Christien Ayers

Chemistry X
Lab Report

From Light to Molarity


Spectrophotometry is a measurement of how much light a chemical substance absorbs or
transmits. A spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the intensity of light absorbed
after it passes through a sample of a solution of the chemical substance. This allows for the
concentration of the chemical substance to be determined, which is the focus of this lab.


The materials needed for this lab are the following: Spectronic 20D, two glass cuvettes (with one
filled with distilled water), 6 glass test tubes, a 10 mL graduated cylinder, 40 mL sample of
cobalt nitrate Co(NO​3​)​2​, a beaker filled with distilled water, a 10 mL glass pipette with a pipette
pump (for the sample of Co(NO​3​)​2​) and a plastic pipette (for the distilled water), lens cleaning
paper, and Parafilm.


1. Label your test tubes with a washable marker, lettering them from A to F.
2. Using the 10 mL glass pipette, draw 7 mL of the 40 mL sample substance, and insert it
into test tube A. (Repeat 5 more times, drawing 1 mL less of the sample substance each
time and inserting it into a different test tube (B, then C, etc.).)
3. Now using the plastic pipette, draw some water and measure out 1 mL into the 10 mL
graduated cylinder, and then pour it into test tube B. (Repeat 5 more times, drawing 1 mL
more of distilled water each time and inserting it into a different test tube (C, then D,
4. Next, using the plastic pipette draw enough distilled water to almost fill up a cuvette, and
insert it into one of the glass cuvettes now known as the blank.
5. After that, prepare a sample cuvette by drawing the 7 mL solution in test tube A with the
glass pipette and then inserting it into the other glass cuvette.
6. Move to the spectrophotometer, and using the wavelength knob set the wavelength to 520

107 M 0.774 5 mL 2 mL 0.000”.454 B 0.143 M 0. 10.).214 M 0. Read the display. and then with the compartment empty and the lid down. 8. 9. and then turning the “100% T” knob until the digital display reads “.326 Data of Unknowns Sample Dilution Absorbance A 0. After recording the data. adjusting the “0 %T” knob until the digital display reads “1. and record this value in the data table. Blank the spectrophotometer with no cuvette inside by pushing the “MODE” button until the red light appears next to “Absorbance”.736 .835 6 mL 1 mL 0. Line up the hash marks. then C etc. lining up the hash marks.071 M 0.566 3 mL 4 mL 0.130 M 0. Data Data of Knowns volume volume Diluted M Absorbance standard water 7 mL 0 mL 0. Read the sample next: Remove the blank. 7. Then repeat 5 to prepare a new sample cuvette after pouring out the previous one (using the solution from test tube B.000”. and again close the lid. and repeat steps 7 and 8 before reading the next sample. closing the lid.698 4 mL 3 mL 0.186 M 0.179 M 0.250 M 0. calculate the molarity of each solution from each of the test tubes using the dilution equation. Zero the spectrophotometer with the blank by inserting it into the compartment of the spectrophotometer. and place the sample cuvette into the compartment.478 2 mL 5 mL 0.

25 M = 7 mL • M2 M2 = 1/7 = 0.454 0.5/7 = 0.5/7 = 0.179 M 4 mL • 0.25 M = 7 mL • M2 M2 = 1.143 M 3 mL • 0.Analysis Absorbance of a Solution as a Function of Molarity of a Solution Knowns- 6 mL • 0.25 M = 7 mL • M2 M2 = 0.130 M .214 M 5 mL • 0.107 M 2 mL • 0.250 M / C2 = 0.867 / 0.25 M = 7 mL • M2 M2 = 0.071 M Unknowns- 0.75/7 = 0.25 M = 7 mL • M2 M2 = 1.454) = 0.867 / 0.25/7 = 0.250/(0.

143 M / C2 = 0. looking at the standard curve graph created from the 6 known samples. Then. When we drew the second solution. This lab taught me that before I perform a lab. We only had one glass pipette and one plastic pipette.130 M for Sample A and 0. I need to prelab thoroughly and carefully to make sure I understand all parts of the lab before I begin actually doing the experiment. I think some improvements to the lab could be made though.186 M Conclusions and Discussion The concentrations of the unknowns were 0. I got these concentrations by first finding the absorbance of the substance. or even 6 for each test tube the amount of error made would be minimized. which made the whole situation more stressful and confusion than it needed to be. .143/(0.736 0. One source of experimental errors was the limited amount of instruments we could use. and those were our only tools to draw liquid. I understood what the materials were what they did but I didn’t know why we used them and I had to figure that out as the lab was happening.736) = 0. Another source of error which is related to the first. This lab was quite difficult. even after understanding what I was trying to do overall.563 / 0. is that small droplets of solution were also clinging onto the inside of cuvette which also messed up the amount of solution for each sample.0. and Beer’s Law (which says concentration of first solution divided by concentration of second solution equals absorbance of first solution divided by absorbance of second solution) to find the molarity of the two unknown solutions. If we had more pipettes. the droplets gave the solution a mL or 2 of extra solution which messed up the results of the lab. and I think more explanation about how to go about the lab. with more clear and precise directions could help make the lab easier to understand. having to dilute sample be to get the absorbance to fit on my standard curve graph I created.186 M for Sample B. a few large droplets got stuck onto the sides of the inside of the pipette.563 / 0. With the glass pipette the first time we drew solution.