He served on the Poetry Panel of the Arts Council of Great Britain from 1962-6 and was awarded the Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry in 1967. Secret Destinations (1984). He is also editor of. numerous poetry anthologies and wrote the librettos to William Mathias' opera Jonah. and became literary editor of two BBC radio magazines. Cornwall. Union Street: Poems (1957) included poems from both collections and was published with an introduction by the writer Edith Sitwell. He later won a Cholmondeley Award (1971) and the Ingersoll/T. Other poetry books by Charles Causley include the collections Johnny Alleluia: Poems (1961). He began writing plays in the 1930s including Runaway (1936) and The Conquering Hero (1937). Farewell. and contributor to. In 1954 and 1966 he was awarded Travel Scholarships by the Society of Authors. and served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. and in his first two collections of poetry. . 'Apollo in the West' and 'Signature' (1953-6). on 24 August 1917. In 2000 he was awarded the Heywood Hill Literary Prize. S.CHARLES CAUSLEY Prize-winning poet. Aggie Weston (1951) and Survivor's Leave (1953). Eliot Award (1990). a collection of short stories. as well as poetry written for children including Figgie Hobbin: Poems for Children (1970). After the war he trained to be a teacher. an experience he wrote about in Hands to Dance: Short Stories (1951). He died on 4 November 2003. winner of the Kurt Maschler Award. and A Field of Vision (1988). playwright and children's author Charles Causley was born in Launceston. Underneath the Water (1968). Charles Causley was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1958. Jack the Treacle Eater (1987). and The Young Man of Cury and Other Poems (1991). teaching at the grammar school in Launceston. and was educated at Launceston College and Peterborough Training College. and a CBE in 1986. and Phyllis Tate's St Martha and the Dragon.

A child is asking his mother what has happened to his sister. written in four line stanzas where the second and fourth lines rhyme. create a strong echo of the sound – which is also the rhymed sound in the first and last stanza. This is quite a childish sound. The poem takes an approach that makes the reader work to figure out what has happened. . It is a first person dramatic monologue that is addressed to the mother of the narrator. This is in contrast to the apparent simplicity of the poem provided by the ballad format and the child’s voice. It is almost entirely written in questions. and helps to create the plaintive note in the child’s questioning. The form suggests the child’s innocence. Sound The doubling of the sound in ‘Lulu’. like the narrator. He thinks he heard voices and a car in the middle of the night. but his mother tells him he was only dreaming. and her money-box has gone. with only an open window and an old rag-doll left behind. We have to piece together the clues given in the poem.What Has Happened to Lulu ? ( Subject Matter) What Has Happened to Lulu? is a poem told in a child’s voice about his older sister running away. The inclusion of childhood objects such as a rag-doll and a money-box emphasise the youth and innocence of the run-away Lulu. We. Imagery The image of the abandoned bed is the main one. contrasted by the dust on the shelf that represents her previous life. The poem is a ballad. together with the high level of repetition of both the name and its shortening in the poem. His mother is crying and burning a note. emphasised by the constant questions. There is nothing in her room. who does not understand what is going on. The tone is one of puzzlement. while allowing the reader to read between the lines and understand what has happened. have more questions than answers. The curtain can be seen as a metaphor for Lulu’s new freedom. both reflecting the age of the speaker and his puzzlement at what has happened to his sister. They are contrasted with the roar of the car engine heard in the night and the grown-up world that the narrator does not understand. Doing this also puts the reader in the position of the child. described by the child narrator. which is of a young child. This regular and simple form seems appropriate for the voice of the narrator. Lulu.

The poem also considers how we deal with children.What Has Happened to Lulu? deals with themes of grief and love. as the final stanza makes clear. The poem raises the question of how the child can react. do you think ?  How did Lulu leave the house ?  What did she take with her?  How does the mother feel?  Who is the narrator of the poem?  What does the mother tell him/her? Why? Activity 1 . but his mother tells him he dreamed it. The mother is grieving over her lost child. Ironically the mother does not know what to do. The confusion of the narrator about his or her parent’s reaction also tells us something about the nature of grief. The fact that the child has run away does not make the grief less significant. in dismissing what they have heard or seen. Questions  What has happened to Lulu ?  What caused her to leave ?  Who cried ? Why. The child narrator has some valid knowledge of what has happened.Turn it into drama !  How can we turn this poem into a piece of drama ?  What characters are needed?  Where should we start ?  What happens?  Why does she go ? . when clearly it is. when he has been told nothing is the matter.

Elements of the Poem Setting Persona Moral Values Themes Message Tone and Mood Language and Style .

The Living Photograph BY Jackie Kay .

a birth mother and a daughter. Her poems have appeared in many anthologies. The poems deal with an adopted child's search for a cultural identity and are told through three different voices: an adoptive mother. The Adoption Papers (1991). She was adopted by a white couple at birth and was brought up in Glasgow. The Adoption Papers (1991). and her dramatised poem. The poems in Other Lovers (1993) explore the role and power of language.Jackie Kay Jackie Kay was born in Edinburgh. Jackie Kay was born in Edinburgh. Her first novel. Scotland in 1961 to a Scottish mother and a Nigerian father. the novel tells the story of Scottish jazz trumpeter Joss Moody whose death revealed that he was. In 2006. Kay develops the narrative through the voices of Moody's wife. published in 1998. Trumpet. Her books. Sonata. a woman. in 2008. studying at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama and Stirling University where she read English. in fact. was awarded the Guardian Fiction Prize and was shortlisted for the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. his adopted son and a journalist from a tabloid newspaper. Strawgirl (2002). health and disease through personal experience and metaphor. The experience of being adopted by and growing up withing a white family inspired her first collection of poetry. The experience of being adopted by and growing up withing a white family inspired her first collection of poetry. Inspired by the life of musician Billy Tipton. the Saltire Society Scottish First Book of the Year Award and a commendation by the Forward Poetry Prize judges in 1992. was published in 2006. Scotland in 1961 to a Scottish mother and a Nigerian father. Off Colour (1998) explores themes of sickness. the Saltire Society Scottish First Book of the Year Award and a commendation by the Forward Poetry Prize judges in 1992. Her collection of poetry for children. and she has also published a novel for children. inspired and influenced by the history of Afro-Caribbean people. she was awarded an MBE for services to literature. . studying at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama and Stirling University where she read English. Her novella. She was adopted by a white couple at birth and was brought up in Glasgow. The collection won a Scottish Arts Council Book Award. Cherry Red (2007) won the 2008 CLPE Poetry Award. the story of a search for identity grounded in the experience of slavery. Red. her book of poems Darling: New and Selected Poems in2007. The Lamplighter. The poems deal with an adopted child's search for a cultural identity and are told through three different voices: an adoptive mother. Jackie Kay lives in Manchester. and she has written widely for stage and television. Why Don't You Stop Talking (2002) and Wish I Was Here (2006). The collection kay_jackiewon a Scottish Arts Council Book Award. a birth mother and a daughter. are collections of short stories. The collection includes a sequence of poems about the blues-singer Bessie Smith.

Grandmother’s image in the photograph seems to be living vividly in the mind of the persona. She wears flat shoes and a kind. look. old smile round her eyes. and holding the persona’s hands. Her sharp blue eyes look her own death in the The last line in the stanza suggests that despite her healthy eye. straight. THE POEM Stanza 1 The persona describes her grandmother in a photograph. aging. wants to remember her grandmother as how she was when The crinkled smile is still living. Eventually she dies Somewhere unknown . Stanza 2 It was true after all. her grey hair is neatly made into a bun. unthinkable and goes to place beyond the person’s imagination. She is dressed in a white embroidered lace blouse pleated skirt. The once strong and healthy grandmother She went to the awful place grandmothers go. grey bun and matched with a pleated skirt. that look. The persona seems to remember the grandmother’s image on the photo as the one that cherished and remembered. flat shoes. The poem reminds a lot of people who made a mark in our lives who have left us and how their memories linger in our minds through simple things like a photograph. Her grandmother becomes smaller and with a Her soup forgot to boil. the person was three years old where her grandmother was still healthy and strong. proven true when grandmother started to show the signs of Her back round and hunched. she looks at her photograph. The persona’s description white hand in black hand of black and white hands shows that they are mixed race. The persona’s reference to death in the first stanza is My tall grandmother became small. . The grandmother in the photograph looks tall and standing straight – back. Synopsis The persona in the poem describes the grandmother in two different forms . white broderies anglaise shirt. My small grandmother is tall there. hunched – back. has now become fragile and forgetful. one as seen in the picture when the persona was three years old and another image where grandmother was aging and finally passed away. grandmother’s death was near. Stanza3 The persona feels the grandmother’s presence whenever But there she is still. The persona shows that she In the photo with me at three. breathing. It tells us the people we love will live in our minds in the ways we want to remember them. She is smiling kindly Her big hand holds mine.

now that the grandmother has passed away. . However.THEMES Remembering our loved ones through their memories When looking at the old photographs the memories of family members’ who had passed on are positively recollected. Love all regardless age. colours and creed. It can be seen in the poem that love is shown by persona to her grandmother. looking at the photograph brings back the good old memories the persona had with her grandmother. the memories of the persona’s grandmother were brought back to live through the photograph which was taken when the grandmother was still alive. Death is part and parcel of life Death is an inevitable part of life and we are unable to avoid it in the cycle of our lives. Grandma loved her grandchild very much while she was alive despite there is a possibility that the grandchild was of a mixed parentage as she is of a different colour. the persona remembers how the aging process of her grandmother has deteriorated her health until she eventually passes away. As seen in the poem. the vivid description of her grandmother’s smile reflects how much the persona misses and love her grandmother. In the poem. On the other hand.

Therefore it is only fair for them to be shown some respect although at such age they may become senile. MORAL VALUES We must respect the elderly Our grandmother and grandfather have sacrificed a lot for the family and country. We must show our love towards our loved ones while they are alive It is important for us to show our love towards our loved ones while they are still around as that will be a memory that will be taken with us for a long period of time. forgetful and unable to do their daily chores on their own. race and distance. True love is unconditional The love that the grandmother has shown towards the persona is something that the persona remembers. we should celebrate their lives and cherish the wonderful memories as a tribute to them. Although the grandmother has gone to an 'unknown' place. . The love from the grandmother comes unconditionally regardless of age. the grandchild's love for her grandmother has never faded. colour. We should let go someone who has passed away and instead of mourning their death. We must accept the death of someone in the family and move on Death is a part and parcel of live we cannot avoid it.

the language used in the poem is very simple and direct which helps the readers to understand the poem better. Her sadness can be felt when she remembers how the aging process has affected described her grandmother’s aging process her grandmother. therefore it does not have rhyming or rhythmic expressions. . now that the grandmother has passed away and the persona has grown up. Her closeness to her grandmother is clearly portrayed in the poem and it creates a warm and loving bond between a grandchild and her grandmother. it could be seen that the persona wants to firmly remember her grandmother as healthy and sound woman. SETTING Most probably the poem is set in the present day where the persona is looking at old photographs and comes across a photograph that was taken with her grandmother when the persona was three. Nostalgic The nostalgic tone in the poem can be felt when the persona recalls the time spent with her grandmother. Besides. PERSONA The poem is written in first person point of view. Most likely the poet herself is the persona in the poem LANGUAGE AND STYLE The poet used a modern and free verse to write the poem. TONE AND MOOD Tone Mood Reflective Sad The persona remembers how the grandmother The persona is sad that the grandmother has was when the persona was three years old. In the last stanza. Looking at the photograph reminiscences the fond old memories. She passed away.

•The line which says “ Her sharp blue eyes look her own death in the eye” is a metaphor where the persona is actually trying to tell that the METAPHOR grandmother is going to die after having taken their pictures together. •There are few personified expressions found in this poem : PERSONIFICATION • Her soup forgot to boil – refers to how grandmother has become forgetful • The crinkled smile is still living. . posture. •The photograph in the poem represents the SYMBOLISM memories of the grandmother which was treasured by the persona. clothes and shoes are described very effectively which help the readers to visualize the persona's grandmother. grandmother's height.Literary Devices •In the poem the grandmother is described so vividly that one can actually visualise very clearly how the persona’s grandmother would actually IMAGERY look like. breathing – refers to how lively the grandmother’s smile was. In stanza one.


tall pleated skirt smile straight – back flat shoes sharp blue eyes white broderie anglaise shirt grey bun white hand _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 2(B) Use the words below to describe the persona’s aging grandmother. Using the words and phrases below write a description of the persona’s ACTIVITY 2(A) grandmother in the photograph. small forgetful round and hunched ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ .