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Pipelines transport gas or oil from offshore platforms to onshore storages or refinery
facilities. Also, pipelines are used to transport onshore gas or oil to offshore for
offloading a shuttle tanker. Either case, the pipeline needs to cross the coastal lines.
If no environmental concerns exists, the most cost effective beach crossing method is
an open cut using dredge or trencher. If the beach crossing area is an environment
sensitive area, such as oyster field, turtle shelter, coral (tour) area, etc., and
excessively strong current occurs, horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is

Figure 1 shows a pipeline initiation from beach by using an open cut method. The
sheet piles are installed both sides of the trench to protect the trench from backfilling
during pipeline pulling operation.

Figure 1. Shore Approaching by Open Cut Method
The HDD is used to install pipeline beneath obstructions, such as rivers or shorelines.
It is considered the most effective environmental conservation method, but more
expensive than open cut & backfill method (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Shore Crossing HDD
HDD is not suitable for all types of soil, Depending on soil types, the HDD time and
cost vary significantly.

 Clay or sand: Good to excellent.
 Gravelly sand: Marginally acceptable

Introduction to Offshore Pipelines and Risers. 2007. HDD Sequence Source: Lee. HDD contractors include:  HDI (Horizontal Drilling International)  Mears  Laney Directional Drilling  Nacap. etc. Sandy gravel: Questionable  Gravel or rock: Unacceptable Figure 3 shows the HDD sequence. Jaeyoung. The drilling mud used during drilling operation penetrates into the soil and pastes the drilling hole surface. Page 137 . to prevent collapse of the drilling holes. The entry and exit angles are varied due to soil types but typically less than 10 degrees from horizontal plane. Figure 3.