1/2 6CG7 PREAMP TREBLE LOUDNESS V102 -a V103-a V 104 -. The of -phase inputs. it lets . . 1 -Basic diagram of the RCA circuit. or separate chassis. V102 and V103 and appear out of phase has generally consisted of two com. Two monophonic reproduction. and V105. in -phase speaker operation is obtained channel and thus greatly reduce the These units can be converted to stereo from two identical amplifiers with out - cost of stereo equipment for the audio. selector switch connected to corre- reproduction. When S is . All he needs is a second speaker block diagram of the RCA two -way Switch S is a part of the function - to convert from monophonic to stereo stereo amplifier is shown in Fig.

2K 100K 6CG7 2ND AF AMPL 3RD AF AMPL OUTPUT SPKRS V I01. the grid of the second of the right channel is fed from the arm mode of operation. 1960 45 www.000 . Since the sig. In the PHONO and amplifier (V103 -b) is fed approximately of the 500. deliver stereophonic signals to a stereo and 220. the TAPE jacks are half the voltage developed across a the outputs of the two channels can be connected to the preamp plates and can voltage divider consisting of 270. The selected direct output from DET 100K B+ operation with phase inversion taking the detector is fed to the amplifier's place in the output transformer in.01 150K in phase. The corresponding stage (V103-a) in feedback is applied around the last two FEBRUARY. treble and loudness controls J Fig.000 -ohm BALANCE control so TUNER positions.and OUTPUT '.TAPE SINGLE S102 POWER (ON LOUDNESS CONTROL) Fig. 2. switching arrangement. f v CARTRIDGE /7177 LEFT 49 )RIGHT S101( AUDIO FUNCTION) CHAN 1 CHAN POSITION -PHONO SINGLE I 2 -PHONO STEREO MOTOR Fob 117 VAC 3. Thus TO AUDIO Schematic analysis equal and out -of-phase monophonic TUNER FUNCTION The circuit of the unique RS -171 signals are applied to the right. Bass. diagram of the input recorder and phonograph cartridge are trols for each channel are ganged.2K T ONLY -o o-.000 -ohm resistors in series.2K 2 2 35 . using especially selected potentiometers The five -position AUDIO FUNCTION switch to insure good tracking. 3-Simplified are conventional. Corresponding con. Inputs from the tuner. balanced no matter which one is weaker. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY Mh PC 2 6CG7 6CG7 6V6-GT(2) V102-b V 103-b V 105 TO EXTERNAL 9. AM FM stereocasts.056 nals at the output plates are out of switch on the tuner chassis selects FM phase and those at the speakers are either the AM or FM output and feeds FROM 330K .J ó LEFT u°R TUNER SI01 -a FRONT IGHT S101-b FRONT n 12 I 8 II 5101 -b REAR lo 3 10 3 ^LEF -t+ o 9 4 4 9 8 8 V105 V104 V103 V102 V101 5 7 6 7 6 N°44 RIG-HT S 101-a REAR .01 INTERNAL 0047 3.TAPE STEREO 5.7+ LEFT TAPE no. right channel and to the input of a stead of some low -level point in the zero -gain phase inverter.7 MEG (RIGHT) 7 (RIGHT) . Approximately 15 db of negative tape recorder. The phase inverter's output is fed into r. b (LEFT) ( LEFT) (LEFT) BLU GRN FOR LEFT IST AF AMPL (LEFT) ) CHANNEL YE o II RED INT 1.27 (RIGHT) RED )GRN 2.3 K SPKRS FOR 22K OO K RIGHT CHANNEL I 120K 120 K I0K 4.s INPUT. 470 V106 5Y3-GT a.7K 2. 04 . In the left (S101) selects the desired input and channel. SELECTOR PLUG RIGHT amplifier used in the SHC -8 and SHC -9 stereophonic combinations is shown in Fig. tape left. An AM -FM selector DET 330K . (See Fig.f-1 STEREO L .channel inputs. circuit action is essentially it to the amplifier's TUNER input termi.americanradiohistory. 2.TUNER 4. °-`-1 RIGHT OUTPUT RECT . connected to individual input terminals.) TUNER amplifier. 3.001 220 K YEL 1 332K 0 O < 1 O Y 84K BLU BLK n n 1-. AM the same as for normal push-pull nals.5 K 8.1 TO SPKRS I NT oo -o V I01 IST AF BASS TREBLE LOUDNESS 45 L3 g BALANCE AMPL (RIGHT) PC '2ND ADJUST V 103-a V104 INT a EXT -)1 470µµT 1AF 3RD AF 6 047 220 AMPL AMPL OUTPUT K . former secondaries and speaker voice The AM -FM turner included in the FROM AM 172 12ÁV6 coils are connected in parallel for RCA combinations cannot be used for FM 01 PHASE INV monophonic operation.Schematic of the dual -channel anti lifter. STEREO AMPL LEFT the left -channel input .

the left channel feeds the external speakers. In the INT & EXT position. ended amplifiers vs push - pull version. The voltage developed across the 4-ohm voice-coil taps is 180° out of phase with the signal input to V103 -b. so feedback is 6CG7 6CG7 '60G7 6V6-GT 5Y3 -GT PWR applied in series with its grid. it cancels -through phase inver- sion-in the voice -coil circuit. AC RECEPTACLES CUTPUT TRANS ended for stereo and in push. since it is injected inside the feedback loop.pull-by The balance control and paralleling the transformer secondaries the left -channel output transformer -for monophonic reproduction. 46 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. 2 4 6 8 1Q 12 14 POWER OUTPUT (''MATTS) stages in each amplifier. END are mounted on the rear of the chassis. 4 shows the power -distortion RCA uses 6 tubes characteristics for stereo and B shows in their stereo unit. the feedback voltage and input to V103-a are in phase so the feedback is applied in series with the cathode. both amplifiers are par- alleled across and properly matched to the internal speakers. In the PREAMP Ist AFAMPL and AF AMPL OUTPUT RECT TRANS right channel. See Fig. Thus hum is reduced to a level approaching the result of cancellation in a well - balanced conventional push -pull output stage. The plates of the output tubes are supplied directly from the rectifier out- put. Comparative distor- tion curves for dual single. 2 for a look at the switching circuit. Furthermore.americanradiohistory. A jack is con- nected across the secondary of the left - channel output transformer for adding the second speaker required for stereo and often desired for monophonic play- back. When the switch is in the INT ONLY position and no speaker is used in the left channel. TUNER CHANGER LEFT -CHANNEL BALANCE The amplifiers are operated single . be- cause hum is in phase on the output plates. The parallel connection insures that the amplifiers are effectively in push -pull regardless of the position of the input selector. Even -order harmonics generated in the two channels are in phase through- out the amplifiers so they cancel when BASS LOUDNESS RIGHT-CHANNEL TREBLE AUDIO the voice -coil circuits are paralleled OFF -ON OUTPUT TRANS FUNCTION for monophonic . Residual ac ripple is high at this point but. monophonic ( push -pull ) performance. The Victrolas and RCA combinations have internal speakers connected to the right -channel amplifier. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY Fig. Curve A in Fig. hum is degenerated by the feedback factor.

Of course this does not mean Without going into peaking circuits. 1 -a and Fig. This means the óZó attenuation must be 14 db. 1 -a. sponse to lower and higher frequencies resistive voltage divider. giving re- any other frequency in the band. The frequency at which the that the recording and reproduction there are two ways of varying the change in level begins to have effect is chain is now perfect. All these R2 R2 R2 R2 things are at best a compromise and TC2 the living room in which you reproduce the sound adds further reverberation a or acoustic characteristics to the repro- duction. -10 10 Assume we decide to provide a maxi- 5 c 5 mum of 14 -db boost. reactance of Cl is equal to the resist- characteristic. At the lower end of used for a wider variety of This means that a good preamp the spectrum. The lower turnover point -the sort ment of the people responsible for starting point (500 cycles) and the re. 2 -Basic circuits for high -frequency tone control: a- continuously -b. from maximum boost is 3 db and maximum studio or auditorium may have exces. these are illustrated in Fig. to a varying rolloff 3 db -comes out where the sive brilliance in its reverberation degree which is set by the treble control. causing overemphasis at The other type of adjustment raises or ance of R1 and the reactance of C2 the high end. 1variable compromise for any particular piece of results are combination of Fig. High. The recording sponse may be pushed up or down. compen. acteristic. itance. The first thing to decide is response. ting. sponses similar to those in Fig. 1 -b. parallel with the fixed resistance ar- flat frequency response applied to the rangement and modifies attenuation recording amplifier in making the re. shown in Fig. To design this circuit we must pick an attenuation that fixes the maximum 15 15 high. or. 1 -a and Fig. response. the best TaaTI RI T. independent of the equalization char. combination of results of Fig. where making the recording. rcaRVnRI. sation for deficiencies in the equaliza.this frequency upward. So resistor Rl must be 15 15 four times R2. Cl should have four Fig. It may also produce lowers the frequency at which accentu. 1 -a. when this program is 1C1 reproduced in a living room. peculiar effects at the low end. of "swivel" point in Fig.americanradiohistory. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY Part II-Tone controls. 1 -a. 1 -Two basic methods of altering response with a treble tone con- trol: a -a variable amount of boost or rolloff is applied. Rl and R2. 1 -b. 1. e-- variable. Arrows on pots and back Library).TaIT RI RI judgment of balance may not always RI i TC i agree with that determined by the LOG TC2 people making the recording. permits adjusting the comparative re. Some Fig. This may modify the best Fig. results like Fig. or at ation or rolloff begins (Fig. 1 -b.frequency boost we can get. the reactance of the ca- amps have equalization characteristics how you want to vary the response at pacitors brings the potentiometer in which accurately restore the original the low and high ends. 1 -b). or the tapping point on the fixed resistance a 5 5 divider must be one -fifth of the total 10 cuil 10 resistance. efforts are made during recording signed to give the response variation can be produced by the circuit shown to give satisfactory balance in the recorded program. Different fixed positions. determined by the relation of the At the studio end. 20 20 So that overall response is level 20 5oov when the pot's slider is one -fifth of the way from the bottom . equals R2's resistance. At the upper end of the frequency tion characteristic. the system's bal. b-fixed steps.frequency tone controls according to the potentiometer's set- cordipg. But modern pre. d- continuously *Author: High -Fidelity Circuit Design (Gerns. results like Fig. CROWHURST* OWN T one time tone controls were program material in that living room. 2 -a shows a basic circuit de. As referred to the high end. C2 should be four times Cl. At Fig. the capacitors' reactances should be in the same proportion. 1960 47 www. a certain frequency is used as a resistances in the circuit. 1 -a. for example. in. b -the point where boost or rolloff starts is shifted. attenuation in the net- purposes than nowadays. switches indicate rotation from maximum boost to maximum rolloff. reactances of the capacitors to the ance is adjusted according to the judg. beginning at the times the reactance of C2. in capac- same frequency. how they work and DESIGN how to make them give the results you want YOUR PREAMP By NORMAN H. work is determined by the purely cluding. ANTILOG However.

2 -d. Bass boost or rolloff begins at For simplicity. because it relies on all of the Fig. Fig. 4-Some basic circuits for low. Low -frequency tone controls Turning to bass compensation. and C2's reactance equals circuits.americanradiohistory. FRED sition. Both can be linear or. to make up for the lost amplification. The two possibilities for curves are Fig. iently in series with the switch arm to produce a circuit corresponding to As any tone control causes a loss of so that the amount of boost or rolloff Fig.frequency re. 3-a and Fig. and 1 -b. This information is elements is in the same ratio as the maximum amount of required boost say 4 to 1 for a 14-db maximum boost. Fixed resistors R1 and R2 cussed.AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY 15 15 (R3) to produce further attenuation in reciprocal fashion.000 -ohm plate cou- amount is shown in Fig. 3. Design can be made quencies for boost and rolloff. boost (using the same values as for and C2 control the turnover frequency Practical composites Fig. The best tapers to use are the capacitors across R1 to produce 14 -db of the range this time. It switches a series of the basic attenuation for the upper end region. R3). This produces a response select the appropriate capacitor and tion of an amplifier. capacitor is connected across Rl or simpler. Obviously. 2 -d.frequency ode bias resistor. the additional 5 o 5 control (R3) is set for maximum atten- DESIGN uation. 3 -b.1 Id work. R3 should be large compared to Rl sible controls for a versatile variation also starting at different frequencies. 3-Two basic methods of varying low . Fig. or R2. ting of the control (Rl. 48 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. 4. Now. ment that varies the rolloff frequency. and vice versa. give a very low source resistance. Resistors R1 and R2 provide approximate constant mid -band gain and requires three potentiometers. 4 -a. or across R2 to produce a rolloff. level works. Economizing in capacitors by up resistor R3 that R2 is of the total part of a feedback network over a sec- using a 2 -pole switch (one pole to Rl + R2. resistance tapers should be The treble boost is cut down. Cl semi -log tapers direct and reverse. R2 combina. which is what controls how obtained from the curves shown in Fig. repre- óÑó -z- senting maximum rolloff. results in Fig. It is not possible to responses similar to those shown in halve the number of capacitors.000 -ohm effective plate resistance (Fig. using inductors instead of capacitors. The response is. potentiometers having the right taper frequency response produce these results. To make this R 10 `r. 2 -a) starting at different frequen. . the next question is how the frequency where Cl's reactance to incorporate them into practical single -pole switch with a number of equals R1. variable boost and rolloff in respect to variable resistance in series with the Using a 12AU7 tube with a 250 -volt the frequency at which it starts and the capacitors instead of in shunt as in plate supply. when the 10 10 boost -or. From the design variation of the pattern shown at standpoint. 2 -d for the low. 4 -c shows the nearest does (to provide "headroom" for the in Fig. 5). when the slider is the same fraction stages of an amplifier or be used as tion. b -fixed steps.frequency in Fig.frequency tone control: a- continuously c- variable. this is undesirable. Assume we have set ourselves a minimum bass and treble boost of For this circuit to operate most loud the program sounds. In effect the circuit approximation that can be made with boost). and what value capacitor is used. Having discussed the various pos- cies. a 47. 6. of course. So in this design we'll assume we do A circuit that provides continuously rather than the amount. but can be offset by 14 db. 50 100 500 IKC 2 '1. 2 -c. and the circuits in continuously variable combination of Fig. they may be inserted between top or bottom of the R1. We will just take a simple cause different ranges of values are determine the maximum amount of design of a composite tone control cir- required for shunting Rl and R2 to boost while the 2 -pole switch deter- get the same range of turnover fre.rolloff control is set for min- 5 ó 5 imum attenuation (Rl. be. Under these conditions. and an 1. we can produce a similar family of curves by corresponding circuit arrangements. for maintaining constant gain over the greater portion of the low. This Fig.800 -ohm cath- requires a two -gang potentiometer in is fixed at the extreme low. 1 -a capacitors. In Fig. 3 -a. 3-a. This is because the arrange. This means that attenuation pling resistor. been mentioned as each type was dis- Fig. the forward method is the other to determine whether the Fig. corn- complementary. response is flat and the capacitors are shunting only about one -tenth of their respective resistance. Fig. when both potentiometers are set to their middle position. and R3 varies the bass boost or rolloff. effectively. introducing a third potentiometer preferably. the range of control must be lim- 15 15 ited by "bottom -end" resistors or the 20 20 program would go off at each end po- 20 50 100 500 IKC 2 20'1. we get a gain of 14 which the value of the two resistance end. 2 -b. R2. 4-b produces a number of fixed The basis for design has already R2) does not work. shown in Fig. a FRED The circuit is not altogether satis- factory. 2 -b shows a of response. but variable according to the set. R2 should have a log taper while R1 should have the so-called antilog . 3 -b. This makes the frequency range of this kind of control much greater than one using linear potenti- ometers. requires a not try to use a cathode follower. but can only Fig. without including a variable resistance in series trol circuit from a cathode follower to with the capacitor-or more conven. 3 -b. additional stages are necessary combines the responses of Figs. results in Fig. cuit as an example of how to apply it in mines which side the capacitors are in an actual circuit. This is shown sponse. with a 14. R2) through the larger part of the low. As with fixed equalizer net- capacitors that connect to either the R2. ideally simple by feeding the tone con- A refinement to this method calls for It is not readily possible. gain for the same reason an equalizer can be determined too.frequency region.

Fig. We have now used. So from this point of view R4 should be the highest value obtain- able.000 cycles -680 µµf serves because when maximum bass boost is rolloff in the feedback circuit and vice well for this position. work of . T Assume that we decide to make the high. which will be 3 db up or down. And if only one stage is used. A 180 -pµf capacitor is the near. by curves for a 12AÚ7. 5-First part of the design for a composite tone control. this brings us back to a value of 25V C2 R2 120K 120. But if we use RI a 500. showing the values for high-frequency control. 6 -Part of the pared with the theoretical value. . resistance. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY point to appear at 500 cycles. which is due to the convergence of the sensi. because bass boost The next step in tone controls is a the source resistance which adds up to sounds much more effective than a study of the feedback types. But there are complications in try- the high.megohm pot. This means that show the construction the effective value of R2 (Fig.000 ohms.frequency boost and rolloff mum bass is used it is only 120. To get a rolloff of This procedure illustrates a typical 3 db at the same point. This produces a 5 -to -1 tivity (Fletcher.8 K 680µµf Well. For this reason. this loss will be reduced to less than 1 db.000 ohms.1 pf-this is not critical. Then Cl will need to have capacitor.12 megohms in shunt. C4 ear at the low.frequency end. corresponding amount of treble boost. But there is another factor to con .000 ohms.000 ohms at 500 cycles. while the shunt resist. is a rather more complex subject it will ance consists of just R2. Assume we make Rl 470. C3 must be design approach to a tone control for about 500.americanradiohistory. the grid return for the following versa.000 of .000 cycles. The boost will occur when R4's slider is at the top end. R4 should be the highest value obtainable. 2. This requires a bigger difference in apparent loudness. Then the combina- tion of R2 with the source resistance must be one -fourth of this. ohms.000 ohms of reac. for a preamplifier. according to The complete schematic is shown in quency response in the forward ampli- whether we use boost or rolloff. Fig. The values 250 V TREBLE C4 BASS ZSEE are calculated in the text. about 11. A should have a reactance of 120. value lower than 5 megohms for R4. FEBRUARY.000 ohms. designed in the values of Fig.0025 -µf capacitor. . at Fig. Your set is smoking . sider-it may be wise to settle for a in reverse -the ends that provide boost C2 should have 120. for low-frequency boost and rolloff given by 1 or 2 megohms in this the problem is getting workable resist- (Fig. 5 47 K allel with R2 at maximum boost. 1960 49 www. It has to include the coupling fier and feedback response control. 5) for on which the figures in treble boost must include the source the text are based.000 ohms. 7 in the feedback network cycles. CI 180µµf 470K trol (R3) it will be effectively in par.000 ohms for R2.000 ohms in series and 2. but when mini. R3 500K C3 620µµf R4 the combination with the 500.000 ohms at 2. this isn't Don. To keep most of the full 14 -db atten- uation. Deducting the source resistance means that R2 will be satis. 7) . I/2I2AU7 05 0R. If you use a 5. or about 120.000 ohms. to the source resistance. Assuming we want the 3 -db boost "No. in the forward circuit would provide tance at 2. 7 -The circuit of Fig. 7.Munson) curves of the later date. at the extreme bottom end of the range. so extended to take care of low .000 ing to do this because of phase -shift controls. Some prefer to use which a 620 -µµf capacitor will serve. which consists of 14.000 ohms in parallel with 47. and have the control working exactly est convenient value for this purpose. As this 480. it may be wise problems if more than one stage is What we now need is some provision to settle for the lower amount of boost used. because it will deteriorate the maximum boost. variations of combined control of fre- Fig.0025 S TEXT in parallel should be 100.000 ohms.1 factory at 100. attenuation circuit consists of Rl plus as may be thought. Then the minimum attenuation. For the main part of the position. the series resistance of the This will not be as serious a loss gain down. This means that the ultimate boost will be 2 db short of the desired 14 db. 5 for stage is 5 megohms.05 or 0. Suppose R4 is made 2 megohms. ance values that will not load the stage response.000 ohms frequency control. .000 smaller difference in level makes a ohms at 500 cycles. which will give almost 2 -db loss. which should be in the region Theoretically. will be produced by 480. one could place the net- a reactance of 470.000 ohms. be treated in an article of its own at a 120. TO BE CONTINUED attenuation as required.frequency turnover point.000 -ohm pot for the treble con. +100 1.

The hour -long version of this recording Vanguard Demonstration Stereo Disc SRV -112SD however. The tunes. Vanguard's Stereolab demo rec- works heard on this reel. N. 7. Beecham stresses the color and excitement translate into sound the starched -collar atmos- careful selection of music of an optimistic na. END better with the stereo preamp phase. ords have offered virtually all the technical re. has a lumbering style. The playing still Audiotape Special Offer (2. Fol. Someone decided that the same composer's Die Fledermaus. Technical Rating: 7 but this early music does lend a fresh flavor to Two years after the introduction of the stereo Fennell's smart wind group.5 ips) Señor Diaz.5 -ips quarter -track format. RADIO -ELECTRONICS. 154 West variables are present in playback. This recording of the affair opens with an instrumental warmup on Royal Garden Blues. I horn takes his group into each country with ment in the sound of High Spirits with a cleaner nonchalant ease. he identifies himself with a few measures on his individual instrument while acknowledg- Reviewed by ing the applause of the crowd. recorded for the first time. 2 Frederick Fennell conducting Eastman Wind Signal -to -noise ratio is quite similar. Although the Duke's familiar brand of Dixieland enjoys Chester Santon and greater freedom on stage than it has under Station WQXR studio conditions. can be melted with sufficient rolloff retains the same first and last selections. smoother throughout the frequency range.shaking possibilities of this series. Handers greatest oratorio. No exception to the rule. illusion of stage presence on a portable phono- phony and sections of Tchaikovsky's Capriccio TCHAIKOVSKY: Symphony No. offers more extended samplings of the remaining In the past. On such Leon Berry will now be available on four-track open -reel a system. The depth and phere of a small Connecticut town in the year ture. Capitol Stereo Record ST -1237 track mono and four -track stereo.track. but this album is lowing the example of the previous tape (Blood one of the most impressive recording jobs I've Take Me Along (Original Cast Recording) and Thunder). and stereo directionality is far more pronounced. With stock or carelessness in the dubbing process. seldom bite whenever the wave gets steep. Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus Strutter's Ball. but the sound is clean- (7 -inch. The Dukes at Carnegie Hall Audio Fidelity Stereo Record AFSD -5918 Technical Rating: GOOD The Dukes of Dixieland chalk up their tenth release for Audio Fidelity on the stage of Carne- new gie Hall. Anyone RCA Victor Stereo Record LSO -1050 saturate the recording surface with a level of considering the purchase of this recording for Technical Rating: FAIR the highest. There is a perceptible improve. instrument. Inc. 6 in B Minor graph. At any rate. correctly phased stereo material. The latest cutters are capable of cleaner sound. the traveling is light in this promotional effort reviewed a few months ago musical tour of the globe. 2 will not disappoint them. Other orchestras may have more power in the way they play this score. this one's a jimdandy on some labels. For many months RCA Victor has been pre. Some VLäDiMiR G!?LS('HMAPJid by writing Records.Y. Jonah's was two. but Vanguard has a whale of a record at an irresistible price. Much of the boominess. AUDIO -HIGH FIDELITY finements of their full -price line. the guitar may appear to have a Audio Fidelity Stereo Disc AFSD -5904 tapes. who established Angel two -track stereo version first because their last Records in this country before joining RCA.track. but Technical Rating: EXCELLENT in the bass end. British Band Classics. I was surprised to dis. Response is haven't heard the other recent stereo versions of depart from the Tin Pan Alley level. Leon Berry fans familiar with should soon be able to find any popular recording to a reasonable area between speakers. Walter Pidgeon and Eileen Herlie. in the sound of the orchestra.98. the job of the engineering New York City staff was not made easier. Jonah Jones Quartet sion of this recording is available on both dual . If your system loafs disc. Vol. Moonlight and Roses and Darktown The latest bonus reel issued by Audio Devices. the acoustics jolt the lis- the mood. A 1 -hour ver. at the high end to bring it in line with the Vol. Gleason. guitar William Byrd. the large pipe organ of in locating the instruments is equally evident in the Eastman Theater lends its voice to the thun- each reel. is a new version of Handel's choral drama Messiah conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham. Only then was I ready to enjoy an this technique has now been successfully trans- High Spirits excellent recital for classical guitar as played by ferred to dual. In addition to reliables such as Musk- rat Ramble and Sweet Georgia Brown. New York 11. Then the audience in the hall has a chance to be heard. no attempt has been made to encountered in my years of listening. The differ- ence in background was spotted at only one area. Control of sound is STEREO and MONO adequate. This two -track paring a special series of recordings under the Technical Rating: EXCELLENT stereo reel offers 14 hour of music. Lows are about equal on both classics from England are already aware of the reels and the four-track has enough upward tilt foundation. The dosage of artificial reverberation in- Italian and Bizet's Suite from Carmen take us to Vladimir Golschmann conducting Vienna State troduced is too much for my equipment under the reel's climax -the blazing Rakoczy March by Opera Orchestra normal playback curve. 6 Material from the huge London Records catalog it on two channels that are in phase. Royal Avalon. In Walton's two-track job. The familiar advantages of tape Crown Imperial March. the bill of fare highlights the trombone in Slide Frog THE roster of companies releasing recorded case of this solo guitar record most listeners will Slide and 76 Trombones. find their suspicions aroused when they first hear Giant Wurlitzer Pipe Organ. 28 min. improved the ultra -close miking pickup used in his mono- he chooses in either the disc or tape stereo the clarity and helped the lower register of the phonic releases may be interested to learn that medium. Gor- Guitarra de Venezuela don Jacob's setting of 16th century tunes by Alirio Diaz. soft passages in the Beethoven symphony. ludicrously wide source of sound. derous sonorities of winds and percussion. Then follows lilting music from the my chair when chorus and orchestra reached the tener into the present. may Hi Fi Stereo Record R 812 prove a bit esoteric to some band enthusiasts.) HANDEL: Messiah cut. priced at $2. I Technical Rating: EXCELLENT tial record firm to throw its support behind the discovered that a flick of the phase-reversal Here's another signpost of technical progress 7.reversal 'SYMPHONY 10. well in the company of the two -track stereo. The audiophile switch into opposite position focused the sound in the stereo disc. enjoys considerable ad- vantage over earlier recordings of the Pathètique. however. range. the problem of phase still awaits solution along at its full output.possible decibel count. I tried the supervision of Dario Soria. A seldom -heard Johann Strauss march sets liveness of the stereo illusion lifted me out of 1906. This particular record sounds TCMAi p to play. As each member of the band is intro- duced. 50 is w nln CI [!TDr1hlIL`C . but in the 14 St. Muted or full. Vol. The noise level there was a shade higher than that STEREOLAB Ensemble Mercury MG 50197 Technical Rating: EXCELLENT Admirers of Mercury's first album of band on the two -track. Note: Following record is a 12-inch mono LP and cover that the four-track version stands up very plays back with RIAA curve. I tapes now boasts an interesting new entry.. first full -volume moment in the intense dynamic studio sound wasn't live enough to carry out the ment of Beethoven's first (and lightest) sym. The With the audacious trumpet of Jonah Jones highlight of the first release in the Soria series blazing the trail. Most of the tunes are old standbys such as Technical Rating: EXCELLENT Sir Thomas Beecham conducting Soloists. London thereby becomes the first influen. playing time. Berlioz. The In his highly personalized treatment of the the aid of Robert Merrill's music and lyrics. The final move. this version of the Tchaikovsky sixth. they High Spirits theme of this collection comes from score. Unfortunately.6"PATHETIOdE Name and address of any manufacturer of rec- switch in the position opposite to that used for IN 8 MINON ords mentioned in this column may be obtained discs.americanradiohistory. Some outfits playback on a good system is hereby warned This new Broadway musical based on Eugene have been known to resort to this to mask the that most choral stereo discs in his collection O'Neil's play "Ah Wilderness" stars Jackie tape hiss that followed the use of inferior tape will sound either tinny or tame after this one. is aimed at the three present forms of RCA Victor Stereo Records (4) LDS -6409 Technical Rating: EXCELLENT Swingin' Round the World open -reel playback in the home.

The lag zones. 6-Characteristics of web (a) and register -mark (b) variations. The slots are arranged so light CR7515 P165G2 material slower or faster to keep it strikes first one and then the other WITH TYPES P40 8 5581 and the cutter synchronized. The scanner operates on either potentiometer. the Dc bridge . correction-motor speed is nor.. Selector waveforms are shown in Fig. VTVM IOMEG INPUT-Z ON ALL DC V SCALES the cut depends upon such other factors mark signals. web to determine the output signals passes the light spot. FEBRUARY. 6 of ±1/64 inch can be obtained. the sudden widening of the shaded area. Two tubes are Cutoff register controls Fig. 5-Register sample tester. cuts (trailing zone). control of the web. which are ampli.<--DEAD ZONE In this circuit the positions of the motor speed. thus creating two signals 1 PHOTOTUBES The selector switch. c- selector switch. This unit allows the two zones to overlap CR7515C121G2 PHOTOTUBE switch contains two phototubes.. register. Two register tensity is noted by the phototube. When an error is de- 6 Discriminator tected.4. an (light falls on the trailing phototube amplifier tube and a light. With an average When the material is in register. LIGHT SOURCE TRANS 9T53Y8047 slots permit light to strike the photo .. before leaving the leading phototube) WEB SUPPORT A disk that rotates inside the selector or to have a dead zone (light falls on switch contains six pairs of slots. If the material is in A light. backlash in so that no current flows unless a positive MAX MIN the gearing. shown in Fig. indicates incoming register . When in register.«. In rection motor for a particular machine set up so that the operating conditions this way the position of the material is speed is controlled by the base -speed are as close to actual use as possible.8 -volt output is required. controls are shown. However. V3 and retard pushbuttons for changing reg- LEAD ZONE LAG ZONE MOTION V4 have two controlling grids. AwIWRIi . one for the leading zone tests samples of register marks on a or lagging zones. Going back to the schematic. a change of in. Actual ground) or light decrease (dark mark LIGHT SOURCE motor speed is usually lower or higher on light background) simply by setting 357515 PSI02 than its base value so two -way opera. On the other side is a light LIGHT SOURCE from its base .5.5- light increase (light mark on dark back.. Current through the generator field operation of the panel. This 4 -b as the signal from either the leading 4. only one tube produces trol over the other variables. PHOTOTUBE required. - SLOTS C from the selector switch. thus feeding the source. out of register.1161119. Fig. field current is varied to correct 1. This is done by The system corrects continuously for gearing the unit to the knife so a slotted any deviation in position between the disk inside the unit revolves with the CR7515 P167G2 CABLE material and the cutter by either in. a toggle switch on the scanner. b selector switch leading switch signals. There are advance and knife and paper are compared. These neither phototube). The samples are amplified and sent to the main panel. accuracies a signal. and one after the knife WEB SUPPORT material and the cutter are in register. An adjustment inside the indicates the cutter's position. A network of resistors placed between the positive and negative dc buses sup- plies various voltages necessary for the correction motor runs either faster or slower. one takes ister while the machine is running. waveforms and indicates the lead and 111- 3MEG fied and sent to the control panel. scanner. a DC o COM While the control can detect errors 6E5 indicator. 4 -c shows selector (leading and lagging). both machine. tension signal appears on both grids at once.americanradiohistory..116!13073 INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS the preset value or base speed. and one for the trailing zone. ó 5-IW control will operate for web speeds of +o90Vo 20 to 750 feet per minute and with one Register mark indicator BATT to six register marks per cut. These voltages is regulated.source transformer with a 4. if there is an error. its signal from the register -mark F PAIR OF scanner and the other receives its signal Servicing techniques -. tubes as they pass in front of them. 927 a 5583 motor.*:.» . When the material is ceptionally good machine and close con. Register This unit looks at the register marks This stage detects the difference be- tween the precise setting of the cutter marks must have at least 20 times printed on the material.. 4 Waveforms from: a web required because there are two selector A sample tester. observes the material as it passes a knife and the position of the register focused spot of light. speed setting.8V/3. current are adjusted by setting slides on the is at a value determined by the base resistors. The phototube the amplitude of web variations. The WITH TYPES tion is possible without reversing the output waveform is shown in Fig. then The normal running speed of the cor. V2. Register -mark scanner Error detection Fig. to 4. etc. 5. 1960 55 www. Two signals is set by selecting the base speed of the are developed: one before the knife cuts motor so it reduces overfeed until the (leading zone)..source lamp. produces a signal which control panel.. When a mark marks. mounted at the top of as small as . the accuracy of the panel. provided the register marks both remain cut off. 4-a. one can see when a register mark is detected by Fig. noted. Selector switch PHOTOTUBES Material is normally fed into the The position of the knife or other machine at a speed slightly higher than device working on the material is regis. loose couplings. With an ex. cutter. depending on the signal coming from the stability network. On one side of the disk are two I creasing or decreasing motor speed phototubes. By observing V2.. depending on the MIN are equally spaced and web tension is adjustment of the dead zone in the reasonably controlled.5A 117V/50. produces the cutter -position signals or lagging zone. accuracies of ± 1/32 inch are discriminator tubes produce signals or MAX a expected.60\. phototube. selector switch. Then the proper rate of speed tered by the selector switch. which is geared which are amplified and sent to the to the cutter. mal. a AVVOWIMMAAMNINI. Motor control from the motor control.. The two grids in each tube are normally operated as register -mark spacing.005 inch.

If both tests are positive.5K 117 V 90V :50w I OO K 20 . the lamp is burned out and must for testing. first tube will work satisfactorily. If this change is not variation. In cases where this indicated. When trouble crops up. When the web is moved light source and selector switch must be replaced. terial as in Fig 6 -a and the variations The rest of the components need no Signals from the selector switch may in register marks as in Fig. lector switch lamps (for light). check volt is needed to assure normal opera.20 HEAD 10MEG 1 r4 SWITCH GL930 6. When the diodes are A second important characteristic is the material. a routine check ground and rotate the selector switch sirable whenever the control is serviced. its approxi. the amplifier in the selector approach fails. Maintenance should isolate the trouble to a particu. difficulty is isolated.V I -. Servicing change from about -30 to +10 volts. which it began. In this attention unless mechanically damaged. When the control seéms to hold regis- the tubes must be replaced in the If all of these indications are negative. be replaced with the flat side toward them if necessary. ter-mark minimum should be at least mate location and nature can often be It is important that these potentials 20 times greater than maximum web determined by the circumstances under be as indicated. is de. Some tube that the panel is receiving power. As the though it does not guarantee that the When troubleshooting. The scanning head and erator field current does not kick.1V I 4 H 8 08 2 I IO MEG 117. extremes. be checked with either a vtvm or an example a positive signal is shown For this reason the unit should be oscilloscope.8A 6V /. a long life and should not cause trouble If the lamp in either light source is If faulty operation has been traced 56 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. Two conditions are lens must be replaced with the flat side erator field current change. including check the dead -zone adjustment on the proper operation. 6. place a A check of all tubes. toward the lamp.4 V 5. al. the variations in the web ma. The phototubes have fuses and switches. a 90 -volt dc source unless they are mechanically damaged. ter but does not hold it accurately. 6 -b.2 V i V17 6v 5.8 MEG _25 SCANNING SELECTOR V19. This one and then the other neon tube should difficulties cannot be detected on a may be checked readily by observing flash and the generator field. same sockets after checking to insure the incoming power lines. This also holds true for V20 and TP33. If the neon tubes flash but the gen- a signal voltage change of at least 0. ter marks. so light passes over the register mark. should be checked. the indicating -eye tube (for green meter should kick first in one direction ment of spare tubes on hand at all color) and the scanning head and se.6K 117 V 6V /I. of circuits and components will indicate by hand. first make sure disk in the selector switch rotates.05 GL9I8 2 MEG OR SCANNING IP37 6SL7-GT HEAD LIGHT L SOURCE 500n 25V 50t SELECTOR 5 SWITCH LIGHT IMEG _15V SOURCE 141-P 36 2K -45V SENSITIVITY -80V 50 W V7-b 510K 220A 51K SWITCH SET FOR OPERATION FROM LIGHT DECREASE TP 16 DC PWR SUPPLY REGISTER MARK SCANNING HEAD SELECTOR SWITCH REGISTER M K INDICATOR DC BRIDGE DISCRIM a MIXER CKT INVERTER A 3-megohm load. the exterior light. tinuous register-mark signal.source lens must the detector diode tubes and replace tion of the controls.6A 85V -Ì 1.5 liable operation. are a voltmeter connected at TP34 should shown for the web alone and the regis. The inner light -source not defective but there is still no gen- shown in Fig. If the value should not change appreciably replace it! The tubes and their corres. lamps are lit but the indicating-eye from its base-speed value. the fault. Keep a full comple. Both damage from passing .IOOK :100K 5 . observational checks switch may be bad.ohms -per -volt volt- from the register mark. ponding sockets should be marked as tube is out. When light falls on phototube V19. etc.americanradiohistory.current standard checker. selector switch. out but the panel above is getting and a vtvm or an oscilloscope are used The lenses in the scanning head. For best operation the regis. This gives the effect of a con- A standard tube checker will do. check the small panel fuses.7 V 5 6J7 117 V 2 5. maximum and minimum. There are wide mounted where it is protected against meter will also give a satisfactory check. its power. When the jumper between the test point and neon tubes and the phototubes. check the shown.25 + 5. A 20. except the lar section of the control. but its average times and if any tube is questionable. be cleaned regularly to maintain re. variations in some web materials.000. components in the stabilizing circuit.INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS 250V 6'00 Ez)5V/3A 150K . and then in the other.

A vtvm or a 20. In Fig. Fig. might work. 4. This causes false triggering and common grounding. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS 420V 5IK V15 t 5V/3A o JJ 8 4 atn N7V CORRECTION 150MA 450V IMEG GENERATOR' 6 FIELD 20W 900V t 350V NE16 5R4! GY . 8 -a and for or without an oscilloscope. b -too low. 7 -b. END FEBRUARY. General rectly so that only the desired pulse is 2. These readings should be made with the ma- chine stopped. 7-a is desirable.IL falling on phototube. troubleshooting. o terial. third drawing. shows several signal levels mum. c -too high. 8 a pulse for light it is electrical and not mechanical. Check signal amplitude and varia- terial and the register marks must be high a level because the signal and the tion.200MADC tv I 1450V T 117 V AUT I G IADVANCE(A) HAND 1P8 STATION 5V /3A e I0K 1 RETARD (R) t 6SJ7 50W 68 fl 3 6L6-G 6L6-G V8 8 240 K HAND SPEED I I V12 0422on 2K /50W 230Vß 5 i+ CORRECTION 20 MOTOR -__ -J TOOK J 75011 30 I FIELD I I 25W 30K K I_ CORRECTION SPACE 01I CORRECT 21 HAND / AUTO RATE ON 2 .IMEG (R) 1 150K ICORRECTION . In Fig. MINIMUM OPERATING Both negative and positive pulses are With an understanding of how the POINT possible. 7 -a. 8 -b. 7 -c. I i . however. phototube circuit and the number of cated readily with an oscilloscope. Check alignment and focus of Signals seen on a scope will vary..IMEG 2. 8-Pulse formed as register and the point listed. the signal level is set cor. Check light source for bright. In Fig. since the signals from the o scanner and selector switch may be 6 followed through the control and the improper operation. depending upon the type of circuit works the trouble may be lo.ohms -per- Fig. If the machine will not OPERATING POINT TIME be damaged by being run without ma. j (A) TIPI LOT 'GENERATOR _ RECT 180K TO 230 V AC LINE ERROR DETECTION REGISTER INDICATOR L BASE SPEED GENERATOR FIELD CONTROL GENERATOR B MOTOR FIELD SUPPLIES a STABILIZING NETWORK to the control. scanner. Lenses must be clean. can be located.americanradiohistory. 7- Effect of signal -level adjust- ment on register -mark signal: a-cor- volt voltmeter should be used and all MINIMUM rect setting.05 510K _J MOTOR IMEG r-- S' Schematic circuit of CR7515 -W210 cutoff register control. The characteristics of each web ma. TIME An oscilloscope simplifies trouble- shooting. (b) de- creased light falling on phototube. above the operating level. Direct interference from other depending upon the differences in the the signal level is too low. The control light sources should be kept from the web material and the register marks.000. measurements made between ground OPERATING POINT Fig. peak noise pulses are both above mini. with the common mark passes by (a) increased light lead being connected to ground. . . from a representative phototube control. Only the condition exact spot where these signals are lost shown in Fig. o light decrease in Fig. determined for proper servicing.. 1. With increase is shown in Fig.15A 700VI15A r CONTROL STATION 1 V14 \ 350V METER 0. Fig 7. The phototube and the register marks. voltages should be checked. steady light. Check line -voltage variations and for example. but not . At times it is desirable to run the machine when trouble has been traced MINIMUM to the control.2MEG . functions of the control can be a observed and checked under these simu- lated operating conditions. illustrates too 3. if amplifiers. 1960 57 www. there is no substitute for a thorough The following list of servicing checks understanding of the circuit when is suggested as a way to prevent trouble.

americanradiohistory. Small Motor Div. drills. 58 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. It will also wear excessively and be inefficient. The heart of these fractional horsepower BALANCING motors is the rotar. o V101 -0 12AX7 +--o 10K IOK 204 1. Canada. the rotor would go back to the rails for another check. there are no problems. typewriters and mixers. saws. 1).. Hamilton.balanced rotors per. It has proved itself by turning balancer out more.phonographs. and reduce wear and vibration. which turns at speeds as high as 3. The process works well. O 07 5 30 ó1 . After drilling out some of the mass from the heavy side.103.5 MEG I 220 K o -0 -o 115206 -oi o . for BETTER How are rotors balanced? The old method called for taking the completed rotor and placing it on a set of two steel rails.400 rpm. far short of a desired target of 700 a day. day. if it isn't. equal distance from the rotational axis and located on opposite ends of the rotating part (Fig.104 ARE SPEED CONTROLS LEFT NETWORK J ELECTRONIC By J. Canadian Westinghouse. ESSEX* SMALL electric motors are in constant use wherever you turn. Using this method. but is too slow. The result is 'Former inspector. If unbalanced it would roll along the track until the heavier weight of one side would bring it to rest. Also. better. two men could run off only 150 rotors a day. 8.5 K .5K o f o o o- o ol . Such vibration can even make a motor shake itself to pieces -holding nuts work loose.102. quality control. static balancing does not reveal dynamic unbalance caused by two equal weights at Balance the rotor of a fractional-horse. If the rotor is balanced.-o R2 10K co 5K o: .5 o 10K O R203 E L S39K *-0 203 205 10K -o OC 0 o- o o >o 0 * 'o -n40 o0 o o o OKy o 560K o . the motor will be noisy and vibrate. Then the operator would remove the rotor and place it in a drill press. power motor and you increase efficiency.INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS RIGHT NETWORK j54B a 1M ---- 47K 1 1 OA 5 c109.ó > 5101.o O O. W. One way Electronic balancing The solution to the problem came in the form of an elec- to do this is with an electronic dynamic tronic balancing machine. tie rods fall out and the whole works comes apart. MOTORS and so on until it was balanced properly.

coupled ampli- FEBRUARY.5K 35K 4 0A2 PILOT ISOV 7. the field. The coils' the unbalance point and the amount of mass that must be outputs are fed to a common meter which indicates a voltage removed to balance the rotor. the weak vibrations set up by the rotor must job is done. This identifies.001 IV301 13 MEG R128 I00K 2. represented by weight W which the author is familiar.2 MEG C 116 30 K IID21 V104 .. the meter buck each other and the meter reads only the differ- rotor is spun at about 800 rpm. The output is amplified meter can be zeroed. They can be weight must be taken off or added. The the right plane is balanced out.-. strong magnetic fields. 2.004 Circuit of the electronic I -036 ^D08 I part of the balancer. vibrate in its cradle. rectifier and voltage regulators) to Now let's take a closer look at the electronics side of the provide amplification in the order of 1. YY and Z Z.000 times.americanradiohistory. on the right side. producing a sine-wave output.-- 1. When the balancer is turned on. a survival prerequisite in this consists of two supports attached to coils which move in mechanical age. the In use. the voltage induced in coil A is greater than that in attached around the rotor and a belt drive placed around coil B. The coils are arranged so the voltages fed to the the center of the rotor. If a weight is placed on the vibrations appear at the same time during each revolution. I f--- 3. move a couple of coils in a magnetic By adjusting coil A's output with the potentiometer. How is the vibration picked up and changed to output from the coils is fed to a 12AX7 (V101) for imped- a pulse that triggers the strobe light? ance matching and early amplification. left end of the rotor. strobe light over the reference pointer.--- '054 ._ L . The operation.-. handled by the Gisholt Dynetric balancer. the pickup coils are followed by somewhat compli- off -balance point. The signal then goes A rotor to be balanced is placed in a cradle (Fig. a machine with When the rotor is unbalanced. ?A06 . it vibrates between lines The rotor to be balanced is placed on the Dynetric bal. Here's how this problem is when either end of the rotor moves up and down. (The more common seen in the main diagram at the head of this article. the Of course. the meter would measure the unbalance so the light flashes at the same time each revolution. it will ence. and this is where electronics comes in. In this way the effect of weight W in and shaped to produce pulses that fire a strobe light. in the left plane. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS r-----------_I .7 K IK higher quality at lower cost. 3) that to V102.600. is done. The amplifier uses four tubes (in addi- Balance a rotor tion to the strobotron. This is how the two planes of the rotor are The operator notes the reference number that appears in the separated for balancing. 1960 59 www. The more the coils move in the The time -consuming part of rotor balancing is in finding magnetic fields the greater their voltage output. another 12AX7 used as a . C 110 I -II -1018 -. If it is unbalanced. be amplified before they can be used. and is rotated. another check is made and if the rotor passes.5K 255 V ¡120K 27K 22 MEG r ' V102 rr 180K 12AX7 1 360K 2. As the right side swings more than the left ancer as shown in Fig.002 I . the com- practice is to drill out the necessary material. A numbered reference ring is side.) After this plete electronic circuit of the Gisholt balancer. The meter tells the operator how much cated networks and level or volume controls.

The necessary Fig. Let's run through a sample setup to show how this is done. and the numbered cuts down extraneous vibrations which than that fed to the meter. The gas-filled strobe tube flashes At these points a small amount of mass is drilled out. This gives a zero standard to set the machine for. using a test rotor and adding modeling clay to each side in turn. switches S203. The could cause false readings. In this way electronics gives us a machine that makes low -cost. a small amount of clay is added and the rotor UNBALANCE is spun once again. which is set for coarse NETWORK N. tron two additional amplifiers are used. They are pentodes (6AH6 and 6AU6) square same lamp. bn RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. measurements. LEFT PLANE RIGHT PLANE -3. 1 Now the angle /amount switch is set to angle and the strobe light flashes. quality fractional. This continues until a zero reading is obtained. each time a pulse reaches its grid. It simplifies the job VOLTAGE considerably when switching from one UNBALANCE DIVIDER INDICATOR rotor to another. As AMOUNT . The (The signal amplitude that triggers The flashing light makes the rotor filter network between V101 and V102 the strobe light is 15 times greater appear to stand still.. To do this we place a rotor in the cradle and add weight in the form of modeling clay in the right plane. The trick is to get a good minimum in each plane. As CONTROL BOX the operator proceeds. also insures that any unbalance in the right plane will not affect unbalance in the left plane and vice versa. the pickup voltage before they are bered ring are used in locating the tions except at the frequency at which differentiated by C116 and R128 and point of correction in each of the two the rotor is turning (usually 800 fed to the strobe tube. the meter read- LEFT AND ing drops each time clay is added. the readings get low. 1.Static balancing will not disclose this type of misbalance-equal weights at amount is shown on a chart that lists the size of the drill bit and depth to equal distance from the rotational axis and use. END formed into an electronic signal. Set up the balancer The balancer is only as good as the man setting it up. It Fig. reference pointer and num- tuned filters that eliminate all vibra. First we want to balance out any unbalance in the right plane in relation to the left plane. indicating the point of the unbalance.horsepower motors possible. settings are re- corded so that for successive rotors of the same type approximate settings can be made without all the prelim- inaries given here. The control box left /right switches are set REF RING POINTER for the left plane. Now that the left side is balanced the operator sets the left /right switch to right and re- peats the process. Once it is taken. adjusting con- WITH RIGHT- trols as he goes along. cates the amount of unbalance. If this causes an METER increase in the meter reading. located on opposite ends of the rotating . When doing final balancing on this side. the operator ANGLE switches to the fine reading and con- SWI TCHES tinues adding clay and rechecking. this time adding clay to the left side of the rotor. In our plant we eventually got a list of figures for all the rotors we make.americanradiohistory. 2- Gisholt Dynetric balancer in operation. To trigger the 1D21 strobo. When readings get low once again. S205 and potentiometer ROTOR R203 are adjusted. the operator keeps adding clay and checks the settings of switches S204 and S206 and potentiometer R209 (only one combination of these controls will give a zero reading). 3 -How rotor vibration is trans. reverse the input switch before continuing. The rotor is set spinning and a reading is taken from AMPLIFIER the meter.) These reference ring identifies the spot. Once established. which indi. correction planes. high - Fig. cycles).INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS fier to drive meter M101.

The stack of speakers. shears. LOUDSPEAKING LIGHT- HOUSE at Dungeness. cancels noise from rear and .per -hour gales. set up for testing in the photo. 154 limited to 200 feet by length feet more than Empire of control cable. screwdrivers. Built by Kline Iron & Steel. A third of a Hears all.1619 feet). nile. Me. it uses a cardioid unit and the interesting dis- tributed front opening shown to accept sound 45° each side of center. Response: 40. TURE ever erected by pletely remote .controlled. An automatic photocell fog detector will turn the horn on when needed. will be mounted in the upper portion of the lighthouse. 1959. mo- bile replacement for man in TALLEST STRUC- dangerous areas. sees all. www. December. reduce sound from unwanted directions more than 20 db. uses wile high (1.americanradiohistory. places. (More information on the lighthouse was printed in RADIO. in place of the old-fashioned foghorn. Id. Operating range of the Eiffel Tower. wrenches. Kent. on page 16. C. Port - apart units up to 1.) MOBOT MARK I. will have 60 big cone speakers.ELECTRON- ICS. rran is the tower of sta- Lifts. is com. Known as the Electro -Voice 644 Sound Spot.12. Eng- land. moves. Hughes State Building.000 cycles. the tower Aircraft developed Mobot sways up to 6 feet in high for AEC contractor Sandia ' wilds. ham. S. beaming 3 kw of audio out to sea. new MICROPHONE maintains proper response three times normal distance from the sound source. can stand 150 - Corp. takes tbn WGAN -TV. C_lumbia. almost twice the height mers.500 lb.

Other servicing methods PEAKING differ for each type of circuit. as in Fig. TO REL (chroma detector) circuits.Chroma demodulator circuit uses pair of diodes Fig.TELEVISION Do the people on the color TV screen have blue faces? If they do. CRT GRID bootstrap circuit. "8+ j ceivers use diode demodulators.58 MC OSC (FILTER) system is shown in Fig. as Fig. (R Y) (G Y) circuits. Let us review the servicing procedures for this . FrM COIL cuits are used in modern color TV (G-Y) AMPL receivers.americanradiohistory. 3.L i3 µµf IOOK RECEPT VTVM 33µµf VTVM CATH +25V DC CHROMA GND BANDPASS RED GRID 10K AMPL GREEN GRID TO R-Y BLUE GRID AMPL VTVM 10K (R-Y) DC DET -25V GND (G -Y) MATRIX 33µµf BLUE BACKGROUND (B-Y) CONTROL DET Fig. Formerly. 3-Vtvm tests of diode-type (R -Y) (B -Y) chroma demodulators. 1. CRT GRID tor systems. CRT GRID PEAKING eral types of chroma demodulator cir. These are: (R Y) (B Y). XZ circuit. this article may help you locate the trouble SERVICING CHROMA DEMODULATORS By ROBERT G. 62 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. F 0M COIL We will consider these in order. 2. - circuits. Sev. Some re. the IQ demodulator circuit was extensively used. . 3. Some types of servicing procedures ( B-Y) AMPL TO BLUE are the same for all chroma demodula.1 -Basic plan of the (R -Y) (B -Y) OLOR PIX chroma demodulator VIDEO DET system. MIDDLETON RADIO-ELECTRONICS TELEVISION CONSULTANT COLOR pictures are incorrectly re- produced when something goes (R-Y) wrong in the chroma demodulator AMPL 000. An (R Y)Q - circuit was used prior to the XZ cir- cuit. FDM TEST AMPL .58 MC OSC MATRIX TO GREEN . 2. in one type of receiver. A preliminary test for demodulator trouble can be made with a vtvm. The basic plan of the (R - Y) (B Y) .

if you can- not get correct nulls from both demodu- +I NULL lators. it is important The tests described previously for to have adequate subcarrier voltage. modulator system. is applied to the suppressor grid. tor outputs." Fig. Note the 1. This is caused They appear on a wide -band scope DEMOD t by the burst blanking action. Fig. modulator outputs. The quadra- make the wedge appear as in Fig.58 MC TEST SIGNAL try adjusting the color phasing control. proper operation of the R -Y and Fig. 5. 8. tor tests. -(R -Y) Normal wedge position for (R Y) (B Y) chroma demodulators. R -Y B -Y 3. A scope connected test signal. instead of duo-diodes. 8 -R -Y and B -Y test signal and scope patterns found at the chroma de- demodulators.Y)/90° NULL You will note a wedge. and then the R -Y demodulator. If such a signal INTERVAL the exception of the vtvm test. In this circuit. or the quadrature -I NULL transformer is defective. The is applied to the receiver and a scope is connected at a chroma demodulator output. but in Fig. Pentode chroma demodulators and a negative voltage at the other. to the receiver.background control.000 -ohm signal. (G-Y) in the circular pattern. If it is R-Y chroma signal is applied to the control Ali unbalanced. Equal values of dc at the B -Y demodulator output. Otherwise we can only get a tilted ellipse. The voltage measured with the vtvm a circular pattern on the scope screen. 9. These generators have indi. Demodulated output is taken from the ure from 25 to 35 dc volts in this type plate circuit. adjust the slugs in the quadrature When this type of test signal is used. 6. check the adjust the quadrature transformer to B . No signal input is applied a null on the B -Y signal. 4 shows the required nulls for I. A circular pattern on the scope signals cannot be seen in this type of DEMOD f pattern. Patterns for correct opera- depending on this control's setting. 4. TELEVISION It is usually possible to get correct nulls on both the R -Y and B -Y +0 NULL I DEMOD OUTPUT f demodulators by adjusting the quadra- ture transformer. +(G-Y) /90° NULL -(G. with a keyed rainbow signal. comes from the subcarrier oscillator. of test. The subcarrier oscillator signal the demodulator circuit. . we observe crank- exact voltage measured at a B -Y shaft patterns at the chroma demodula- demodulator test point will vary. However. The color bar test signal. indicates correct adjustment. If the B -Y null is incorrect. This the color phasing control. Likewise. 4- Correct null points for chroma demodulators. try adjusting the quadrature transformer. as illustrated in Fig. This is a capac- itor or a slug -tuned coil in the burst amplifier section. 10.Y) chroma demodulators use pentode tubes. 3. The normal position for If it is out of range. a B -Y bar from a color bar generator and output from the B -Y demodulator as seen on the screen of a wide -band +(R -Y NULL -(R -Y) to the scope's horizontal input termi. The R -Y bar is OUTPUT revolves around the circle as you adjust narrower than the B -Y bar. but a null on the R -Y signal_ pot in the B -Y demodulator circuit. as well as the Y channel. 7. Note that a positive voltage appears at one tube. If you don't get the required null. a voltages must be found at the test -( B-Y) B-Y square wave is obtained on the B Y - points indicated. Otherwise. -(R -Y) When the quadrature trans- former is properly adjusted we can get shown in . Chroma demodulators normally meas. The difference between the two NULL (B -Y) nals. The easiest way to adjust the quadra- + (B-Y) NULL ture transformer is to connect the out- (R -Y) DEMOD t il put from the R -Y demodulator to Fig. 7 -A display of an R -Y bar and OUTPUT the scope's vertical input terminals. The wedge screen as in Fig. -(B-Y) B-Y duo -diode chroma demodulators are used Another useful test can be made with BLANKING in the pentode configuration too. 4 are seen. 6. - for the (R Y) (B Y) system is shown in Fig. 1960 63 www. the control will be off range when we check for the nulls in Fig. Fig. Y demodulator next. We set the color phasing control to J NULL OUTPUT FROM R -Y DEMOD Having obtained a correct null from the mid -point of its range. Q. patterns like those shown in Fig. The correct position . FEBRUARY. since they differ in phase only. and G -Y demodula. Y. transformer. 6 - -. at the R -Y demodulator output shows a square wave on the R -Y signal. provides bar identification in the signal - The wedge also revolves when you tracing tests described later. OUTPUT screen. and can be located from the receiver's service data. A typical pentode If it is weak. B - Y. The output must go to zero (null) on certain "pips.americanradiohistory. are -Y at the two B test points if the circuit is operating properly. there is a fault in the (:)DEMOD OUTPUT t demodulator circuits. R - tors. tion of the R -Y and B -Y demodu- Nevertheless. scope. look for trouble in the demodulator is shown in Fig. equal values are found lators. adjust the master the wedge depends on the type of de- color phasing control. Quite a few (R Y) (B . NULL OUTPUT FROM B -Y DEMOD L ture transformer is located between the subcarrier oscillator and the chroma Perhaps you prefer to use the NTSC type of generator in making demodula- Fig. using a keyed rainbow R-Y B -Y demodulators gives patterns like those in Fig.shaped sector vidual R -Y and B -Y test signals. If we use a 100% saturated NTSC This is a blue. 5 . look for faulty resistors in grid. The subcarrier oscillator circuit.

POS PEAK -(R-Y) This is not a quadrature demodula- coils is to use a sweep generator and OUTPUT FROM NEG PEAK OUTPUT (G -Y) MATRIX FROM (R -Y) DET tion system.-Y G The bootstrap demodulator in its common cathode Fig. demodulators can be operated along any pair of axes. Y crankshaft pattern is also shown. 64 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. Otherwise.5 MEG When an R -Y test signal is applied to the grid. It is in quadrature 90 °.Y) Fig. is suitable. DET method gives a somewhat better signal - The best way to test the peaking -I to -noise ratio.5 and 1. as in Fig. Peaking coils are used in the plate POS PEAK circuit. are used. as in Fig. the probe PROBE can be properly applied at Y. B-Y DEMOD TO COLOR PIX pentode provides amplification. INPUTS scope.americanradiohistory. PEAK demodulator. you DEMOD run into distortion. It has INPUTS absorption markers at 0. 13. If not. 10-A pentode chroma demodula. Apply a video sweep signal to - Servicing (R Y) (G Y) demodu. +I 1 -(G -Y) the dc bias on the blue grid. G -Y is developed in a chroma inductance . 11. look for defective or incorrectly tuned VIDEO peaking coils. response curve. If the probe is connected at X in Fig. the de.Correct crankshaft scope patterns for normal operation of the R -Y and B -Y demodulators. Also check the subcarrier . in normal operation. look for cir- cuit faults. There NEG PEAK CONTROL should be at least 20 volts peak to r OUTPUT FROM Fig. 15 -Blue background control varies +(R -Y) (G -Y) MATRIX peak. as in Fig. A gain test is made with chroma demodulator a scope and low. In other receivers. Its gain Fig. 11. as are R -Y and B Y.5 mc. 16-An XZ chroma demodulator Fig 11-Checking frequency response (R demodulators operates on subcarrier phases which are of a chroma demodulator. However. 9. . 12. a scope test should show 10 times more deflection at the plate 385 V B++ than at the grid. 11. SPLITTER or the curve will be distorted. Sometimes one FA +(G -Y) 90° interchange the positions of the B -Y 0 FROM of the coils has an adjustable slug. A typical TO SCOPE curve is shown in Fig. (G-Y) 90° by matrixing G -Y with R Y.TELEVISION COLOR BAR PATTERN CHROMA GREEN RED BLUE SIGNAL TO BLUE INPUT GRID B+ B+ R -Y SIGNAL VOLTAGE SUBCARRIER INPUT TO GRE N GRID Y SIGNAL VOLTAGE Fig. Quite a few modern color receivers in the vicinity of the R -Y and Q axes. B -Y is then obtained modulator's bandpass is incorrect and OUTPUT FROM (B-Y) .capacitance probe. 13-G -Y is not in quadrature to R -Y and G -Y are not separated DEMOD - either R -Y or B Y. 12 -A typical BLUE GRID is about 10. If the response curve is incorrect. Do not apply PHASE the probe at a high.Y)(G . - the grid of the demodulator tube. CHROMA Fig. The coils must have correct NEG -(B -Y ) +(B Y) That is. BLUE BACKGROUND POS PEAK OUTPUT FROM (R -YIDET voltage at the suppressor grid. Off -value load resistors SWEEP GEN also cause curve distortion. circuit -the cathode of a phase splitter tor. circuit. Use a demodulator probe at a low. This - color reproduction suffers. fixed peaking coils t DET ) demodulators and the G -Y matrix. 14 matrixes . 12K 1. as seen from Fig. be sure to consult the service data for the particular chassis you are working on.impedance point in the output Fig. However. 10.impedance point. Chroma - only to (G -Y) /90 °.

green or blue raster. if we apply Hence.coupled chroma channels. 17 -The three color-difference amplifiers have common -cathode circuit. 16. the same control. It is adjusted to obtain stand- bootstrap circuit branches interact. Industrial Technician The chroma demodulators we dis. quired range. nulls. (See Fig. . Frequency response can be Some present -day color receivers use checked with a sweep generator.capacitance probe help for the picture -tube grids. The grid bias is obtained performance in a given living mc subcarrier oscillator voltage. speaker system cannot be de- principles apply throughout. The axes of A one -transistor oscillator for cussed are low -level circuits. dc voltage checks in the demodu- cuits. demodulator illustrated in Fig. Licking the Intermittents often more difficult to spot by picture A chroma gain control is provided in How to conquer the worst of all analysis than in other demodulator the X and Z demodulator -tube cathode the technician's troubles -the de- configurations. These are also ma- a high -level circuit. If correct nulls are B -Y . A G -Y It controls grid bias through the re.americanradiohistory. It is an economy design. 14 is shown in Fig. experimenter or student can roll have dc. This is because the circuits. reasons. This story tells some of the from both the background control and as the R -Y and B -Y demodulators the demodulator plate. The R -Y and used in present -day color receivers. an R -Y test signal to the receiver. shown in Fig. R -Y and Q axes. 16. oscillator and the XZ demodulators. . Audio Aid for the Bootstrap demodulators arrangement. Speaker Response Curves? - X and Z signals are thereby converted into R Y. The dures described for other chroma de- R -Y channel normally nulls on a modulator circuits. ponent in a demodulator circuit. . triodes in Fig. B -Y and . B -Y amplifiers are grid-driven. the test principles discussed G -Y channels. The outputs are trixes. B -Y and G outputs -Y equipment and as a signal source On the other hand. It nulls on the quadra- - ture (G Y) /90° signal. Note that resistor R is common applied directly to the picture -tube to the three cathodes of the color- grids. They are demodulation are in the region of the use on location on industrial jobs. and the volt- tinting when circuit trouble occurs. if operating The XZ demodulator circuit properly. The Faults in a bootstrap demodulator are G -Y amplifier is cathode -driven. Dc coupling results in raster lator circuits come next. 14 are also bias voltages A scope and low. de. even in checks assist in localizing a faulty com- black-and -white reception. followed by amplifiers. END FEBRUARY. TELEVISION X DEMOD R-Y AMPL TO RED GRID B+- SUBCARRIER RED INPUT BACKGROUND CONTROL X2 CHROMA B-F CHROMA GAIN TO GREEN GRID I PU T (MATRIX NEXT B BAL) 3 GREEN BACKGROUND CONTROL SUBCARRIER MONTH INPUT TO E GRID Z DEMOD B-I- BLUE BACKGROUND CONTROL How Good Are Fig. 1960 65 www. before their sig. often connected as in Fig. These a red. 2 configuration. R - Y. in that it is not a quadra. pended on to give an idea of its demodulator must have sufficient 3. the demodulators (this should be about inal Bell solar cells tells how the Nearly all modern color receivers 20 volts peak to peak). system is basically similar to the proce- the B -Y channel normally nulls. modulator probe and scope. B -Y and G Y.) for adjusting motion picture sound nal is applied to the color picture tube. ard nulls from the R Y. All the old meth- However. widely difference amplifiers. 17.coupled to the check the setting of the XZ gain control One of the men who were in- picture -tube grids. just room. the XZ system of chroma demodulation. The G -Y channel not obtained on the three quadrature normally nulls on a (G Y) /90° signal. trouble in such circuits causes correct peak -to-peak voltages. This If these checks do not give correct his own. Design engineers and high-fidel- ity listeners alike know that the lator circuits is very similar to servicing Grid bias is varied with a background response curves of a speaker or - (R Y) (B - Y) circuits. the bootstrap are obtained from the amplifier tubes for ordinary signal tracing. Solar Cells strap demodulator is dc. The XZ configuration is comparable to the (R Y) (G Y). we check the phasing trans- former between the color-subcarrier Note that the output from the boot. For this localize ac signal distortion and in- reason.58 . eliminates the need for do restorer cir. fect that disappears as you ap- proach the set. discussed earlier. That is. test signals. ture demodulation system. 15. ods-and a few you may not have earlier still apply. ages measured are compared with those Note that the plate voltages for the specified in the receiver's service data. servicing the XZ demodulator heard of. Dc coupling is also and the subcarrier injection voltage to strumental in developing the orig- used in the Fig.

sporting events. or camping.. The handsome two -tone cabinet. Cue" lulls you to sleep. 66 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. fits neatly into the optional carrying case for beach beautifully styled turquoise and ivory plastic cabinet. hour .AND PORTABLE TOO! Completely portable. gives you the correct time Wherever you are. boating. auto- matically shutting off the receiver when you are deep in slum- ber.transistor battery operated circuit .. At all times crystal-clear portable radio enter- tainment is yours at the flick of a switch. then slash the to 5 months from a single battery of the same type. hunting. Shpg. It can also be used with the Heathkit Transistor Intercom k system. Inc. A tuned RF stage and double tuned input to Shp4. opposite page. HEATH COMPANY/Benton Harbor. measuring only 31/2 " H. hiking. x 71/2 " D. to provide music or a "selective alarm" system for one or more rooms covered by the intercom system. Other controls set "Your Cue" to wake you to soft music. and you have the new Heathkit "Your penlight cells may also be used with reduced battery life. the IF stage assure top performance. while the clock operates up modern 6. companion. Mich. 2 lbs. W. The modern 6. x 8' Packing every modern clock-radio feature into a compact. doors. wakes you up. minute hand and sweep second hand grace the easy -to -read clock dial. you'll find "Your Cue" your constant and provides top quality radio entertainment in and out -of. LEATHER CA?R'rtG CASE or conventional "buzzer" alarm. Ordinary price at least in half.americanradiohistory. A special earphone jack is HEA -H%IE provided for private listening or connection to your intercom NO. EVERYTHING A CLOCK -RADIO CAN OFFER . Six easily obtainable penlight-size mercury batteries power radios. plus a the radio receiver up to 500 hours. 5 Ill. Wt. W. The built -in rod -type antenna pulls in far -off stations with outstanding clarity while a large 4" x 6" speaker provides tonal reproduction of unusual quality. The "lull -to-sleep" control sets the radio for up to an hour's playing time. All controls are conveniently located and simple to operate. all-transistor circuit Runs up to 500 hours on standard batteries HEATHKIT TCR-1 Deluxe features at half the cost Easy to assemble $4595 "YOUR CUE" TRANSISTOR CLOCK RADIO KIT (TCR -1) Take all the deluxe features found in the most expensive clock.. An "Alarm -set" hand. "Your use. add the convenience of complete portability..transistor circuit features prealigned IF's for ease of assembly. Ea subsidiary of Daystrom.. Cue" Transistor Portable Clock Radio. 433 or music system.

50 watts. x 6W H.70 down. modern styling of this unit allows unobtrusive installation anywhere in the home. or either channel monophonic use. has been developed by Heath engineers to enable you to set up your own communications system at an unbelievably low price. Damping factor: Switch on front panel tor selecting either maxi- $5495 mum (20:1) or unity (1(1). Both master and remote stations have two -piece cases in ivory and turquoise for a rich. cabled wiring harness makes the W -7A extremely easy to assemble. Only two wires are required between the master unit and each remote station. Converts 110 V. $6. 55 watts. The clean. phono" and high level inputs. the Heathkit Intercom presents a new approach in design. HEATHKIT W-7A SPECIFICATIONS -Power output: Hi -Fi rating. Use of battery power does away with power cords. two channel mixing. Consisting of a master unit (XI -1) and up to five remote stations (XIR -1). The SP -2A permits stereo.$21. since a call to a remote station cannot be interrupted or listened to while the HEATHK[T XI-1 (Master) remote unit is in operation unless switched in by the master unit. Wt. 1960 67 www. Shpg. NEW IMPROVED DESIGN STEREO -MONO PREAMP KIT (SP -2A. . and includes a remote balance control.SP -1A) and plugging it into your SP -1A. Professional rating. channel (C. opposite page. Level controls provided on "mag. Intermodulation distortion: Less than 1% at 62 watts output using 60 cps and 6 kc signal mixed 4:1. instant operation and minimum battery drain. Transistor circuitry means long life. AC to well filtered 12 -volt DC output. Used with clock. e 15' W. 8 and 16 ohms and 70 -volt line. 6 lbs. Hum and noise: 80 db below 55 watts. Total harmonic distortion: Less than 2%from 30 cos to 15 kc at 55 watts output. clear intelligible communication and the instant operation feature allows tuning of the units off between calls. unweighted. $37.watt" genuine high fidelity amplifier.95 HEATHKIT C -SP -1A (not shown) (converts SP -1A to SP-2A) Shpg. you can easily convert to stereo whenever you choose by assembling the second $ plus three separate high level inputs.95 Shpg. compact and fits in space normally occupied by batteries. phono input HEATHKIT SP -1A (monophonic) Shpg. Output impedances: 4. The sleek. Wt. 4 lbs. allowing each unit to be placed where most convenient. Power supply is small.95 THE WORLD'S BIGGEST BARGAIN IN A HI-FI AMPLIFIER New 55 WATT HI -FI AMPLIFIER KIT (W -7A) Utilizing advanced design in components and tubes to achieve unprecedented performance with fewer parts.. $695 HEATHKIT XP -1 $9. it can serve as a music or "selective alarm" system. Complete privacy is assured.00 mo. Power requirements: 117 volts. Shpg. SP -1A) Get the SP -2A Stereo Preamp kit now. 90 -160 watts.americanradiohistory.. versatile transistor intercom. Switch selects NARTB equalization for tape head input. extending battery life. 50/60 cycles. 13 lbs. Dimensions: 8W D. Heathkit has produced the world's first and only "dollar -a. or the SP-1A monophonic version which New $5695 HEATHKIT SP-2A (stereo) Shpg. for any remote station to call any other remote station. 15 lbs. AC POWER SUPPLY (XP -1) A permanent power supply for 24 -hour operation of the XI -1 Intercom on HEATHKIT XIR-1 household current. Wt. quality appearance. Wt.Ne«. Wt. inexpensive "C" flashlight batteries will run a unit for up to 300 hours of normal "on" time. 4 lbs. FEBRUARY. and RIAA. Batteries not included. Circuitry is especially designed for crisp. the new improved W -7A provides a comfort- able margin of distortion -free power for any high fidelity application. Beautifully styled. Six inputs (12 in the stereo version) accommodate tape. open layout of chassis and precut. Power response: ±1 db from 20 cps to 20 kc at 55 watts output. or for the master unit to call any single remote unit or any combination of remote units. (Remote) eliminating the need for batteries. magnetic phono and microphone. 28 lbs. the system is designed for any remote unit to call the master.Transistor Intercom Kit TALK WITH ANY OR ALL FIVE STATIONS WITH YOUR OWN INTERCOM SYSTEM Battery Power Permits Placement Anywhere Versatile Unit has Many Important Uses Complete Privacy of Conversations Assured TRANSISTOR INTERCOM KIT (XI -1 and XIR -1) A flexible. Eight ordinary. Meeting full 55 -watt hi -fi rating and 50 -watt professional standards. LP or 78 RPM compensation for mag.

improved models bring you the outstanding performance of the preceding models Weekend boatsman or professional . 1 : . 13 lbs. The completely transistorized circuit operate. faired. 10 lbs. A 4.. etc. monophonic operation using both chan- nels simultaneously. . AC receptacle: switched. phono. ganged bass. Total har- monic distortion: less than 2 %. Outputs (each channel): 4. Iron 6 extremely long battery life and can be purchased anywhere. . 150 watts (fused).J+-n`'. 7. and fun to flashlight cells and one Tong -life battery. 4. and how it is installed. up to 1.TRANSISTOR PORTABLE RADIOS (XR -2P and XR -2L) Completely Transistorized . ducer uses a barium titanate clement mounted in a. logs. x 15' W. Shpg.position input selector switch provides choice of mag. with solidi brass through -hull fitting and mounting hardware. 8 15 ohms. clutched volume control. $7. speaker phaslnc switch. x 3X' H. These new. to the beach. Heathkit con- struction manuals. "professional ". 50/60 cycle. normal. molded epoxy resin housing tivity. The six standard size "D" flashlight batteries used for power provide transducer is also possible.. New Stereo Amplifiers YOUR BEST DOLLAR VALUE IN STEREO .) $3495 Indicates Depth and Type of Bottom From 0 to 100 Feet Detects Submerged Objects (fish. While designed for The roomy chassis makes it unnecessary to crowd components. or using either channel for monophonic program material independent of the other channel. Inputs: 4 stereo or 1 . a 14/14 WATT STEREO AMPLIFIER KIT (SA -2) Complete control is at your fingertips with this versatile Stereo Amplifier- Preamplifier. tuner and crystal phono. 8 monophonic. on -olt switch. order one today! hardware and gimbal -type mounting ben het. The XR -2P features a mocha and beige high -impact parent circle in the molded black plastic dial face. channel reversing function. use . speaker phase reversal switch and two AC outlets. sounder for you. A tremendous buy at this low Heathkit price! Shpg. Featuring 3 watts per stereo channel and 6 watts as a monophonic amplifier. Power response: ±1 db from 20 cps to 20 kc at 14 watts output. fisherman or skindiver . Six Texas Instrument transistors are used for high sensitivity and selec. Depth is indicated by a flashing neon lamp rotating behind a trans- effortless station selection. 60 cps. tuner. where it . undis- ew New torted room -filling stereophonic sound at the lowest possible cost.position selector. etc. Cornes complete with splash-proot alrinet. ganged treble. x 8" D..000 houss on flashlight batteries teries . ganged dual tone controls. 20 kc. Con- trols: dual clutched volume. New New 4/14 $6995 HEATHKIT DS-1 HEATHKIT XR -2P $2995 (6 lbs. Hum and noise: mag.1J.. adding greatly to ease permanent mounting on the bottom of the boon. 20 kc at 3 watts out. are just a few of the plus features you get with these new transistor portables. 12 watts per channel. 23 lbs... Larger than life -size diagrams show you exactly what each part looks like. AC. the SA -3 has been proven by exhaustive tests to be more than adequate in volume for every listening taste. Intermodulation distortion: less than 1% tet at 16 watts output using 60 cps and 6 kc signal mixed 4:1. 47 db below 14 watts. and high level auxiliary input for tape recorder. watts per channel. The unit offers selection of dual channel stereo operation. crystal phono. Power requirements: 117 HEATHKlT SA-2 volts.. Dimensions: 12%" W. Carry TRANSISTOR DEPTH SOUNDER (DS -1) them with you wherever you go. speaker phasing switch.55295 ECONOMY STEREO AMPLIFIER KIT (SA -3) This amazing performer delivers more than enough power for pure. Fun to build. The XR -2L has a sun -tan color leather case with an identical beige ables the viewer to easily rear) the indicator in bright light or sunshine. Total harmonic distortion: less than 3 %. Operates From Flashlight Bat- New. 6. Dimensions: 4A" H. new vernier timing. A large hoed around Iba dial en- plastic case. A large 4" x 6" PM speaker with heavy magnet provides excellent tone quality. the SA -2 offers every modern feature in a master stereo con- trol center at a price to please the budget minded. 16 watts per channel.. Other features include RIA. or 28 watts total monophonic. The trans- plastic front. Shpg. $ 1. Power response: ±1 db from 50 cps. 8 and 16 ohms. TV. 68 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. world famous for their clarity and thoroughness. Inputs (each channel): tuner. Providing 14 watts per stereo channel. You will find its ease of assembly another plus feature. crystal or ceramic phono. improved styling. The amplifier is tastefully styled in black with gold trimmed control knobs and gold screened front and rear panel. Wt. x ef" D. 30 cps to 15 kc at 14 watts output.) and Their Depth $7. Wt. here's the depth plus brand new styling and the additional convenience of vernier tuning for smooth.\ equalization on mag.. "hidi ".00 MO. etc. lead you a simple step at a time to successful completion of the kit. ganged bass.americanradiohistory.00 DN. Handsomely styled black and gold vinyl -clad steel cabinet.position selector.) HEATHKIT XR -2L (7 lbs.. phono input. 63 db below 14 watts. Finish: black with gold trim. Outputs: 4. Controls: dual clutched volume. boating. "utility ". HEATHKIT SA-3 SPECIFICATIONS -Power output: 3 watts per channel.. Hum and noise: 65 db below tell output. on trips. Wt. SPECIFICATIONS -Power output: 1. ganged treble. Intermodulation distortion: less than $2995 2% (á} 3 watts output using 60 cycle 8 6 he signal mixed 4:1. phono. temporary outboard mounting of the of construction.

New Amplifiers & Tuners
1 his thrilling sucer ssor to the famous Heathkit l: -A -2 is one of the finest invest-
ments anyone can make in top quality high fidelity equipment. It delivers a
full 14 watts of hi -ti rated power and easily meets professional standards as a
12 -watt amplifier.
Rich, full range sound reproduction and low noise and distortion are
achieved through careful design using the latest developments in the audio
science. Miniature tubes are used throughout, including EL -84 output tubes
in a push -pull output circuit with a special -design output transformer. The
built -in preamplifier has three separate switch -selected inputs for magnetic
phono, crystal phono or tape, and AM -FM tuner. RIAA equalization is
featured on the magnetic phono input. Shpg. Wt. 15 lbs.
NOTE THESE OUTSTANDING SPECIFICATIONS-Power output: 14 watts, Hì -Fi; 12 watts, Prot,
16 watts, Utility. Power response: t1 db from 20 cps to 20 kc at 14 watts output, Total harmonic distortion: HEATHKIT EA-3
less than 2%, 30 esa to 15 be at 14 watts output: Intermodulation distortion: less than 1% at 16 watts ;.::p ..t
using 60 cps and 6 kc signal mixed 4:'. Hum and noise: mag. phono input, 47 db below 14 watts; tuner and
Crystal phono, 63 db below 14 watts. Output impedances: 4, 8 and 16 ohms. $2995
Meeting 14 -watt "hi-fi" and 12 -watt "professional" standards, the UA -2 lives
up to its title "universal" performing with equal brilliance in the most demand-
ing monophonic or stereophonic high fidelity systems. Its high quality, remark-
able economy and ease of assembly make it one of the finest values in high w,r,
fidelity equipment. Buy two for stereo. Shpg. Wt. 13 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS-Power output: Hi -Fi rating, 14 watts; Prof- .ling, 12 watts. Power response:

±1 db from 20 cps to 20 kc at 17 watts output. Total harmonic distortion: than 2% from 20 cps to 20 kc at HEATHKIT UA-2
1-1 ,. 3p, sutovt. Intermodulation distortion: L' ss than °- at 14 :;ing 60 cps and 6 kc sign ! i°


' Hum and noise: 73 db below 14 watts. Output impedances: -rms. Damping factor:
' . -

..imum; maximum damping 4, r Input voltage for 14 watt output: .7 volts. Power re-
quirements: 117 volts 50/60 cycles, 55 watt,. Dimensions: 10" W. x 6% D. x 4'/." H.

This handsomely styled FM tuner features better than 2.5 microvolt sensi-
tivity, automatic frequency control (AFC) with on -off switch, flywheel
tuning and prewired, prealigned and pretested tuning unit. Clean chassis
layout, prealigned intermediate stage transformers and assembled tuning
unit makes construction simple guarantees top performance. Flywheel
tuning and new soft, evenly -lighted dial scale provide smooth, effortless
operation. Vinyl- covered case has black, simulated -leather texture with gold
design and trim. Multiplex adapter output also provided. Shpg. Wt. 8 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS- Tuning range: 88 to 108 mc. Quieting sensitivity: ".5 quieting.
sa `or 20 db of

IF frequency: 10.7 mc. Image ratio:45 db. AFC correction factor: . AM suppression: 25 db.
Frequency response: ±2 db 20 to 20,000 cps. Harmonic distortion: _ 5 uv, 400 cycles

100% moduL.' Intermodulation distortion: L
modulation. Antenna: 'Lag ohms unbalanced. Output impedance: r1. Output
voltage: non:: (with 30% modulation, 2- Power requirements: volts 50 ¡c_
cycle AC at 25 wn'r: Overall dimensions: 4.Ç -i.. x ` . _

HEATH COMPANY /Benton Harbor, Mich. a subsidiary of Daystrom, Inc.

FEBRUARY, 1960 69

New Tape Recorders

Choice of 3 Outstanding Models Choice of Monophonic or Stereo models
Compare With $350 -$400 Machines Complete versatility
Preassembled Tape Mechanism Easy to assemble, easy to use

(TR -1 Series)
Enjoy the incomparable performance of these professional quality tape Here are the tape recorders the avid hi -fi fan will find most appealing!
recorders at less than half the usual cost. These outstanding kits offer a Their complete flexibility in installation and many functions make them
combination of features found only in much higher priced professional our most versatile tape recorder kits. This outstanding tape recorder
equipment, generally selling for $350 to $400. Not the least of these now can be purchased in any one of three versions. You can buy the
special features is the handsome styling which characterizes the kits ... new two -track (TR -IAH) or four -track (TR -1AQ) versions which
a semi -gloss black panel is set off by a plastic escutcheon in soft gold, record and play back both stereo and monophonic programming, or the
which is matched by black control knobs with gold inserts. The mechan- two -track monophonic record -playback version (TR -1A) and later con-
ical assembly, with fast forward and rewind functions, comes to you vert to either two -track or four-track stereo record -playback models by
completely assembled and adjusted; you build only the tape amplifier. purchasing the MK -4 or MK -5 conversion kits. The tape deck mecha-
And, you'll find this very easy to accomplish, since the two circuit boards nism is extremely simple to assemble. Long, faithful service is assured by
eliminate much of the wiring. Separate record and playback heads and precision bearings and close machining tolerances that hold flutter and
amplifiers allow monitoring from tape while recording and a "pause" wow to less than 0.35%. Power is provided by a four -pole, fan-cooled
control permits instant starting and stopping of tape for accurate cueing induction motor. One lever controls all tape handling functions of for-
and tape editing. A digit counter is provided for convenient selection ward, fast -forward or rewind modes of operation. The deck handles up
of any particular recording. Push -pull knob provides instant selection to 7" tape reels at 7.5 or 3.75 IPS as determined by belt position. The
of 33/4 or 71/2 IPS tape speed. Safety interlock on record switch reduces TR-1A series decks may be mounted in either a vertical or horizontal
possibility of accidental erasure of recorded tapes. Shpg. Wt. 30 lbs. position (mounting brackets included). The TE -1 Tape Electronics kits
supplied feature NARTB equalization, separate record and playback
SPECIFICATIONS -Tape speed: 7.5" and 3.75' per second. Maximum reel size: 7'. gain controls and a safety interlock. Provision is made for mike or line
Frequency response (record -playback): ±2.5 db, 30 to 12,030 cps at 7.5 IPS; ±2.5 db, inputs and recording level is indicated on a 6E5 "magic eye" tube.
30 to 6.500 cps at 3.75 PS. Harmonic distortion: 1% or less at normal recording level; 3%
Two circuit boards simplify assembly.

or less at peak recording levnl. Signal -to -noise ratio: 50 db or better, referred to normal
recording level. Flutter and wow:0.3% RMS at 7.5 IPS; 0.35% RMS at 3.75 IPS. Heads
(3): erase, record. and in -line stereo playback (TR -1C, monophonic playback). Playback
equalization: NARTB curve, wirin ±2 eh. Inputs (2): microphone and line. Input im-
pedance: megohm. Model TR -1D 8. TR-1E outputs (2): A and B stereo channels.
Model TR -1C output (1): merlon ".c Output levels: approximately 2 volts maximum.
Output impedance: approximate ly 6 0 0 °. *, ,cra'orn followers). Recording level indi-
cator: processional type db meter. Bias erase frequency: 60 kc. Timing accuracy:±2%.
ward and rewind functions. Includes one
TE -4 Tape Electronics kit. Shpg. Wt. 24 lbs.
$10.00 DWN.

MODEL TR -1A: Monophonic two-track record /playback with fast for-
99 .95
TR 1A SPECIFICATIONS -Frequency response: 7.5 IPS ±3 db 50 to 12,000 cps;
$9.00 MO.

Power requirements: 105 -125 volts AC, 60 cycles, 35 watts. Dimensions: 15%- W. e 13%' 3.75 IPS ±3 db 50 to 7,000 cps. Signal -to -noise ratio: better than 45 db below full output
o. Total height lox -. Mounting: requires minimum of 814" below and 1%' above mounting of 1.25 volts (channel. Harmonic distortion: less than 2% at full output. Bias erase Ire -
Surface. May he ererated in either horizontal or vertical no=_ition. quency: 60 kc (push -pull oscillator).

MODEL TR -1C Monophonic Tape Deck: $16.00 DWN.
Monophonic Record and Pla, back. 61 J J$14.00MO. 59.95 MODEL TR -1AH: Two -track monophonic and stereo record/playback
MODEL TR -1D Two Track Stereo Tape Deck: Monophonic Record with fast forward and rewind functions. Two
$149.95 $15.00 DWN.
TE -4 Tape Electronics kits. Shpg. Wt. 36 lbs. P $13.00 MO.
and Playback, plus Playback of 2 -track $17.00 DWN. 69.95
Pre- recorded Stereo Tapes (stacked).
MODEL TR -1E Four Track Stereo Tape Deck: Monophonic Record
$15.00 MO.
3.751 PS t
TR-IAH SPECIFICATIONS-Frequency response: 7.5 IPS ±3 db 40 to 15.000 cps;
db 40 to 10,000 cps. Signal -to -noise ratio:45 db below lull output of volt /chan-
nel. Harmonic distortion: less than 2% at full output. Bias erase frequency: 60 he

and Playback, plus Playback of 4 -track DWN. (push -pull oscillator).
Pre- recorded Stereo Tapes (stacked). 16995
$17.00 MO.
MODEL C -TR -1C Conversion Kit: Converts TR -1C to TR -1D (see MODEL TR -1AQ: Four -track monophonic and stereo record /playback
TR-1D description above). Shpg. Wt. 2 lbs $19.95 with fast forward and rewind functions. Two Q DWN.
MODEL C -TR -1 D Conversion Kit: Converts TR-1D to TR-1E (see TE -4 Tape Electronics kits. Shpg. Wt. 36 Ibs.
$15.00 P 149.95 $13.00 MO.
TR -1E description above). Shpg. Wt. 2 lbs $14.95 TR -1AQ SPECIFICATIONS -Frequency response: 7.5 IPS ±3 db 40 to 15,000 cps;
3.75 IPS±3 db 40 to 10.000 cps. Signal -to -noise ratio: db below tell output of .75 volts I
MODEL C -T R -1 CO Conversion Kit:Converts TR-1C to TR-1E 40
channel. Harmonic distortion: less than 2% at full output. Bias erase: 3 kc (push -pull
(see TR-1E description above). Shpg. Wt. 2 lbs. $19.95 oscillator).
NOTE: To convert TR -1C to TR -1E, purchase both C-TR -1C and CTR10 conversion kits.

HEATH COMPANY /Benton Harbor, Mich. a subsidiary of Daystrom, Inc.


New "Acoustic Suspension" Hi -Fi
Speaker System Kit
A revolutionary principle in speaker design, the Acoustic Research speaker
has been universally accepted as one of the most praiseworthy speaker sys-
tems in the world of high fidelity sound reproduction. Heathkit is proud to
be the sole kit licensee of this Acoustic Suspension principle from AR, Inc.,
and now offers for the first time this remarkable speaker system in money-
saving, easy -to -build kit form.
HEATHIKIT AS-2U (unfinished)
The 10" Acoustic Suspension woofer delivers clean, clear extended -range
bass response and outstanding high frequency distribution is provided by the

HEATHKIT AS-2M (mahogany) $79.95
specially designed "cross- fired" two -speaker tweeter assembly.
Another first in the Heathkit line is the availability of preassembled and
prefinished cabinets. Cabinets are available in prefinished birch (blond) or
mahogany, or in unfinished birch suitable for the finish of your choice. Kit
HEATHKIT AS -2B (birch) EACH assembly consists merely of mounting the speakers, wiring the simple cross-
over network and filling the cabinet with the fiberglass included. Shpg.
Wt. 32 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS -Frequency response (at 10 watts input): ±5 db, 42 to 14,000 cps; 10 db down at 30
and 16.000 cps. Harmonic distortion: below 2% down to 50 cps, below 3% down to 40 cps at 10 watts input

New Test
in corner room location. Impedance: 8 ohms. Suggested amplifier power: 20 watts minimum. Suggested
damping factor: high (5:1 or greater). Efficiency:' about 2 %. Distribution angle: 90° in horizontal plane.
Dimensions: 24" W. x 13 %" H. x 11 %' D.

Here in one compact, easy -to -use instrument are provided all the test signals
and sweep frequencies required for fast, easy alignment and troubleshooting
of RF, IF and detector sections of FM tuners and receivers. An instrument
unique in the test equipment field ... being the only one of its type designed
especially for FM service work.
SPECIFICATIONS- Output frequencies: for RF alignment, 90 mc (FM band low end), 100 mc (FM band
middle range), 107 mc (FMband high end). Modulation: 400 -cycle incidental FM. IF and detector alignment:
10.7 mc sweep. Sweep width markers: 200 kc to over mc, variable, 10.7 mc (crystal), 100 kc sub- markers.

Modulation: 400 -cycle AM. For other applications: 10.0 mc (crystal) and harmonics, 100 kc, 400-cycle audio.
Controls: main frequency selector, modulation switch /concentric level control, marker oscillator switch /con-
Price to be centric level control, sweep width -power switch, output control, AF -RF (source impedance) switch. Power
HEATHKIT FMO-1 supply: transformer, selenium rectifier. Power requirements: 105 -125 V, 50/60 cycles, 12 watts. Cabinet
announced size: 7 %" H. x 4%" W. x 4 %" D.

Moderately priced, and capable of precision performance the RF -1 provides
highly accurate and stable RF signals for trouble -shooting and aligning RF
and IF circuits of all kinds. Modulated or unmodulated RF output of at least
100,000 microvolts is available, controlled by both fixed -step and continu-
ously variable controls. A built -in 400 cycle audio generator with 10 -volt
output provides internal modulation of RF signal and is available separately
for audio tests. A preassembled bandswitch and coil assembly, aligned to
factory precision standards, eliminates the need for special alignment equip-
HEATHKIT RF-1 ment. Shpg. Wt. 7 lbs.

$2795 SPECIFICATIONS-Frequency range: Band A, 100 kc to 320 kc; Band B, 310 kc to 1.1 mc; Band C, 1 mc to
3.2 mc; Band D, 3.1 mc to 11, mc; Band E, 10 mc to 32 mc; Band F, 32 mc to 110 mc. Calibrated harmonics:
110 me to 220 mc. Accuracy: 2 %. Output: impedance, 50 ohms; voltage, in excess of 100,000 uv on all bands.
Modulation: internal, 400 cycles approx. 30% depth; external, approx. 3 V across 50 k ohm for 30 %. 4O cycles
audio output: approx. 10 V open circuit. Tube complement: VI 12AT7 RF oscillator, V2 6AN8 modulator
and output. Power requirements: 105.125 V 50/60 cycles AC, 15 watts. Aluminum cabinet dimensions:
6y,'W.x9 %'H.x5 "D,

FEBRUARY, 1960 71

Ham Radio Gear
The KS-1 is designed as a companion to the "Chippewa" Linear Amplifier
and is also suitable for supplying plate power to most other RF amplifiers in
the medium to high power class. The KS -1 features an oil- filled, hermetic-
ally sealed plate transformer to minimize corona, a swinging choke in the
filter circuit for good regulation, and a 60-second time delay relay to permit
adequate heating of the mercury vapor rectifiers before application of
plate voltage. All components are conservatively rated and well insulated
for long life and dependable service. Shpg. Wt. 105 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS -Maximum DC power output: 1500 watts. Nominal DC voltage output: 3000 or
1500 volts. Maximum DC current output: Average 500 ma, peak 1000 ma. Regulation: 180 to 600 ma (typical
linear amplifier), 8%; 0 to 300 ma (typical class C amplifier), 10 %; 0 to 500 ma, 15 %. Ripple: Loss than %. 1

Tube complement: (2) 866A mercury vapor rectifiers. Recommended ambient temperature: 50 to 100
HEATHKIT KS-1 degrees F. Circuit: Two hall -wave mercury vapor rectifiers in a full wave, single-phase configuration with
swinging choke input filtering. Line power requirements: 115 V, 50/60 cycles, 20 amperes; 230 V, 50/60
cycles, 10 amperes. Chassis size: W. 12' H. 13' D.

17 %" x x

The KL -1 operates at maximum legal amateur power inputs in SSB, CW
or AM service using any of the popular CW, SSB and AM exciters as a
driver. Premium tubes (4- 400's) push the "Chippewa" to top performance
levels while a centrifugal blower provides more than adequate cooling.
Shpg. Wt. 70 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS -RF section: Driving power required (10 metors): Class ABI (tuned grid) 10 watts
peak; Class C (tuned arid) 40 watt.: :noed cul r .. ztis peak. Power input: Class AB1

(SSB -voice modulation) 2000 watts PE - SSB -h+ -' '300 watts; Class A61 (AM linear)
1000 watts; Class C (CW) 1000 watts. Power output (20 meters): > AB1 (SSB.voice modulation) 900
watts PEP; Class ABI ISSO -two tone test) 550 wo;:.. - ::x1 300 watts; Class C (CW) 750 watts.
Output impedance: 50 to 72 ohms (unbalance..: 1. Input impedance: 50 to 72 ohms (unbalanced). Band
coverage: 80, 40. 20. 15 and 10 meters. Panel metering: 0 to 50 ma. grid current; 0 to 100 ma screen current;
HEATHKIT KL-1 0 to 5000 volt plate voltage; 0 to 1000 ma plate current. Tube complement: Final tubes, (2) 4 -400A; clamp
tube, (1) 6DQ6; voltage regulators, (4) OD3, (2) 0C3. Power requirements: AC (power supply primary Cif.
cult), 250 watts, 115 volt, 50 /60 cycles; DC, 3000 to 4000 volts, 450 ma. Cabinet size: 19%" W. x 11% "H. x 16" D.


Extends coverage of the Heathkit "Mohawk" Receiver to the 2 -meter band.
May also be used with receivers tuning a 4 mc segment between the fre-
quencies of 22 and 35 mc when appropriate crystal is used. Shpg. Wt. 7 lbs.
SPECIFICATIONS -Noise figure: 4.5 db; uv signal provides 20 db thermal noise quieting. Sensitivity:

approx..1 uv input will provide a signal better than 6 db over noise level. Gain: approx. 40 db. Pass band:
essentially flat 144 to 148 mc; approx. 35 db down at 143 and 149 mc. Image rejection: better than 100 db
(tunable). Output Impedance: 50 to 75 ohms. Input impedance: 50 to 75 ohms; 300 ohms with batas.
HEATHKIT XC-2 Frequency: input, 144 to 148 mc; output, 22 to 26 mc with crystal supplied. Tubes: 6AM4, 66S8, 6EA8,
12AT7. Crystal: .005% 3rd overtone. Power requirements: 150 volts DC at 50 ma (dropping resistor sup.

$3695 plied for 210 VDC RX -1 operation) 6.3 volts AC /DC at 1.375 amps. Size: 9" W. x 5W H. x4% D.

This power supply is ideal for converting the Heathkit "Cheyenne" and
"Comanche" mobile transmitter and receiver to fixed station operation;
or may be used to provide necessary filament and plate voltage for a wide
variety of amateur equipment. Features silicon diode rectifiers, high capac-
ity filters for superior dynamic regulation, and line filtering to minimize
-- 3 TVI and reduce receiver line noise. On ICAS basis, provides 150 watts DC
plus filament power for 6.3 volt or 12.6 volt filament applications (6.3 VAC.,
8 amps. or 12.6 VAC., 4 amps.; 600 VCD., 250 ma or 600 VDC., 200 ma
$2895 and 300 VDC., 100 ma). Less than 1% ripple; excellent regulation.
Housed in attractive green and gray -green cabinet measuring 9" long,
434" wide, 6" high. Shpg. Wt. 15 lbs.


ceramic element. AC (35 watts). Shpg.025 me 27. 10 lbs.O. the CB -I connecting cable.00 mo. Michigan. 9' ele- SPECIFICATIONS.D. Vo tests to take. or fixed installations. call letters.965 me 27. etc.135 me receiver combination designed to operate on the new 11 -meter "Citizen's Band ".B. No Tests to Take -No Operator's License Required SPECIFY FREQUENCY CHOICE Any Citizen 18 or Older Can Have Own Station (1st and 2nd choice) Hundreds of Business and Personal Uses CLASS D CITIZEN'S BAND FREQUENCIES CITIZEN'S BAND TRANSCEIVER KIT (CB -1) 26. Total B requirements: 260 volts at 60 ma. 15' connecting cable and neces- card.055 me 27.10 dwn.S.. Power rectifier: 2 silicon diodes in full KIT -Model VP -1 -6. Power input: 5 watts maxi ments: 50'connecting cable and mounting bracket. 4 lbs $7.125 me 27. and crystal for one channel and FCC application form. microphone and two special power cords. On Parcel Post Orders include postage for weight shown.$11.95 and shore. Speaker size: 3T (round). Two or more Heathkit ANTENNAS Transceivers provide you with your own 2 -way radiotelephone system for making CBU -1 "UTILITY" ANTENNA $9.065 me 27. Power supply: POWER SUPPLIES FOR MOBILE USE Internal 117 V. it amps.O. MICH. 9' whip. Attractively styled in two -tone "mocha" CBF -1 "FIXED LOCATION" ANTENNA.Receiver type: Superrege. pówer supply and -antenna separately..035 me 27. Wt. 3 lbs.105 me 27.975 me 27. Benton Harbor. '. Front panel switch selects both "transmit" and "receive ".20 ° and +130°F.005?o of marked chann deency between. POSTAGE sessions only. Order sary hardware. New Citizen's Band Transceiver WIRED OR KIT FORM HEATHKIT CB-1 HEATHKIT W-CB-1 $4295 (kit model) $6095 (wired model) $6.005 me 27. and mail them to FCC to apply for station license. or 12. one for AC operation.. Modulation: WIRED AND KIT FORM AM plate and screen modulation automatically limitedte . Shpg.nerative detector w /rf stage. 7 lbs. SHIP VIA Name Parcel Post NOTE: all prices and specifi- cations subject to change Address Express without notice.D.6 volts at 0.. total heater requirements.. 45372" base -loaded antenna.015 me 27. you need only 27. mum to plate of final RF amplifier (FCC requirement).. Wt.3 volts at 1.175 me just like any short wave radio used by police and other communication services. Enclosed find ( ) check ( ) money order. audio power output: Approximately watt.95 and "beige ".985 me 27. and apply to Continental U.115 me 27.255 mc fill out forms we supply. home and automobile.215 mc 26. literally hundreds of useful applications.185 mc 27. $6.205 mc The Heathkit CB -1 Citizen's Bami Transceiver is a compact radio transmitter and 26.075 me 27. boat CBM -1 "MOBILE" ANTENNA $19. 'A wave "ground plane ". using 6 or 12 volt batteries. WIRED -Model WVP -1 -12.. friends or associates. Power circuits automatically switched when appropriate line cord is plugged In. x6" D. x 9%" W.95 case.155 me 27. Both models include transceiver. 7 lbs. 6. Easy to install spring complete with microphone. 50/60 cycles. orders. station ID . All prices are NET F.95 wave voltage doubler circuit. Excellent coverage. $19. with cord and connector. For 6 V be" . With appropriate accessory antenna. 4 lbs $11.225 mc 27. {) FEBRUARY. and Pos. one for battery 1 KIT -Model VP -1 -12..5 amas). can be used for communicating between truck and office.8 amps. bracket and clip. Transmitter frequency control: Third overtone type quartzcrystal operating within 0. Undistorted l2_ volt Vibrator Power Supply for use with t 2 voltbatteries. Microphone: Combination hand -held and desk type. Wt. 4 lbs. Cabinetdimerw sions: 8 "H... portable antenna for temporary mobile accessory power supply makes the CB -1 completely portable for use in cars. a subsidiary of Daystrom. ( ) QUANTITY ITEM On Express orders do not in- clude transportation charges -they will be collected by the express agency at time of delivery.95 HEATH COMPANY BENTON HARBOR 20. A Heathkit Good coverage. farm -house and field .. 20% Deposit SEND FREE HEATHKIT CATALOG required on all 1rr7 °(FCC requirements).americanradiohistory. plastic WIRED -Model WVP -1 -6.95 necessary business and personal contacts with family. 4 lbs $7. Shpg. mounting. use VP. Comes Best coverage mobile installation. ] Freight Best Way PRICE C. lV t. for 12 V battery power. RF output impedance: 50 ohms. trucks. Shpg. Shpg. Wt. 2 power cords for mobile or fixed operation. Operates 27.085 me 27. crystal. Inc. 1960 73 www. no special knowledge or operator's license required . *This channel shared with Class C Radio Control. Please ship City & Zone (PLEASE PRINT) State MODEL NO. % wave. Line cords: Two supplied. TOTAL HEATHKITS ar e also available at your Dealer soenenleisxttinpgage .95 operation.O.1 -12 (4 ampe). 12' boots.lode! VP -1 -6 Vibrator Power Supply 6 volt Vibrator Power Supply for use with 6 volt batteries. (6.165 me `27.

- 'i% %s- .7 mil diamond more if transformers being tuned too close to the same frequency. its tuning grade the performance of the cartridge. 74 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www.. MODEL M3D Normal voltage readings at this point. difficult to determine. the transformer new Standard Coil Use Only Shure Replacement Styli that carry that corresponds with the lowest fre- quency is located and its tuning slug Products tuner pro- turned all the way in. Methods of troubleshooting this type of oscillation are usually involved and often time. depending upon 222 Hartrey Avenue. INC. with 0.. most of the worry. This simplified method saves much of the time and trouble -free cartridges. each unit is checked ence of oscillations can be quickly electrically.. Floats at In extreme cases it may read as high only 3 grams in transcription tone arms. SMITH SCILLATIONS in the video if strip possibly produce more in- feriority and self-distrust among service technicians than any other fault of TV receivers. % iJJ. Smooth from 40 to 15. r:::. Oscillation Incomparable quality -the overwhelming choice increases the voltage to some high value.. with 0. SHURE The first question is: When should video if oscillation be suspected? When the audio is normal and the video infor- mation is present but not entirely H I F t P H O N O CARTRIDGES legible.. Made under custom the contrast control setting. mechanically and acoustically to insure trouble -free performance. Oscilla- tions are usually caused by two or Our lips are locked . *audiophile net.r. Next. tion -free response from 20 to 15. Illinois their frequency. \ \\ IF .000 cps. The raster may be streaked Shure High Fidelity Stereo Dynetic phono with long white lines or have a spotted cartridges are designed to satisfy the most appearance unaffected by changes in critical requirements. i:/ / sii ii/s =-i world's most .00* to correct a misaligned if strip.. Any means better service for your customers - other if transformers should be adjusted Literature available: either to a quarter. By WARREN J.. %/' . The exact cause of oscillation is often Superbly designed and built to perfectionist tolerances.00* 1. The method but not for long. vary from 0. It is comparatively easy MODEL M7D AT $24.7 mil diamond rectified voltage caused by normal disturbances such as noise. due to the space charge of the detector tube and the small amount of *audiophile net. It frequency of the bandpass.. ' .'. but it can usually be attributed to one of two things: CUSTOM misalignment or a defective component in the if strip.consuming. slug is approximately centered. -. Evanston.. verified by connecting a vacuum -tube voltmeter across the detector load PROFESSIONAL resistor as indicated in the figure... This will result in an greater profits for you. -. as 35 volts. Distor.or halfway posi- SHURE BROTHERS. /.II 05Cl LLATION SECRETI = the _/ -=t/. You will Outclasses every cartridge except the Shure recommended here is to locate the if transformer that is tuned to the highest soon learn about the M3D -by actual listening tests! Tracks per- fectly at minimum pressure available in record changer arms. tion between the others.americanradiohistory." Inferior imitations can seriously de- former is normally tuned to the center ..\\\\ \ TELEVISION : \\\ SPOTTING VIDEO -. Er =I. frequency and turn the tuning slug all the way out.000 cps.5 to AT $45. Watch for it. If one trans- the certification "Precision Manufactured by Shure. of independent critics and experts. with no input signal. The pres- laboratory conditions.

N. LOUISIANA Crescent Electronic Supply detector) while observing the voltmeter LAFAYETTE.. WASHINGTON SALEM. NEW YORK Stack Electronics. MARYLAND SYRACUSE. mined exactly in which stage they are Hi -Fi. NEW YORK Radio Electric Service Co. Chemcity Electronic Distributors the Q of the stage to rise above normal. TENNESSEE probe placement. OHIO Pioneer Electronic Supply Co.americanradiohistory. AudioIDnics. Inc. PROVENC. NEW YORK COLUMBIA. Inc.. Inc. Inc. Radio Electric Service Co. NORTH CAROLINA Southeastern Radio Supply Co.. BOSTON. a trouble that ATLANTIC CITY. provides a reliable source for parts think that you. itor. Inc. Inc. SPOKANE. NEW YORK ate d Purchaser. Hillcrest Records Hi FiI MISSOURI HOUSTON. alignment can now be finished by Tetrad Electronics SAN FERNANDO VALLEY MISSISSIPPI CLEVELAND.. OHIO NEWPORT NEWS. (2 locations) POINT PLEASANT. CALIF. CALIF. 1960 75 www. Arrow Electronics. VA. CAMDEN. WISCONSIN A method for quickly locating the DES MOINES. Dunlap Radio 8 TV Supply Co. MASS. JOHNSON CITY. RALEIGH. INDIANA PENNSYLVANIA WEST VIRGINIA BROOKLYN. NORFOLK. Zack Electronics Buckeye Electronics Dist. Burnstein. voltage on the grid reduces the normal BINGHAMTON.C. Kierulff Sound Corp. DELAWARE Radio Electric Service Co. Inc. S. INDIANA Gem Electronics Dist. ARLINGTON. IOWA HERKIMER. EAO PA . WATERTOWN.. S. S. BALTIMORE. CALIF. Inc. TEXAS following the manufacturer's alignment Kierulff Sound Corp. Inc. The SAN DIEGO. BA High Fidelity (2 locations) Ham'n Hi Fi.Applebee Co. DULUTH. CALIF. NORTH CAROLINA Southeastern Radio Supply Co. car- somewhat higher than the advertised direct mail ries a complete stock of kits for immediate delivery.C. Northwest Electronics. For this purpose sev- eral capacitors with short leads and clips should be made up. Then oscillation is attributable DENVER NEW JERSEY Pioneer Electronic Supply Co- SPRINGFIELD. VERNON. Inc. an increase in value of plate or HAWAII NEWARK. W. NEW YORK OREGON oscillations. ELMIRA. and. SUMTER. COLUMBUS. MO. NEW YORK R. LORAIN. PHILADELPHIA. N. as your dealer has absorbed all trans- lished in answer to hundreds of requests. Inc. HICKSVILLE. OHIO Srepco. TOLEDO. WIS. Dunlap Rade & TV Supply Co. TENNESSEE Chemcity Electronic Distributors diode TV detector circuits.. Inc. W.. Dunlap Radio 8 TV Supply Co. Inc. Inc.C. (2 locations) UTICA. MICHIGAN MERCED. Radonics-Gravois. OREGON WASHINGTON Vert G. GENEVA. IOWA Herkimer Electronics Co. Dixie Radio Supply Co. NEW YORK ANDERSON. Inc. offers local display and demonstration convenient "over.. CALIF. Kierulff Sound Corp. Standard Radio-Springfield. VIRGINIA Cain Electronics Co. Inc. LOUISIANA detector load resistor. CALIF. N. Walker Company permits a portion of the high positive Ft. allowing oscilla-. zacKIT Corp. the manufacturer's information the II plate. VA. Meyers Electronics Graham Electronic Supply.00l -µf capacitor MARSHALLTOWN. N. Sterling Electronics. Inc.Easton VIRGINIA the detector load resistor as one of the Dunlap Radio 8 TV Supply Co. Radonics. grid and cathode voltages of the FEBRUARY. PAUL. OREGON of the following stage. The Hi-Fi Shop Genesee Electronics Company Radio Laboratories EL CAJON. PORTAGE.C.C. GULFT. Southeastern Radio Supply Co. Lew Bonn Company MINNEAPOLIS. New York being developed. HAWAII Radio-Television Corp. MT. MINN. MAPLE HEIGHTS. IOWA Radio Trade Supply Co. MUNCIE.. IOWA Radio Trade Supply Co. to ground. Flushing 66. Federated Purchaser.. MADISON. RHODE ISLAND Satterfield Electronics. Eccles Electric Co. an excessive amount of voltage across VISALIA. LOUISIANA for an increase of voltage across the Sterling Electronics. oscillation still re. and we portation costs. and. Inc. NEW YORK originating is to bypass the grid of each Radio Trade Supply Ca. CALIF. PA. Distributing Co. NEW YORK BECKLEY. FARMINGDALE.J. VIRGINIA value of a loading resistor across an WILMIN GTON. MICHIGAN NORTH CAROLINA SPARTANBURG. Inc. OHIO extremely wide response but eliminates SACRAMENTO. of Greenville LOS ANGELES (WEST). CALIF. Duncombe Co. if transformer. stage in which the oscillations are Radio Trade Supply Co.. SANTA BARBARA. Inc. Buckeye Electronics Dist. VALLEY STREAM. BEAUMONT. VA. WIS. This positive ALTOS. Seattle Radio Supply. . Dunlap Radio & TV Supply Co. 180-14 Union Turnpike. V McKnight EleA.. MINN.TELEVISION Here's where to buy vz6AL5 VIDEO DLT your HEATHKIT® locally. CHARLESTON.the -counter" delivery. New York Service Representative NEW ORLEANS. measure and compare with H EATHKIT a subsidiary of Daysfrorn. of Greenville CHICO. ting. Inc. OHIO table for that particular model.J. CALIF. MINN. Dixie Radio Supply Co. will welcome the availability of and service. Inc. Muncie Electronic Supply. To find the exact cause of the trouble once the stage in which it originates HEATH COMPANY Benton Harbor. American Distributing Company Syracuse Radio Supply Co. too. IOWA Gem Electronics Dist. Chemcity Electronic Distributors and again excessive gain causes oscilla. we're sure you'll agree that this Increase is Dealers listed below. CALIF. facilities. a leaky coupling capac. PA. MILWAUKEE. BLUEFIELD. Hi Fi Corner video if tube with a . Orange Radio Distributing Co. Crescent Electronic Supply NEW ORLEANS. Inc. NEW YORK NEW YORK Hi Fi Center Arrow Electronics. CALIF.. VA. MICHIGAN Dixie Radio Supply Co. YOUNGSTOWN. Inc. CALIF. INDIANA Stack Electronics. showing PALO ALTO. CALIF. ZASV ILLE..J. Inc. COLORADO Radonics. Electronics Dist. This service has been estab. Inc. CALIF. PA. CALIF. LOUIS. Inc. TEXAS SAN FRANCISCO. ERIE. PA. WIS. OHIO Radio 8 TV Parts Company Cain Electronics Co. W. Inc.. W. Inc. OHIO LUFKIN. INDIANA FOREST HILLS. Inc. of Columbia MARYSVILLE. (starting at the stage preceding the HOUMA.. NEW YORK CHARLESTON. GERMANIUM DIODE VIDEO DET CALIFORNIA MARYLAND NEW YORK (Cont. Inc. CALIF. Zack Electronics PASADENA. NEW YORK Cross Island Electronics.. Chemcity Electronic Distributors tions to develop.. o( Columbia FRESNO. VIRGINIA if slugs is adjusted to its normal set. VIRGINIA Cain Electronics Co. PA. Volta Electronics Southeastern Radio Supply Co. V. Inc. TEXAS Suppose that after going through the SANTA ANA -ORANGE.. by removing them one by one LOUISIANA ROCHESTER. BELLEROSE. justified . Radio Electric Service Co. A change in DELAWARE Radio Electric Service Co. Dixie Radio Supply Co. NEW YORK Davis Rack. PA. Inc. zacKIT Corp. MISS. NEW YORK MEDFORD. ST. MICHIGAN Dixie Radio Supply Co. WILLOW GROVE. MOUNTAINSIDE. Mich. Inc. Cecil Farnes Co. (2 locations) Sterling Electronics. of course. Inc. Inc.. NORTH CAROLINA LONG BEACH. Rochester Radio Supply Co. Federated Purchaser. LA CROSSE. Southeastern Radio Supply Co. J. grid load resistors are all sources of HILO. TEXAS Sterling Electronics. Radio Products Sales Corp. Inc. S. S. OHIO RICHMOND. to save time. PORTLAND. ctronics. CALIF.EInc. NEW YORK Beam Electronics. Radio Electric Service Co. BNEuckeye ROANOKE. Inc. OHIO any tendency toward oscillation. CALIF. ILLINOIS Radonics -Alton. FT. FT. through any of the carefully selected Heathkit price. WISCONSIN RAPIDS. Inc.. procedure above. S. Kierulff Sound Corp. Inc. TEXAS mains. Austin Electronics.toc. (2 locations) Pioneer Electronic Supply Co. Basic schematic of typical tube and MODESTO. bias on the tube and results in exces. ST. TO IST VIDEO AMR . WIS. NEW YORK (3 locations) PITTSBURGH. Ltd. Aodionics. Lafayette Radio Supply. OHIO Pioneer Electronic Supply Co. it can be deter. WAYNE. CALIF. YORK. House of Audio Lew Bonn Company MINEOLA.. Inc. Chemcity Electronic Distributors KNOXVILLE. of Greenville CHARLOTTE.J. LOUISIANA Empire State Electronic Serv. Crescent Electronic Supply DALLAS. Kierulff Sound Corp. Acme Electronics. PONTIAC. NORTH CAROLINA High Fidelity Workshop Dunlap Radio ei TV Simply Co. Satterfield Electronics. Inc. INDIANA FI. A leaky coupling capacitor HONOLULU. BRYAN. tion. Lew Bonn Company Hi-Fi Sound Sun Radio Company TEXAS CHILLICOTHE.West. Rochester Radio Supply Co. Inc. Watertown Electronics. FAYETTEVILLE. SANDUSKY. NEW YORK Rochester Radio Supply Co. Inc. OREGON SEATTLE. Satterfield Electronics. Meridian Electronics. Inc. CALIF. Dixie Radio Supply Co. KANSAS CITY DAYTON. Inc.. Inc. TENNESSEE Dunlap Radio 8 TV Supply Co. Dunlap Radio & TV Supply Co. GREENVILLE. Inc.) SOUTH CAROLINA BERKELEY. Inc. MINNESOTA KINSTON. WASHINGTON NEW YORK plate voltage to leak over to the grid ILLINOIS BATH. Inc. the tendency of oscillations to build up Harvey R dio Company. An increase in value INDIANAPOLIS. HAWAII Radio -Television Corp. FeSTderN. VA.C. of Florence LOS ANGELES. NORTH CAROLINA KINGSPORT. Inc. Inc. Inc. The capacitors eliminate WATERLOO. Federated Purchaser. S. is isolated. Long Island. of grid or plate load resistors permits LAFAYETTE. is often difficult to isolate. stands ready to counsel or advise you on Although you will find your local dealers' price any problems that might arise . The voltmeter again indicates STOCKTON. NEW YORK ALLENTOWN. NEW YORK FLORENCE. High Fidelity Workshop GREENSBORO.I. Radonics -Jefferson NEWARK. OH Buckeye ElecIOtronics Dist. to a defective component. Inc. DODGE. Kierulff Sound Corp. sive gain in the stage.C. Wayne Electronic Supply. ALLEN PARK. OHIO Lifetime Electronics (2 locations) PORTSMOUTH. AKRON. Inc. Sterling Electronics. DETROIT. ALBANY. OHIO Key Electronics. Ltd. Sound Equipment. TENNESSEE Kierulff Sound Corporation Lew Bonn Company Chemcity Electronic Distributori Hi-Fi Sound OHIO RIVERSIDE. Inc. Tetrad Electronics MASSACHUSETTS Elm Electronics.

and highly effective channel procedure outlined here may help the service technician to correct the trouble separation is assured by its unique insulator. plate and grid leads must be kept as far apart as possible to prevent un- desirable feedback. If. the troubleshooting inherent in STERIEO's single -element design. oscillation in video if circuits is not too common a problem. screen. Take a tip from the audio engineers who design packaged stereo sets. open or shorted capacitor or a resistor that has changed in value. Turn off the receiver and allow suffi- cient time for the tubes to cool off.95 list. and conversion kit as low as $8. Replacement unit as low as $6. It should correspond to the value of the grid load resistor. Ask for STERIEO at your electronic or audio parts store. END In engineering tests STERIEO's full frequency response delivers the full dimensional sound so important to a fine stereophonic system. diamond stylus slightly higher. the coupling capacitor is defective and should be replaced. who is unaware of its possibility. If none of these defects appear. Pennsylvania 76 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. remove the leads from the grid terminal and single -element STEREO cartridge measure the resistance from the ter- minal to ground. If the bias voltage on the grid still remains less negative than normal. Balanced channel outputs are When it does occur. Other possible causes of oscillation are open heater or screen bypass capacitors or an open decoupling Also be sure to check the lead dress some receivers are very critical. The - capacitor in the plate or grid circuits.) For where -to -buy information write to: ERIE Electronics Distributor Division ERIE RESISTOR CORPORATION Erie. grid and decoupling resistors for a change in value. after replacing the tube. Then measure the plate. TELEVISION tube. the bias still remains at an abnormal value. The resistance meter should give an infinite resistance read- ing-if not. check for a gassy tube by replacing it with one known to be good. If it doesn't. Measure the voltage at either end of the grid load resistor. preferably with a low -loss unit. The source of trouble is usually found to be a leaky. a leaky capacitor or gassy tube is indicated. If the voltmeter gives a normal reading after the tubes have been removed. There are good reasons why STERIEO is supplied as original equipment Fortunately.conductor .americanradiohistory.95 list. keep the voltmeter connected to the grid of the tube and remove the tubes on either side of the coupling network. If the grid voltage measures less Now used as original equipment negative than normal. A deviation up to 10% of the manufacturer's stated values is con- sidered normal. meas- ure the resistance from grid to ground. (Dual stylus -sapphire /sapphire. specify the breaking TV oddity several times. For The author has run into this heart- your stereo work or stereo fun -replacement or conversion. the socket must be re- placed. It's a real puzzler to the service technician STERIEO ceramic cartridge. If not. resistance tests must be made. on the sets of several leading manufacturers. quickly and efficiently. It should read the same at by leading manufacturers both points with respect to ground.

Calif. Fig. as illustrated in Fig. matching transformers will have to be linearity. However. impedance - displays may show horizontal non .capacitance probe ( Fig. 1) . . 3-Waveforms seen on scope screen indicate compensation of step attenu- ator: a-correct compensation. 1960 77 www. Too high a value of com- pensating capacitance produces the JACK DARR pattern shown in Fig. I upon freedom from distortion in the believe you will have to use coaxial scope amplifiers.Tongue and many others make 72.. amplifier must be properly chosen. kinks at the ends of the line. too much input voltage. The sawtooth to be located. could we expect from it ?-E. lator and fed to its vertical input. FEBRUARY. and terminate it (the sweep rate. ing. b-too 1 TO SCOPES STEP ATTENUATOR much compensating capacitance. I assume this to mean standard Accuracy of this method depends electrical conduit. even encased in plastic tub- straight diagonal line on the screen. The contractor has recommended if we could do this. which must still be run tort. used. If the amplifiers dis. As the coax is 72 -ohm. 5-Waveform display showing hori- zontal nonlinearity. 3 -b. a You can get a very neat installation Amplitude distortion is plainly evi. 2. as seen in Fig. it would certainly Avoid overload. A 20 -kc sawtooth voltage is tapped off at a point of suitable level AI& _ = JIIIII& E Lia [ in the scope's horizontal amplifier and fed to the vertical input terminal. C2 and C3 are properly adjusted. As Fig. 3 -d shows putting 300-ohm ribbon in a plastic simplify the installation. For this We are in a fringe area. 2 -Sawtooth voltage of suitable little compensating capacitance. TELEVISION WIDE -BAND TV service oscil- loscopes have frequency - compensated step attenuators ( Fig. if you run the conduit up through the dent. A diagonal-line pattern appears on the scope screen.Typical compensated step at- tenuator for a wide-band scope. Blonder. in any case. The trimmer capacitor on each step of %If :. made of plastic. frequency walls to the point where the tapoff is distortion is trickier. in this to the vertical and horizontal plates case) conduit. 1. You can run the lead -in cable through The same method can be used to the cement floors if you wish. Jerrold. cable for this. 4-A low capacitance probe can be adjusted with the help of a sawtooth voltage. floors. vertical amplifier overloaded. Unless the com- TV pensating trimmer capacitors Cl. c-too Fig. but I'm adjust the trimmer capacitor in a 10. wave- form displays will be distorted.outlet ard electrical outlet boxes complete antenna system in a new home con. The simplest method of checking the compensating adjustments is shown in ér-v-ioe Fig. d- value is tapped off scope's sawtooth oscil. X100 X1000 LOW -C PROBE L C ITO SCOPE'S VERT INPUT XI J X100 X1000 TO VERT AMPL Fig. 4) . the tapoff point in the horizontal levels run from 50 to 100 µv. L. 5. reason. with plastic covers in any color de- structed of adobe. What results vertical amplifier overload will produce tube and laying it in the cement floors. Fig. with cement -slab IST 2ND SAWTOOTH HORIZ HORIZ OSC AMPL AMPL SCOPE'S VERT INPUT INPUT ATTEN (GANGED) 1 J XI X10. 1ST 2ND SAWTOOTH HORIZ HORIZ OSC AMPL AMPL SCOPE'S d VERT INPUT Fig. The effect of too little is shown in Fig. different waveforms are applied through the plastic (or metal.IIINIIIII - the attenuator is adjusted to display a conducted by straight line. of the CRT. and our signal Escondido. 3 -c. afraid that your losses would be quite to-1 low. On the other hand. should not be conduit) in a standard electrical outlet increased past the point that waveform box. 3 -a.americanradiohistory.300-ohm match- Lead -in cables ing transformers designed to fit stand- We are installing a three. prohibitive with standard 300 -ohm The trimmer is adjusted to display a twin -lead.

Even teen -agers can assemble the able on the Schober. each har- monic in the square wave flows as if it Now you can build the brilliant. this DETAILS should make a very neat home. On the other hand. You may Name build the CONSOLETTE for your home. church. Their voltage one of the finest reputations is accordingly impressed across the organs in detail. of Or ganists we have prepared an exciting itor. as fast or as for only $2. The DA8 -B CONSOLETTE has both 300.priced labor.. On the other hand. - A voltage waveform is not different from a current waveform when working with sine waves. school or theatre.0.. on The Schober Organ Corp. no salesman will call. Please send me FREE full -color booklet and up! In your own hone. which are built specifically for just such applications. Dept. the low - among electronic organs. voltage is impressed across the capac- assemble clearly marked elec. With careful workmanship. With the signal level you mention.. HOW TO ASSEMBLE A Voltage and current waveforms %i celer Why is a voltage waveform different from a current waveform? The book 1 ELECTRONIC ORGAN IN SPARE TIME! have on scopes doesn't explain this. a booster amplifier will be needed near Organ From Simple Kils and the antenna to raise the signal to a snow -free level. Literature on the Schober is FREE!a - time with a small table serving as your There is no obligation. and to make up for the small additional loss incurred by the use of the coax. such as the SAVE OVER 50 %! The Beautiful Blonder.yet ease. TELEVISION Build This Superb S12406 it sired and a plug -in connection for the lead -in to the set. . and an outside diameter of only 2' x 3'2" floor space! Commercial only 1/4 inch. note keyboards and This cable has a nominal impedance of 22 stops.Tongue DA8 -B. like the Jerrold SEND YOU DeSnower or Blonder. 6-A is a voltage waveform and B is a current waveform.. an when you build this antenna booster.and 75 -ohm outputs. 2248 Broadway. plus articles on resistor. The and Hi -Fi Record SQUARE-WAVE GEN musical instrument you assemble is as fine. ICity Zone. which you may avail. as a commercial - organ built in a factory yet you save over 50% on top -quality electronic parts. and can supply as many as 8 out- lets from a single input. and their pleasant and quick it is to learn bled and finished. Give Your Family A Lifetime of Musical Joy It contains a large number of sine With A Magnificent Schober ELECTRONIC Organ! waves. All you do is Americ an Guild to play the organ. This amplifier has a gain of about 10 Ycli.the only small For the cable.00 ( refunded when you order slowly as you please . CONCERT MODEL meets spe cifications of build your own organ and how frequency harmonics are practically blocked by the capacitor. N. cuited by the capacitor. Start With As Little As $18. 10" hi -fi LP record demonstrat. or you may want to build the great CONCERT MODEL for home. Thus. . voltage and current waveforms will always differ in reactive circuits (Fig. M. New York 24. You save 50% and more in either case.94! Mail This Coupon You may start building your Schober at once For FREE Literature with an investment of as little as $18. Address Fig. However. the waveform across the tronic parts guided by clear il. 78 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. Today! and technically perfect. entire work shop! Pay As You Build Your Organ. tions. in spare kit). The square wave is a complex wave. It can be fished through value approximately standard 1/2 -inch electrical conduit with LET US $1600 or more you save over 50% .00 (refundable on receipt of my first kit order). would be the best and easiest to handle. No THE GREAT how easy and rewarding it is to woodworking necessary con- soles conic completely assem- . thrillinginstrument! with about 26 -db gain over all vhf FREE channels will help out greatly. A. you build an organ with genuine pipe organ Please send me the 10" hi -fi Schober demon- tones in an infinite variety of tone colors stration record. Requires 73 ohms. If we add them. on usual retail store mark.Tongue AB -1. to bring into your home the full grandeur of the Emperor of Instruments. I enclose $2...americanradiohistory. et db. Y. have The waveform across the capacitor is Schober! You build from kits. high. RE the full range of tones and voices frequency harmonics in the square wave. probably RG59U or- gan with two full 61.frequency Schober CONSOLETTE or the larger CONCERT and For Hi -Fi Demonstration Record harmonics are practically short -cir- MODEL with simple hand tools. full -range Send For Complete Details On Schober Organs alone were present.94. State we get the square wave C. 6). If there is insufficient gain. In the R -C circuit. when working with complex waves. with your own hands other literature on the Schober organs. In addition. The high. there are dis- tribution amplifiers. Ont. No skills The coupon will bring you a handsome are necessary to construct an instrument with page booklet in full color describing Schober 16. resistor is the sum of the higher - lustrations and detailed step -by-step instruc.

PICTURE.Power" . They instantly restore brilliance and clarity to fading TV pic- sistors will overheat if excessive current tures. Model C-401 in Series sets. -A.. plications Oz. all described in our latest catalog. Let us look at the circuit again. A puzzling Cleans Lubricates Protects For Pin - CARBON TET Point Ap- thing to us: if we touch the cap of the BEWARE OF NOT A SOLUTION 6 Oz.00 $2. A rough check can be made by disconnecting each capacitor in turn. we could have fallen told us* back on Kirchhoff's law to deduce the complementary shapes of waveforms across resistor and capacitor. Model C-402 in Parallel sets.Brites are engineered for quality. Burning resistors I am servicing a Packard-Bell 2301 in which the voltage. S. NO -NOISE checked all parts in the horizontal 6 Oz. In other words. and were pleasantly surprised by the low price IMEG. J. Your clue is that touching the hori. if the resistors still burn out.doubler resistors burn out after several hours of operation.. Replacing a small BRAND NAMES With PERMA -FILM Economical -a little FREE AT YOUR JOBBERS capacitor in the horizontal oscillator Ask By Name For does a lot. lubricates.. BRIGHTEN Voltages are OK in the flyback circuit.95 the dozen. circuit restored the high voltage and Cleans. COMPANY sistance between the 1B3 -GT filament windings and the transformer assembly. ILL.Brites.doubler re. nonin- said the picture suddenly pulled in Use for about 4 inches on each side. to. NO -NOISE NOW AVAILABLE Transient oscillation ALWAYS INSIST We've an RCA KCS -68C chassis ON PROVED TUNER -TONIC which was worked on for a complaint of no high voltage. including wafer type. You can use them on either electro-static or electro.Brites. SUBSTITUTES to NET Servicemen NE to NET to Shorts servicemen Servicemen Mich.nerienr ' EXTENDER it was back in the shop. 813 Communipaw Avenue Jersey City 4. R. ELSTON AVENUE CHICAGO 18. Higher wattage resistors have been THE BUSINESS tried. tubes. VOLUME CONTROL and With Push Button sweep and oscillator circuit and all PRODUCTS Aerosol Can CONTACT RESTORER Assembly voltage readings seem OK. flammable. and Fig. In about a week GENUINE restores all tuners. The waveform across the capacitor shows the voltage drop across it. CHEAP $1. -- ( . 6CD6 with a screwdriver picture width Bottle Spray Can returns to normal! The picture is good. available free voltage lead disconnected from the from your distributor. 7 -The 1 -meg voltage.. and accessories. say "Perma. The customer Non -toxic. from the standpoint of voltage and current. You and your colleagues told us that IB3-GT 1B3-GT your customers invariably had confidence in the neat -looking product and the attractive package . net). N. storers. 5" PLASTIC the set was delivered. The waveform across the resistor shows the current flowing into and out of the capacitor. you have a lot of other good reasons for choosing Perma . -W. I Y00 79 www. you recover the original square wave. S. radio and FM. 100% tested.TELEVISION the sum of the lower-frequency har- monics.. FEBRUARY.americanradiohistory. FLYBACK =5001qf 500µµf Of course. One outstanding reason is that you've never found a defective (PARTIAL) one.. Current and voltage waveforms accordingly differ in the reactive cir- cuit driven by a complex voltage. Seattle. We've OISE" TV. sive current. 17e1idtta. or by writing direct to us.Power TRANS Vu..25 Does Not Cause except for the width. check the insulation re.magnetic picture is drawn from the high -voltage power supply. Perma -Power also makes a full line of special purpose briteners. the standard of all comparison. 500µµf FLYBACK PULSE 1500 servicemen recently gave us their good business reasons for choosing Perma -Power Vu.® (. Wash. If the resistors still overheat. }(' Wf * on their entry blanks should be checked for leakage. Don't say "brightener. ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL CORP. That's because Perma -Power Vu." 16KP4. Check operation with the high . Result: no sales resistance -a happy satisfied customer who is sure to call back next time -virtually guaranteeing you a highly TO 16KP4 profitable picture tube sale. However. 3100 N. tube re- 7). Detroit. TOO! There is evidently excessive current drain through the 1 -meg resistors (Fig. the 500 -11µf capacitors in Perma -Power's Las Vegas contest. If you add the waveforms across capacitor and resistor. The tube may be drawing exces. Any attempt to 1500 servicemen break the law (Kirchhoff's) will fail.

These men are getting TELEVISION
practical training in... zontal output tube plate cap with the through the video amplifier, the 23 -mc
screwdriver brings back the width. It (or 45 -mc) if signal must be rectified
looks as if you have a case of parasitic in the picture detector. The output from
oscillation in the 6CD6 plate circuit. the picture detector is a low -pass filter,
Touching the cap is adding enough ca- with a response from de to 4.5 mc
pacitance to damp out these oscillations. (Fig. 8).
This circuit includes a very small ca-
pacitor, a 33 -µµf unit connected across Double trouble
two terminals on the flyback. Since this I have a couple of questions. A Philco
is inside the high -voltage housing on 51T 2130 TV I am working on comes
this set, did you check it? You might on with a Christmas-tree effect for a
try taking scope waveforms around the few seconds, then the picture snaps into
high -voltage circuit, using either a very sync. Also, after it has been on for
low- capacitance probe or very loose about 5 minutes, it begins to pull hori-
coupling to the horizontal output tube zontally, tearing the picture at times.
plate lead to see if you can detect any Then the vertical pulls down slowly out
unusual waveforms. of sync. When I put a .004-µf capacitor
I believe that replacing the 33 -µµf on pin 6 of the video amplifier (12AV7)
capacitor on the flyback will stop your or pin 6 of the 12AU7 second sync
trouble. If not, try adding 100 -ohm re- separator, the picture locks in perfectly.
sistors in the plate and screen grid What is the reason for this ?-E. J. S.,
leads of the 6CD6. You might also St. Louis, Mo.
check the width link on the back of the Here we are again concerned with
chassis. We have found several cases the correct adjustment of the horizontal
where the link had corroded and was oscillator. Your Philco uses a stabilized
not making good connections. Clean it multivibrator. The effect has several
up and check the 180 -µ4 capacitor the names: Christmas-treeing, mode -hop-
link connects across the width coil. You ping, squegging, etc., but it is all the
might also try adding about 150 -200 same thing. The horizontal oscillator
µµf across this capacitor. Also try add- is trying to operate (momentarily) at
ing a 100 -µµf capacitor, rated at least the wrong frequency and the correction
5 kv, from terminal 2 on the flyback circuit is yanking it back on frequency
to the chassis. bodily! This is happening several times
First and second detectors
per second, causing the peculiar effect.
I would suggest running a complete
What is the difference in operation realignment of the horizontal oscillator
between the first detector and the second circuit. If this chassis has the extra
detector? Both act as nonlinear devices, horizontal oscillator centering control
Train in NEW Shop -Labs of as both produce beat frequencies. The (some runs in this series did, others

'n Chicago -Electrical and Electronic Center
World. Prepare for a better job and a successful
future in a TOP OPPORTUNITY FIELD. Train On real
of the
second detector also cuts off the nega-
tive portion of the video if signal. Hence,
the first detector also cuts off the nega-
tive swing of the if signal. Why detect
the if signal, when it has already passed
did not) adjust it so the oscillator will
run and lock a picture in with the
ringing coil shorted out. Then adjust
the ringing coil for a stable picture.
The other trouble is obviously sync.
full size equipment at COYNE where thousands of through the first detector ?-O. T., Los From the symptoms, it seems that video
successful men have trained for 60 years- largest, Angeles, Calif. is leaking into the sync. Replace the
oldest, best equipped school of its kind. Professional
and experienced instructors show you how, then do The first detector (mixer) and the 12AV7 sync amplifier no matter how it
practical jobs yourself on more than a quarter of a second detector (picture detector) are tests on a tube tester! These tubes are
million dollars worth of equipment. No previous both nonlinear resistances. It is helpful very critical in the circuit used here.
experience or advanced education needed. Employ-
ment Service to Graduates.
Start Now -Pay Later -Liberal Finance and Pay-
ment Plans. Pay most of tuition after graduation.
Part -time employment help for students. Choose
from nine yearly Starting Dates.
Mail Coupon or Write to Address Below for Free
Book -"Guide to Careers," Whether you prefer
(DC TO 4.5 MC)

TRONICS, which includes both fields, this book
describes all training offered.
Information comes by mail. No obligation and NO
Fig. 8 -Both the mixer and the pix detector are rectifiers. However,
B. W. Cooke, 1r., Pres. Founded 1899 the mixer passes a difference beat frequency to the if amplifier, while
COYNE ELECTRICAL SCHOOL the pix detector passes the modulation envelope to the video amplifier.
Chartered as an Educational Institution Not For Profit
1501 W. Congress Pkwy., Chicago 7, Ill., Dept. 20 -3C to regard the mixer from the standpoint Also, check the plate load resistors for
of generating a difference frequency each stage -sync and video amplifier-.
(the difference between the rf and the and the small coupling capacitors be-
local -oscillator frequency). This is a tween each stage. If any of these has
frequency translation. The fact that even the slightest leakage, it will
New Coyne Building Dept. 20-5C
rectification occurs in the mixer is beside change the bias on the sync separators
1501 W. Congress Pkwy., Chicago 7, Ill. the point. The if amplifier is tuned to and really fix things up for you!
Send BIG FREE book and details of all the training the difference frequency (23 or 45 mc), In some versions of this circuit, a
you offer. I am especially interested in,
Electricity Television
and the video -frequency component is small capacitor was installed between
Both Fields
rejected. Of course, we can see this the 12AV7 input grid and the chassis.
Name video- frequency component if we con- It bypassed some of the signal's high -
Address - ---- ..... nect a scope to the "looker point" on the frequency video component and im-
tuner. Now, the if signal is still a high - proved sync action. If it gives a perma-
City State frequency modulated carrier. Before the nent improvement, put a small capaci-
(I understand no Salesman will call)
-I modulation envelope can be nassed tor there and leave it. Try several

Trouble -Shooting



MODEL 1075
Solve Rough Sweep Output Problems New Technique Makes TV Servicing
Easier, Faster, More Profitable
NEW Model A107 Thousands of service technicians already save
thousands of hours every day with the amazing
DYNA -SWEEP B &K TELEVISION ANALYST. Enables you to inject
CIRCUIT ANALYZER your own TV signal at any point and watch the
resulting test pattern on the picture tube itself.
Saves many hours of service work. Makes it quick and easy to isolate, pin -point, and
Provides verticol and horizontal correct TV trouble in any stage throughout the
video, audio, r.f., i.f., sync, and sweep sections of
sync and driving pulses that enable
you more easily and quickly to
check out every stage in the sync
black & white and color television sets including
intermittents. Makes external scope or wave -form
and sweep sections of a television interpretation unnecessary. Enables any serviceman
to cut servicing time in half, service more TV sets
in less time, really satisfy more customers, and
make more money. Color generator provides
Tracks down troubles in the horizontal and vertical output circuit both rainbow pattern and color bars.
including defective output transformer and yoke; checks for shorted
turns, leakage, opens, short circuits, and continuity. Includes unique MODEL 1075 TELEVISION ANALYST. Complete with standard
high -voltage indication. Eliminates trial and error replacements. test pattern, white dot, white line, and color -bar
slide transparencies, and one clear acetate. $25995
Model A107 Dyne -Sweep. Companion unit for use only with
88.K Model 1075 Television Analyst for driving source. See your B8K Distributor or Write for Bulletin ST24 -E
Net, $49.95
Model 1070 Dyne - Sweep. Same as Model A107 but hat B a. K MANUFACTURING CO.
its own horizontal and vertical driving pulse, and is used inde- CHICAGO 13, ILL.
pendently of the Model 1075. Net, $69.95
Canada: Atlas Rodio Corp., 50 Wingold, Toronto 10, Ont.
Export: Empire Exporters, 277 Broadway, New York 7, U.S.A.

FEBRUARY, 1960 81


values, around 100 -500 µµf, and use
the one that gives the best sync locking.
Anti -ringing capacitor
Why does a 56 -µµf capacitor across
( the high side of the horizontal deflection
NEW HIGH FIDELITY DRIVERS coils minimize ringing bars ? -H. B.,
Palisade Park, N. J.
During flyback, a 10 -µsec pulse of
of great importance to technicians several hundred volts is applied to the
horizontal yoke windings. The pulse
waveform has a high harmonic content.

J11 The new JBL Linear -Efficiency
transducer, combining long
linear excursion with relatively
high efficiency, is engineered
for sealed enclosure or infinite


fl¡ fo

LINEAR- EFFICIENCY baffle installation. It is a de-
velopment of great significance
Q c
to the electronic technician
PRECISION LOUDSPEAKERS is an ideal replacement
speaker; can be readily mounted
a wall;
.it gives true precision re- E d
production in the small space
frequently required in stereo Fig. 9 -Yoke ringing: a-Yoke wind-
installations; ings Ll and L2 are tuned to parallel
.it does not require exces- resonance by stray capacitances Cl and
sive power for full -range repro-
C2: b-equivalent yoke circuit is that of
two parallel- resonant circuits connected
Sound from any existing
system, except those employ -
ing the very best loudspeakers,
in series: c-
Whenever two parallel -
resonant circuits (having different reso-
can be greatly improved, eas- nant frequencies) are connected in se-
ily, with the JBL Linear -Effi- ries, there is a series- resonant frequency
ciency speaker because
enclosure dimensions are not f° between parallel- resonant frequencies
critical, and acoustical require- fl and f2: d-Small capacitor C (left)
ments can be readily met. The or capacitor and resistor (C and R)
mounting flange is designed (right) are used to tune the higher -
so that the speaker can be
mounted from the front, or the frequency coil to the same resonant fre-
rear, of the baffle -wall or en- quency as other coil. R is damping re-
closure. An enclosed volume of sistor which makes adjustment less
only two cubic feet, or more, critical.
is recommended.
The efficiency of the LE The horizontal windings (Ll and L2 in
drivers is such that 20 watts is
more than sufficient power for Fig. 9) are tuned by stray capacitances
home use. However, the dy- Cl and C2. The windings are loosely
namic range of these long -

throw speakers permits the use coupled, and form a pair of parallel -
of much more powe.rful ampli. resonant circuits, connected in series
fiers. with each other. That is, we have the
Super 8" JBL MODEL LE8
(illustrated left) shows a flat- equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 9 -b,
ness of response from 30 to resonant at two slightly different fre-
15,000 c.p.s. that is without
precedent in a unit of this size. quencies, fl and f2. Whenever two such
Impedance: 16 ohms. Flux: circuits are connected in series, the
223,500 Maxwells. Power ca- impedance curve shows a series-resonant
pacity: 20 watts continuous
program. Free alr cone reso- frequency f°, between fl and f2, as
nance: 37 c.p.s. Frame: rigid indicated in Fig. 9 -c. When pulsed,
cast aluminum. Baffle hole strong ringing occurs at the series -
diameter (front mounting):
7'/8 ". Shipping weight: 11 lbs. resonant frequency-Z is low and this
Write for free technical bulletins harmonic frequency causes a strong
current flow at f,,. As shown in Fig.
TWO -WAY LINEAR -EFFICIENCY SYSTEM KIT 9 -d, we use a small capacitor, or capac-
JBL MODEL S5 includes a super 10" JBL MODEL LE10 Low itor and resistor, to tune both windings
Frequency Driver with free air cone resonance of 15 c.p.s: to the same frequency, and eliminate f°.
JBL MODEL LX3 Dividing Network for crossover at 1.000
c.p.s; JBL MODEL LE30 High Frequency Driver, a 51/2 octave
direct radiator. These three units form an integrated. per- I 6- to 2 -inch screen

fectly matched, electro-acoLstical system; they must be used
with each other. I lil,-, to convert a Sentinel
1U416.416 and on Arvin 3160 to a 17-
or 21 -inch pi,hn-e tube. The Sentinel
now has a 16GP4, and the Arvin is
using a 16AP4. -H. K. L., Chicago, Ill.
A 21EP4 can be swept satisfactorily
by the Sentinel chassis. No component
changes are required, although the pic-
ture will be a bit dimmer on the larger
screen. Converting the Arvin chassis
may require a change of flyback and
3249 Casitas Avenue yoke, depending upon whether adequate
Los Angeles 39, California high voltage is available, and whether
the present yoke is a 70° type. END


150 miles. Conn. Wis. Although 17. other ardent FM dxer. Ont. like so many others. New York and Penn.Ohm -Milliammeter . felt the high -band channels deserved the most watching.. write to Daystrom -Weston. astronomers and ionospheric snuck in while no other signs of FM physicists assumed this year's sched. the second at 3:55 am. on Sept. First in 1959 from 6 am to 4 pm EST on the 9th By ROBERT B. During the comet's last pass with test pattern and tone (dx tests is one of several FM dx hauls noted close to earth in 1946. Michigan. but of 346 FM stations heard in Duluth. accuracy within 2% of full scale. it was almost non- existent as showers go.TELEVISION anything. short bursts from one new station. INCREASED SENSITIVITY.600 -800 miles. Size and weight are reduced for maximum convenience and portability. Fla. Newark 12. this summer. total. GREATER RUGGEDNESS. It was scheduled for the reappearance of the Giacobinids minute) were only average. many regular features of the new during the year in which one or two hobby magazine. is an..americanradiohistory. But despite all the lost sleep. Ltd. associated with the 13- video range. if dxer Cody and hundreds like him it is IT'S TF RNEW M ETÓÑ an advanced new design for the WORLD'S FINEST PORTABLE ANALYZER Here's an all -new version of the famous WESTON MODEL 980 Volt.bander WLOF -TV. For information. 840 Caledonia Rd.. Jr. WLOF -TV dx hauls in one short 26 -hour period was logged on two bursts. after a rest. 18-19. will be one of the recorded a very vivid meteor display. N. nothing or very little. vibration. at dx Part II least one dxer considered his efforts well rewarding. Cormag® mechanism assures positive magnetic shielding. Order from your local Weston distributor.. D -C sensitivity of 20. astronomers like this. Newark 12. case is impact-resistant. occurred. IMPROVED SHIELDING. Elving found many Dx column will remember the excite- ment passed on from this desk to dxers 3:43 am. In Canada: . Cody nabbed Minn. 100 Empire St. and a pretty WLOF -TV was helping those observ- good hand with weak signals in the meteor shower. housing shields against elec- trostatic interference. WHAD -FM is 575 uled return of the 13 -year comet would like a lot of hours to watch for two miles from dxer Baer. Baer's report of year orbital pattern of the Draconid ing the expected shower by staying on WHAD -FM. channel 9. meteor shower date. The shower was not only poor. the first at -Aug. Pa. Single dial control for range and function switching. J. 1959 Followers of the regular TV and FM Orlando.. Toronto 19.5 hours of dial twisting and blank - FM dxer Bruce Elving still main . zons). But even with this tremendous high. slightly above normal.5 hours may seem dx were present. (the number of meteor bursts per Wayne Baer. Ohm -ranges are fuse-protected. COOPER. High -voltage range has been ex- tended to 4000 volts. back at the dials from 1:30 am until 9 am on the 10th 17. and watch he did. run for top honors in the FM dx. 20 E -skip stations logged during the last 6 weeks of the TV dx skip season Even with the burst count running ing ranks with a whopping total below an average shower count.. 11 comet. 1960 83 www. uses a 1947 model FM tuner to do his screen watching which netted him a new tains his comfortable lead in the dxing. Spring. bring a recurrence of the 1946 display. J. too.engineered to offer you INCREASED RANGE.. His list of 24 FM calls includes station and much experience. and others. and then. Export: WORLD LEADER IN MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL Daystrom Int'l.. John Cody.. Cody. WESTON NEW COMPACTNESS. Delafield. FEBRUARY. And Ohio. Elving managed to log 14 new Oct. dxing from Middletown.000 ohms /volt. did see a few good bursts. 1. we emphasize that this was done dur- sylvania FM stations rolling into his regarding the expected potential of the Oct. SIMPLIFIED CONTROL. Meyersville.backed jewel move- ment resists shock. N. TV -FM Dxing Hori- FM stations in the 400 -700 -mile range Therefore. Sales Division. 9-I0. to And TV dxer David Beal of Tucson But sadly. 9-10 period as a very unusual ing a time segment when burst counts Duluth location..

Tex. JE R RO LO I 09 I Franklin G. Y. So Cody turned to meteor scatter. Vt. S. N. Jim Himes Checking Signal Strength Anywhere 60 59 52 R. . 65 Harold Moensterman Evansville. Ill. Toronto 41 D. 72 Bob Cooper Modesto -Fresno. G. FIELD STRENGTH METER 80 78 76 M. Bridgeport. Coro Jr. Va. 218 John Cody Middletown. Pa. Brown David Beal Easley.. Washburn. 40 John Ebeling Minneapolis.000. provides accurate (± 3 db) signal strength readings 54 Bill Hauser Oklahoma City. 07 Wayne Baer Meyersville. C. M. the TMT: 57 Richard Zwirko Thomas Rathke New Haven. Y. Parsons Port Allen. Lauderdale. Barrington. especially from a location where he sits with his back virtually to the Atlantic. Conway. Winnipeg. Tailor-made for the professional 61 59 John Dranchak South Bend. Ont. Wis. Que. Jr. Ont. New York 22. Tucson. Wis. Bennington... Canada Watertown. net weatherprotecting leather carrying case. Bennie Kinston. the radically new ! Canada Jerrold TMT responds only to the TV sync signal to which it is 65 64 Bert Nuber Harley Hurlburt Ft. Pa. Ill. 69 Doyne C. Ill. Philadelphia 32.. $12. watching the high band almost exclu- sively when the low band was jumping with burst signals from stations 700 to 1. coming off the down lead and is at the 67 67 Richard Bergen. for probing and orienting antenna signals and measuring 51 Peter J. Wis. Ark. Canada IB Jack Collier Arlington. 1959 -60 OVER 50 DX CLUB Number of Stations Dxer Location 282 Barney Rauch Peoria. Detroit. TRANSISTORIZED 85 83 B3 83 Dave Novick Morris Foote Jim Dillon Chris Carlisle Wauwatosa. Whitson. Pa. Minn. La. 201 Bill Eckberg Walnut. Mich. Jr. Wis. PD 188 The Jerrold Building.. Calif. MODEL 05 03 03 Paul Petosky Bill McCarl Ronald Boyd Trout Lake. Ohio 36 John T. Korb North Bay. set Just 4% pounds of rugged instrument. Ill. Penc Holly Hill. Ky. television serviceman and systems technician. At that time. Now you can measure exactly how much signal is in the area.. 69 Bryan Rawlings Montreal. Ore. 92 Brattleboro. and his high - Bmmiimli iillmiiiiiimiiiilmiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimiiimiiiiilimiiiiiiimumiiiiiimmiiimiiiiimiioiiiirro. Springfield. Minn. Wis.. Cuba only $135.200 miles distant. Pa. C. Majdak. Moline. 55 Dale Chute Toronto.S. Mich. 23 Gary Rahn Owen Sound.000) in Canada 8 switchable ranges 53 David Webb Springfield. Ind. dxer John Cody was 9th with 165 calls to his credit. Harrisburg.. Idaho Regina. Mich. 53 H. Direct Reading 98 96 Roger Brown Ron Pugh J. Jr. 85 Gary Ehresman South Bend. 30 Frank Wheeler Erie.Y. carries its own power 64 D.. Wis. Ariz. Mass. Conn. Va. Julius Boosi supply (4 simple "c" batteries). M. Pa. Reno. 56 Clintonville. Distributor Sales Division 103 Bill Finn Milwaukee. Gordon Gary Olson Joes. Canada Jerrold Electronics (Cdnada) Limited. Vt. Ariz. Truro. reads directly. Mich. 249 David Janiowak Milwaukee. 21 David Beal Tucson. N. Ky.. Ont. Conn. David Hanson Russell Cain Los Alamos. Sask.. Export Representative: CBS International. IS 42 Walter Owen. Nev. 61 James Gould Kokomo. Roberts Royal Oak. N. AN EASY ONE -MAN JOB! 33 32 Donald Ruland Stanley J. M. not relatively in microvolts (100 to 2. tuned and is therefore immune to noise . Bmlllllllmllllllllllltlllllllllllllllllllll llll IIImIIIIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltllllll lllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltlllll 84 RADIO -ELECTRONICS . distribution systems 51 checks horizontal synchronizing frequencies in TV receivers FM Dx List ing 330 Bruce Elving Duluth. L. Warren Little Rock. Colo. and only 180° of horizon available for dxing purposes. W. Middleton. Barton Cronin Ontario. Layne Las Cruces. Fort Bragg. H. Sowders Richmond. N. Canada 69 David S. Canada TMT 01 00 00 Leon Elliston James Buchmann Rod Luoma Dallas. 29 Dibrell Ingram. Ark. Calif. ELECTRONICS CORPORATION. TV dxer of the year In last year's tabulated standings of the members of the Over 50 TV Dx Club. East Lansing. Ind.95 net 72 Merwyn Dowden Chester. 114 Wayne Baer Meyersdale. N. Utica. Marianao. Okla. 3rd Lawrence Molish La Grange. N. Fla. Conn. Manitoba. La Crosse. Cody was fast approaching the point where additional new loggings would come slowly. 24 Ed Prond Dolton. Ind. Ind. N. TELEVISION time well spent for such a rare catch. Jr. Fla.. Ill. coming off the antenna. 74 A.

.. 1960. This is your opportunity to get behind Add the fwo Mark III's a magazine devoted to your hobby ... It has not been uncommon to log two.. FEBRUARY.. many of them high -banders at that. 320 miles overridden by WTVD. "WBAL-TV. Absolute stability with every loud- lina high -bander WIS -TV.TELEVISION band results have been very interesting.. Stereo 70 $99. Durham...../Li usiai a dcspe24 mcuio1Zliaiic Sitdiern Baltimore... Pa... and simplest operation Unequalled transient response then farther. Only 8 hours to build finally. Two new stations on channel 7. at 9:30 EST on Aug.. 21. fea- ture stories and columns of reports on the many varied dxing activities........ the second from KWWL-TV..::....95 England! Dxing Horizons History.. Realizing for 6 hour assembly 3 hours to build some time that eventually the TV -FM dxing clan would have to strike out on its own.... with 11 new stations to his credit in August. miles.. I would like to express the thanks of thousands of dxers who through the years have See and hear Dynakits at your local dealer found in the RADIO -ELECTRONICS column information simply not available in any A post card will bring complete specifications other major circulation magazine.distortion" pre. INC... It is devoted in its entirety to long- range TV and FM reception.. channel 11. 3916 Powelton Ave.americanradiohistory.. 914 miles away in Iowa. into North Carolina and.. concerning itself with construction articles...... at 691 miles was followed low 0.....August total of 217 was impressive indeed.. DESIGNED FOR STEREO 979 miles in Missouri. thanks for this regular space and for the assist in get.... ex-paw! ta maid-tie/14 slehea zine exclusively for dx has been laid and the first issue of TV-FM Dxing Horizons scheduled for January.. N. it DSC -1 $12. To RADIO -ELECTRONICS.::... highly recommended.05% width by WBTW.. Ga.. PHILA...) Unitized panel or cabinet mount stereo amplifier ensemble for less Speaking once again for the hobby available as an accessory than 20 hours of your time of FM and TV dx reception. a neat 757 -mile haul via Two outstanding 35 watt channels New stereo control preamp with bursts on long -haul ground wave.::. the groundwork for a maga.. most desired desto.. 17. the 40 is the last appearance of this column equalled watt Mark IV in RADIO -ELECTRONICS.. his end-of.. fastest construc.. Cody watched ground complete flexibility. Phila. Mo.... During a special dx test on Aug.. perhaps even three.. WRDW -TV. Either the renowned 60 watt Mark As stated in the January issue. 25 shows the notation. Truly unmeasurable distortion -be speaker without restriction of band- Columbia..... send for a sample copy of TV -FM Mark IV and you can have the most Unsurpassed flexibility Dxing Horizons. TV dx is where you find it... STEREO IN EASY STEPS but Cody's log for . channel 8..making "no..xh . If Just add the second Mark III or you have not received your January tips issue. and dxer Cody has cer- tainly found it on the plains of New Mark IV 559...95 each has grown to the point where it must Every stereo function at your finger- support itself or sink from view. by meteor burst.. With DYNAKIT you KNOW you have the BEST! During the Perseids meteor shower in mid-August. South Carolina! South Caro.. Car.. The first was from KHQA -TV.. stations on a single burst on the lower channels (2 to 6).. but to the best of our knowl- edge this is the first case of such skill on the high band (channels 7-13).. Augusta. 12.... were both logged on a single burst. (820 Tully Road.. channel 10.... END CABLE ADDRESS: DYNACO. 1960 87 www. 640 . speaker wave extend south first into Virginia. Many dxers would consider a high -band haul of 320 miles good dx.. Sta.. (160 watts peak) to power any On Aug.... 4.. 520 miles!" Cody concludes his August report with the comment. he parlayed a single The finest high fidelity you can buy at any price burst on channel 7 into two separate station identifications... this amplifier which has never been III or its new little brother..... 11....95 $79... "Best month I have ever seen for TV dxing" and.. ting this hobby launched.... DYNACO.... Calif. Florence....95 Cody nabbed channel 12. tion..

Rx10. rf stage. I cut two 4 -inch lengths. In fact. making it easier to pinpoint them quickly and accurately.000 ohms per volt on AC audible from the speaker. This Probe and Cable) (also available factory -wired and cali. only $2A9. 5000 volts. visiting friends in the country. (0. The size of each individual 1s3 ELECTRON TUBE DIVISION HARRISON. Assem.MILLIAMETER By L. 50.) Sweep and pin No. M. -* 5% AC (full scale) Regular Scales -2. pre -amps. Compton AA RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. hold a magni- See them all at your local RCA Test Equipment Distributor! fying shaving mirror near the screen of the set while focus adjustments are RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA being made. test equipment.. low a length of rusty soft -iron stovepipe level audio servicing of pickups. 5. The RCA WV -77E (K) set gave good pictures on all three avail- able channels. Direct Input panied by a fair amount of sound.5.5 cps to 5. AC Volts (peak -to. raster and the usual slight hiss was SPECIFICATIONS: Input Resistance -20. AC Volts (RMS) -0. D. One FEATURING: voltage. 3 -INCH OSCILLOSCOPE I substituted a 6CB6 from the rf sec- tion. AC I removed the back and chassis with and DC. within -3 db.000 ohms). DILLEY only n X29 95* (includes batteries.. 50 oa 1. He was Think of it -an RCA VoltOhmyst Kit at this low. Sync. probe and cable HOW to repair a television set without with slip-on alligator clip.. VOLT -OHM.J. 31/2" A visual inspection revealed no glow in the second video if. from 40 cycles to 5 Mc on the 1. 1 (grid) input. DC Input Resistance -standard 11 megohms (1 megohm To adjust a TV's focus controls for *User Price (Optional) hair -line scanning lines.. 1000. Bandwidth. Line Sweep. Accuracy -± 3% DC. scraping amplifiers.Sawtooth Range. 15 cps to 75 Kc. external.holds sync up to 4. within -3db. 5 (plate) of the 6CB6 in the . audio and ultrasonic equipment. It was showing a blight switch excellent frequency response full -wave bridge rectifier low circuit loading standard dbm ranges. After removing the gim- FEATURING: ohms -divider network protected by fuse ultra -slim micked stove -wire capacitor. radios and wire. tools.and -go!" Use it for practically small-diameter wire and he produced everything-video servicing. That did it! The sound came up with a boom. Rx100 (0. a nail file and a rusty pair of gas plies-s. 20 cps to 150 Kc Vertical Amplifier (Wide Band Position).calibrated frequency. leads.. low price! You get famous RCA accuracy and dependability.000 ohms). he came up probes and flexible leads sleeve attachment on handle stores with this learned pronouncement: "The probes.peak) -0.2 volt to 4000 volts in 7 overlapping ranges. N. -* 5% of full scale on ac ranges quency Response -flat within ± 5 %. To check the apparently dead if tube. 200. troubleshooting ham radio. scanning line will be greatly magnified. brated -only $129. A.americanradiohistory.2 ohm to 1000 megohms in 7 overlapping ranges. 500 ma. 51/4 ". ± internal.95 ) week when a local technician was called to replace the missing tube.95') recent stormy winter evening while Exclusive features make this RCA VOM kit the buy of a life. 5.1 volt to 1500 volts in 7 over- lapping ranges. 100 rms mv and inserted them into the socket holes inch. Resistance from 0. 160° adjustable phase. "plus .000 (0-20. hi -fi equipment. and 1 volt (dc) Frequency Response -AC -flat from 10 cycles to 50 Kc (usable response at 500 1(c) Ohms -3 ranges: Rxl. EASING FOCUS ADJUSTMENTS the 4. At Direct-cable input. Zero -center indication for discriminator - alignment Accuracy -± 3% of full scale on dc ranges. 10. -J. the wires laid parallel and tightly minus" internal sync. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE! Minus RCA WV -38A (K) Rf ------. a 6CB6 -the type tube used in all three if stages and in RCA WO -33A (K) two sockets of the turret tuner. 3 rms my /inch.5 Mc Vertical Input Impedance -At Low-Cap cable normally occupied by pin No.. gave me an idea.95') I asked my host for a short piece of The first 'scope kit with "get -up.10 megohms.95* (complete with Low -Cap.2. H.5.5 Mc shielded in- put cable with low capacitance probe included weighs only 14 pounds includes built in bracket to hold power cord and cables. Bandwidth.).02 volt to 1500 volts in 7 to work nearly as well as a tube. This caused it SPECIFICATIONS: Measures: DC Volts -0. as. twisted together to form a capacitor. parts or sembly and operating instructions) (available factor y. -and you can take it with you.95 (also available factory -wired and calibrated The payoff occurred the following only $49. on the job.000.000 ohms) Dimensions -W. and 40 -volt peak -to -peak ranges resistor in probe).1 megohm. 14. 250. I separated the two cleaned ends slightly SPECIFICATIONS: Vertical Amplifier (Narrow Band Position). because it's magnetic. and 15 -volt rms ranges and Fre.compensated." I consented FEATURING: ohms -divider network fuse -protected read scales extra -large 51/4 inch meter easier -to- polarity reversal to look at the set -a 17 -inch Zenith table model. the owner claimed VOLTOHMYST® that performance on channel 8 was as good as it had ever been. TELEVISION RCA KITS RADIO TV HI -FI HAM BROADCASTING INDUSTRIAL LAB TV FOR VALUE. accom- only $79. A faint picture appeared.Sensitivity. 10 amps (DC) Extra Scales-250 mv. bles in a breeze! The TV had "gone dead. plus the easiest tb assem- surprised how well the set performed ble kit you've ever seen! without it. among the small fi-y of the household. 10. and the picture became sharp and contrasty with very little snow. power cord separate 11h volts rms and 4 volts peak - to -peak scales for accuracy on -low ac measurements front -panel reason your friend used iron wire was lettering acid -etched. time! Extra 1 -volt and 0. 100. 67h3". etc. mikes. ground lead and clip. 3 to 1 length of the wire was then wrapped step attenuator scaled graph screen and calibrating voltage source for direct reading of peak -to-peak voltages with one thickness of cellophane tape.000 ohms per volt on DC. 5.Sensitivity." END overlapping ranges. tubes-this was my dilemma on a wired and calibrated -only $43. anywhere! one end of each with the nail file. 90 µµf ( approx.25 volt (250 mv) ranges for wider I arrived to find a mood of gloom usage in transistor servicing -new handle clip accommodates probes and test leads for extra carrying convenience. 10 µµf (approx.

Com- high TV band NSt terminals and solderless 75 ohm cable connector sponse -= 1 db.STRIP'. RE.5 times) on low TV and 40 db (100 times) L7 volts RF iation for 10 db change in input. 0. Mast -mounted amplifier. MODEL B -24 Applications: Better TV Recep- tion on 3 to 8 sets. 9 Ailing Street. Co. Features: FG* input High gain . on both bands. N. Features: 8 isolated 75 ohm or tions. London.95 entire 88 to 108 me band.5 volts ohms respectively.6 to 2. New York 13. New Jersey In Canada: Telequipment Mfg. Y. Features: Less than 1 db output var- 22 db (12.. 1960 89 www.50 reception in all signal areas. Newark 2.americanradiohistory. List $24. 16 db gain over tuning required. and "No- nels at each outlet 22 db handles AC and signal power. ception on 30 to 150 TV sets. output voltage of 0.50 RF (such as MLA -b). hi -fi components UHF converters master TV systems industrial TV cameras FM -AM radios FEBRUARY. For %rrrtlicr information irrite Dept.. ALL -CHANNEL DISTRIBUTION VHF ANTENNA BOOSTER. Applications: Better TV Reception ception on 1 to 29 TV sets. List $53. Applications: For Better VHF TV Re. MODEL MAC Applications: Better TV and FM Re.95 *FG Latest premium type frame -grid input circuit provides highest possible signal-to -noise ratio tNS`NO. band Variable gain and tilt con. 10 db 300 ohm TV outlets from a down" chassis NSt terminals Boosts gain on low band and 7 db on single 75 ohm or 300 ohm in. Ont. 75 or 300 .50 List $142. Features: FG'" inputs all TV channels Gain 10 db on - . Features: FG* input High gain .Exclusive B -T 300 ohm No -Strip terminals for speedy. MODEL AB -FM NS. List $62.95 Loss" for 4 set hook -up with isolation Low noise. MODEL DAB -B Applications: Home and other small installa. each ! pensates for signal and system var- iations Controlled variable inser- Input and Output .5 db for any TV channel.. Export: Morhan Export Corp. BLONDER -TONGUE LABORATORIES INC. In Large Master TV positive installation.5 db for any TV channel.7 volts RF and 1. 0. signal before line loss develops Remote high band for 1 set operation. terminals On /Off switch control prevents system over. Weather protected "swing - TV installations Features: FG'' input - Applications: Home and small 1 to 4 sets. put 10 db gain on all chan. List $94. List $53. MODEL AB-2 TWO -SET POW -R BOOSTER AMPLIFIER.. Ltd.CHANNEL MASTER TV AUTOMATIC MODEL HAB ' MODEL MLA -b GAIN CONTROL AMPLIFIER. . tion gain :i 10 db For use with ohms 0.. FM bands 24 db (16 times) on maximum output Frequency re. New Products and Developments Provide More TV Signal Power Anywhere -On Any Number of Sets BLONDER -TONGUE World's Most Complete Line of TV Signal Amplifiers New Product New Product New Product ALL -CHANNEL TV -FM AMPLIFIER BROADBAND AMPLIFIER ALL.. . power supply Single transmission line 3 to 5 db for 2 sets. Same as Model AB -2 except improves FM Built -in power supply No load. all triode BT A -104.4 volts trols for each band Solderless 75 amplifier with over 16 db gain and RF maximum output at 75 and 300 ohm radiation -proof coax fittings. _11:ailr!Llc at parts distributors. four set coupler circuitry Variable 20 db gain FM ANTENNA BOOSTER.

com . achieved a system reso- er vibrations which are fed back through the body nance lower than the unbaffled free air cone reso- of the cabinet. earn this description. Labyrinth® Speaker This loss -most often recognized as muddy or System. Stromberg. We were cer- by compromising the musical reproduction of your tain that component-quality sound in a console console. amplifiers.Carlson's PROJECT #2 Speaker systems were the next new kind of console will interest you.Carlson stereo tuners. Integrity Series Component Ensembles-and to an sole we needed two speaker systems of unquestion- uncompromising music lover each word in that able quality. You do not hear them because the sound could only be achieved with speaker systems that you hear is not complete.americanradiohistory. had already devel- At the start. to our components. Stromberg. did not depend on the console cabinet HOW TO BUILD A CONSOLE THAT for their enclosure. This is the kind of the music and reproduced as noise. You reproduction. we realized there were size of the Acousti- seven projects that we had to accomplish before cal Labyrinth enclo- 90 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. If you insisted on high quality re." If you are familiar with looking cabinet. some of which tables and speakers. serious music lovers have we could bring you this new kind of console. quality we knew you wanted. there was no practical solution. We were fortunate here. HOW TO BUILD A ST NR I:O CONSOLE THAT REPRODUCE S MUSIC AS FAITHFULLY AS S PARAT ELY F MOUNTED COMPONENTS For many years. properly coupled to a because sensitive components can detect the speak." It occurs wavelength duct enclosure. turn- production. You had to sacrifice the best most simply described by the phrase "Integrity in possible music reproduction if you wanted a good Music Reproduction. we faced the same problem that oped a system that every console manufacturer has tried to overcome: met the quality re- when full -range speakers were rigidly mounted in quirements. you chose components. because we name will be significant. searched for a way to enclose high quality high - fidelity equipment in a cabinet that would match PROJECT #1 The first consideration was given their finest furniture. the well- the same console as high quality components. Its quarter boomy noise -is caused by "feedback. If you dislike compromise. it is not because your ears are insensitive. For our new kind of stereo con-. PROJECT #3 To reduce the size of high quality You do not hear them because we and every speaker systems so that they would fit into a stereo other console manufacturer had to eliminate them console of reasonable dimensions. The standards we set for them can be had to compromise. We call them important project. low. These vibrations are amplified with nance of the radiator itself. They had to have high quality Until now. there regarded Acoustical was a serious loss of sound quality. we believe you will agree they may not have been quite so appealing to the eye. but do not hear these noises. If you own a console now.frequency radiator. This meant that we ELIMINATES FEEDBACK NOISES had to reduce the As we analyzed the problem.

styles. You can replace any com. They are interchangeable. each tastefully designed by Federico. 1960 qIl www. Look closely. sion system which prevents transmission of speaker vibra- tions to the sensitive components. New York. These cabinets.without ever re.CousTIC Mounting. Instead of treating the tems.sure so that we could fit two separate speaker en. A . ponent complement-in any case Stromberg -Carl. styling. size without sacrificing one iota of the extremely linear and extended response of the system. keep pace with new develop. You may select your own Stromberg.Carlson" sponded to the challenge by creating cabinetry in STROM BERG -CARLSON Traditional. Contemporary. TOO STROMBERG.CARLSON. Special Products Division.) Carlson components are always interchangeable. we treated the cause.) Stromberg. All of the components are com. Ask questions. They many. ments. the quality of the sound you'd hear would be as good as your component system is now. You may choose from 16 models in ponent in the ensemble to Traditional. we in- SPEAKER SYSTEM MOUNTING.Carlson tems from the sensitive components. The key development is what we call Iso.americanradiohistory. All ensembles provide space for adding a symptoms. in a choice of finishes. After a fine painting. You choose from 16 basic models in these closures within a cabinet that had reasonable di. by effectively eliminating the mechanical coupling with or without separate matching speaker sys- that allows it to occur._. choose a recommended Stromberg-Carlson com. Ital- ian Provincial. like mensions. but we did it.. Federico re.CousTIC If you now own a console or components. We developed a tape deck. It allows chosen to feature this new kind of stereo console. If you component owners could put your equipment into a cabinet whose speaker systems have our Iso. method of effectively isolating the speaker sys. has the better department and music stores-have solved the problem. "There is nothing finer than a Stromberg.Carlson to create a Listen carefully. You may se. : . (As a result. GENERAL DYNAMICS FEBRUARY. This mounting. sand dollars. Early American. Goodman St. lect your own Stromberg-Carlson components or placing your fine cabinetry. For a complete color catalog of Integrity Series CABINETRY HAD TO BE Component Ensembles and components write EXCEPTIONAL. NOW THE MOST DIFFICULT Every ensemble provides for your listening tastes PROBLEM HAD TO BE FACED and room acoustics by including the Stereo Choice PROJECT #4 To effectively eliminate feedback Switch for precise regulation of stereo separation. It was not easy. In fact. in vite you to exercise your critical judgment by lis- which the resistance and compliance to vertical tening to an Integrity Series Ensemble. pletely interchangeable. the components we use are the same ones you would choose for your separately mounted component system.. accept not our judgment.. son components are always interchangeable.. best describe . Then cabinet-within -cabinet suspen. PROJECT #7 To give you maximum flexibility in your enjoyment of an Integrity Series Ensemble. Contemporary and Period stylings. we designed the units in accordance with a modular concept. INTEGRITY SERIES WILL NEVER BECOME OBSOLETE PROJECT #5 To assure the purchaser of an Integrity Ensemble that his choice would never be INTEGRITY SERIES COMPONENT ENSEMBLES obsolete. stereo components or choose a recommended com- Stromberg-Carlson Integrity Series Ensembles are ponent complement -in any case Stromberg- the first successful uncompromised ensembles. PROJECT #6 To design cabinets with the per- manent beauty of fine furniture. French Provincial and Oriental . many trials and tests we achieved the correct must be seen. (You will and horizontal pressures have find that the better component shops -as well as been carefully engineered. -three hundred and fifty dollars to about six thou. 1478 N. but your own. Rochester 3.

Rumble -55 db re 20 cm¡sec at 1 kc.95 -' PR-499 "PERFECTEMPO" ALL SPEEDS The "Perfectempo" incorporates every valid.americanradiohistory. as a unit. true viscous damping and high moment of inertia result in extremely low resonance and consequently yield flat response below the limits of audibility. The motors are spaced exactly 180' apart..For integrity in music. A calibrated counterweight is adjustable to pro- vide any Needle point force. complete with mounting base.14% rms. black and brushed chrome $69.95' RA -498 TONE ARM The Stromberg. PR -500. Includes tone arm.09% rms.Carlson Tone Arm uses the most valid engineering concepts of tone arm design. PR-499.Carlson's original double -acting motor and table suspension system that effectively eliminates unwanted noise. Any variation of speed is automatically corrected by the interaction of the motors and the impregnated belt.95* *Prices audiophile net. weighted table. continuously variable cone drive (14 to 80 rpm). and cartridge clip. viscous fluid. precision motor. Single. Performance proves it: Wow 0. are isolated from the mounting board. For stereo operation.. "THERE IS NOTHING FINER THAN A STROMBERG -CARLSON" 92 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. dynamically balanced. plus Stromberg. rest. RA -498 $24.. Flutter .in connponev t system? . Single pivot point suspension. A NEW STROMBERG -CARLSON SINGLE -SPEED TURNTABLE . turntables less bates. time-proven design principle: belt Integrity Series Ensembles PR -500 SINGLE SPEED Here is a revolutionary con- cept in turntable design: a dual -drive system con- sisting of two hysteresis. morocco red with aluminum trim $99.synchronous motors operat- ing one belt drive.. 331/3 speed. Rumble and noise are virtually eliminated by the belt drive and a unique suspension system in which the tone arm and table. Fits all standard turntables. stroboscopic speed indicator.

powered with auxiliary power for AM -441 tuner..95* All three tuners are available in gold and white or black and brushed chrome. They have individual circuitry in which no duplicate use of tubes or circuits is in- volved.. SR-445 FM -443 FM TUNER Exceptionally sensitive. tan or red available at extra cost. Temperature controlled circuits eliminate drift. less cover STROMBERG -CARLSON ADIVISION OF GENERAL DYNAMICS FEBRUARY.. black. low noise reception due to the wide peak -to -peak separation (475 kc) and component systems . Operate as an AM tuner.55* 'Prices audiophile net.. but without its own AM-442IAM-441 power sJpply $49. Dial station selector and "hair.americanradiohistory. down 7 db at 7. Sensitivity is 2 uy for 20 db quieting. $129. 4 uy for 30 db quieting (300 ohm). AM -442 $59..600 kc. this tuner has a frequency response of 20 -7. It features a tuned RF stage and 3 -gang variable tuning condenser.20. an FM tuner or together as an AM -FM stereo tuner. linear slope (350 kc) of the balanced ratio de- tector. FM -443 $79. Bandwidth: 200 kc.. Tuning Range: 88 -108 mc.5* AM -441 AM TUNER Same as above.000 cps.Distant Switch adds 20 db quieting on local stations. Top cover in white. Bandwidth is 9 kc. The SR -445 ---_ - 5.000 cps. Its tuning range is 540 to 1. 11 r.. For integrity in music. Includes switched AFC circuit. The specifications are exactly the same as listed for these two units. SR -445 . Local. FM -443 Self. zone 1.Distant Switch results in 2 uy for 40 db quiet- ing on local stations. Local. and the grounded grid cascode front end.trigger" tuning eye..000 cps. Adjustable ferrite loop and ex- ternal antenna. 1960 93 www. THREE NEW STROMBERG -CARLSON TUNERS .com . Frequency Response: Integrity Series Ensembles SR -445 AM -FM STEREO TUNER The SR -445 is actually two separate and complete units which have been placed together for convenience of mounting and use. combines the separate AM and FM tuners described below. Provi- sion for multiplex adapter.95* AM -442 AM TUNER For exceptional AM reception.

tapehead. Each channel provides 12 watts of exceptionally clean.. Frequency response. Inputs: ceramic phono.7% at full output.000 cps. tuner. a master gain and loudness control. "THERE IS NOTHING FINER THAN A STROMBERG -CARLSON" 94 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. STROMBERG-CARLSON STEREO CONTROL AMPLIFIERS . In gold and white or black and brushed chrome. IM distor. black.For integrity in music. It features separate bass. plus high power. Specifications: frequency response 20. It features tone and volume controls for each chan- nel. hum and noise 63 db down. The exclusive "Stereo Tone Balance" signal permits you to adjust the two channels by a single tone. In black and brushed chrome. Zt nal. $129. s ti mi 4 e tion less than 1% at program level. Inputs: magnetic and ceramic phono. give you quality performance at a low price. and the "Stereo Tone Balance" sig.95* ASR -433 ASR -444 STEREO "60" CONTROL AMPLIFIER offers all desirable controls. Available in gold and white or black and brushed chrome. less top covers. har- monic distortion less than 0. ASR -444 $169. for Integrity Series Ensembles ASR -433 STEREO "24" CONTROL AMPLIFIER A dual channel amplifier with excellent performance and control features. ASR -433. ton or red. treble and volume controls for each channel. This amplifier -with 12 watts per channel -was designed for optimum reproduction with ceramic cart- ridges. tapelauxiliary. Zone 1. same as ASR -433...20. Each channel provides 30 watts of balanced power. noise level. IM distortion less than 1% at program level.95* ASR -444 ASR -333 STEREO CONTROL AMPLIFIER..95* ASR -333 *Prices Audiophile net. Same inputs as ASR -433. tuner... for component systems . ASR -333 $99. and a fine ce- ramic cartridge.americanradiohistory.000 cps. which are available in white.20. balanced power.. harmonic distortion less than 1% at full output. distortion. auxiliary / . The deliberately conservative specifications in- clude: frequency response 20. plus a loudness control.

vis. coaxials and mid -range transducers.. All pieces are precision - cut to size. You be the judge.o s. glue. a D .. For integrity in .Carlson "Slimline" feature al- lows maximum versatility in installation.Carlson.on of General Dynamics. Goodman 5t. for component systems . We suggest that you com- pare the quality of their performance with similar equipment.. romberg. This system enclosure achieves a system resonance that is lower than the un- baffled free air cone resonance of the low fre- quency radiator. and is made pos- sible by another feature: the new "Barite" ceramic magnet.. Write for full details on speakers and housings available. Rochester 3.' S . N. wù. Y. Five new complete speaker systems with a variety of decorator hous- ings are now available. Enclosures are available for 8 ". which is used to insure excellent transient response over the full effective frequency range. STROMBERG -CAR LSD N ADIVISION GENERAL DYNAMICS OF FEBRUARY. complete in- structions-everything you need is included.Carlson compo. It utilizes mass loading and fric- tional damping as acoustical devices to extend the low frequency range of the system with ex- treme flatness of response. DECORATOR HOUSING SPEAKER SYSTEM RH -469 RS -405 SPEAKERS Stromberg. ready to assemble. for Integrity Series Ensembles Stromberg. RH-465 RH-467 For full details on Stromberg. They are available in all popular sizes and price ranges.. STROMBERG -CARLSON SPEAKERS AND SYSTEMS . 12" and 15" systems. 1478 N. RT-477 ENCLOSURE KITS Acoustical Labyrinth enclosures are now available as unassembled kits. The same decorator housings available for factory assembled sys- tems may be used.Carlson loudspeakers include tweet- ers. 1960 95 www. The unusual Stromberg.Carlson manufactures a full line of speakers and the famous Acoustical Labyrinth" Speaker System. Nails...americanradiohistory. woofers.

. Appropriate micro-elements are ar- ranged according to the desired circuit Viols. Fins. resistor. a and construction.. today and tomorrow By JORDAN McQUAY TIIERE'S something new. 1 . A module is a completely different and rev. capacitor. it will be applied. Equipped with tiny leads. audio amplifiers. $5. cube -shaped solid 4.. consist of a resistor. diode or other element -or it may he a combination of several such Fig. but leaned heavily on the communica- More than a new idea. It's a dra. the Army Signal -provide the sanie circuit functions Corps initiated a major research and but are 10 tunes smaller and lighter development program for micromodules. I (top left) -A typical some of them for the first time in a nier lute. 2 (left) -C pleb. a new dimension in electronics micrc )dules. amplifier I or other electronic stage. 4 (below) -Cyr. for use aboard satellites and space vehicles of today and tomorrow. I ¡L. 1 Corps stage -and are encased permanently. Top to bottom: diode. in electronics: micromodules. 3 (bottom left)-Conventional c . (right). (left) and equivalent micro . The first results can now be described. ready to function as an oscillator. weight of equipment are critical. than conventional electronic equipment. sent the ultimate in microminiaturiza - elenent. Subsequently. The result is a small. These tiny. inductor. capacitor.. matic concept -providing tremendous Although the concept of micro- potentialities wherever size.million development contract was olutionary concept of electronics design awarded to RCA. inductor. counter.ELECTRONICS www. In every such application. thus losing their individual identity.americanradiohistory. to The notion of micromodules was all kinds of communications and elec- spawned from critical military require. filter.. radically numications and electronics equipment. 1. 2). i. tronics equipment and systems. the micro . Fig. N:1 fer Ili circuit elements. bulk and modules has immediate military value. circuit of a A micromodule (Fig. which every ro-element is constructed. micro - modularized equipment will be about 96 RADIO. a number of micromodules can be connected in combinations to provide a variety of circuits for radio transmitters and receivers.o. It's a unique concept dozen other companies have joined the -utilizing 1rrirrominiaturization and program -which will continue for sev- other advanced techniques. ELECTRONICS A new concept of cir- cuitry. tionselectronics industry for help. precision devices each smaller than a cube of sugar . tion to date. Over a year ago. amplifier or other 2. to some degree. The joint military industry program has progressed with amazing speed.S. -for an oscillator. v . data computers and many other kinds of electronic equipment (Fig. new. -and a lump of sugar which are stacked and interconnected. . eral years. 1) consists of i -stage miler lilt . A micro -element may capacitor.uperhet receiver a number of waferlike micro -elements. ments for lighter -weight smaller com. national magazine. micromodule -which is actually a complete aggregate. transistor. IL -a _.. and size-3 /10 inch square-and repre- ponent. All micro-elements have the same shape Fig. Characteristics Fig. pulse de- vices.

50 $54. L. complete catalog. and amateur radio less than 0. push -pull vertical and high gain RF and AF amplifier . 5.50 Factory Wired: $139. maintenance and repair is greatly simplified. formers. Faulty modules can simply be replaced without repair.element resistors range in value from 10 ohms to 1 megohm. Many others are under development.. Y.95 built -in roll chart Kit Net Price: neered and produced Factory Wired: $31. search. EQUIPMENT ment.000 ohms /volt DC wide -range much additional research and engineer. 20. High Sensitivity V -0 -M Kit Vacuum Tube Voltmeter Kit and many developments will require perbly detailed. with 12 A DIVISION OF Factory Wired: $129. 1960 97 www.50 tests both p-n-p and n-p-n types Kit Net Price: $39. INI A notches are for terminals to facilitate assembly and construction. step -by. Glendale 27. elements have been perfected. a vacuum deposit P C FEBRUARY. These PRECISIONAPPARATUS CO. representing about P [A] [ci 01 135 design types. ruggedness. ceramic and leading electronic parts distributors. These Available and on display at horizontal amplifiers Kit Net Price: $49. With the hi -fi custom building Factory Wired: $49. silicon diode. And mass production will lower the cost technical schools A -atíw ~ of these devices far below that of industrial testing and N t: A quality control MODEL T-60 MODEL C -20 Tube Checker Kit Res -Cap -Ratio Bridge Kit full free -point lever PACO is the only line of 10 mmfd to 2000 mfd selector system 1/2 ohm to 200 megs test instrument kits engi.50 Factory Wired: $47. you pay nothing Si extra for the convenience MODEL T -65 of buying PACO kits di. gain.í. SEE HOW PACO sets an entirely new standard in electronic instrument kit i __. design and fabrication of the first micro -elements -the foundation blocks of every micromodule.CENTURY OF PRECISION KNOW -HOW IS YOURS IN one-tenth the size and weight of con- ventional equipment.. Kit Net Price: $20. optimum flexibility Kit Net Price: $ 79. trans- Write for latest. local parts distributor. .95 0 notches around its outer edge. diodes and crystals (Fig. Inc. ELECTRONICS A QUARTER. assembly and wiring. 13.95 Kit Net Price: $87. MODEL G -30 Transistor and Crystal Diode Army Signal Corps rectly from your own RF Signal Generator Kit 160 Kc to 240 Mc in 8 bands Tester Kit tests Icbo.50 Factory Wired: $54. 4) .50 Kit Net Price: $31.50 ing. Fig. Micro -elements design and kit assembly MODEL S -50 MODEL Z -80 Signal Tracer Kit 5" Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Kit RF -AF Over a dozen basic types of micro.50 families include resistors. grams. 120 Mc fundamental output Kit Net Price: $28.. MODELL ST -45 low impedance power supply 3/10 inch square and 1/100 inch thick Export: 458 B'way.50 been made during only the first year of concerted military industry effort. step instruction manuals 10.50 acceptance of micromodules. it will be more economical to replace a FOR: MODEL B -10 MODEL S55 defective one than try to repair it.000 ohms/volt AC peak -to -peak Kit Net Price: $31.50 Factory Wired: $42.95 Factory Wired: $39. instruction. Every micro-element is constructed Electronics Co. science education and tial increase in dependability..95 Factory Wired: $59. Within a few years there will be at NM i least 35 families. appearance. Ultimate cost of a micromodule will be so low that IN KIT FORM 5 e f. electronic hobbyists Battery Eliminator Kit Wideband 5" Oscilloscope response DC to Entirely new manufacturing proc. i 'íì.A. U. basic concept of micromodules -a revo..50 under the auspices of a leading test equipment and meter manufacturer. Toronto 19. ease of op. leakage. N. With the plug -in method of connect- ing micromodules. I.. Factory Wired: $37. Many certain advances of the future are still on designers' drawing boards MODEL M-40 MODEL V -70 COMPARE PACO's su. any other kits for per- This is the broad program -the formance.Y. N . There are two types. R if f and. 3) . inductors. etc.S. Each tiny slab of insulating Canada: Atlas Radio Corp. - lutionary development and a new eration and simplicity of dimension in electronics. against any you This is particularly true of the re. capacitor as a micro . have ever seen.50 introduction of automation in their and service manufacture.americanradiohistory. MODEL SA -40 40 -Watt Stereo Preamp -Amplifier COMING SOON! on or within a single ceramic wafer 70.3% ripple output no external filters required push -pull V and 5 Mc H amplifiers esses will develop with universal Kit Net Price: $41.50 electrolytic capacitors. Micro. 14 controls for AM/FM Stereo Tuner Kit Matching companion (Fig.Ceramicelement.95 for the SA -40 material is precision -cut. Individual micromodules can be removed and analyzed separately with automatic QUALITY ELECTRONIC P A c 0 test equipment currently under develop. But astounding advances have and giant size wiring . In one.50 similar equipment of conventional COMPARE PACO against manufacture.31 84th St. there will be a substan. Factory Wired: $84.50 visual and audible indicator Kit Net Price: $29.

3/32 to 1/2 oz. Includes invaluable "step -by. Cal.00. Equivalent Tubes Vade Mecum) Over ciency and earnings soar! provide different values of resistance. The quartz crystal is mounted in the CHICAGO: 5045 W. Practical conversions.. $14 for both. and then the desired resistor pattern is mechanically scribed to any precise value. 6385. $7. equivalent to For Complete Information request our 96 Page Catalog - month thereafter until $13 has been paid. to develop improved techniques or to sion capacitors. Radio A TV Receiver CIRCUITRY & OPERATION 2N404. are required to house each crystal. Each is modated on a single wafer. Contact any of our 4 "Coast to Coast" Locations or your nearest Local Distributor.:. 417 several thousand µµf. JAMES: St. for 20 -it data on dozens of items of practical radio equip- $7. cavity of a specially recessed wafer. but same 10- rlay return privilege. Chicago 44. SHOWROOMS b SALES OFFICES AT Outside U. Name Each diode is assembled by soldering the commercial semiconductor directly Address to the wafer. all micro. radio -TV. are essentially commercial Cat. 32. Precision stylus pressure gauges are characteristics of the ferrite core on available in 10 models ranging in 10 -DAY FREE TRIAL which the inductor is wound. Dept. III. it is a quick way to "brush provide values from 0. Payable at rate of $4 (plus postage) you after 10 data if you decide to keep hooks and $3 a element diodes (Fig. -$S for TROIJRLESHOOTING & the range of 7 to 70 mc. these books pave the way to fast. FM and TV service jobs by approved can be terminated in various ways to WORLD'S EQUIVALENT TUBES (Brans' professional methods-and watch your effi. save $1.50' co. the maximum reading of the device until Radio & TV Receiver TROUBLESHOOTING & RE- FAI R. equivalent to types 2N109.2 µf. insulating wafer..25. They range in value New low price . Detailed how -to. school assume a variety of shapes and sizes. . In the second type. SCHERR-TUMICO PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS City..he ideal snide for servicemen who realize it pays to know [that really makes modern Micro. with extensive. Write for list of tains the latest data on the latest methods and equipment -NOT a rehash of old.. :ontents. concise answers for preparation for all USA commercial radiotelephone operator's license examinations. they form a complete modern servicing library to help you work faster. SURPLUS RADIO CONVERSION MANUAL.temperature co- and more profitably. as many as four resis. such as transistors to 200 to 2000 gram range.00 for the two (Regular price $14. (Save! Send cash with order and we Same return privilege with money There are presently four kinds of The extra indicator "hand" will remain at relu rpitledp)stge.. Tubes Vade Mecum) World's most au- Let these two world -famous Ghirardi train. a tin oxide resistance film LICENSE MANUAL $Soo SERVICE JOBS In one convenient volume... Tiny electrolytic TROUBLESHOOTING & REPAIR structures with solid electrolyte are A complete guide to profe.7 5 scparntely) CORRECT STYLUS PRESSURE NOT ONLY Check here for MONEY -SAVING COM- sistor is hermetically sealed within the GUARANTEES MINIMUM STYLUS AND BINATION OFFER . VOL. The success of these devices "Course.separately) transistors. Y. more efficiently cores with very -low.900 comparisons $5. James. 417 illus. . film is first placed on the RADIOTELEPHONE TRAINING -TV FOR BETTER RADIO surface of a wafer.A. RINEHART & CO. N. having values up to 0.Jonal . of their typo.S.5() . complete study -guide questions with clear. Inductor performance is books-and have the privilege of paying in e. Completely modern. RECORD WEAR.1 to 10 µf. Ghirardi whose famous RADIO PHYSICS t'OI'IiSE and MODERN RADIO SERVICE Unlike conventional capacitors which SURPLUS RADIO CONVERSION MANUAL were.authored by A.25) There are three kinds of micro .25! from a few microhenries to as high If broken into lesson term and sent to you as a as 10 mh. In 10 days.50* 3 MONTO PAY Army Signal Corps ment WORLD'S RADIO TUBES (Brans' Radio Fig. N.25 for CIRCUITRY & OPERATION. You save $1. Higher values of capacitance are Summerland California phase of modern trouble. are constructed illus. accurate service on any type of home tors of diverse value can be accom.compen- CIRCUITRY AND OPERATION sating ceramics. PICK -UP AT MINIMUM DISTORTION. the 1N277. Price separately $1!. profusely illustrated and written so In either type. 6). shown above.element form. No. NEW YORK: 200 Lafayette Street. Each tran- (Price 56.americanradiohistory. range owe you nothing. State Micro-element crystals operate in WAREHOUSE STOCK. Three wafers REPAIR. Los Angeles 19. Ltd.50' and study training than any outer honk. reset by a knob on the dial face. RADIO HANDBOOK. BUT ASSURES SOUND Send both of above big books at special price of only $13. RE -20. ST. New York 16. VOL. General - THE NEW Ghirardi purpose units. Zone.element capacitors are the size of a standardized wafer. See combination offer! with dielectric materials of conven- 2 -Radio and Television Receiver tional.element capacitors to the novice. temperature.Y. precision. Under this offer you boy them both for only $13. simplified theory. having values up to find fast answers to puzzling service problems." you'd regard these two great books as a bargain is due to the development of ferrite at $50 or more! Together. A one -volume library of radio information.25 on the price it Ile. install. 232 Madison Ave.00* you can easily understand every word.25. trations show step -by -step how to handle every 5) . $2. price $7. 820 pages. and diodes. Cash with order only. Companion to Volume I. Minnesota LOS ANGELES: 3337 West Olympic Blvd.electronic equipment ever made.. A. EDITORS and ENGINEERS. out -of-slate material. II. Preci- up" on specific jobs. hots to eliminate on ferromagnetic cores attached to an guesswork and useless testing in sendring them. 6-A diode as a micro -element. more widely used for military. Each hook con. obtained with multi -layer coatings of 1 -Radio and Television Receiver film -thin ceramics.shooting and servicing. For used for micro. . $2. Save 51.step" service charts.two efficients. formers consist of toroidal windings how to recognize them at a glance. (Price 07. ti!yes a complete understanding of basic Circuits and circuit variations. Harrison. refer to DEPT FF -2e 98 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. I.00* ing books teach you to handle all types of is deposited as a series of lines which AM. 1N643 and a Zener type. Inc.50 separately. Shen writing to any of the above locations. calibration from .5 to 5 gram range up Semiconductors. determined almost entirely by the ments while you use them.wvtice methods. it is a comprehensive training course. I will either remit price indi- cated (plus postage) or return honks postpaid and micro. units which have been adapted to with 2 -15 gram range or THIN. For the experienced .element inductors and trans- radio -TV receivers "tick" and telly. thoritative tube book $5. 2N140 and 2N384. Send book(s) below for 10 -day FREE EXAMINA. New York 12. You Save $1. GIANT 15th EDI- TION. are formed by a coating of conven- BUY FROM YOUR DISTRIBUTOR RADIO -TV SERVICE LIBRARY Add 10% on direct mail orders to Almost 1500 pages and over 800 clear illus- tional high -K dielectric ceramics ( Fig.COMPLETE ELECTRONICS of metal.

valuable than ever. output transformer circuit. î -C plete. output and other connec. leakage. and s.« Still to be developed are the micro - elements for thermistors. 6 oz.QUIET . Model 1070 Dyna. if. requires a source of power and appro- priate input.59 net db at a frequency of 4. B&K MANUFACTURING CO. engineered for Tuners and Switching Mechanisms.3 me with a 2 oz. New HUSH is made from the finest solvents and it contains Electro- capabilities of micromodules in rf. including H.Electronically. encased micromodule Analyst for driving source. Net. IN MINUTES To save space. Connecting leads usually pass through the notches in the wafer of each micro. Kinds of micromodules NEW A complete micromodule consists of a number of micro-elements arranged so the combination constitutes a desired o DYNA -SWEEP electronic circuit-oscillator. but is designed as a companion unit for Army Sir. 1960 99 www. Scientifically designed to seep around the shaft and pene- trate the control or potentiometer.:. nearly 20 distinct kinds of SERVICEMEN KNOW! micromodules have been developed. Gives unique high -voltage 6. containers 6 oz.S. Solve Rough Sweep Output Problems tional solid wafers.A. 8) provides 8 oz. signals (negative or positive) to inject problems that have always plagued the sipate heat generated within the micro . containers l0 db gain at 48 me as the input stage EVER . To date. thyristers. VOLUME CONTROL AND CONTACT RESTORER The micromodule includes a type 2N384 EVER -QUIET is a free-flowing liquid that leaves no powder resi- transistor.poriers. some of the principal When New HUSH is applied it will wash -away that dirt. t ELECTRONICS center hole of a special kind of wafer. p-ui rr n. and a microminiature trans. yoke. For such operation. TV serviceman. HUSH® Representing a wide range of cir. 4. Such multiple types of micro -elements include R -C networks. complete cir. it 1801 W. 50 Wmgold. The stage includes a 2N384 transistor.. Saves many hours of service of the horizontal output components. two or three micro - l elements are sometimes assembled on INSTEAD OF HOURS! a single wafer. 32 oz. INC. Provides unique high -voltage indicator. Checks for shorted turns. cleaning the contacts and former with an rf ferrite core. covered on each side by two conven. Provides plate drive signal to check vertical sync and driving pulses that complete vertical output circuit. the sync and sweep sections of a television stack. Export (rnpi r E. Bottle A dispenser 79c net bandwidth of about 200 kc. a micromodule is bas. Net. indication. Only leads for exter- nal connections protrude. solid -state switches and variable circuit elements. New York 7. On!. audio and digital circuitry are: Also available -2 oz. BELLE PLAINE AVE CHICAGO 13. 277 Broadway. good or bad.element. U. Here they pay less and get the best fabricated and used successfully as part of the military industry program. tions. Provides sensitive tests for each replacements. Provides B+ boost indicator. L -C filters and other i combinations. transformer and work! Pays for itself over and over again. and then hermet- ically sealed. Provides horizontal plate driving including defective output transformer signal to directly drive TV horizontal and yoke. See your B &K Distributor or Write for Bulletin Si24E ically an integrated electronic stage that provides a specific. In operation. directly in each sync stage. 9) has a gain of 20 Also available 32 oz. leaving a safe protecting film. due. Provides vertical yoke test signal ta receiver. opens. A terminal 2. magnetic devices.. Tracks down troubles in the determine if vertical yoke windings are defective. Eliminates trial and error 7. wire or For the same military receiver. This also increases reliability.. CHEMICAL ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING. make it easy to check out every stage in wafer is placed over the end of the including V. Provides composite synchronizing Quickly solves tough output servicing Additional riser leads are used to dis. amplifier CIRCUIT ANALYZER or other complete stage.. $49. if amplifier (Fig. Harmless to metals. New Jersey FEBRUARY. ILL. Matawan. cuit function.O.r Since 1949 of a portable military radio receiver. Silicone oils. Spray can 2. . continuity. leaving kinds that demonstrate the potential clean and positive contacts protected by a lasting lubricant. Makes your Television Analyst more useful and ready for use. an! Corps use only with B &K Model 1075 Television Fig.Sweep.americanradiohistory. Spray can $1.25 net An rf amplifier (Fig. Immediately reveals their true condition. 7). short circuits. Chemically.O. Provides horizontal and module during operation. horizontal and vertical output circuit. since the number of sol- dered connections is reduced. Ccnado: Ados Rods Corp.95 and the entire assembly is permanently encased (Fig. internal connectors are soldered 3. Toronto 10. $ó995 MODEL A107 DYNA -SWEEP CIRCUIT ANALYZER for use with B &K Model 1075 Television Analyst Functions like the Model 1070 above. cuit functions. T.

particularly where critical size and Frequency weight limitations affect the design of communications and electronics equip- range: ment. 10) for the same receiver has 20 db gain. micromodule used in military radio receiver. saw - 48. a NORMA OUTPUT Virtually all future equipment oper- ating at low or medium power levels will use transistors and other semi- conductor devices. cept into new areas.4 me tooth generators. The micromodule includes two 2N269 transistors. micromodules will help minimize size and weight and will Power output: simplify repair and . These include binary dividers. 11 -Pulse generator as a micromodule.tTUT of micromodules. a seven -stage tran- 4. 1 mw Much further research. output amplifiers and others -each constructed in the form Gain: t0 db of a single micromodule. forms a five -stage transistor radio receiver.americanradiohistory.3 me sistor superheterodyne radio receiver is so small it can be held in a spoon. if amplifiers and an audio 200 KC at amplifier.function solid -state devices of the future. Combining modules When a number of appropriate micro - modules are connected together.. Even though some systems -such 300 3000 cps to as certain types of automatic data - processing equipment-become increas- Gain: 20 db ingly complex. used directly in developing new types . Typical of these is the pulse gen- erator stage (Fig. which includes two type 2N404 transistors. PULSE OENER*TOR There'll be more extensive use of semi- conductors as the active circuit ele- ments of micromodules. For example. e- th:'? zasoa iN?17 . One of these areas is semiconductors. down needed to put the unit into operation are an antenna.000 cycles. the complete circuitry for an electronics device can be provided in micro - Center frequency: miniaturized form. END 100 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. gates. 10 -Audio amplifier circuit improve initial accomplishments but and the micromodule it represents. The only additional parts 6 db. the first of which functions as an emitter follower in place of the usual audio input trans- former. because the iooC p-Nf 100 vast majority of existing electronics circuits can be transistorized. built into a fountain -pen case. In strong signal areas.ELECTRONICS An audio amplifier (Fig. Thus. 8 1N277 diodes and a 1:1:1 microminia- ture pulse transformer. tuning controls and a small battery. clippers. advances in solid -state physics can be MOM . with a frequency range from 300 to 3. il). Future applications of the micro- modular concept are almost unlimited. At the same time. three type -Rf amplifier circuit and equivalent Fig.. a source of power and some type of reproducing device. pulse generators. the micro - modular idea becomes the logical step- ping stone to multi. 9 -If amplifier circuit and equivalent micromodule. also to extend the micromodular con- Fig. This Gain: 20 db combination consists of seven inter- connected micromodules that include an Band width: rf amplifier. it receives local reception broadcast -band stations ex- cellently. Another assembly of micromodules Fig. design and development are necessary-not only to Fig. The case also contains an antenna. A variety of digital type micro- miniature devices have also been devel- Center frequency: oped.

BATTERY LEAD of the . Transmitter weight of body. capsulated in plastic. to this method -when an animal is The first real test was made on a handled in any manner.100. without a thermistor. but University of Arizona needed a device instrument which would indicate body . The animal though the thermometer may be a highly Read C. were important. Cs_ L 200µH C2 BATT + BATTERY LEAD 1801. /10 watt I AE you man or mouse?" time CI -. The oscillator was Body temperature of animals (includ.000 ohms.5 grams. had been given a drug that would raise accurate instrument. ( See diagram for Normally. peaking coil (Miller 6154 mice transmit and so do our or equivalent) varied its frequency in proportion to rabbits. Yes.000 ohms. W7MPQ 41. RI.4d 1. could be substituted. 3 -180 µµf. Easton (W1NAO /7) and my. It would have to give a was about 18 grams. the animal. a much smaller thermistor was drugs on the animals was being tested. a load equal to its own weight. was unnecessary -a small resistor (R2) through the testing was just as vital. A random length of wire coiled loosely The College of Pharmacy needed an It was obvious that the transmitted (Continued on page 106) FEBRUARY. A thermistor L -200 Rh.this little trans- *!.01 R3 180µµf 1. Childs of the college faculty. our white or equivalent) oscillator was tried first. Such a unit The College of Pharmacy at the seemed to give favorable results. ELECTRONICS Weighing less than 3. BATT. 1960 101 www. its temperature First attempts rabbit.MOUSE transmits mitter reads the tem- perature of laboratory animals without dis- own turbing them temperature By RICHARD S. 1. Tran. So even On this basis. in a laboratory class supervised goes up almost immediately. V -2 N 207 temperature changes.3 volts (Eveready E400 But what signal would be used? An ated by a mouse. These readings would continuous reading so rate of tempera. and this meant a subminiature kc at 25°C. . Size and weight were important. Albert L. necessarily true indications. a rectal thermometer is sistors and other miniature parts were a look at the circuit.temperature changes of lab.mercury cell. If it used. 1/10 watt R3-I.americanradiohistory.01 µf. After all. C2. its body temperature.transistor IK . we had to get a rather large mouse to that would give a constant indication temperature changes without disturbing carry the load. ceramic the radio transmitter is oper. RESISTORS I /IOW Closeup view of the subminiature transmitter. the instrument would A few tests revealed that the thermistor happening to body temperature all be doubly valuable.000 ohms. And the entire unit was powered The final results of the drug tests could be calibrated to show the actual by a section sliced off a penlight cell. Picchioni.) It operates on 750 used to measure the temperature of vital. but knowing what was temperature too. readings are not self being handed the job by Richard F. ceramic signal would be extremely low power. I /10 watt R2 -47. could barely straighten his hind legs. the work started. and the animal oratory animals. The oscillator was en- laboratory animals. caus- ing man) is a great controlling factor couldn't be expected to carry around ing the desired frequency variations in their life functions.3 V Circuit CI C3 t. amount of change could be seen. a 15 -gram white mouse very sensitive to heat variations. be recorded while the effect of various ture change as well as the relative Next. But there is a catch power source as well. GRIFFITH. by Dr.

Printed circuit Gold extruded solid aluminum escutcheon. - www. Truly inputs. If you haven't a copy. Double nel. Features special full -frequency in features. 15 lbs. Built -in Amazing buy. including single knob channel free reception. Has 21/2µu sensitivity. easiest assembly.americanradiohistory.Ls . Shpg. DOWN there is a money. Tuned RF stage. 17 lbs. easy addition of "built -in" multiplex. years -ahead saving kit form. Sectionalized construction permits balance and separate dual concentric tone controls for each chan.. clutch -type level cathode follower output. $2 Down. Has completely independent FM and range. Custom -styled in ode. up to 24 months to pay. 40 -Watt Stereo Amplifier Kit. 7 record equalization control. Only tuner kit with Dynamic Side - $5 Down modate every existing sound source. S5 40 -watt amplifier.saving knight -kit for every hi -fi need SEE THEM ALL See the impressive selection of Hi -Fi Knight-Kits (includ- ing speaker systems) in the money. 8 concentric. high sensi.speaker $8750 AM sections. $2 Down. great value. extra center -channel output for 3. distortion - control versatility.!uI. single . exceptional $5 Down band Regulation (DSR) on FM for purest. Fast handling ONLY s5 DOWN (OR LESS) no red tape -take advantage of these easiest -pay terms.. 41/2 x 151/2 boards for fastest. Exclusive printed circuit limiter -discriminator FM circuits -adjustable AFC. Outputs for stereo tape recording. Desert Beige and Sand aligned Rf and IF transformers in FM section. Y-731D Distinguished for quality and styling. at only 0. Separate cath- switches and plug -in units for easy assembly. DOWN Model Y -731D. 18 watts knob selector switch for tivity.. Y -773 D. send for it today. Only '4450 Y-787D. 6973 audio output tubes.t_kn.. Precisely Cordovan gray vinyl plastic bonded to steel. each with moving -bar "magic eye" $7950 systems. newest Ic. years-ahead incomparable knight -kit stereo hi -fi saves you up to 50% DELUXE 40 -WATT STEREO AMPLIFIER KIT DELUXE STEREO FM -AM TUNER KIT Y-7740 Finest hi -fi stereo amplifier you can buy in money. Dual built-in equalized preamps accom. 24 lbs. tuning indicator. featuring: A brilliant performer at un- equalized preamps. 20 -Watt Stereo Amplifier FM-AM Hi -Fi Tuner Kit 18 -Watt Hi -IFi Amplifier Kit Truly a super -value. Styling matches the x 111/4 ". flywheel tuning.. RCA control convenience. 18 .. settMgs. 41/2 x 151/2 x 12 ". Only $3995 on orders up to $200. AFC. Only 4995 Y -797D. 14 lbs. wt..5% distortion. wt. Stereo FM -AM Tuner Kit. believable savings.saving 1960 ALLIED Catalog. Shpg.followeroutputs on FM and AM with level set controls. dual pre -aligned IF and RF coils. $5 Model Y-774D. $2 Down.

wt. $6. tive regenerative circuit. Receiver tunes ali 22 depending on antenna height and terrain. boat $7995 citizen. Transceiver Kit. DOWN dozens of exciting hobbyist kits available "Span Master" 4 -Band Radio Kit "Ranger" Clock -Radio Kit Famous for world -wide short-wave Easiest superhetof all to build -plug- and broadcast reception.. phone jack.. ELECTRONICS I90. Shpg. Handsomely styled case. 6 lbs. Only. Superhet Transceiver Kit. $3995 mits talk or listen. can get a license -no exam required. $2 Down Only .95. With appliance outlet.americanradiohistory. wt.35. 4" PM Telechron clock has "sleep" switch. eliminate small parts assembly. one -switch operation per- For mobile or stationary use..95.0 manufactured and sold exclusively by ALLIED RADIO www. built -in ferrite loopstick. Y -713D Low-cost super-regenerative receiver and economical 2 -way radiotelephone communication. 8 lbs. ILL.. in modules and printed circuit board switching. speaker. $2595 Y -737D. tunes all channels continuously. Only $2495 5. SEE THEM ALL: Knight-Kits offer the Fun to build.. Y -729 vertical antenna. 18 or older. 6 x 10 x 8".. Works just like channels continuously. Receiver is sensi- tive superhet.specify preference) and doublet antenna. Simple. See 22 ounces.2 -way radio everyone can afford CITIZENS BAND SUPERMET TRANSCEIVER KIT CITIZENS BAND TRANSCEIVER KIT Y-712D A high -sensitivity do. DC power supply.. 6 -12 v. 5-watt transmitter section. $2 Down. $5. Any 5 -watt transmitter kit. With mike. $10. age from Broadcast to 30 mc. Sensi.50.. 20 lbs. Covers up to 20 miles. $2 Down supply. low -cost personal portable. $10. $1.Transistor Portable Radio Kit Popular. Y -724 mobile high -impact styrene case. $5. with talk -listen operation. Available extras: Y-723. Built-in AC power $5 Down an intercom. DOWN Model Y -713D.30.) 2 lbs. True band .for you who want to build the very best for less . big 31/2" speaker. $2 Down. channel from 1 to 22. Distinctive Y -729 vertical antenna. WESTERN AVE. Readily fits car. 10 lbs. 6-12 v.. ALLIED Catalog. 5 x 12 x 12 ". continuous 4 -band cover. $2$95 page following. IDEAL FOR HI:IME. Write for it now -use coupon on RADIO Y-771D. superhet circuit...50. transmitting crystal specify channel (1 to 22) if you have a preference -and - Built -in AC power supply... available: Y-723. (Less the complete selection in the 1960 ALLIED battery. $5 mounting bracket. or desk. Excellent AM broadcast reception. CHICAGO AUTO OR ECAT all -new knight -kit citizens band transceivers. $6.35. Y -258D. Shpg. . Y-714 mobile mounting bracket.yourself transceiver for efficient. Extras Designed for easy assembly and dependable operation. With 100 N.. DC power supply. _ Model Y-712D. With transmitting crystal (available for any doublet antenna. only most exciting hobbyist kits available.

29 lbs. ments. Model Y -608D. Tests cathode emission amplifiers. opposite page. AC VTVM Kit. $5 Down. Out- anced bridge circuit. 50 lbs. Y-608D A major achievement in instrumentation! This all - gered sweep DC precision quality lab scope with new AC VTVM features automatic range selection s2ó5ao plug -in interchangeable vertical amplifiers (IVA).. Only $6575 morsend for the value-packed 1960 ALLIED CATALOG www. wide -band (to 10 mc). 10 Nike it on the market. Push-pull bal. ages. 7 lbs. wt.. as well as shorts. reserve yours now Shpg. this in kit form-here is laboratory precision quality and reliability Includes precise trigger circuits. standing value. a front panel and vertical channels. Checks over 700 receiving Top versatility. Might indicates the range in use. open ele.. If you Measures DC voltage (11 meg. Reads as low peak calibrator. regulated power supply.95. exclusive Knight -Kit development -there is no other instrument Model Y -611D. Three interchangeable vertical preamplifiers are as 100 Au. $ 995o -by means of an electronically-actuated self -seek- Brilliantly engineered with an impressive array of ing mechanism which automatically selects the (less preamps) professional features. 5 mc band- input)and resistance. newest knight-kits. Only $3296 Y. DC amplifiers in both horizontal under examination. to 300 volts full scale.americanradiohistory.5 mc. etc.144D.95. Y-125D. cal amplifier sensitivity. DOWN Available in March .. $2 by design r SEE THEM ALL -0 c c O You'll find dozens of other fire quality Knight - V G tì Kit instrument values fully described in the 1960 Famous -Value VTVM Kit Deluxe Tube Checker Kit 5 °'Wide-Band Scope Kit ALLIED Catalog.performance. Covers 11 ranges from 3 millivolts sweep timing adjustable to 1 %. wt. 15 lbs. Only $2575 . There is ro other instrument like connection to scope for simultaneous wave form observation. 131/2 lbs. Lab DC Scope Kit.t4310. ideal for use as preamp for other test equipment or for $24. AC volt. A PRODJCT OF ALLIED RADIO knight -kits break through the professional instrument price barrier 5" LAB DC SCOPE KIT WITH IVA LAB AUTOMATIC AC VTVM KIT Y-6110 For the first time in easy -to -build kit form -a trig. Simultaneously. $35. An unit. built -in voltage regulated peak -to. $48. electronically regulated power supply. 25 my /inch verti. Shpg. frequency response to 2. in any form or at any cost. $2 Down. rms and peak-to-peak. 16 filament volt. dual -trace. type tubes. $5 DOWN save on every instrument need with knight -kits .95. output. including: crystal -controlled SS Down proper range when you touch probes to the circuit timing markers. width. Highly stable 3 -stage amplifier has cathode follower available: high -gain differential. DC coupled p -p output haven't a copy. latest at far less than the cost of any comparable factory -built printed circuitry for easy assembly and quality. write for age. it now -use coupon on 41/2" meter.

Chicago 80.multiplier. S -Meter Kit for above. 600 watts F. $7. Western Ave.95. Smooth. 20. 400 watts on AM and CW.50. input on $3950° SSB. calibrated bandspread on - 7034/4X150A final coasts along well within its CCS ratings. anti -trip and adjustable speech compression. 80 through 6 meters. selectivity and sensi- 14" dial is precision -calibrated for all bands.75 Y -728D..line t in detail -tie leading Buting Guide for everything n Electrcni:.P. 40. DOWN Amplifier Kt.E. Dozens of advanced features put this job $5 Dawn all Ham bands.Kit. $5 Available in March. Has Y-726D Incomparable receiver kit with all Transmitter heterodyne VFO to assure a signal which "stays put. $9.132 -B 100 N." Tremendous the features.REMEMOMMi electronic achievements at half the factory -built cost years -ahead knight -kit amateur gear F-400 AMATEUR 400-WA TT TRANSMITTER KIT Y-716D Truly the "d-eam" txansrrtttier -has whet it takes :o punc-i out a QRM. silicon rectifier power supply runs cool. Shpg..5 kc selectivity. and 15 or 6 meter bands. Has bands. Covers 80. SSB features: tivity of high -priced commercial frontpanel controls -VOX. DOWN Truly superior kit value. 300 cps to 4. Start with the basic CW . dozens of other professional features. express shipped collect ) Send FREE 1960 ALLIED CATALOG RAD IQ pioneers in gualify electron.50 ALLIED RADIO CORP. Y -727D.reserve yours now "Add -In "Accessories: SSB Generator Kit.95 6 -Meter Conversion . Tunes 540 kc to 30 me in 4 chirpless screen -clamp keying. Ill.americanradiohistory. only $10.c kit detelopn-.running HFO- Model Y -716D.95Speech Model Y -726 D. constant. $10450 units. Price Desc.:s. wt. only 7. $ Name Address 04JR 39th YEAR City Zone State www. Send fo. exclusive printed-circuit bandswitch. T -400 CW Transmitter Kit.$24. Use coupon of right. ALLI E C j enclosed. s10 built -in Q. Dept. $37. Sent =o' the 1960 Ship me the folbwing KNIGHT -KITS: ALLIED CATALOG Quantity Description Model No.95 Monitor Scope Kit. 140 lbs.then add AM and SSB R -100 AMATEUR RECEIVER KIT 400 -Watt CW accessory units and other "add -ins" whenever you wish. in a class all its own.busting SSB. plus VFO keying for complete CW break -in. (For parcel post include postage.your FREE copy.AM NiodulatcrKif. 30 lbs.ibes le complete K'413HT -K . R -100 Receiver Kit. 4" Matching Speaker. AM. or CW signal. I0.

But with more clipping and use of clear Krylon in place of the plastic (several coats were sprayed on)... A short antenna from a BC -221 fre- SH -2 quency meter was coupled loosely to the receiving antenna. " Mousenik III" was completed and Now you can cut controls and weighed in at 3. The transmitter was attached to the rabbit's belly with adhesive tape (the hair was clipped from that area). with battery! control the cut . rabbits and guinea ELECTRONICS DIVISION OF GLOBEUNION INC...modulated and a readable sig- nal received at about 40 or 50 feet. Now the white mice are about to have CENTRALAB'S Shaft -Kut Tool is a precision instrument. who will listen. The unit has a range of about 1 foot With this tool you can cut any single or dual control .95 dealer net. The white mice. With an antenna. Ask your distributor to show you how easy course that the mercury battery will it is to use this new tool. The input is 0.. a tiny mercury battery. and only enough plastic to hold the unit together.3 grams. A piece of plastic about 3 feet square was placed over it and the animal rested on the plastic sheet. WIS. TOOL Then the rabbit was given a drug which lowered its body temperature rather slowly.3 volts. END 106 D e n1(1_FI FeTDnNICS www. oratories can now broadcast to all IN CANADA: 669 Bayview Ave. the unit jig are made of case hardened tool steel. and can give a message of vital importance to researchers. which means of kind . a simple job (Continued from page 101) on the table formed the receiving with the new antenna. and the effects of excitement. It was only one -third the weight of the first unit. You can't make a wrong cut with the CENTRALAB Shaft -Kut Tool! And the No attempt has been made to measure price is less than half what you'd expect to pay for a precision device of this the unit's power output. guaranteed a new role in . care- ful soldering. So while university researchers continued their tests with the first transmitter. It showed the rate and amount of temperature de- crease. which was dubbed "Mousenik I. The present tiny unit does not even seem to be an in- to make a really simple job of cutting shafts to the exact size you need.. and frequency recordings were made every 2 minutes. SHAFT -HUT After testing had continued for about 15 minutes. precisely and exactly. Frequency readings every 2 minutes were continued. or switch shaft.. Results were most encouraging. Ont. and the ceramic capacitors and coil were about as tiny as we could find.3 ma at 1. . and tempera- tures were recorded with the thermom- eter every 1/2 hour. MILWAUKEE 1.americanradiohistory. ELECTRONICS Precision cutting. convenience to the transmitting mouse. pigs in the University of Arizona lab- 900A E. The entire test took 3 hours. was voice. Make if smaller The transmitter was still too large for the average white mouse. Toronto 17. without any antenna. Resistors of 1 /10 watt had been used." work began on a smaller unit. a low $4. All of which means that medical research CONTROLS ROTARY SWITCHES CERAMIC CAPACITORS will profit indirectly by amateur radio PACKAGED ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS ENGINEERED CERAMICS -hams have again served. . "Mousenik II" was completed and tipped the scales at 6 grams. KEEFE AVE. the animal's temperature was taken with a rectal thermometer. complete with plastic and battery. and get cuts that are accurate to filth of an inch! The tool and calibrated and a carbon microphone in series with a 3 -volt battery to the coil. not need frequent replacement. It became a matter of using the shortest possible leads. They showed definitely that every time the animal was excited by being handled its temperature went up and after handling promptly dropped back and continued to decrease. designed to last a lifetime.

This device well and is very cheap to produce. is sensed and compared with a reference . but it does have moving regulated by controlling the amount of points will open at the output voltage parts that wear out. field winding. up or down. 3).asistor circuit replaces the tricky By DANIEL MEYER* vibrating contact in your car's voltage regulator IF the battery in your car has ever depends on the application. 2 -The carbon -pile type this is not likely in a properly designed regulator is used in most mili. This is especially objection- the same output voltage because the able on sensitive mobile radios used by AM. The output voltage sity of the magnetic field in the pole the points as the voltage rises and falls can be adjusted over a limited range pieces.transistor regulator armature cuts the lines of flux faster. which is fed to a solenoid whose boiled over and run dry. The arc with a potentiometer in series with the of magnetic flux per revolution. less field current is needed to produce radio noise. previously discussed regulators are speed conditions A better regulator is the carbon -pile overcome. because of the high amplification of the transistor circuit. Basically the output voltage No radio interference type. in a very rapid opening and closing of placed periodically.tra. most of the disadvantages of the 0 Good regulation under all load and ture tension.. small boats and most light aircraft. 1 -This type voltage reg- /j í i 1 0000 óó0ó0 cJo4o0000 quality of the transistors and compo- nents used. voltage. constant under all load and speed erator's output.americanradiohistory. Varying its resistance controls the resistance. This results burn and pit with use and must be re- More field current increases the inten. Changes in the output voltage realize the importance of your gen. can destroy the carbon discs. The reliability and service life of the unit are limited only by the Fig. r'ff. It is used in most military air. Its construction is shown in Fig. but Fig. p is extreme. The stack is in is instantly corrected for by a change *Research engineer. Output voltage can SOLENOID COIL ARMATURE be adjusted after the regulator is in- CORE FIELD SPRING stalled. Any change in the output voltage Which quality is the most important resistance of the stack. setting on this regulator except by resistance in series with the field (Fig. The amount of spring pressure on the is amplified and drives the transistor's Low cost stack of carbon discs controls the base. and the normally closed The regulating action of this type of conditions encountered during normal contact points are in series with the regulator is smoother than the vibrat- driving. no matter how much field current flows adjust and doesn't hold an adjustment This regulator also costs much more in the field windings. The contact points and ing -point kind and it does not generate A dc generator's output is usually the relay's sensitivity are set so the radio noise. lator are: varying the point gap or relay arma. erator's voltage regulator. Southwest Research Insti- series with the generator's field wind. I am sure that you vibrating -point type regulator. This is all regulating action and cannot be sup. CARBON DISCS circuit. small . This spring. regulator (Fig. must be made by a trained person with true if the speed of rotation is constant. depending on whether the voltage goes keeps the generator's output voltage The relay coil is connected to the gen. FEBRUARY. and created at the points helps smooth the solenoid winding. 1960 107 www. or slowly boats and most light aircraft use the core is connected to the compression lost its charge. The difference between the two Easy adjustment 2. Heat drift of the transistor characteristics is no problem unless it ulator is found in cars. in the transistor's emitter collector tute. The carbon discs current flowing in the field winding. tary aircraft. ing. 1) works reasonably move the core and spring in or out. Incorrect adjustment Below a certain speed the generator operation is expected. ELECTRONICS ALL-TRANSISTOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR FOR YOUR CAR Form. and make does not deliver more than a few volts This type of regulator is difficult to it necessary to replace the stack again. desired from the generator. Drift in the reference diode could cause variations in output. Regulation is very close field current and thus the output volt. There is no way to change the By using a power transistor as the Desirable characteristics for a regu. 0 Reliability and long service life craft. pressed with a capacitor if proper special equipment. Initial adjustments the output voltage goes up. The armature cuts more lines about the operating points. hams. Cars. At higher speeds too well. The arc at the points causes than the simple point type. Let's see how the regulator works.

This reduces V3's emitter -to-base *5. electrolytic circuit has some current gain. transistors have been developed since way the generator field is connected by and output voltage returns to nor.coupled to V2's V2 =2N107 base. 5 All resistors 1/2 -watt 10% unless noted voltage so less current flows in its collector circuit. and suggests observing which way the ammeter must mal. but operates at a ARMATURE much lower level. the field is grounded internally.All -transistor regulator does away with the moving R2 C3 V3 parts in standard types: For a negative ground. 3 -a and If an inefficient transistor is used here. opposite and increases field current. This diode OTHER VALUES FOR l2 -VOLT SYSTEM a is similar in action to a voltage- regulator glow tube.3-a fed to V3's base. Transistor V3 is 6 connected as an emitter follower.and ammeter connections have to be re- ing voltage for its collector drops as negative -ground systems. 2' /8 x 234 x Is /e inches *820 ohms Miscellaneous hardware passes more current in its collector cir. R5-5560 ohms V2 -2N35 A higher output voltage will make V1 *220 ohms R6 . This produces a signal that is ampli. versed. there might be difficulty in getting the field circuit on the present regulator. if the battery's positive Capacitors Cl. cuit. electrolytic main purpose is to couple the high R3 -470 ohms D. more current flows in the field winding. It keeps Vl's emitter at a constant voltage level while the base voltage is varying in proportion VI Ib to the generator's output. that a 2N364 could well be used in the be connected to read in the right direc- Lower output voltage does just the V2 position. 3. 2N107 2N35 2N241 V2 R3 4700 R5 5600 R7 ARMATURE (o o o) 2200 FIELD 1000 I. the article was written. or it may be lead to the regulator -the field is con- The power transistor (V4) must have connected to the armature terminal. Resistor R7 is not called out as it was added to the regulator circuit after the photographs were taken. and its voltage will vary with 100. 2-5 µf. I I I V VI. connect an ammeter in series with 3 -b) are for either negative ground. (The determined by checking the connections erator circuits. electrolytic R2 -pot. The signal is amplified by V2 and C OSITIVE GND ALL OTHER PARTS SAME AS IN Fig. block or chassis. In addition there are both positive. RI 15V R4 65IC . in your car.ELECTRONICS www.5K C B E R6 VI 8200 The generator's output voltage is 5000 V2 2N256 VI. 15 volts. If the system on the 108 RADIO. Vl's emitter voltage is clamped at a predetermined WHERE 2 VALUES SHOWN. internally grounded. raising V2's *820 ohms V4 -2N256 (see text) emitter=to -base voltage so V2 also R7 -1. 15 volts.500 ohms Case.700 ohms *2N35 the low impedance of V4's base circuit. To determine which system your car The schematics shown (Figs. author informs us that more suitable at the battery you can find out which ance rises. Transistor Vl's base iR2 ci 5' Ii V3 SEE TEXT V4 C BASE CONNECTED TO CASE is connected to the arm on the poten. and also in V4's base circuit. If the a reasonably high beta. b -For a- positive ground A few leads. for V4. or enough drive to produce full generator Since the system's polarity can be positive ground. V4 Fig. The RI -560 ohms CI. nected to the armature terminal. R8. since the operat. R3 and potentiometer R2. Editor) For example. and a Delco DS -501 used tion.5600 4.500 ohms *2N107 V3 -2N241 conduct more current. field connected to the armature.ELECTRONICS C2 R4 RI VI R3 Afew parts easily fit into the mini- ature case. have to know which of the four varia.-I0 ohms *Indicates values to use for regulator for 6 -volt systems.americanradiohistory. uses.0 V4 5 C3 the output of the generator and the C2 15V potentiometer setting. V4's emitter collector resist. field -grounded gen- output under full -load conditions.1 ohms. +6V OR ometer are the only components that +12 V extend outside the regulator case.VALUE IN FOR 6 -VOLT SYSTEM COLLECTOR CONNECTED TO CASE level by reference diode D. 500 ohms *5 µf.reference diode (Texas Instruments 65IC) impedance of V2's collector circuit to *100 ohms VI-2N107 R4 -4.7 K + R8 + 5/25V É tiometer. 25 volts.2N35 fied by V1 and direct. but its *100 ohms C3-5 µf. reducing the field current. The generator field may be nected to the generator and its positive age or current ratings are not exceeded. C2 and C3 prevent Before buiding the regulator you terminal is connected to the engine ' hunting and any tendency to oscillate.V3 dropped across resistors Rl. and the ammeter reads Other transistors can be substituted tions of generator system circuitry is up scale when its negative lead is con- for the types specified as long as volt. a transistor and a potenti.

MODEL driver power transistor circuit shown 78 in Fig. Covers wide range of types: small 1= must be firmly in place since this unit signal including "drift" types. using sistor.lights. radio. is properly connected. etc. Now slowly speed up the NEW! LOW -COST GRID CIRCUIT engine and note the reading on the AND TUBE MERIT TESTER ammeter when a click is heard from the regulator box on the car. Quebec (Continued on page 114) West Canada: Ron Merritt Co. for fast set -up. make for meter or scope. O will be subjected to rather violent and power types. but would be worked NAME too close to its maximum current rat- ings if it were used on a 6 -volt unit. Ltd. The connections to the emitter and base pins of the power c 4-. Cathode Emission Test done leave it in the circuit and check the by free point pin -selector method -will not be obsoleted. If the reading is 1.Top Choice of Service Technicians FROM V2 EVERYWHERE C'LLECTOR Fig. East Canada: Daveco Agencies. L J or 12 -volt units. Will not be obsoleted no set -up or roll charts required! Compact. for quick set-up data. types tested for shorts and grid error by Grid After the ammeter. Parts placement is not critical...50 NET the engine and turn on all electrical units on the car. Incorporates patented Seco sistor are mounted on a phenolic board Grid Circuit Test plus reliable Cathode Emis- sion test also checks filament continuity and in the model shown in the photographs. Two-stage DC amplifier isolates meter from tube under teat to protect meter -pro- directly in place to protect them against vides a wide range of load currents and test vibration. and ready -to -use. maximum field current. Minnesota 12 -volt regulator. All parts PNP and NPN transistors either "in or out" a of circuit. cis E positive . tance method -power types tested for cathode current by Cathode Emission method -all This is done with a mica washer. 1960 109 www. >4 ELECTRONICS 3 POPULAR Sty TESTERS z . a highly accurate 21/s x 2% x 1% -inch case which also professional tester! Complete coverage of all acts as a heat sink for the power tran. This type is obsolete. One easy -to -read The small transistors were soldered meter. conditions. Also provides GO -NO -GO E f= sure that full counterclockwise rotation places the wiper tap closest to the test at practical currents-and permits match- ing of similar types. Minneapolis. British Columbia FEBRUARY.8 amps or higher use this output circuit for the COMPLETE. ADDRESS Any of the transistors listed in the CITY ZONE STATE parts list will work well on either 6." shorts. Vancouver 1. and index -chart sired. -o transistor are made with single pins broken out of a miniature seven -pin tube socket. Construction kinks The unit shown was built into a Designed expressly for TV servicing-easy to set -up and simple to use. All parts except the power tran.95 NET in generator voltage when the poten- tiometer is turned clockwise on the Sold only completed unit. This will give an increase MODEL 100 -Wired and factory tested $19.. E and any convenient construction method MODEL 7$-Wired and factory tested 569 50 NET will do just as well as the printed board h cC used in my version. medium power. only 5 sockets. Sockets can be used if de. Montreal.americanradiohistory.. Dynamic Mutual Conductance Test pre-wired field connections. To do this start MODEL 107 -Wired and factory tested $139. Provides positive check for "opens. 4 must be used. regulator. used to check the Circuit Test developed and patented by Seco. PORTABLE TUBE TESTER MODEL car is one of the other two types. with pin straighteners. provides open element test. If a 355 is avail.8 amps or more. SECO MANUFACTURING able or on hand it can be used on a 1 5015 Penn Avenue South. modern TV tube types as well as all heater type radio tubes including hybrid types. 4-If total power drain is 1. Put spaghetti over the C) pins to insure that no shorts develop This low -cost transistor checker safely tests when the box is assembled. The power transistor's Provides 3 important tests: amplifier types collector must be insulated from the tested for gain by Dynamic Mutual Conduc- case in the positive ground circuit. but can be replaced by a 2N256. This is the reverse -current relay cutting in. complete. the 107 field connection inside the generator must be changed before this regulator can be used. heater blower. The photographs show through Electronic Writs FULL today for Parts Distributors DETAILS a type 355 transistor in the power stage. and gain -condition indi- motion at times. Complete in a portable carrying CD -case. - lightweight. the dual . cated by means of a visual indicator plus jacks When wiring the potentiometer. Self-contained in portable case.

Signal Corps in 1941. professional electronic education to know that regardless of the ups and Added responsibilities and salary in. ing technology so essen. South Pacific in 1943. tutes whose curricula were accredited nance personnel as well. bringing advanced ing with extraordinary rapidity. 1958 pening in electronics. represent the cream of the electronics 110 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www. We co- equipment. of CREI devised to meet the need for grams now used by companies which Rockets make them possible and elec. also marked the opening of our Euro- that the electronics industry is grow. You know while gaining knowledge dreds of technicians during World that every piece of radar of electronics engineer. trained hun- family responsibilities velopment. You mediocre electronics man is done. openings creases go to men with both the. founded the National Council of Tech- mechanism. scholastic and business standards for not only electronics de. every servo. You need texts to the U.Plain Facts about ELECTRONICS and CREI -why you need advanced AV electronics education how you can get it without quitting your present job NO DOUBT you know what is hap . We were CREI'S signers and builders but among the first three technical insti- QUALIFICATIONS also electronics mainte. nical Schools. Since 1927 we have directed the are always found for oretical and practical technical education of thousands-as men with solid. We are now in our by the Engineers' Council for Pro- You know that our new 34th year. S. tronics guides them and makes them clear engineering technology.000 You know that every ics education. Navy in a special missile carries the end not quit your present course for radio technicians in the result of years of elec. every astro. quire advanced electron. CREI home study tronics engineering technology. downs of the business cycle. job. a division instituted the group training pro- on the inner workings of satellites. requires ment. And you know that the day of the pean . Western Europe.americanradiohistory. You can meet your tronics planning and de-. In 1946 we awareness of outer space is founded the start of CREI Atomics. advanced home study education in nu. for radio mechanics for the Army tion and maintenance. individuals and in groups -in elec- electronics education. War II for the Signal Corps. We You know that every courses make you eligible developed the first civilian pilot course computer needs installa- for positions which re. advanced knowledge. supplied 300. 1958 marked fessional Development. which first established nautical device. You know intelligible. the technical school field. tial for career advance.

brings out an. - engineering technology transistors. few.465 hours to viding essential men.A. answered (and data.572.W. Future in the New ten specify "CREI education or equiv. tronic navigational devices. hold your place in the Dept.. enrolled with CREI was met with tronic equipment for United Air Lines enthusiasm on the part of my em- ployer. It takes just one the demand for CREI graduates and ing problems. kept up to date by must compete with to Founded 1927 ECPD Accredited Technical Institute Curricula periodic revision. radar.ANCE FON YOUR vU}tstf. vanced students find more desirable checking appropri- age is 28. They A former student of CREI is now share in electronics at All-America chief engineer for the company. not required for admission. CAPITOL RADIO ed in easy -to. instrumentation. be paid monthly. The need for plete course. Tuition is will be made by CREI or any other were individually graded upon) 1. in 27 months. all over the world and in every phase ul. You waste no time in travel.understand They are the men you ENGINEERING INSTITUTE form. for many years 310 searching questions and engineer. and The Martin Co. NEW WORLD OF ics. for Gates Radio RESIDENCE SCHOOL Technical education is accomplished and Federal Electric. They work for U. a research assist. They sis on theory. Lawson. servomechanisms. elec- ant in an AEC -sponsored nuclear phys. which helps graduates and ad.048.. electronics engineers and technicians. A good way It means that industry and the Armed CREI STUDENTS to find out: Use the postage -paid card. data test electronic equipment is designed other point: "The fact that I am and produced. They maintain elec." Please fill out reau. Com- tronics. Inc. during which like to be as well qualified? Washington 10..understand text mat- What does this record of . New students enrolled during the year LATEST CREI COURSE are on the missile ranges machine (a proton accel. reasonable and may reputable institution. Lewis. hundreds among field Qualified graduates earn AAS degree lar staff instructor who engineers of major elec. forward scatter.I. the supervision of a regu. during hours chosen For those who can attend classes. present. CREI HOME STUDY ADVANTAGES (Voice of America) and Columbia Broadcasting System. Automation and Industrial Elec- of Vandenburg AF Base erator) is largely elec. tary. They're across the world pared by experts.. and the GI bill. Jr. World of Electron- alent required. an. In 1957 we time we have corrected and com. C.. Day and evening best. Wouldn't you 3224 16th St. the rest civilian. 1402 G1 BB ence in more than three decades electronics profession. Also noteworthy-lessons on Charles E." Our Placement Bu. machine control. In 1958 they devoted positions. you can probably qualify. Experi." Cables and Radio. It means that your CREI diploma is a It will bring you the free book which Our active home study roster today has launched thousands on their ad- door opener. ing plants where the la- other CREI student. Special empha- basic scientific research around the world. enables us to College degree is not essential. and Trans -Canada Air Lines.and aviation industries. "Like most large - scale physics projects. Wright Airborne Electronics. C. ics research program -and a CREI - student writes. at SAC bases phases of automation. If final exams. ter in our lessons. Electronics experience guides your progress step tronic manufacturers. and Cape Canaveral. puters. While no placement guarantees 104.americanradiohistory. by step. They tronics Engineering Technology.400 professional vanced careers: "Insurance For Your Significantly.S. processing and telemetry. Help Wanted ads of. numbers more than 20. functioning and appli- projects will no doubt con- are in the research labo.. All of the firms mentioned offer by you. CREI Washington. Their median the card carefully. FEBRUARY. comput- investment in CREI education and leave you a substantial bonus the Paul S. is always available to CREI ate items and pro- approximately 1. 1960 113 www. this entire field of modern electronics. QUALIFICATIONS FOR CREI initiated a plan which permits direct mented on many hundreds of thou- personal supervision for home study sands of examinations. of home-study teaching." ratories and manufactur. about one-third mili- Nv næ. tion. cations of servomechanisms and com- tinue to grow. Your work is under men are found by the classes start at regular intervals. to name but a on your own time. covering all electronic are at Alamagordo and electronics technicians on China Lake. Available to veterans under ers. -and across the street. first year. practical experience in electron- ment mean to you as a CREI student? ics. Courses are pre. and a high school education. D. their personnel CREI technical edu. microwaves. N. Services alike respect CREI men. of electronics.831 lesson texts. They studied electronics $10 -a -week raise to repay your advanced students has far exceeded the supply. CREI operates residence programs in You have plenty of time to do your cation under company plans. you have had basic electronic educa- avoid difficult -to. D.

... Matching obligation - DAY EXAMINATION. Image Impedances mentary Fourier wave.J.. 114 RADIO -ELECTRONICS www.90 in walnut Model Two Enclosure Homewood Catalog and $3 per month for 2 months. Available in Ma.2N652 2N554 ing simultaneous equa.. Black-Box 2N650. The shortcuts needed. _...._.the -job ap.2N652 2N554 math training than high. Same ten -day money. techniques and changes smoothly between any of the obtain different braking speeds.. Brooklyn 1. Send -for free examination -THE ALGEBRA OF provides an attractive appearance in horizon. Complete finishing kit guaranteed to give a My check or money-order Name beautiful.._.americanradiohistory. (Please Print Plainly) finished furniture..... the stop obtained is a to the aluminum chassis for proper heat [) First... you will quickly gain the tools.Zone..25 volts. Page. realistic coasting stop.-.. D.4 volts for a 12 -volt system.. ... FAST terminal marked ARM on the old regu- lator... I21/2" D. With this new book.. along with its Resistance practical on... Mutual clean._. designed to leave no end -plies visible. The generator on a 6-volt methods... PRINCETON..____. Now turn the potentiometer on e. No unless you want to keep the book.. Contains two cans of varnish.. and lock the adjust- ment.. train system by this automatic R-C filtered... impedances._... He develops ele.._.. Fin.. custom- tronic calculations clearer. _... or Inductance Meets the highest Home- engineer. and precise.. 0 252 Illustrations SI-a 03 BREAKER Every equation is dis.... Price: 11... Values of GEBRA OF ELECTRON._.. Energy Storage Series-Tuned area gives you quality re- Circuits Enclosure Kit production in combination Try It FREE Series Resonance with a 12" speaker. R2 and R3 can be changed to ICS. Otherwise... and Sinusoidal Acoustic -Designed Voltage thing bigger try the Model analyzes tubes.. modulation. N.._.. easy -to-follow instructions...95 in birch and interesting.. Kramer's Rule SI.. $3... The voltage applied to the track Rl. durable luster to every kind of un. Equations ten by Chester H..and -error to the case of the old regulator. However. Mail coupon today to Transistors 20 lbs.Thevenin's 2POLE ROTARY (2 POS NOT USED)