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Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx

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Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/simpat

A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover
in cognitive LTE networks
Yuh-Shyan Chen a,⇑, Ching-Hsiung Cho a, Ilsun You b, Han-Chieh Chao c,d,e
a
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taipei University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
b
School of Information Science, Korean Bible University, South Korea
c
Institute of Computer Science & Information Engineering, National Ilan University, I-Lan, Taiwan, ROC
d
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Ilan University, I-Lan, Taiwan, ROC
e
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Cognitive radio technique is the next step toward efficient wireless bandwidth utilization.
Received 2 June 2010 While some of the spectrum bands (unlicensed band) have been increasingly used, most of
Received in revised form 24 September the other spectrum resources (licensed band) are underutilized. This drives the challenges
2010
of open spectrum and dynamic spectrum access concepts, which allows unlicensed users
Accepted 26 September 2010
Available online xxxx
(or called secondary users, SUs) equipped with cognitive radios to opportunistically access
the spectrum not used by licensed users (or called primary users, PUs). Most existing
results mainly focus on designing the lower-layer cognitive radio problems. In the litera-
Keywords:
Cognitive radio
ture, this is the first result to investigate the higher-layer solution for cognitive radio net-
Cross-layer works. In this paper, we present a cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility (layer-2) and
Spectrum mobility handover (layer-3) in cognitive LTE networks. With the consideration of the Poisson distri-
Handover bution model of spectrum resources, a cross-layer handoff protocol with the minimum
LTE networks expected transmission time is developed in cognitive LTE networks. Performance analysis
of the proposed handoff protocol is investigated. Finally, simulation results illustrates the
proposed handoff protocol significantly reduces the expected transmission time and the
spectrum mobility ratio.
Ó 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Over the past years, traditional approaches to spectrum management have been challenged by new insights into actual
use of spectrum. Due to the wireless network bandwidth, constraints cannot fully take advantage of all of the radio spectrum
resources for mobile devices and power supply cannot continue to use, and the free and unutilized radio spectrum resources
are very frequent to lead the low utilization of the radio spectrum. According to Federal Communications Commission (FCC),
temporal and geographical variations in the utilization of the assigned spectrum range from 15% to 85% [11,17]. In order to
improve the utilization of the overall radio spectrum, the cognitive radio (CR) network is a useful solution to this low utili-
zation of the radio spectrum.
The cognitive radio (CR) concept is first presented by Mitola and Maguire [21]. In CR networks, there are two types of
users; one is licensed users (primary users or PUs), and the another is unlicensed users (secondary user or SUs). PUs can
access the wireless network resources anytime and anywhere. SUs equipped with cognitive radios to opportunistically

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 2 2674 8189 x 67072; fax: +886 2 2674 4448.
E-mail address: yschen@mail.ntpu.edu.tw (Y.-S. Chen).

1569-190X/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.simpat.2010.09.007

Please cite this article in press as: Y.-S. Chen et al., A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks,
Simulat. Modell. Pract. Theory (2010), doi:10.1016/j.simpat.2010.09.007

2 Y.-S. Chen et al. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx

access the spectrum not used by PUs. When a PU reclaims the radio spectrum resources, the SU detects the reclamation and
immediately moves away the current radio spectrum resources and switch to idle radio spectrum resources. To perform
above operations of PUs and SUs in CR networks, the spectrum sensing, the spectrum management, the spectrum sharing,
and the spectrum mobility are four important functions. Spectrum sensing is the first important issue to find an idle radio
spectrum and detect the appearance of PUs. In the literatures [9,19,20,23,26], the spectrum sensing technology can effec-
tively and rapidly sensing the spectrum holes.
With the development of wireless network technology, the wireless mobile access has been progressed by second-gen-
eration (2G) and third-generation (3G) cellular systems. In recent years, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has
proposed a 3G long-term evolution (LTE) [1,6] toward 4G cellular systems. LTE is based on the universal terrestrial radio ac-
cess (UTRA) and high-speed down-link packet access (HSDPA) and further strengthen its communications capacity to upload
in order to enhance its quality of service. LTE has to coexist with 2G/3G systems, WLAN, WiMAX, etc. The handover protocols
are very important for the mobile networks [10,18,22].
Recently, Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a revolutionary technology [13,14,25] to implement the CR networks. The SDR
is the first development to integrate different communication capabilities. To upgrade the inconvenience and inflexibility of
hardware architecture, a SDR with the programmable and reconfigurable modules is integrated with different communica-
tion protocols. A mobile terminal (SU) with SDR device uses the sensing device in the physical layer to periodically sense the
current signal strength and the idle spectrum resources. With the sensed information, the SU dynamically selects a suitable
spectrum hole for the spectrum mobility.
Most existing results mainly focus on designing the lower-layer cognitive radio problems. The main contribution of this
paper is the first investigation of the higher-layer cognitive radio problem. In this paper, we present a cross-layer protocol of
spectrum mobility (layer-2) and handover (layer-3) in cognitive LTE networks. With the consideration of the Poisson distri-
bution of spectrum resources, we develop a cross-layer handoff protocol with the minimum expected transmission time in
cognitive LTE networks. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed handoff protocol significantly reduces the expected
transmission time and the spectrum mobility ratio.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, related works are described. Section 3 overviews the
system architecture and the basic ideas of the proposed schemes. Section 4 describes the proposed hybrid spectrum mobility
and handover protocol. Performance analysis and simulation result are presented in Sections 5 and 6. Section 7 concludes
this paper.

2. Related works

In the literature [7,15,16,20,26], most existing results focus on designing the lower-layer (layer-1 or layer-2) cognitive
radio problems.
First, the spectrum sensing is the main layer-1 task of CR system to obtain the spectrum usage information and existence
information of PUs. The traditional spectrum sensing is measured by the spectral content and the radio frequency energy. In
the CR, the spectrum sensing is measured under more spectrum characteristics, such as the space, time, frequency, and mod-
ulation code to determine which spectrum resource is occupied. Mishra et al. [20] proposed a spectrum sensing method
based on the framework of opportunistic spectrum access networks (OSAN) to search for the available spectrum. In the OSAN
framework, it divides these nodes into different clusters, each OSAN node sends the sensing information to the cluster head-
er in the spectrum sensing cycle. Each cluster header keeps the spectrum information and the licensed user (LU) occupied
channel information. The information is exchanged between cluster headers and then be forwarded to all OSAN nodes to
make the accurate decision of the channel allocation. Yucek and Arslan [26] then proposed a partial match-filtering method
to have a priory information about the transmission properties of feasible PUs. To having the robust spectrum sensing re-
sults, the spectrum sensing algorithm finds the available spectrum for the data transmission by detecting the presence of
PUs.
Second, the dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) is the main layer-2 task of CR system to exploit the temporal and spatial
traffic statistics to allocate the underutilized spectrum to SUs. Jo and Cho [16] proposed a spectrum matching algorithms to
efficiently allocate spectrum holes to SUs in the CR architecture. To minimize the probability of spectrum mobility, the spec-
trum matching algorithm is executed based on the different sizes of the underutilized spectrum holes and the different hold-
ing times, while the holding time is the predicted holding time for a specific spectrum hole. The spectrum matching
algorithm selects and assigns a spectrum hole that is most closed to the real-spectrum holding time. Akbar and Tranter
[7] recently proposed a Markov-based channel prediction algorithm (MCPA), where the channel occupancy of PUs is as-
sumed by Poisson distribution. This algorithm utilizes the hidden Markov model (MHH) to predict the appearance of spec-
trum holes in different spectrum bands. In addition, Hoyhtya et al. [15] proposed a simple classification and learning of
predictive channel selection method. To choose a channel with the largest idle time, this predictive channel selection method
is performed based on the statistics of spectrum sensing results and the channel history. The objective of the paper is to pro-
vide insights into the higher-layer cognitive radio problem while most existing results mainly focus on designing the lower-
layer cognitive radio problems.
Efforts will be made in this work to develop a higher layer cognitive radio problem. In this paper, we present a cross-layer
protocol of spectrum mobility (layer-2) and handover (layer-3) in cognitive LTE networks.

Please cite this article in press as: Y.-S. Chen et al., A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks,
Simulat. Modell. Pract. Theory (2010), doi:10.1016/j.simpat.2010.09.007

the SU performs the spectrum mobility processing to dynamically select a new spectrum hole.. In this work. move to the new spectrum hole. If a PU is appeared and attempted to access and use the spectrum occupied by the SU. The 3GPP anchor manages the mobility between GERAN/UTRAN and the LTE system.007 . For the first case. non-3GPP system. it allows SUs equipped with cognitive radios to opportunistically access the spectrum not used by PUs. The SAE anchor man- ages the mobility between 3PGG RATs (radio access technology) and non-3GPP RATs. Please cite this article in press as: Y. and unlicensed users (or called secondary users. Preliminaries and basic ideas This section describes the LTE systems architecture and the system model. Two cases are considered. Simulat. The second case is when the SU continually moves to a overlapped area between two adjacent eNBs. The LTE system supports more different bandwidth of channels. Modell. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. 3 shows that the SU moves from location of SU0 to that of SU00 .1016/j. is limited by the inter-cell interfer- ence. Fig. Chen et al.simpat. GERAN. CR-LTE system/network. this work is the first study to develop the handover protocol over CR networks. One another interest characteristic of LTE systems is the spectrum agility. The inter-cell interference coordination is a scheduling method to improve the date rate in the cell edge by taking the inter-cell interference into account. if the LTE system/net- work is adopted the cognitive radio technique. two possible events are happened: (1) one is the spectrum mobility IP networks SGi Evolved PCRF S7 Packet Core IASA HSS S6 WLAN 3PGG SAE IP ACCESS Anchor S2 S5b S4 3GPP Anchor S5a S3 SGSN MME/UPE Gb lu S1 GERAN UTRAN LTE Non-3PGG Fig. Fig. and WLAN system. Pract. and release the previously occupied spectrum for the PU. 3. we consider the hand- over problem in a LTE-CR network.-S. 1. the interference appeared in the neighboring cells can be reduced to provide the higher data rates for user in the neighboring cell.1. licensed users (or called primary users. Theory (2010). and Mobility Management Entity (MME)/User Plane Entity (UPE) to achieve the mobility management in the heterogeneous networks. To achieve all IP network architecture. The system model used in this paper is given in Fig. The main contribution of this work is to develop an efficient handover protocol in CR-LTE networks. 3 shows a handover scenario in a CR-LTE network. The performance of the LTE system. By restricting the transmission power of the spectrum. the initial location of the SU is not in the overlapped area. We then explain the basic idea and the design challenges of our work. The 3GPP LTE systems architecture. Existing heterogeneous system requires a wide range of agreements to inte- grate with different kinds of heterogeneous systems. 1. UTRAN. the system model consists of the LTE core systems. Cognitive radio LTE systems architecture and system model A LTE system/network is called as a cognitive radio LTE system/network. PUs). 3. for instance. The core of LTE system includes System Architecture Evolution (SAE) anchor. SUs). 2 displays that different frequency reuse factor is used for distinct cells.-S. the LTE systems can integrate with other wireless systems. Chen et al. doi:10. in terms of available data rates and spectrum efficiency. This characteristic of the LTE system is easily to adopt the CR concept to achieve the full frequency spectrum utilization. A SU is moving from one cell into the another cell. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 3 3.2010. To our knowledge. Fig. Y. For a CR network. as illustrated in Fig. In our work. 3GPP anchor.09. The LTE system provides the frequency orthogonality for mobile users in the uplink and downlink communications.

To implement the above purpose.-S. The PU and SU architectures are given in Fig. A PU device architecture is without any modification. 3. Modell. cell 2 cell 3 Frequency band 3 cell-edge terminals.4 Y. Chen et al. Fig. Example of inter-cell interference coordination. We proposed a cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE Networks with the consideration of the minimum expected transmission time. cell 1 cell 4 cell 2 Frequency band 2 cell-edge terminals.simpat. doi:10. cell 3 Frequency band 4 Fig.. 4. 2. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx cell-center terminal.2010. Simulat. The system model. and (2) the another one is to handover to a new_eNB.007 . cell 1 cell 6 Frequency band 1 Reduced Tx power cell 5 cell 7 cell 1 cell-edge terminals.1016/j.09. Pract. The PU and SU devices. Theory (2010). 4. a SU is equipped with the SDR (Software Defined Radio) device to detect and use these spectrum holes. In a SU Fig. Please cite this article in press as: Y.-S. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Chen et al.

spectrum analysis. components of layer-1 and layer-2 are modified to have the functions of spectrum sensing. spec- trum decision. receives signal power. Pract. Therefore.1016/j.2010. RB10}. LTE. where RB is the smallest unit of the LTE spectrum. Basic idea and challenges The basic idea of this work is mainly to observe the spectrum occupied ratio to predict the probability of the resource reclaiming by PUs to perform the spectrum mobility on the serving eNB or the handover procedure to the new eNB.2. The transmission rate is normally computed by the signal strength and the bandwidth. Let TE(SHi) denote as the expected transmission time of spectrum hole i. This may frequently cause the operations of spectrum mobility and handover. and spectrum mobility. Simulat. and many underutilized spectrum holes can be used by SUs to improve the spectrum utilization. It is observed that the high spectrum occupied ratio implies that the opportunity of the spectrum utilization is low.) without addition devices and sense the different frequency band by one transceiver or two transceiver [12] to achieve the spectrum manage- ment. This also indicates that the SU has the higher probability of resource reclaimed by a PU. Fig.11. denoted as SHi. where the spectrum is in serving eNB or the next eNB.-S. For instance. for data service of a SU. The proposed scheme follows the standard model of the cognitive cycle. Some definitions are given below. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks.  Computation and analysis phase: each SU computes and analyzes the characteristics of spectrum hole. That is. The function of TE(SHi) is determined by the spectrum occupied ratio. TE(SHi). Please cite this article in press as: Y. The large value of TE(SHi) is. RB2}. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 5 device.simpat. 802. Our goal is to calculate the minimum expected transmission time when selecting a new spectrum. 3. PU3 = {RB9. and PU4 = {RB15}. a SU performs the spectrum sensing in the CR-LTE system and reports the sensing result of the LTE spectrum bands given in Fig. then the higher transmis- sion rate is obtained. Efforts will be made in this work to de- velop a new scheme with minimum expected transmission time.-S. the main contribution of this work is to propose a new scheme with the minimum TE(SHi) in the CR-LTE systems. The spectrum hole (SH) consists of one or more resource blocks (RB). 5. 4. This is because that there is no resource reclaimed by any PU. Conversely. a TE(SHi) with strong signal strength and bandwidth can reduce the data transmission time. doi:10. Y. 5. Modell. based on the observed information from environment observation phase. spectrum analysis. For example. and spectrum mobility as shown in Fig.09. Chen et al. the higher expected transmission time will be. resource block (RB) is 180 kHz. the smaller value of TE(SHi) is. The sensed spectrum distribution.. the LTE spectrum is not fully utilized. including the functionalities of spectrum sensing. According to the LTE spectrum distribution. PU2 = {RB5}. spectrum decision. Theory (2010). and detects the appearance of any PU using the SDR device. and the available bandwidth of the spectrum hole. if the signal strength is strong and the bandwidth is large. etc. this makes the SH with flexible size.007 . Obviously. PU1 = {RB1. In addition. Three phases of the cognitive cycle of the pro- posed scheme are described below:  Environment observation phase: each SU periodically monitors the spectrum utilization.  Evaluation and transmission phase: each SU evaluates all possible expected transmission times of the SU to determine to move to new spectrum on the serving eNB or handover to new eNB. such as the trans- mission rate and the spectrum unoccupied rate. the signal strength fluctuation. A SU with SDR device can be reconfigured for the different network protocols (802.16. the higher successful data transmission will be. Chen et al.

Fig.1016/j. 6. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx Our proposed protocol is a hybrid spectrum mobility and handover protocol in cognitive LTE networks.2010. Please cite this article in press as: Y.-S. Pract.007 . Theory (2010). Hoyhtya et al. Chen et al. Most of existing protocols [15] only consider the spec- trum mobility issue to switch a free spectrum when a PU reclaimed the resource occupied by a SU. 6a. Let TON denote a channel be occupied by PU. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. and Tidle denote a channel idle time. The difference of (a) the maximum idle time scheme and (b) our proposed scheme.. Chen et al. Modell. 7. A SU is in the overlapped area. TOFF denote a channel is idle. doi:10. This predictive Fig. Simulat. [15] recently proposed a predictive channel selection for cognitive radios.6 Y. An example is shown in Fig.simpat.-S. This is a first re- sult to consider these two problems and provide a hybrid protocol.09.

Therefore. where TE of CH5. The TE(SHi) is calculated by Pu(SHi. where Tidle of CH5. if the value of kmi is small. and the detailed algorithm is described in Sec- tion 4. It is observed that considering only a channel with the maximum idle time cannot be optimal for the data transmission time. SU has higher opportunity to use mith RB without the interrup- tion caused by PUs. Let some adjacent idle RBy form a spectrum hole SHi. SHi. A SU performs the spectrum mobility from CH4 to CH3. The detailed operations are described as follows. Conversely. while spectrum hole SHi contains mi resource blocks. 6a.. and CH1 are 6 s. Fig. Environment observation phase Let SUx denote the xth SU. where TE(SHi) is calculated by the remaining service data size dt. For example as shown in Fig. where RBy. At the moment. Modell. In addition. then performs S3 step. the signal strength for SUx from current serving eNB is also periodically estimated. In addition. It also implies that SUs have the lower oppor- tunity to use mith RB. 1 6 y 6 Nmaximun_number_of_RB. where 1 6 i 6 j. 4 s. SHi. If the selected channel has a maximum idle time and minimum size. treq) is the unoccupied proba- bility of SHi within time period of treq. 8 shows that SH1. If the value of kmi is large. 7 illustrates that when a SU in the overlapped area between old_eNB and new_eNB. The value of kmi increases if mith RB is occupied and used once during the time period. Fig.007 . and k3 = 70. it implies that PUs frequently occupied mith RB.1016/j. respectively. the signal strength is considered to help SUx to know the location information and the transmission quality. 8. this proposed protocol further considers the handover procedure from the serving eNB to the next eNB with the consideration of the minimum TE. One is that SU still performs the spectrum mobility to move to SH2 in original old_eNB. The Pu(SHi. . Simulat. and Pu(SHi. where 1 6 y 6 Nmax imun_number_of_RB. depending on the value of TE(SHi). 6b. 3RB.2. a channel with the maximum channel size and the maximum idle time is considered. doi:10.-S. Two possible results are generated. and the received signal strength of SU1 from old eNB is 15 dB. To acquire the spectrum distribution and utilization. Because the channel size in LET system may be different. The main work of this paper is to develop a hybrid spectrum mobility (layer-2) and handover (layer-3) with the consideration of the minimum TE in cognitive LTE networks. and CH1 are 8 s.2010. Let treq denote the SU service required time. k2 = 70. SU1 still does not enter the overlapped area of old eNB and the new eNB. (2) computation and analysis phase and (3) evaluation an transmission phase. 4. a channel with the maximum idle time may be with the min- imum channel size. Theory (2010). and 4RB. . Cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover This section presents the hybrid spectrum mobility and handover protocol in CR-LTE systems. a SU periodically observes the frequency bands by the SDR device. the SUx collects the spectrum information through the SDR device. because that the minimum TE in old_eNB is lower than the min- imum TE of new_eNB plus the handover delay time. The information will be used to calculate the expected execution time TE(SHi). treq). Y. and their occupied frequencies are k1 = 48. RBy. Chen et al. this phase uses the SDR device to observe the signal power from the eNB and usage status of resource blocks (RBs). SHj). 10 s. Chen et al. The proposed scheme eval- uates and selects the minimum expected transmission time to make the decision to perform the layer-two spectrum mobil- ity procedure on the old eNB or layer-three handover procedure to the new eNB. and 15 s. S2: If the SUx detects a resource. otherwise. It significantly reduces the data transmission time if the factor of the channel size is considered for designing a new predictive channel selection. . . The protocol is split into three phases: (1) environment observation phase. a SU performs the spectrum mobility from CH4 to CH1. reclaiming by PU.-S. When a PU1 moves to the location of PU 01 . Computation and analysis phase The main task of the computation and analysis phase is to compute the necessary information used to calculate the ex- pected execution time TE(SHi) based on the related location of SU. 7 also shows that SUx periodically senses the spectrum bands of each resource block in order to acquire the information of occupied frequency information of each resource block (RB). SH2. Two cases are considered: (1) spectrum mobility: SUx is in Please cite this article in press as: Y. S3: The SUx goes to the next phase to make the decision of performing the spectrum mobility or handover. . CH3. the data transmission time will be longer. Fig. PU 01 reclaims the spectrum resource of SU1. Let kmi is the accumulated number that mith RB be occupied within a period of time. SHi denote the ith spectrum hole. In our proposed scheme. Otherwise. The environment observation procedure is given as follows: S1: Each SUx senses all spectrum bands. 6a is given in Fig. The detected SH2 has three RBs. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 7 channel selection algorithm is to select the channel with the maximum idle time Tidle. . . 4. we can obtain a sequence of spectrum holes (SH1. in the transmission coverage of the current serving eNB. 4. and 5 s. SH2. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. go to S1 step. The information of the occupied frequency kmi is observed and recorded for all RBy within a period of time.1. For example as shown in Fig. Similar example of Fig. Pract.09. . and SH3 are 2RB. the SU is handover to SH1 of new_eNB. CH3. In addition. The function of TE(SHi) is given in the next phase. treq) denote the probability of spectrum hole unoccupied by PUs.simpat.

A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Ri is mi  RB  log2(1 + SNRdB) and the maximum transmission rate is C = B  log2(1 + SNRdB).2. and B is the bandwidth. Let P(k. where C is the maximum channel capacity. we use the Poisson distribution [8]. The required transmis- dt sion time treq is mi RBlog2 ð1þSNRdB Þ .8 Y. the formal equation of Poisson distribution is k Pðk. S2: The SUx determines the maximum transmission rate based on the received signal strength. T) denote as the probability of k events occurred within the time period T. 4. so the bandwidth of SHi is mi  RB.1016/j.09. treq) denote as the probability of spectrum hole SHi unoccupied by PUs within the time period of treq. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx Fig. Let Ri denote as the transmission rate for SHi. In the following. SUx has only one serving eNB.. for all spectrum hole SHi in serving eNB to estimate the required transmission time treq for the remaining service data size dt. doi:10. Following the equation proposed by Shannon [24]. SUx executes the unsuccessful data transmission through the serving eNB. and kis the proportion of average event hap- pened. Pract. Simulat. where SNRdB ¼ 10 log10 Psignal noise . To analyze the probability Please cite this article in press as: Y. SNRdB. S3: To predict the availability of spectrum hole SHi. the required transmission time treq and the unoccupied probability of SHi are obtained as follows: Psignal S1: To evaluate the expected transmission time TE(SHi) for the remaining service data of SU x . Modell. the non-overlapped area and (2) spectrum mobility or handover: SUx is in the overlapped area. if the received signal strength is greater than the a threshold value. if a SUx detects the appear- ance of PUy. Otherwise. Spectrum mobility: SUx is in the non-overlapped area When a SUx is located in the non-overlapped case. the unoccupied probability of SHi is calculated. where k is the number of events. It is observed that SHi contains mi resource blocks RBs. T is the period time.1.007 . Chen et al.-S.-S.2010. SUx can perform the successful data trans- mission through the serving eNB. Theory (2010). Let Pu(SHi. Example of environment observation.simpat. Chen et al. According to SUx received signal from the serving eNB. where the remaining service data size is dt. TÞ ¼ ðkTÞ k! eðkTÞ . To predict the idle SHi within a service required time treq. SNR ¼ Pnoise is obtained from   P signals received from the serving eNB. 8.

6) = 1810 Kbps. Y. 9 shows an example that SH1 has two RBs. Pract. Chen et al. Following the equation proposed by Shannon [24]. Theory (2010). The transmission rates of SH1 and SH01 are 2  180(kHz)  log2(1 + 15. Simulat. dB where the remaining service data size is dt.6 s. S3: If the SHi contains mi RB. The transmission rate of SH1 is 2  180(kHz)  log2(1 + 31. 4. n¼1 Fig.t ) is eð10008Þ  eð10008Þ ¼ e0:504 ffi 0:6. The unoccupied probability of SH is eð10005:6Þ  eð10005:6Þ ¼ e0:3582 ffi 0:7. respectively.-S. let k set as zero. the probability of spectrum hole SH0j unoccupied by PUs within time period of t0req is m0 m0 Pj   Yj    km0 t 0req Pu SH0j .8) = 1466 Kbps and 2  180(kHz)  log2(1 + 10) = 1245 Kbps. Please cite this article in press as: Y. Example of computation and analysis in the non-overlapped area. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. The SHi contains mi resource blocks RBs.-S. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 9 that the SHi not be used within the service require time treq. Spectrum mobility or handover: SUx is in the overlapped area In the overlapped area. 11 to illustrate the case when SUx is in the overlapped area. and T set as treq. treq and t 0req . Consequently. t req Þ ¼ e . Let R0j denote as the transmission rate for SH0j and SH0j contains m0j resource blocks RBs.2010.8 s. SUx is between the old eNB and the new eNB.simpat.2. Modell. Let Ri denote the transmission rate for SHi. t 0req ¼ e n¼1 j : n¼1 An example is given in Fig. the required transmission times. The unoccupied probability of SH and SH are 0. An example is given in Fig. the bandwidth of SHi is mi  RB. respectively. The required transmission time is 10(Mb)/1810(Kbps) = 5. P signal P 0signal S1: The SUx received two signals from the old eNB and the new eNB.3. and the unoccupied probability of SHi and SH0j of SUx for the old eNB and the new eNB are estimated. The SNRdB and SNR0dB is 10 dB and 12 dB from the old eNB and the new eNB. treq Þ ¼ e n¼1 : n¼1 If the SH0j contains m0j RB. t req Þ ¼ Qmi  kn t req n¼1 P n ð0. the bandwidth of SH0j is m0j  RB. 10. t is eð10006:8Þ  eð10006:8Þ ¼ 0:6. the required transmission time treq is mi RBlogd2t ð1þSNR Þ. the probability Pmi of spectrum hole SHi unoccupied by PUs within the time period of treq is P u ðmi . if SHi con- tains mi RB. Fig..09. 9. t 0req ¼ P n 0. The required transmission time t 0req is dt m0j RBlog2 ð1þSNR0dB Þ . Chen et al. where SNRdB is from all SHi in old eNB and SNR0dB is from all SH0j in new eNB to estimate the required transmission time treq and t 0req for the remaining service data size dt. The service required transmission time in SH1 of old_eNB and SH01 of new_eNB are 10(Mb)/1245(Kbps) = 8 s and SH01 10(Mb)/1466(Kbps) = 6.007 . 9. where   P0  P SNRdB ¼ 10 log10 Psignal and SNR0dB ¼ 10 log10 Psignal 0 .1016/j. as shown in Fig. and P SH0 . and their occupied frequencies are k1 = 30 and k2 = 33.7 30 33 1 2 3 and 0. Before executing the evaluation and transmission phase. the probability of spectrum hole SHi unoccupied by PUs within time period of treq is mi P mi Y  kn t req Pu ðmi . respectively. doi:10. SNR ¼ P noise and SNR0 ¼ P 0noise are obtained. noise noise S2: The SUx determines the maximum transmission rate based on SNRdB and SNR0dB . These cal- 30 33 35 40 u 1 req u 1 req culated results are useful in the evaluation and transmission phase.2. t req Þ ¼ Pn ð0. The unoccu-   pied probability P (SH .

Chen et al. t req Þ  Ri where TL2H denotes the layer-2 switch time and 1  Pu(mi.-S. However. the expected transmission time is added by Pu(mi. treq)  Ri to increase the transmission time.10 Y. t 0req  T L2H . doi:10.3. treq ÞÞ  T L2H . Compared to T E ðSHi Þ. The analysis of the spectrum holes in the overlapped area. Simulat. this time will be interrupted caused by the appearance of PU. TE(SHi) is dt T E ðSHi Þ ¼ þ ð1  Pu ðmi .1016/j.007 . Modell. SUx has two ways to go. the T 0E SH0j is   dt    T 0E SH0j ¼ T L3H þ   þ 1  P 0u m0j .09. The detailed procedure is given below: S1: As recalled. This condition is rep- resented as (1  Pu(mi. Evaluation and transmission phase This phase aims to calculate the expected execution time TE(SHi) to make the decision to execute the spectrum mobility on old eNB or handover to new eNB. t req  T L2H > T L3H : Pu ðmi .. for each spectrum hole SHi of the old_eNB.-S. If no PU appears. If SUx is in the non-overlapped or overlapped areas. Therefore. ð2Þ P0u 0 0 m0j . In the overlapped area. the SUx must additionally calculates T E SHj for the new eNB for the final evaluation. The usage of SHi of SUx may be interrupted again by the appearance of other PUs. 4. t req Þ  Ri Pu ðmi . treq ÞÞ  T L2H  0 0 0 0 þ 1  P u mi . treq) is the probability of SHi be occupied within time period treq. Chen et al. Another way  is toperform the layer-3 handover to new eNB and select the new spectrum bands in the new eNB. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx Fig. t req  Rj where TL3H is denoted as the layer-3 handover delay time. treq))  TL2H. the transmission time is dRti .   0 0 S2: If the SUx is in the overlapped area between the old eNB and  thenew eNB. the SUx may perform the spectrum mobility again. S3: The SUx performs the spectrum mobility if dt dt    0 0 0 þ ð1  Pu ðmi . ð1Þ Pu ðmi . One way is that SUx still performs the spectrum mobility to select new spectrum bands from the old eNB. Theory (2010). T 0E SH0j additionally plus the time cost of TL3H. 10. t req Þ  Ri Please cite this article in press as: Y.2010. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Pract. which includes the DAD time and location update time [4].simpat. TE(SHi) denotes the expected transmission time of the SHi in old eNB. Similarly.

If RBi is reclaimed by a PU. Simulat. Chen et al. Example of computation and analysis phase and the evaluation and transmission phase. the SUx performs the handover procedure. SU1 performs the handover to SH02 of the new_eNB for the data transmission. Fig. where 1 6 i 6 m. m resource blocks are checked once. . there are m resource blocks. In the part II. Con- sidered a secondary user SUx. we propose an analytic model to analyze the total transmission time and the throughput for our proposed scheme. then go to state of ‘‘spectrum mobility to SHi0 ” (part III). In the part I. Therefore.-S. The Markov chain model is adopted. . Y. then go to the initial state of ‘‘SHi” without performing the spectrum mobility. SH2. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 11 Fig.09. assumed that let ith spectrum hole SHi has m resource blocks. The Markov chain is represented as a directed graph as shown in Fig. Pract. Therefore. . . Performance analysis In this section. 11. Chen et al. 11 shows an example of evaluation and transmission phase. where 1 6 m. otherwise. .007 . state of ‘‘spectrum mobility to SHi0 ” state denotes the SUx performs spectrum mobility and change the spectrum hole from SHi to SHi0 . Another case is that a SUx performs the spectrum mobility or the handover if the SUx is in the overlapped area. . 12.1016/j. The other expected transmission time of SH2 and SH3 (old_eNB) and SH02 and SH03 (new_eNB) is shown in Fig. . Modell. doi:10.simpat.2010. Without loss of generality. First case is that a SUx performs the spectrum mobility if the SUx is in the non-overlapped area. where 1 6 i 6 j. Two cases are considered for our analysis. SHj) in the serving eNB. the SUx uses ith spectrum hole SHi from a given sequence of j spectrum holes (SH1. . initial state of ‘‘SHi” denotes SUx transmits the next data packet through the current spectrum hole SHi. which SHi is reclaimed by a PU. the expected transmission time of SH1 in old_eNB is 10ðMbÞ T E ðSH1 Þ ¼ 0:61245 þ ð1  0:6Þ  0:05ðsÞ ¼ 13:407ðsÞ. and the expected transmission time of spectrum hole SH01 in new_eNB 10ðMbÞ is calculated as T 0E ðSH01 Þ ¼ 0:35ðsÞ þ 0:61466 þ ð1  0:6Þ  0:05 ¼ 11:739. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Please cite this article in press as: Y. go to the next state of RBi+1. 12.-S. 5. there are m RBi states. As shown in Fig. The state transition information is given below:  SHi to RB1: indicates that the previous packet was completely transmitted completely and the next packet starts to be transmitted. Let the data of the SUx be divided into n packets. Until reaching to state of ‘‘RBm”. Conse- quently. where 1 6 m. Otherwise. SHi. if there is still no reclaimed by a PU. where 1 6 i < m. the Markov chain model is split into three parts. 11. Each resource block may be reclaimed by a PU. The minimum expected transmission time is SH02 . In the part III. Theory (2010)..

Assumed the required transmission time is treq ¼ mi RBi logdt2 ð1þSNR Þ. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx . This implies that all m RBi are not reclaimed by a PU and the SUx can continually use the SHi. the probability of SHi which is not reclaimed by PUs denoted as Pu(SHi.   ki  tunit t req  RBi to RBi+1: RBi has the probability of e if RBi is not reclaimed by a PU. where dt is the data size of the data packet and Ri is dB the transmission rate of SHi.  k Qi  t k t req  RBi to ‘‘spectrum mobility to SHi ”: RBi has the probability of 1  k¼1 e 0 unit if the RBi is reclaimed by a PU and RB1 to RBi1 are not reclaimed by the PU. The probability of ith resource block  RBi not be reclaimed by PUs within the time kk ki t req Qm  t unit t req interval is ci ¼ t unit . Considered a SHi. According to the Poisson distribution cn  ec f ðn. In the following. Chen et al. Let treq ¼ mi RBi logdt2 ð1þSNR Þ be the required data transmission time between SUx and eNB through SHi without considering ki. With the Poisson distribution. 12. we need to estimate the probability of each spectrum hole that is not reclaimed by PUs.   kk Q  t t req  RBm to SHi: RBm has the probability of m k¼1 e unit if RBmis not reclaimed by a PU.12 Y. if there are m resource blocks of SHi..2010. ð5Þ j i¼1 k¼0 where 1 6 i 6 j and Told_eNB is the expected time cost of SUx performing the spectrum mobility and using the new spectrum hole SHi0 for one packet transmission. the expected transmission time Told_eNB and Tnon-spectrum mobility are calculated as follows. Chen et al. t req Þ ¼ e : ð3Þ k¼1 Proof. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Theory (2010). Simulat. Fig. Let ki denote as the reclaimed number by a PU of RBi within tunit. ð4Þ n! where n is the total number of event occurrences and let c be a positive real number which is equal to the expected occur- rence number during a given time interval. Pract.-S.1016/j. the probability of SHi which is not reclaimed by PUs is   Y m  kk t unit t req Pu ðSHi . Tnon-spectrum mobility is the expectation time of SUx still using the original SHi for one packet transmission.007 . doi:10.-S. Please cite this article in press as: Y. The probability of Pu(SHi.simpat. Modell. treq). treq) is represented by k¼1 e .09. Relation between resource blocks in the scenario one. dB Before calculating the expected total transmission time. Lemma 1. h The total transmission time is 1XX j N1 T TTT ¼ ðT old eNB þ T non-spectrum mobility Þ. Let tunit denote as a past period of time units. cÞ ¼ .

where 1 6 i 6 j. Y.. The additional state transition information is given below:  Q     RBi to ‘‘spectrum mobility to SHi0 ”: RBi has the probability of Poldn NB 1  ik¼1 exp  t kk  t req if the RBi is reclaimed by unit a PU and performs the spectrum mobility and RB1 to RBi1 are not reclaimed by the PU. t req Þ  j i¼1 k¼0 Ri  N Ri  N 1X j ¼ ðT L2H þ t req  Pu ðSHi . the Markov chain model is split into three parts. where 1 6 i 6 j. is 1X j dt T TTT ¼ ðð1  Pu ðSHi . where 1 6 i 6 m. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ t req Þ.1016/j. state of ‘‘handoff to SHi0 ” state denotes the SUx performs the handoff procedure and changes the spectrum hole from SHi to SH0i0 . treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ RidN t . 13.007 . Therefore. Each resource block may be reclaimed by a PU. TTTT. we have the following result. Simulat. The expected transmission time. The expected transmission time. treq Þ  : ð7Þ Ri  N Proof. if there is still no reclaimed by a PU. the expected total transmission time TTTT is estimated below. h Lemma 3. t req Þ  T L2H Þ j i¼1 1X j dt ¼ ðð1  P u ðSHi . Pract. N1    1XX j dt dt T TTT ¼ ð1  Pu ðSHi . we further consider the case of a SUx performing the spectrum mobility or the handover if the SUx is in the overlapped area. initial state of ‘‘SHi” denotes SUx transmits the next data packet through current spectrum hole SHi. P P (5). If a SUx only transmits packet through the serving (old) eNB or the next (new) eNB. treq) and the transmission time of one packet is R dN t . the expected transmission time is ð1  Pu ðSHi . there are m RBi states. ranging from P0 to PN1. Based on Lemmas 2 and 3. treq ¼ :  j i¼1 Ri In the following. and N data packets. Told_eNB. the expected total transmission time is Please cite this article in press as: Y.-S.simpat. Tnon-spectrum mobility. then go to state of ‘‘spectrum mobility to SHi0 ” or state of ‘‘handoff to SH0i0 ” (part III). the i dt expectation time Tnon-spectrum mobility is Pu ðSHi . Then. we derive the expected total transmission time of the second case.09. Therefore. there are m resource blocks. The transmission time of one packet is T L2H þ RidN t if the SUx needs to perform the spectrum mobility. treq). where 1 6 m. In the following. Theory (2010). m resource blocks are checked once. Similarly. Therefore. is   dt T non-spectrum mobility ¼ Pu ðSHi . Modell.2010. Sim- ilarly. The expected total transmission time. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ þ P u ðSHi . then go to the initial state of ‘‘SHi” without performing the spectrum mobility or the handoff procedure. from SH1 to SHj.  Q     RBi to ‘‘handoff to SH0i0 ”: RBi has the probability of Pnewn NB 1  ik¼1 exp  tunit kk  treq if the RBi is reclaimed by a PU and performs the handoff procedure and RB1 to RBi1 are not reclaimed by the PU. In the part III. go to the next state of RBi+1. Therefore.  The probability  of spec- i trum mobility is 1  Pu(SHi. If there are j(1 6 i 6 j) spectrum holes. Using Eq. Until reaching to state of ‘‘RBm”. In the part II. We have Pold eNB þ Pnew nNB ¼ 1. where 1 6 i < m. the expected total transmission time is T TTT ¼ 1j ji¼1 N1 k¼1 T one packet . treq ¼ : ð8Þ j i¼1 Ri Proof. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 13 Lemma 2. treq Þ  Ri N. h Consequently. to be transmitted from a SUx to the serving eNB. Theorem 1. If there is one packet to be transmitted from a SUx to the serving eNB through the different spectrum hole SHi0 . otherwise.-S. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. the transmission time of one packet is calculated as Told _eNB + Tnon-spectrum mobility. If there is one packet to be transmitted from a SUx to the serving eNB through original spectrum hole SHi. where TL2H is the time cost of spectrum mobility and R dN t is transmission time between the SUx and the serving eNB. is   dt T old eNB ¼ ð1  P u ðSHi . doi:10. t req ÞÞ  T L2H þ : ð6Þ Ri  N Proof. Chen et al. If RBi is reclaimed by a PU. In the part I. ð9Þ where Pold_eNB is the probability of using the old eNB spectrum hole and Pnew_eNB is the probability of using the new eNB. as shown in Fig. t req ÞÞ  T L2H þ treq Þ. The probability of non-spectrum mobility is Pu(SHi. Chen et al.

1XX j N 1 T TTT ¼ ½ðT old eNB þ T new eNB Þ þ T nonhandoff . Simulat. a SUx performs the spectrum mobility to the old eNB. There- i fore. Tnew_eNB.007 . ð10Þ j i¼1 k¼0 where 1 6 i 6 j and Tnew_eNB is the expected time cost of a SUx performing the handover and using the new spectrum hole SH0i0 in the new eNB for one packet transmission. The probability of the handover of SUx is Pnew_eNB  (1  Pu(SHi. t req ÞÞ  T L2H þ : ð12Þ Ri  N Proof.-S. where TL2H is the spectrum mobility time.-S. The expectation transmission time. The probability of the spectrum mobility of  SUx is Pold_eNB  (1  Pu(SHi.. the expected transmission time of Tnew_eNB is P new eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . h Lemma 5. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Relation spectrum mobility and handover in the scenario two. a SUx needs to perform the handover to the new eNB. Fig..09. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ R dN t . . Chen et al. If there is one packet transmitted to the new eNB. is   dt T new eNB ¼ Pnew eNB  ð1  P u ðSH . Theory (2010). h i Please cite this article in press as: Y. treq)). / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx . treq)). Pract. Chen et al.1016/j. doi:10.simpat. If there is one packet transmitted to the old eNB. Told_eNB. t i req ÞÞ  T L2H þ T L3H þ : ð11Þ Ri  N Proof. TL3H is the L3 handover time. and R dN t is the time  cost of one packet transmission. and the expected transmission time of Told_eNB is Pold eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . is   dt T old eNB ¼ Pold eNB  ð1  P u ðSHi .2010. the expected transmission times Tnew_eNB and Told_eNB are calculated. The expectation transmission time. In the following.14 Y. Modell. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ T L3H þ RidN t . 13. The transmission time is T L2H þ T L3H þ RidN t . where Tnonhandoff = Tnon-spectrum mobility. and Tnonhandoff is the expected time cost of a SUx using the original SHi in the old eNB for one packet transmission. Lemma 4.

is dt  j TP1 ¼ Pj : i¼1 ðð1  P u ðSHi ÞÞ  T L2H þ t req Þ Based on Theorem 2. Based on Theorem 1. t req Þ  Ri  N 1X j ¼ ½ðPold eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . t req Þ  treq  1X j ¼ ½ð1  Pu ðSHi .simpat. Chen et al. Modell.-S. TP1. t req ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ P new eNB  T L3H Þ þ treq Þ where 1 6 i 6 j. The throughput is equal to the data size divided by the total transmission time. where TTTT is derived from Theorem 1 for the case of the SUx is in the non-overlapped area and Theorem 2 for the case of the SUx is in the overlapped area. t req ÞÞ  T L3H þ Pu ðSHi . is 1X j T TTT ¼ ½ð1  Pu ðSHi . TTTT. Chen et al. is Please cite this article in press as: Y. The throughput (TP) is expressed as dt TP ¼ : ð13Þ T TTT Theorem 3. Proof. Assumed that the data size of a SUx is dt and the total transmission time of dt is TTTT. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. t req ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ TL3H þ t req Þ þ Pu ðSHi . Proof. t req ÞÞ  T L2H þ j i¼1 k¼0 Ri  N    dt þ Pnew eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . where 1 6 i 6 j and treq ¼ :  j i¼1 Ri The analysis of throughput is given as follow. t req ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ Pnew eNB  T L3H Þ þ t req . t req ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ t req ÞÞ j i¼1 þ ðPnew eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . Simulat. t req Þ  treq  1X j ¼ ½T L2H þ t req  Pu ðSHi . Y. the throughput. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 15 Based on Lemmas 3–5. Theory (2010). treq Þ  T L2H j i¼1 þ Pnew eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . to be transmitted from a SUx to the serving (old) eNB or the next (new) eNB. The expected total transmission time. ð14Þ i¼1 ðð1  P u ðSHi ÞÞ  T L2H þ t req Þ dt  j TP2 ¼ Pj .2010. TP2. (10) and Lemmas 3–5. Pract.007 . ranging from P0 to PN1. treq ¼ dRti . doi:10. it can be derived the final result as follows: N1    1XX j dt T TTT ¼ Pold eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi . the throughput TP1 (the SUx is in the non-overlapped area) and TP2 (the SUx is in the overlapped area) are derived as follows: dt  j TP1 ¼ Pj . treq ¼ dRti .1016/j. Theorem 2. Based on Eq. treq ÞÞ  T L3H þ t req  j i¼1 1X j dt ¼ ½ð1  Pu ðSHi . treq ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ Pnew eNB  T L3H Þ þ t req . ð15Þ i¼1 ðð1  Pi ðSHi . the throughput. from SH1 to SHj. j i¼1 where 1 6 i 6 j.. and N data packets. If there are j(1 6 i 6 j) spectrum holes. t req ÞÞ  T L2H þ Pnew eNB  ð1  Pu ðSHi .-S.09. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ T L3H þ Ri  N   dt þ Pu ðSHi . we have the following result.

09. The performance metrics to be observed are as follows:  The total transmission time (TTT) is the time interval of the data transmission between a pair of a SU and a corresponding node. Chen et al.16 Y. Parameter Value BS transmission range 50 km Network size 500  500 km Secondary users speed 0–100 km/h Number secondary user 0–20 Spectrum sensing period 40 ms Spectrum switching delay 10 ms Handover delay 200–350 ms Packet size 1500 bytes Simulation time 100–1000 s Please cite this article in press as: Y.  The end-to-end delay (EED) is the average delay time of every packets of a data which can be transmitted from a SU to a CN by the old eNB or new eNB.-S.simpat. a b Fig. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx dt TP 2 ¼ Pj : 1 j i¼1 ðð1  Pu ðSHi . The proposed scheme is mainly compared with the predictive channel selection scheme proposed by Hoyhtya et al. CN. Table 1 Simulation parameters. Modell.007 . treq ÞÞ  ðT L2H þ Pnew eNB  T L3H Þ þ t req Þ 6. It is noted that proposed scheme-Ais denoted as the analyzed result of our proposed scheme derived from the performance analysis in Section 5. (a) The simulation scenario 1 and (b) the simulation scenario 2.  The throughput (TP) is total number of data packets which can be transmitted and received between a pair of SU and CN per unit time. If data sizes are same. This scheme is to periodically record the channel idle time. It is observed that only the spectrum mobility is executed. The pro- posed scheme is mainly compared with mobile IPv6. The TTT is estimated from the first packet transmitted from CN until the final packet received by SU through the old eNB or new eNB. To fair evaluate the proposed protocol. respectively.  The number of spectrum mobility (NSM) is the total number of spectrum mobility during a data transmission between a pair of SU and CN. Chen et al.through the old eNB or new eNB. Simulation results Our paper presents a cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE systems. 14 using the Network Simulator-2 (NS-2) [5]. the channel idle time is acquired at the next time period such that the channel with the maximum idle time is chosen.2010. ns-2 Cognitive Radio Network model [2]. For the simulation scenario 2. Theory (2010).. and 3GPP module [3]. the SU is located within the non-overlapped area. the EED is large that represents the TE of spectrum hole which be selected by SU is higher. treq ÞÞ  T L2H þ t req Þ dt  j ¼ Pj :  i¼1 ðð1  Pi ðSHi . the SU moves across the over- lapped area with the constant speed such that the SU may execute the spectrum mobility or handover procedures. protocol [4]. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Pract. The system parameters are given in Table 1.-S. For the simulation scenario 1. doi:10. 14. [15]. MIPv6.1016/j. Simulat. two simulation scenarios are implemented as shown in Fig. which is denoted as the maximum idle time scheme.

Theory (2010). We observed that the TTT of the proposed schemewas low as the data size was low. 15. under various number of PUs. 15a illustrates that the curve of the TTT of our scheme is lower than that of maximum idle time scheme under various data sizes. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks.simpat. as illustrated in Fig. which was nearly equal to the a b Fig. This is because that our scheme adopts the minimum expected transmission time. which was nearly equal to the proposed scheme-A.-S. Total transmission time (a) vs. 15 shows the observed TTT under various data sizes and number of PUs. In the following. Pu (ranging from 0. and low NSM. 17 illustrates the simulation result of TTT under various date sizes (ranging from 10 Mb to 50 Mb) for the simulation scenario 2. number of primary user. Chen et al. Pu.1. Fig. Chen et al. low EED. Fig. It is observed that the TTT with the spectrum hole = 5RB < that of the spectrum hole = 3RB < that of the spectrum hole = 1RB.. 6. we illustrate our simulation results for total transmission time (TTT). throughput (TP). for the simulation scenario 1 are shown in Figs. Total transmission time vs. number of PUs. as shown in Fig. We observed that the TTT of the proposed schemewas low if the number of PUs was low. end-to-end delay (EED). and number of spectrum mobility (NSM) from several aspects. The large value of Pu indi- cates that SUs have the more opportunities to stably utilize the spectrum holes without any interruption. 16 illustrates the impact of TTT with various spectrum hole unoccupied ratio. which was nearly equal to the proposed scheme-A. due to the large spectrum hole with the high transmission rate.1 to 0. Fig. Fig. 15a. 17 shows that the TTT of the proposed scheme drops as the data size decreases. Modell. Please cite this article in press as: Y. 15b illustrates that the curve of the TTT of our scheme is lower than that of maximum idle time scheme. Fig. for the simulation scenario 1. and spectrum hole unoccupied ratio. Fig. high TP. 16. 15b. In general. data size and (b) vs. Fig. 15 and 16.09.9) and spectrum hole size.1016/j. Pract. Pu for the simulation scenario 1.2010.007 . doi:10. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 17 It is worth mentioning that an efficient handoff protocol in cognitive LTE networks is achieved with a low TTT. the TTT decreases as Pu increases.-S. Y. Total transmission time (TTT) The simulation results of the TTT under various data sizes. Simulat.

the EDD increases as the number of PUs increases. Fig.-S. where the Pu is fixed at 0. the EED drops as the number of spectrum holes increases. Fig. Fig. Fig.-S. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. Chen et al. This is because that our scheme adopts the minimum expected transmission time by utilizing the sensed spectrum information. In general. Please cite this article in press as: Y. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx Fig. Fig. 18 shows the observed EDD under number of PUs. doi:10. 18 and 19. Finally. With the same data size..007 . the EED increases as the number of PUs increases and the number of spectrum holes decreases.2. proposed scheme-A. the MIPv6 protocol needs more transmission time than our scheme because that the fixed spectrum resource scheme is used in MIPv6 protocol. number of spectrum holes. number of primary user and (b) vs.5. Theory (2010). Our proposed scheme adopts the dynamic spectrum resource scheme by dynamically collecting the spectrum hole information such that our scheme can significantly improve the MIPv6 protocol. End-to-end delay (EED) The simulation results of the EED under various number of PUs. 6. In general. and data sizes for the simu- lation scenario 1 are shown in Figs.1016/j.09.simpat. Total transmission time vs. 17 verifies that the TTT of our proposed scheme is less than the MIPv6 protocol. number of spectrum holes.2010. data size for the simulation scenario 2. Chen et al. 18b illustrates that the curve of the EDD of our scheme is lower than that of maximum idle time scheme. Modell. 18a illustrates that the curve of the EED of our scheme is lower than that of maximum idle time scheme. 19 illustrates that the curve of the EED of our scheme is lower than that of maximum idle time scheme under various data sizes (ranging from 10 Mb to 50 Mb). 18. 20 displays that the MIPv6 protocol needs more EED than our scheme because that the fixed spectrum resource scheme is used in MIPv6 protocol. End-to-end delay (a) vs. Our proposed scheme adopts the dynamic spectrum resource scheme by dynamically collecting the a b Fig. 20 illustrates the simulation results of EED under various number of PUs and number of spectrum holes for the sim- ulation scenario 2. Pract.18 Y. 17. Simulat. In general. This information is useful for the layer-3 handoff procedure by selecting the large size of spectrum hole and the low Pu. number of spectrum hole for the simulation scenario 1. Fig. Fig.

The TP of the proposed schemedrops as the number of PUs increases. 23a shows the observed NSM under various data size.-S. and (b) vs. Y. It is verifies that the TP of our proposed scheme is higher than that of MIPv6 protocol. Chen et al. spectrum hole information. 19. number of spectrum hole. 6. 6.5. data size for the simulation scenario 1. which was nearly equal to the proposed scheme-A. 22 displays that the MIPv6 pro- tocol has lower TP than our scheme because that the fixed spectrum resource scheme is used in MIPv6 protocol. In general. which was nearly equal to the proposed scheme-A. doi:10. 22 illustrates the simulation results of TP under various data sizes for the simulation scenario 2. End-to-end delay vs. the NSM drops as Please cite this article in press as: Y. Chen et al. Modell. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 19 Fig. a b Fig. 20. for the simulation scenario 2.1016/j. where the Pu is fixed at 0.4. Throughput (TP) The simulation results of the TP under various data sizes and number of PUs for the simulation scenario 1 are shown in Fig.007 . This information is useful for our layer-3 handoff procedure by selecting the large size of spec- trum hole. Fig. This is be- cause that our scheme adopts the minimum expected transmission time. The TP of the proposed schemedrops as the data size increases.-S. 21. Fig. Theory (2010). Fig. which was nearly equal to the proposed scheme-A. 21b. as shown in Fig.. End-to-end delay (a) vs. Number of spectrum mobility (NSM) The simulation results of the NSM under various data sizes and number of PUs for the simulation scenario 1 are shown in Fig. The TP of the proposed scheme- drops as the data size increases. 21b illustrates that the curve of the TP of our scheme is higher than that of maximum idle time scheme under various number of PUs. 23. 20 verifies that the EDD of our proposed scheme is less than that of MIPv6 protocol. 21a shows the observed TP under various data size. Fig. 21a illustrates that the curve of the TP of our scheme is higher than that of maximum idle time scheme under various data sizes. Simulat.2010. number of primary user. Fig.09.simpat. Fig.3. Fig. Pract.5. where the Pu is fixed at 0.

21. Throughput (a) vs.09. Theory (2010).simpat. and (b) vs.-S. Simulat. Fig. Please cite this article in press as: Y. doi:10.. Number of spectrum mobility (a) vs. A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks. for the simulation scenario 1. data size. Chen et al. Modell. 23. number of primary users.1016/j. 22. for the simulation scenario 1.2010. and (b) vs. Pract. data size for the simulation scenario 2.007 . time. / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory xxx (2010) xxx–xxx a b Fig. a b Fig. number of primary user.-S. Chen et al. Throughput vs.20 Y.

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