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Contents

Chapter 1 Simulation as a Tool for Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
6HFWLRQ:KDWLVVLPXODWLRQ" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6HFWLRQ:RUNLQJLQDJOREDOG\QDPLFHQYLURQPHQW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQLQHYHU\GD\OLIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ:KHUHLVWKHPRQH\". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQXVHUV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Chapter 2 Simulation Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
6HFWLRQ0RGHOLQJDQGVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6HFWLRQ:KHQWRXVHVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ7KHVLPXODWLRQVRIWZDUHPDUNHWSODFH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQDQGRWKHUWRROV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Chapter 3 Using Simulation to Solve Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6HFWLRQ8VLQJDVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQVZLWKUDQGRPHYHQWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ([DPSOHVDQGH[HUFLVHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH&RDVWLQJDURXQG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH)DUP3ULGH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH0DUWLDQ7UDQVIHU6WDWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH6OLPH,QF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH'DQVRQ(OHFWURQLFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
([HUFLVH*UDQGPD·V3LH(PSRULXP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ7KHQH[WVWHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Chapter 4 Professional Practice of Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6HFWLRQ&RQÀGHQFH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ7KH6LPXODWLRQ0RGHOLQJDQG$QDO\VLV 60$

/LIH&\FOH. . . . . 
6HFWLRQ7KHPRGHOLQJDQGDQDO\VLVSURFHVV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6HFWLRQ5ROHVLQD60$SURMHFW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ0RGHOEDVHGGHFLVLRQVXSSRUWV\VWHPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQPRGHOLQJDQGDQDO\VLVVXFFHVVIDFWRUV . . . . . . . . . . . 

Chapter 5 Managing a Simulation Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6HFWLRQ7KHVWDUWLQJSRLQW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ'HÀQHWKHV\VWHPDQGWKHUHDVRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ3UHSDUHDÁRZGLDJUDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ,QLWLDOVL]LQJRI UHVRXUFHV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6HFWLRQ%XLOGLQJWKHVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

. . . . . 110 6HFWLRQ7UDQVSRUWLQJLWHPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 8 Managing Entities and Time Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([DPSOHRI DSURMHFWWHPSODWH . . . . .143 6HFWLRQ*URXSLQJDQGXQJURXSLQJÁRZLWHPV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 6HFWLRQ(GLWLQJREMHFWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH/XFN\$LU . . . . . . . 6HFWLRQ5HVXOWVDQGDQDO\VLV . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH0RUH/XFN\$LU . . . . .  6HFWLRQ0RYLQJÁRZLWHPV. . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ0RELOHUHVRXUFHREMHFWV WDVNH[HFXWHUV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6HFWLRQ&UHDWLQJVLPSOHOHDUQLQJPRGHOV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ0DQDJLQJGDWDWDEOHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH)LVWHU·V)UR]HQ)RRGV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH+DPSWRQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQFRPSRQHQWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH-RKQVRQ3KDUPDFHXWLFDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH(YHQPRUH/XFN\$LU. . . . . . 122 6HFWLRQ6LQJOHUXQVWDWLVWLFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 6HFWLRQ$VVLJQLQJDWWULEXWHVWRREMHFWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 7 Adding Model Logic and Managing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQHQYLURQPHQW. . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 6 Building Basic Simulation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ$GGLQJORJLF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .QWHUQDWLRQDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ)L[HGUHVRXUFHV. . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ0DNLQJFRQQHFWLRQV . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 9 Modeling Randomness . . . . 166 6HFWLRQ8VHRI SUREDELOLW\GLVWULEXWLRQVLQVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6HOHFWLQJSUREDELOLW\GLVWULEXWLRQVLQWKHDEVHQFHRI GDWD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH6WHYH·V6WRQH&XWWLQJ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6DPSOLQJIURPFRQWLQXRXVUDQGRPYDULDWHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH7KH&UDIW\)UDPHU. . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ3XWWLQJLWDOOWRJHWKHU . .  6HFWLRQ6DPSOLQJIURPGLVFUHWHUDQGRPYDULDWHV. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 6HFWLRQ'DWDGULYHQSUREDELOLW\GLVWULEXWLRQVHOHFWLRQ .  6HFWLRQ*HQHUDWLQJUDQGRPQXPEHUV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ(VWDEOLVKLQJWLPHWDEOHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ'LVSOD\LQJLQIRUPDWLRQRQWKHVFUHHQ . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .H\WDFWLFDOH[SHULPHQWDOGHVLJQSDUDPHWHUV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Chapter 11 Including Reliability in a Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6XUJH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6FULSWLQJEDVLFV. . . .  6HFWLRQ'HWHUPLQLQJWKHQXPEHURI UHSOLFDWLRQV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 6HFWLRQ8VLQJSHUVRQQHOIRUUHSDLUV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&UHDWLQJFXVWRPORJLF . . . . . . . . . . .251 6HFWLRQ&RPPXQLFDWLQJEHWZHHQREMHFWV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ/DEHO7DEOHV . . . . .  6HFWLRQ5HXVLQJFXVWRPREMHFWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 6HFWLRQ. . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&UHDWLQJH[SHULPHQWVXVLQJFlexSim·V([SHULPHQWHU . 6HFWLRQ8VLQJUDQGRPVDPSOHVWRGULYHDVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 ([HUFLVH)LVWHU·V([SUHVV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HJJOHU·V%UHZ. . . . .  ([HUFLVH+LOOWRS6WHHO:RUNV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&XVWRPL]LQJREMHFWSODFHPHQWV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 10 Analyzing Simulation Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 ([HUFLVH3HRSOHV6XUJHU\&HQWHU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 6HFWLRQ(VWLPDWLQJ07%)DQG0775. . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ5HOLDELOLW\ . . . . . . . . 216 ([HUFLVH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ8QGHUVWDQGLQJKRZREMHFWVZRUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ9DULDQFHUHGXFWLRQWKURXJKFRPPRQUDQGRPQXPEHUV . . .269 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter 13 Communicating Among Objects. . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLQJPDFKLQHIDLOXUHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 6HFWLRQ0XOWLSOHFRPSDULVRQVRI DOWHUQDWLYHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 6HFWLRQ3HUIRUPDQFH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&XVWRPORJLFH[DPSOH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Chapter 12 Customizing Model Logic . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH&KDLUVIRU7RWV. . . . .227 6HFWLRQ+LHUDUFKLFDOVRIWZDUHDUFKLWHFWXUH . . .  6HFWLRQ7HUPLQDWLQJYHUVXVQRQWHUPLQDWLQJV\VWHPV . . . . .  Chapter 14 Simulating Fluid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ5HGXFLQJYDULDELOLW\LQWKHVDPSOHV . . .  6HFWLRQ&RPSDULQJWZRDOWHUQDWLYHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ7KH5HFRUGHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 6HFWLRQ6HWWLQJ07%)DQG0775LQDVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 6HFWLRQ6LPXODWLRQ3URMHFW7HPSODWH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ)LVWHU·V)RRGVH[HUFLVH. . . .QF. . . . .  ([HUFLVH:HVWHUQ*UDLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH(YHQ0RUH/XFN\$LU . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH7KH&UDIW\)UDPHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6\VWHPFRQWUROOHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH-DPHV3HDQXWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 6HFWLRQ*HQHUDOWRROEDUV . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .QWHUQDWLRQDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&RQÀJXULQJWLPHWDEOHV . .  Section 2 Modifying trigger logic with picklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 6HFWLRQ&RQWUROOLQJSURGXFWLRQOLQHV . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH/XFN\$LU. . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ9LHZLQJWKHVLPXODWLRQXVLQJDPRXVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6SHFLI\LQJ)OXLG2SHUDWLRQV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&RQYH\RUOD\RXW. . . .  6HFWLRQ/LQHFRQWUROOHU . . . . . . . . . .295 Appendix for Chapter 3 . . . . .  Chapter 15 Simulating Production Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6HFWLRQ%DVLFVRI ÁXLGÁRZVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([DPSOH0RUH/XFN\$LU . . .  Section 2 Connecting and calling task executers . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH6WHYH·V6WRQH&XWWLQJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ([HUFLVH&XVWRP6KDSHV. . . . .335 6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH+DPSWRQ. . . .309 6HFWLRQ0RGLI\LQJWKHEDVLF9LHZVHWWLQJV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ)OXLGREMHFWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 6HFWLRQ3XWWLQJODEHOVRQÁRZLWHPV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH-RKQVRQ3KDUPDFHXWLFDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ6HOHFWLQJDQGPRGLI\LQJREMHFWYLVXDOV . .  6HFWLRQ3LFNOLVWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 6HFWLRQ6HWWLQJXSWKH([SHULPHQWHU . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 10 . .  Section 2 Statistical distributions in FlexSim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH+LOOWRS6WHHO. . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&UHDWLQJFXVWRP*8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391 6HFWLRQ0LFURVRIW([FHOLPSRUWH[SRUW . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LQHPDWLFV . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ&UHDWLQJ$9. .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH:HVWHUQ*UDLQ .  Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ$GYDQFHGH[SHULPHQWHURSWLRQV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix . . . .375 6HFWLRQ5HFRUGHUGHWDLOV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Section 1 Task Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 6HFWLRQ&RPPRQO\XVHGFRPPDQGV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ)OH[6LPVRIWZDUHDUFKLWHFWXUH. . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387 6HFWLRQ&XVWRP6KDSHV([HUFLVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383 6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH-DPHV3HDQXWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ'HÀQLQJVFHQDULRV . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH&KDLUVIRU7RWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HJJOHU·V%UHZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH3HRSOHV6XUJHU\&HQWHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH)LVWHU·V([SUHVV . . . . . . . . . . . .Interacting with Other Applications. . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ7DEOHVRI QRUPDODQGWGLVWULEXWLRQV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345 6HFWLRQ1RWHVIRU8VLQJ([SHUW)LW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Advanced Techniques . . . . . . .Related Applications . . . . . . . .Appendix for Chapter 9 . .  Appendix for Chapter 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ÀOHVWRGRFXPHQWWKHVLPXODWLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Appendix for Chapter 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 6HFWLRQ([HUFLVH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ5HSRUWVVWDWLVWLFVDQGGRFXPHQWDWLRQ . . . .PSRUWLQJ$XWR&$'GUDZLQJV .  6HFWLRQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .  6HFWLRQ&RQWDLQHU7HUPLQDO &7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 1 Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6HFWLRQ([SUHVV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .W'SUHVHQWDWLRQVRIWZDUH . . . . . . . .  About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 . .

This chapter introduces the basic structure and components found in most simulation software modeling and analysis packages. When more detailed simula. Typically. Using simulation as a basic tool can be accom- Individuals engaged in manufacturing research and development may also be Inter- plished with the mediate Users.QWHUPHGLDWH8VHUVFDQEXLOGUHODWLYHO\VWUDLJKWIRUZDUG logic and a simulation models using drop-down menus or wizards. are discussed in general terms in the main chapters. These skills. the Intermediate User can call on technical support or third-party of training. and discusses obtaining output statistics from a single run of a model. While FlexSimLVXVHGLQWKLVH[SODQDWLRQWKH functionality is similar to other applications. This chapter will illustrate the object functionality as used in the FlexSim application. Chapter 6 Building Basic Simulation Models T he Intermediate User uses simulation as part of his or her job description. which are needed to build simulations. Typical job titles of the Intermediate User include operations analyst or industrial. 7KLVFKDSWHUDQGWKRVHWKDWIROORZFRQWDLQVH[HUFLVHVWKDWZLOOGHYHORSWKRVH simulation skills used by Intermediate and Advanced Users. introduces the basic structure and functionality of modeling REMHFWVGHÀQHVUHODWLRQVKLSVDPRQJREMHFWVGHVFULEHVKRZWRPRYHLWHPVWKURXJK a model. but is implemented differently. but it is not usually the main focus. 105 . consultants. minimal amount tions are required. It includes a discussion of the modeling environment. The remainder of the book builds the reader’s capability to create and analyze simulation models through the FlexSim software. packaging. process. ZKLOHVSHFLÀFGHWDLOVRI WKHFlexSimLPSOHPHQWDWLRQDUHFRQWDLQHGLQWKH$SSHQGL[ The discussions in this chapter are meant to be a quick-start introduction to simulation PRGHOLQJ6RPHRI WKHWRSLFVZLOOEHH[SORUHGLQJUHDWHUGHWDLOLQODWHU FKDSWHUV&RQVXOWWKH$SSHQGL[DVZHOODVWKH8VHUV·0DQXDOLQWKH+HOSVHFWLRQRI  FlexSim for further information about using the software. the Intermediate User will be involved with simulation use of pre-built ÀYHRUVL[WLPHVSHU\HDU. or manufacturing engineer.

transporting objects that move items through the model. All simulation software provides a set of most software SUHGHÀQHGmodeling objects that facilitates model building. or simulation surface. Figure 6. All simulation software products have their own user interface that enables users WRHIIHFWLYHO\DQGHIÀFLHQWO\EXLOGPRGHOVLPSRUWGDWDDQDO\]HUHVXOWVHWF:KLOH much of the underlying logic is the same across the various simulation software SURGXFWVWKHXVHULQWHUIDFHDQGDFFHVVLELOLW\WRWKHXQGHUO\LQJORJLFYDULHVH[WHQ- 106 . The number and capability of such objects varies widely in the various simulation software products that are on the market today. Some software. The objects DUHFRQQHFWHGWRUHSUHVHQWWKHÁRZRI LWHPVWKURXJKWKHPRGHODQGSHUPLWFRPPX- nication among objects. like FlexSim. Figure 6. Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim Section 6-1 Simulation environment FlexSimOLNHRWKHUSURIHVVLRQDOVLPXODWLRQVRIWZDUHSURYLGHVH[WHQVLYHVXSSRUWIRU building and analyzing simulation models. allows users to easily change the behavior of objects.1 Basic components of simulation software The modeling objects are typically placed and arranged on a layout. that resembles the physical layout of the system being modeled. Such objects include applications is similar and queues that store items awaiting processing (due to unplanned delays). conventions. and Advanced Users can create their own objects.1 outlines the basic components IRXQGLQVXFKVRIWZDUH0RVWRI WKHFRPSRQHQWVHVSHFLDOO\WKRVHLQWKHOHIWSRUWLRQ RI WKHÀJXUHZLOOEHGLVFXVVHGODWHULQWKHERRN The simulation This chapter concerns the modeling environment and focuses on the compo- environment for nents in the right portion of Figure 6. processing follow generally REMHFWVWKDWPRGLI\RUFUHDWHSODQQHGGHOD\VIRULWHPVDVWKH\ÁRZWKURXJKWKHPRGHO accepted (service operations).1. etc.

2 Units screen 107 . showing WKHGHÀQLWLRQRI XQLWV7KHYDOXHVDUHXVHG during some reporting and internal calcula- tions. therefore. FlexSim’s interface is quite effective for all levels of users. FlexSim provides a default VHWRI XQLWV6HFRQGV0HWHUVDQG/LWHUV7RFKDQJHWKHGHIDXOWVJRWRWKH)LOH *OREDO3UHIHUHQFHV(QYLURQPHQWDQGVHOHFWWKHGHVLUHGXQLWVFlexSim then has to be closed and re-opened for the change to take place. much of its power lies in its openness and ability to modify the objects and their behavior to best match the modeling requirements. The default unit of space on the simulation layout screen is one JULGXQLWRI VL]H[[7KHXVHUKDVWR decide the actual units that the default grid space Figure 6. Simulation software. however. In the same place you can choose to have the screen displayed whenever a new model is created. the model is useless and cannot function. the units may not be changed until a new model is opened. needs to provide mechanisms to easily import data. When starting a new model. the time between arrivals and cycle time for a processor would ERWKKDYHWREHH[SUHVVHGLQVHFRQGV$V a result. For some reports. As mentioned above and shown in Figure 6. statistics that are generated by the simulation. a simulation model is data driven. the reason ZHEXLOGDQGH[HFXWHPRGHOVLVWRREWDLQLQIRUPDWLRQDQGWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHFRQVH- quences of actions. a screen appears as shown in Figure 6.2. simulation software needs to provide mechanisms that HDVLO\SUHVHQWRUH[SRUWGDWDDQGWKDWIDFLOLWDWHWKHDQDO\VLVRI WKDWGDWD Simulation environment terminology When describing a simulation. Time and space Time and space in the simulation environment are dimensionless until the user decides what the dimensions should be. without data. will be interpreted in seconds. certain terms are used to talk about the component SLHFHV:KLOHWKHVSHFLÀFQDPHVPD\YDU\LQHDFKVRIWZDUHDSSOLFDWLRQWKHFRQFHSWV and functionality are basically the same. that is. therefore. All data input for the model should be FRQVLVWHQWZLWKWKHVHXQLWV)RUH[DPSOHLI  the time unit is seconds.1. Similarly. Once selected. such as the amount of time a processor is operating. Chapter 6 sively. The units IRUDPRGHODUHVDYHGZLWKWKHPRGHOÀOH Space is also dimensionless.

3 FlexSim model development main screen interface As discussed in the previous section. operating elements.Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim UHSUHVHQWV(TXLSPHQWFDQEHVFDOHGDSSURSULDWHO\7DVNH[HFXWHUVVXFKDVIRUN trucks. as with most other simulation software. As a side note. FlexSim. all simulation applications have an environment in which a simulation model is built. The main screen Chapter 3 dealt with models that were already built along with the simulation environment to run them.3. etc). uses the conven- WLRQVDVVRFLDWHGZLWK0LFURVRIWDSSOLFDWLRQV ÀOHPDQDJHPHQWdrop-down menus. have speed values assigned to them as the number of grid units traveled per clock unit. Being consistent with data values is critical to a successful simulation. That environment contains the surface for building the model (sometimes referred to as a layout). Figure 6. This section starts with a blank page or layout known as the main screen as shown in Figure 6. tool bars. the watermark ´(GXFDWLRQDO9HUVLRQµDSSHDUVRQWKHOD\RXW The PDLQVFUHHQLVPDGHXSRI ÀYHPDMRUDUHDV Area 1: 0DLQWRROEDUV • Top row6HWRI 0LFURVRIWWindows style drop-down menu options IRUÀOHFRQWURODVZHOODVFlexSim operating controls • Lower row: Shortcut buttons that allow quick access to some common FlexSim interfaces. in the student version of FlexSim. and model views 108 . menus for FRQWUROOLQJÀOHVDQGIXQFWLRQVDQGEDVLFXQLWVRUREMHFWVWKDWDUHXVHGWREXLOGWKH simulation model.

The displays will change based on the particular FRQWH[W 0RVWDSSOLFDWLRQVDOORZPRGLÀFDWLRQVWRWKHEDVLFVFUHHQ7KH$SSHQGL[VKRZV how the FlexSim simulation workspace can be visually changed. The drop down arrow can set a VSHFLÀFUDWH Area 3: /LEUDU\LFRQgrid • Objects that can be brought into the simulation model by clicking and holding down the mouse button while dragging the object onto the modeling surface or layout. an object is the most basic building element of a simulation. Section 6-2 Simulation components Graphically-oriented simulation software applications make use of elements that are placed on the simulation surface and can be viewed. 109 . Chapter 6 Area 2: Simulation control panel • Buttons o Reset: Initializes the model o Run%HJLQVH[HFXWLRQRI WKHVLPXODWLRQ o Stop: Stops the model at the end of the current clock cycle (A simulation can be re-started from the stop point. the value can be changed to set a new future stop time) o Speed Slider:'HÀQHVWKHQXPEHURI VLPXODWLRQWLPHXQLWV per second of real time. Other libraries can be added.) o Step0RYHVVLPXODWLRQDKHDGWRWKHQH[WVFKHGXOHGPRGHO event • Time controls o Run Time: Displays the current model time in simulation time units o Stop Time drop down arrow6HWVDVSHFLÀFWLPHDWZKLFKWKH simulation will be stopped (Once stopped. $UHD0RGHOYLHZZLQGRZ • Surface where the simulation model is built Area 5: Quick Properties pan • Displays that can be used to monitor and change data for various simulation objects. In FlexSim.

WKH7RROVPHQXDWWKHWRSRI WKHVFUHHQ1RUPDOO\ÁRZLWHPVDUHEURXJKWLQWRD VLPXODWLRQWKURXJKWKHVRXUFHREMHFWZKHUHWKHFKRLFHRI XVLQJD'ÁRZLWHPLV listed in a GURSGRZQPHQX$GGLWLRQDOGHWDLOVDUHLQFOXGHGLQWKH$SSHQGL[ Simulations also need objects that interact with ÁRZLWHPV7KHVHPLJKWSHUIRUPDQ operation. In FlexSim. there are two general categories of such discrete objects: À[HGUHVRXUFHVDQGWDVNH[HFXWRUV mobile resources).4 is one such combination of objects. create a delay. A simulation model is simply a collection of these objects put together in such a manner as to simulate the behavior of a system. such as an item arriving to the system or a machine stopping due to an internal failure. Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim In FlexSim there are two basic types of objects: discrete and fluid (continuous). Without ÁRZLWHPVWKHUHLVQ·WDQHHGIRUVLPXODWLRQ6RPHVLPXODWLRQ functions while VRIWZDUHSDFNDJHVUHIHUWRÁRZLWHPVDVHQWLWLHVRUWUDQVDFWLRQV ÀRZLWHPVPRYH within the In FlexSimÁRZLWHPVDUHOLVWHGLQWKH)ORZLWHP%LQZKLFKLVDFFHVVHGWKURXJK simulation. objects perform 'HSHQGLQJRQWKHVLPXODWLRQWKHVHFRXOGEHER[HVSURGXFWVFXVWRPHUVSDSHUZRUN VSHFL¿F and so on. Figure 6. Fluid objects are discussed in Chapter 14. Fluid or continuous objects are used to model behavior that results from changes that occur continuously over WLPHVXFKDVWKHÀOOLQJRI DWDQNZLWKDOLTXLG0RVWRI WKH focus of this book is on discrete-event models and the use of discrete objects. these entities are called flowitems.4 FlexSim simulation terminology 110 . or move the items. Simulations normally involve actual discrete entities that physically move around Simulation in the simulated environment. In FlexSim. The FlexSim simulation model shown in Figure 6. The discrete objects are used to develop discrete-event simulation models where model behavior results from events that occur at discrete points in time.

Chapter 6 Section 6-3 Fixed resources Fixed resourcesDUHWKHREMHFWVWKDWVHQGUHFHLYHDQGSHUIRUPDFWLYLWLHVRSHUD- WLRQVRQÁRZLWHPV7KH\DUHDOVRWKHPRVWFRPPRQREMHFWW\SH7KH\DUHUHIHUUHG WRDV´À[HGµEHFDXVHWKH\DUHODUJHO\VWDWLRQDU\2QFHWKH\DUHSODFHGRQWKHPRGHO surface. ([DPSOHVRI WKLVW\SHRI REMHFWLQFOXGHWKHIROORZLQJ Source Objects that normally stay • &UHDWHVDQGUHOHDVHVÁRZLWHPV in one position • 0RGHVRI DUULYDOLQWHUDUULYDOWLPHDUULYDOVFKHGXOHarrival sequence and perform operations on Sink DÀRZLWHPDUH called ¿[HG • 5HFHLYHVDQGUHPRYHVÁRZLWHPVIURPWKHVLPXODWLRQ resources. Queue • 7HPSRUDULO\VWRUHVÁRZLWHPVZKHQGRZQVWUHDPREMHFWVFDQQRW accept them • &DQUHFHLYHPXOWLSOHÁRZLWHPVDWDWLPH • Can EDWFKSURFHVVÁRZLWHPV • 5HFHLYHVÁRZLWHPVXQWLOLWVVSHFLÀHGPD[LPXPFRQWHQWLVUHDFKHG Processor • 3URFHVVHVRUIRUFHVDGHOD\RQDÁRZLWHP • 0D\FDOORSHUDWRUVIRUVHWXSRUSURFHVVRSHUDWLRQV • 0D\LQFXUVFKHGXOHGRUXQVFKHGXOHGGRZQWLPHV • +DQGOHVRQHÁRZLWHPDWDWLPHRUPXOWLSOHÁRZLWHPVLQGHSHQGHQWO\ LI LWVPD[LPXPFRQWHQW!. they tend to stay in that place unless manipulated later by the modeler.

0XOWL3URFHVVRU • Performs a set of operations or processes in sequence • 2SHUDWLRQVSURFHVVHVPD\KDYHVHSDUDWHWLPHVDQGFDOOVHSDUDWH resources • +DQGOHVRQHÁRZLWHPDWDWLPH Conveyor • 0RYHVÁRZLWHPVRYHUDÀ[HGSDWK QRWQHFHVVDULO\OLQHDU.

DWD VSHFLÀHGVSHHG • Flowitems enter and leave the conveyor one at a time • 0RGHVDFFXPXODWLQJQRQDFFXPXODWLQJ 111 .

QDGGLWLRQÁRZLWHPVPD\PRYHIURPRQHÀ[HGUHVRXUFHWRDQRWKHU through the use of an intermediary À[HGUHVRXUFHREMHFWVXFKDVDconveyor. All of the types of À[HGUHVRXUFHVWDVNH[HFXWHUVDQGRWKHUREMHFWVDUHVKRZQLQ Data. and incur scheduled or unscheduled downtimes • 0RGHVjoin. As the name suggests. on all FlexSim classes. Separator • Accepts one input at a time. 112 . These are special objects that PRYHÀRZLWHPV from one place have mobility within a model. processing. • Can have process times. use resources. 7DVNH[HFXWHUV Flowitems may also be moved by task executers. Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim • &DSDFLW\OLPLWHGE\QXPEHURI ÁRZLWHPVRUDYDLODEOHVSDFHRQWKH FRQYH\RU6SDFLQJEHWZHHQÁRZLWHPVPD\EHVSHFLÀHG • The library may contain many types of conveyors that allow DGYDQFHGIXQFWLRQVVXFKDVGHÀQLQJZKHQDQGKRZÁRZLWHPVOHDYH the object.5. and incur scheduled or unscheduled downtimes. and batch. By default. À[HGUHVRXUFHREMHFWVLQDPRGHOSDVVÁRZLWHPVWRHDFK RWKHULQVWDQWO\. container from port 1 holds others—can be separated. all objects travel as a group. use resources. • 0RGHVXQSDFNIURPSDFNHGcontainer or split. pack. The grid is located on the left side of the main FlexSim simulation logic. they are free to move about to another. ZLWKLQWKHPRGHOH[HFXWLQJWDVNVWKDWKDYHEHHQDVVLJQHGWRWKHP7KH\PD\ WUDQVSRUWÁRZLWHPVRUEHXVHGDVDUHVRXUFHIRUÀ[HGUHVRXUFH([DPSOHVRI task H[HFXWHUVZKLFKPRYHÁRZLWHPVDUHDIRUNWUXFNFUDQHDPEXODQFHZKHHOFKDLURU SHUVRQ7DVNH[HFXWHUVWKDWPRYHWRÀ[HGUHVRXUFHVDQGSHUIRUPRWKHUWDVNVLQFOXGH an operator required for some setup. can be placed interface. or maintenance operation. That movement may occur in a number of different ways. Combiner • *URXSVPXOWLSOHÁRZLWHPV • 2QHLQSXWIURP3RUWZKLFKPD\EHDFRQWDLQHUWRKROGÁRZLWHPV from other ports • Can have process times. makes copies of a ÁRZLWHP Section 6-4 Transporting items 7KHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQRI ÁRZLWHPVLQDFlexSim model is the physical movement from one resource to another. used in the library grid in Figure 6. cannot be separated.

19 Pharmaceutical packaging 126 .QWKDWGHVLJQER[HVRI  LQGLYLGXDOGRVHVDUHWDNHQRII WKHPDLQFRQYH\RUOLQHE\WKHÀUVWWHVWZUDSPDFKLQH $VHFRQGWHVWZUDSPDFKLQHWDNHVRII ER[HVIXUWKHUGRZQWKHFRQYH\RU7KH ER[HVDUULYHLQWKHSDFNLQJDUHDDWDQDYHUDJHUDWHRI PLQ7KHZUDSPDFKLQHV DUHUDWHGDWDQDYHUDJHRI PLQ%DVHGRQDYHUDJHUDWHVWKHÀUVWWZRPDFKLQHV FDQKDQGOHRI WKHLQFRPLQJER[HVUDWHKRZHYHUDWKLUGZLOODOVREHDGGHGDV a backup.Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim Exercises Simulation is an applied technology and has little meaning when used to simply create models without an objective in mind. conceived by the FRUSRUDWHSDFNDJLQJJURXSLVEDVHGRQWKH´JUHHG\µFRQFHSW. Chapter 4 of this book emphasized the need to establish a proper scope and detail level for simulation projects and discussed a methodology. Exercise 6-1 Johnson Pharmaceutical Background $VWKHODUJHVWVXSSOLHURI RYHUWKHFRXQWHUPHGLFDWLRQV-RKQVRQLVUHGHVLJQLQJLWV FROGUHPHG\OLQHIRUKLJKHUFDSDFLW\LQWLPHIRUWKHXSFRPLQJÁXVHDVRQ7KHSODQ is for the packing line to be completely re-designed.Q each case the problem background and associated data are provided. Figure 6. The belief that if you just build a simulation something good will happen doesn’t hold true in practice. /HVVRQVOHDUQHGE\DFWXDOO\VROYLQJSUREOHPVXVLQJVLPXODWLRQDUHPRUHOLNHO\ WREHUHPHPEHUHG7KHH[HUFLVHVLQWKLVDQGODWHUFKDSWHUVIROORZWKLVSUDFWLFH. The plant engineering manager has asked you to validate the design before the plant commits to the proposed production rate. The steps to IROORZVKRXOGLQFOXGHDQDQDO\VLVRI WKHV\VWHPDGHÀQLWLRQRI KRZEHVWWRVLPXODWH the system using an OFD for planning. and an understanding of what simulation functions are required to resolve the problem. The new plan.

Chapter 6 Problem statement 9DOLGDWHWKHQHZSDFNDJLQJOLQHGHVLJQ Operating data 7LPHEHWZHHQDUULYDOVRI PHGLFDOER[HVH[SRQHQWLDOO\GLVWULEXWHG .

• 7HVW:UDSPDFKLQHF\FOHWLPHVH[SRQHQWLDOO\GLVWULEXWHG .ZLWKPHDQ RI VHFRQG7KHÀUVWSDUDPHWHULVWKHORFDWLRQSDUDPHWHUDQGLVXVXDOO\WKH VHFRQGSDUDPHWHULVWKHPHDQWKHWKLUGSDUDPHWHULGHQWLÀHVWKHUDQGRPQXPEHU stream to use (more on setting this value later).

another will be brought 127 . • &RQYH\RUVSHHGXQLWVHF Expected results • Draw an OFD for the system • Comment on the design by running a simulation for an 8-hour shift (28. If Figure 6.ZLWKD mean of 1.20 Lucky Airlines a scheduled plane is full. What would you recommend to the plant manager? What rate should the plant commit to? Modeling and analysis issues • +RZVKRXOGWKHFRQYH\RUVEHVKRZQ":KDWLVWKHÁRZORJLFIRU them? • %DVHGMXVWRQWKHDYHUDJHUDWHVZKDWZRXOG\RXH[SHFWWKHFDSDFLW\RI WKH line to be and why? 6LPXODWLRQUHVXOWVDQGFRPPHQWVDUHLQFOXGHGLQWKH$SSHQGL[ Exercise 6-2 Lucky Air Background /XFN\$LUDVWDUWXSDLUOLQHLVFRPPLWWHGWR providing a shuttle service between the Orange &RXQW\DLUSRUWDQGWKH/DV9HJDVDLUSRUW:LWK WKHLUÁHHWRI UHJLRQDOMHWVWKHFRPSDQ\IHHOVWKDW the time is right to bring casino patrons for quick GDLO\YLVLWVWR/DV9HJDV7KHLUSURPLVHLVWRÁ\ as long as there are people who want to travel.800 sec).5 sec.

and a third for passengers purchasing a ticket. dev. Passenger type Time between Service time arrivals E-ticket mean: 5 min mean: 3 min std.Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim out. dev. another for passengers with paper tickets. their motto is Always a Winner7KH\H[SHFWDQLQFUHDVHLQEXVLQHVVDVSHRSOH WU\WRÀQGPRQH\IURPWKHVORWPDFKLQHVGXULQJWKHGRZQWXUQLQWKHHFRQRP\ The owner wants to set up operations as quickly as possible so he decides to operate their check-in counter with three ticket agents: one for passengers with e-tickets. you don’t think the level RI VHUYLFHZLOOEHJRRGDQGWKHDJHQWVZLOOEHZRUNLQJLQHIÀFLHQWO\6LQFH\RXGRQ·W want to verbally confront the owner. Operating data (VWLPDWHVRI SDVVHQJHUGHPDQGLQWHUPVRI WLPHVEHWZHHQDUULYDOVWRWKHWLFNHWLQJ area and time for an agent to service each passenger type are provided in the table EHORZ$VVXPHWKHWLPHEHWZHHQDUULYDOVLVH[SRQHQWLDOO\GLVWULEXWHGZKLOHDJHQW service time is normally distributed—all times are in minutes. you decide on showing what might happen with a simulation.: 3 min Expected results • Fill out Parts I and II of the project template.: 3 min Purchase mean: 15 min mean: 12 min std. 1 min Paper ticket mean: 10 min mean: 8 min std. dev. As the only engineer in the new airline. • Provide the following metrics based on a simulation run of 168 hours: o 7KHDYHUDJHDQGPD[LPXPOHQJWKRI WKHOLQHVIRUHDFKDJHQW·V station o The average wait time for each type of customer o The average number of customers each station services per hour (throughput) 128 . Problem statement <RXEHOLHYHWKHSURSRVHGRSHUDWLRQZLOOEHLQHIÀFLHQWDQG\RXZDQWWRLOOXVWUDWHWKH system’s behavior to the owner.

.GHQWLI\DQGGHÀQHWKHEDVLFHOHPHQWVWKDWFRPSULVHDVLPXODWLRQPRGHO developed in FlexSim. .GHQWLI\WKUHH´QXJJHWVµ³WKHWKLQJV\RXIRXQGWREHWKHPRVWLQWHUHVWLQJRU most important—in the chapter. Describe the difference between À[HGUHVRXUFHVDQGWDVNH[HFXWHUV WKHWZR basic categories of resources used in FlexSim).  Select several FlexSim objects. 129 . identify the various states that the object can be in during a simulation. 4. 3. Chapter 6 o The average utilization for each agent • 3UHSDUHDQH[HFXWLYHVXPPDU\EDVHGRQFRQFOXVLRQVGUDZQIURPWKH simulation. 'HVFULEHKRZWKHPRYHPHQWVRI ÁRZLWHPVEHWZHHQÀ[HGUHVRXUFHVRFFXU within a FlexSim model. Discuss how the FlexSim object structure enhances model development. 2. 8. Discuss the components included in the modeling environment of most simulation software applications. 5. Modeling and analysis issues • +RZFRXOGWKHIROORZLQJREMHFWVEHXVHGWRUHSUHVHQWWKHZDLWLQJ line? o a queue—what options would make it look like a line? o a conveyor o a ÁRZnode • &RXOGDSURFHVVRUEHXVHGDVDFRQYH\RU"+RZ"8QGHUZKDW assumptions? • :KDWDUHWKHGLIIHUHQFHVLQWKHIRXUFRQVWUXFWVLGHQWLÀHGDERYHIRU JHWWLQJSDVVHQJHUVWRWKHDJHQWV"'RHVWKHFKRLFHVLJQLÀFDQWO\LPSDFWWKH results? 6LPXODWLRQUHVXOWVDQGFRPPHQWVDUHLQFOXGHGLQWKH$SSHQGL[ Review questions 1. Compare the behavior of accumulating and non-accumulating nveyors. for each one. 6.

Average number of calls waiting b. Discuss how a model’s behavior differs when a queue. Run the model for 5 hours. Run the model for 5 more hours. stop it (again. and note the average wait time. and ÁRZ QRGHDUHXVHGWRPRYHÁRZLWHPVEHWZHHQWZRÀ[HGUHVRXUFHV 130 . Run the model for 10 hours and determine the following: a. assume the devices do not crash. Plot the average wait time versus cumulative run time. Construct a FlexSimPRGHORI WKH&RPSX+HOSV\VWHPGHVFULEHGLQWKH Chapter 5. do not reset). Percentage of customers lost due to the system’s limitation of only  EHLQJDEOHWRNHHSVL[FDOOVZDLWLQJ 10. Repeat this eight more times. Average time a caller waits before being helped c. and note the average wait time. What can you infer from the graph? 11. 0RGLI\WKHEDVLF&RPSX+HOSPRGHOVRWKDWWKHPD[LPXPTXHXHFDSDFLW\ is 1000. stop it (do not reset). however.Applied Simulation: Modeling and Analysis using FlexSim 9. conveyor.

236. 96 317 Centerobject 237. 73 C Decision Support 71 C++ 233. 105. 275. 154. 316. 48. 132 Creation time 378. Container 8. 260. 208. 72. 120. 213. 73. 215. 207. 313 ASRS 150. 372. 55. 377. 206. 409 A Content 85. 211. 238. 409 313 Controller 17. 122. 315. 271. 119. 136. Bottleneck 12. 335. 281 Code template 239. 116. 120. 210. 120. 287. AGV 77. 165. 363. 244. 85. 121. 202. 97. 309. 108. 79. 214. 34. 189. 131. 216. 155. 16. 149. 214. 156. 123. 408. 29. 237. Dempirical 165. 67. 145. 286. 239. 161. 100. 361. 206 Copy From Highlighted 310 Attribute 89. 242. 68. 17. Boundary assumptions 79. 361 Complexity 4. 271. 275. Dispatcher 153. 212. 248. 110. 337. 365. 248. 287. 87. 283. 392. 228. 285. 75. 380. 360. 236. 324. 392 Discrete event 23. 403 414 . 388 Design of experiments 91. 115. 274. 158. 89. 387. 85. 33. 46. 253. 116. 213. 118. 335 153. 367. 169 Cleanout Time 287 Discrete empirical 165. 70. 285. 146. 110. 149 288. Arrival sequence 25. 283. 272. 165. 126. 225. 17. Index 217. 160. 333. 6. 367 ChangeOver Table 287 Developer 68. 233. 284. 377. 146. 372 D Breakdown tab 114. 134. 35. 256. 272. 25. 18. 273. 248 B Custom code 206. 255. 95. 34. 277 Custom logic 16. 337. 122. 71. 112. 244. Drop-down menu 105. 122. 109. 347. 343. 27. 392 276. 358. 209. 230 Decision support 5. 191. 109. 260. 166. 68. 114. 32 Center port 16. 39. 154. 118. 215. 245. Conceptual model 67. 121. 331 Data nodes 229. 49. 336 Arrival style 335 Conveyor layout 122. 215. 314. 361. 347 Code edit 313. 231. 379. Advanced User 14. 65. 56. 318 209. 27. 372. 112. 29. 215. 91. 131. 244 Conveyor 80. 360. 58. 254. 95 371. 213. 286 Boundaries 79 Cycle time 35. 76. 366. Batch 25. 398. 254. 233. 240. 123. 257. 19. 287. 119. 272. 310 135. 178. 341. 227. 241. 144. 211. 298. 289. 215. 111. 227. 92. 399. 215. 31. 272. 80. 370 Decision variables 47. 90. 373 Degree of complexity 25. 32. 137. 136. 34. 313. 117. 187. 293 Analyst 68. 113. 137. 237. 72. 388 Connections 81. 119. 149. 135. 26. 178. 310. 25. 315 Assumption 23. 48. 111. 215 Down function 215. 288. 111. 328. 114. 396 214. 214 Data engine 368. 276 244. 55. 222. 122. 83. 198. 332. 209 Current object 134. 120. 28. 229. 230. 212. 145. 234. 154. 281 Combiner 111. 248. 395 Conveyor object 119. 336. CAD 81. 238. 269. 114. 324. 134. 124. 137. 312 Discrete object 109. 240. 76 Downtimes 30. 13. 206. 361. 380 363 Designer 68 Changeover 81. 316. 387 Breakdowns 5. 284. 145. 143. 32. 216. 144. 369 By expression 122. 237. 378 Domain knowledge 69 Competing failure 210. 273. 381 Availability 30. 391.

143. 342 Experimenter 47. 340 Fluid flow 35. 385. 143. 110. 241. Fluid Processor 272 380. 359. 292. 111. 230. 363. 30. 167. 26. 200. 316 Efficiency 3. 81. 360. 272. L 320. 404 381 Fluid 269–281 J Fluid blender 271. 132. 258. 317. 269. 388 287. 275. 365. 112. 92. 338. 270. 285. 370 Fluid terminator 271 Lean 2. 345. Flexscript commands 230. 118. 233. 197. 260. 261. 25. 183. 18. 110. 273. 215. 120. 298. 213. 196. 399. 333. 271 Ideal rate 205 Fixed resources 84. 340. 180. 311. 324. 144. 300. 203. 245. Level indicator 273 93 Library 17. Global variable 242. 233. 244. 143. 152. 383 Labels 18. index E G Editing objects 114 General tab 115. 203. 256. 358. 12. 272. 248. 384. 245. 274. 235. 377. 256. 132. 281 Job shop 155. 210. 56. 85. 256. 238. 233. 119. 380. 136. 237. 242. 342. 378 Fluid tank 271. 94. 79. 254. 370. 136. 319. 259. 122. 144. 384. 261. 245. Flag 25. 397 145. 271. 312. 243. 407 Functional specification 45. 374. 329. 326. 145. 370 Intermediate User 15. 280. Fluid pipe 271 310. 182. 133. Fluid to item 272 216. 363 Investigator 69 Flowitem 109. 248. 400. 135. 6. 161. 217. 119. 121. 407. 320. 238. 395 Input port 118. 217 Highlighting 139. 105. 212. 409 415 . 378 Flexscript 230. 320. 235. 331. 38. 378. 150. 142. Grid 108. 271. Global table 139. 400 ExpertFit 68. 377. 77. 372. 131. 90. 383 Errors 12. 227. 379. 331 Itemtype 132. 247. Involved object 339. 247. 146. 341. 166. 238. 316. 17. 377. 328. 18. 246 330. 300. 175. HighMark 383. Interface control 297. 165. 401. 364. 371. 281 Fluid objects 109. 55. 199. 377. 363. 112. 310 FIFO 158. 210. 323 Item to fluid 272 Flow logic 126. 373 310. 39. 245. 323. 380. 28. 41. 376. 135. 242. 31. 71. 357. 274. 128. 385 201. 272. 228. 325. 217 Health care 9. 122. 408 257. 133. 319. 108. 11. 215. 129. 153. 316. 155. 355. 407. 248. 86. 246. 369. 313 248. 149. 251. Educator 69 315. 347. 100. 270 Join 30. 205. 346 GUI 70. 263. 381. 120. 408 Failure mode 32. 237 File menu 297 I First available 119. 319. 60. 299. 165. 380. 116. 398. 239. 176. 386 Language engine 368. 32. 112. 109. 114. 407. 151. 155. 233. 112. 400 Fluid splitter 272 Label-table 256. 243. 361. 300 247. 177. 332. 211. 88. 16. 240. 183. 91. 385. 103. 360. 332. 120. 257. 71. 318 Fluid Generator 271 Fluid mixer 272. 153. 168. 189. 348. 361. 360. 281. Flow node 120. 381. 113. 234. 346 Graphical editor 156. 277. 129. 187. 214. 330. 211. Implementer 69 122. 18. 290. 402 F H Failure clock 207. 95. 238. 254. 146. 3. 271. 136. 343. 202. 376. 244.

326. 143. 401. 82. 63. 205. 288. 370 87. 272. 165. 192. 64. 215. 123. 205. 287 Object spatial attributes 364 Message 83. 95. 243. 134. 190. 238. Node 120. 240. 110. 91. 61. 360. 15. 146. 182. 43. 397 MTTR XI. 386 Object variables 274. 188. 400. 122. 23. 87. 213. 370. 338. 322 OFD 14. 322. 160. 105. 408 Naming convention 114. 237. 333 367.Library icon grid 108. 25. 366 Occasional User 13. 101. 339 Performance 5. 339 230. 215. 337. 158. 318 138. 122. 146. 244. 243 293. 259. Methodology 60. 136. 288. 332. 140 Performance measure 14. 22. 313. 191. 359. 376 Mobile resources 84. 247. 208. 40. 13. 85. 217. 232. 380. 37. 227. 231. 127. 361. 143. 284. 202. 410. Network layer 367. 19. 288. 106. 61. 160. 206. 158. 380. 332. 16. 386 206. 212. 363. 266. 185 MTBF 85. 271 Data node 229. 238. 339. 193. 234. 307. 363. 128. 403 416 . 124 253. 76. 212. 208. 188. 312. 396. 16. 209. 338. 332 Midmark 383. 129. 149. 247 Maximum rate 205 Object oriented 34 Members 213. 182. 135. 154. 78. 233. 82. 169. 161. 327. 245. 154. 219. 280. 82. 207. 125. 138. 65. 412 Modeling 1. 409 No Connect 338. 219. 113 Objective 25. 83. 312. 371 149. 343. 144. 238. 324. 61 Manufacturing cell 203. 386. 92. 209. Flow node 120. 277. 209. 131–142. Object statistics 15. 395 OpenGL 367. 366. 333. 251. 240. 379. 253. 79. 214. 263. 320. 318. 238 Logic 23. 317. 177. 285. 158. 90 81. 339. 17. 15. 379. 110. 49. 339 Picklist 115. 288. 324 Mixer recipe 274 OnExit trigger 133. 228. 132. 217. 14. 85. 85. 123. 273. 215. 252. 197. 289. 252. 100. 85. 137. 21. 388 M O Object attributes 364 Main screen 107. 86. 60. 213. 343. 337. 76. 247. 24. 335. 141. 144. 198 Operating assumptions 79 Modeling paradox 40 Operations system 4. 261 Object labels 365 Material distribution 30 Object nodes 229. Network node 149. 12. 5. 120. 232. 358. 375 229. 189. 148. 52. Mixer steps 274 325. P&ID 81 402. 377. 214. 128. 237. 367 Message trigger 132. 316. 230. 125. 316. 326. 153. 154. 41. OnReset trigger 133. 238. 202. 243. 68. 297 163. 137. 75. Metrics 23. 153. 133. 287. 67. 137. 326. 67. 365. 275. 48. 331. 292. 129. 275. 280. 119. 310 63. 248 331. 23. 385 OnEntry trigger 133. 235. 72. 288. 326. 100. 313. 92. 194. 243. 47. 286. 254. 360. 230. 26. 45. 87. 199. Output port 118. 257. 311. 46. 66. 231. 161. 325. 255. 305. Modeling utilities 261. 236. 381. 248 MultiProcessor 111 P Pack 145 N Passing 153. 19. 134. 238. 329. 122. 153. 238. 38. Mission length 207 257. 118. 46. 236. 309. 384. 80. 61. 376. 89. 383 OnCreation trigger 232. 108 Object control 366 Main toolbars 108. Operability 39. 47. 25. 263. 149. No Passing 338. 246. 230 Line controller 283. 207. 278. 338. 153. 237. 37. 146. 388 Variables node 230. 45. 29. Picklist options 115. 236. 211. 381 Tree node 230. 387. 114. 380. 195. 211. 233. 181. 51. 126. 86. 375. 214.

252. 146. 207. 260. 48. 146. 13. 216 Reliability 17. Switch 233. 129. 165. 51. 247 Speed control 298. T 312. 124. 360. 176. 374 Pull 3. 32. 404 Properties window 115. 283. 215. 46. 330. 240. Simulation engine 369 264. 230. 163 Set itemtype 332 Probability distributions 23. 337 Send to Port 135. 316 Source 71. 252. 142. 347. 201. 98. 82. 199. 283. 293 SMA process 66. 22. 60. SMA life cycle 65 285. 166. 46. 248. 150. 403 417 . 320 Target rate 205 Round robin 136. 376 Referencing objects 236. 372. 94. 169. 283. 185. 32. 92. 83 Production line 26. 208. 348 Simulation control panel 108 Procedure 63. 232. 381. 79. 335. 141. 24. 129. Time controls 108 260. 80. 310. 31. 73. 178. 69. 34. 244. 119. 156. 212. 91. 215. 219. 209. 289. 28. 398 Production schedule 14. 127. 92. 378. 94. 25. 291. 72. 206. 93. 284. 90. 239. 336. 412 Statistics tab 49. 246. 165. 116. 241. 323. 257. 297 215. 134. 378 Subnodes 229. 286. 29. 346 Resources 319. 216. 366 Port rate 272 Sendmessage 251. 287. 122. 153. S 182. 320. 322. 373. 213. 46. 299. Run Time 58. 137. 75 Queue object 110. 217. 35. 79. 252. 337. 50. 336. 181. 333. 298 Recorder 251. 217. Simple cell 86 168. 388. 60. 206. TIS 245 400. 95. 298. 142 Task executers 112. 95. 325. 58. 194. 72. Simulation benefit categories 10 182. 236. 32. 128. 363 Surge 26. 113. 71. 136. 47. 108. 243. 287 380. 117. 388 Repair time 96. 117. 48. 361. 192. Sink 110. 140. 123. 68. 214. 403 Target 144. 65. 380 Throughput 13. 272 216. 232 Priority 40. 265. 27. 245. 61. 179. 205. 149. 285. 312. 264. 97. 283. 178. 409 System controller 17. 316 Staytime 123. 143. 209. 136. 133. 64. 142. 388 Simulators 7. 383. 411 Queuing theory 23. 173. 123. 357. index Planning rate 205 Senddelayedmessage 251. 108. 339. 206 R Stochastic 22. 51. 403. 203. 229. 75 Programmed model 67. 375. 207. 337. 380. 58. 396 Service operations 1. 87. 286. 157. 114. 288. 68. 110. 172. 251 Product Data 286. 271. 269. 83. 39. 401. 69 Project template 77. 87. 30. 337. 246. 37. 388. 78. 150. 45. 266 Simulation knowledge 69 Processor 111. 407 Q Stakeholders 11. 366 Preempt 215. 135. 70. 378 210. 34. 33. 394 Space 109 Pseudocode 245. 404. 175. 96. 210. 339. 52. 385. 163 Stop time 51. 257. 284. 299. 342. 8. 73 SMA project 65. Separator 111. 161. 84. 158. 408. 284. 106 Probabilistic 124. 397. 131. 376. 163. 248. 387. 133. 211 Researcher 69 Reset 49. 216. 67. 381 Speed Limit 338 Pull production 289 SQL 367 Staffing 3. 256. 409 Screen elements 154 Ticker 270 Selecting 49. 297. 165. 377. 200. 90. 319. 159. 245. 401 State 37. 129. 122. 231 Simulation languages 33.

310. 367. 256. 343. 61. 407. 81. 154. 397. 87 418 . 82 View Settings 309 Virtual distance 153. 261. 331. 138. 410 Tree node 231 Triggers 114. 43. 257. 152. 328. 243. 92. 273 Troubleshooting 243 U Unpack 146. 235. 128. 273. 225. 409 Visual tool 154.Tools tab 155 Tree 15. 103. 370. 91 Value stream map 14. 231. 261 Use transport 362 Utilization 11. 331. 142. 228. 258. 17. 381 Trigger tab 132. 73. 370 User interface engine 370 User library 251. 297. 86. 227. 253. 12. 233. 47. 227. 203. 132–142. 311. 360. 381. 236. 278. 230. 182. 311. 143. 389 VR 368. 48. 409. 155. 260. 370. 321. 370 W Wizards 105 Workstation 33. 271. 18. 143. 376. 56. 398. 13. 90. 60. 166. 45. 401. 19. 46. 402. 253. 234. 403 User interface 89. 409 V Validation 32. 333. 93. 237. 288. 399. 245. 375. 247. 150. 246. 105. 78. 16. 298. 161 User 7. 254. 155. 151. 381. 375. 256. 358. 76. 408. 260. 18. 398. 23. 400. 380 Visual Display 154. 138. 257. 387. 89. 376. 15. 394 Visualization 120. 39. 242. 141. 368. 357. 322. 346. 372. 383 Flow trigger 134. 142. 87. 40. 313. 14. 228. 85. 340. 229.