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The word “computer” comes from the word “compute”, which means, “to calculate”.
Hence, people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform
arithmetic operations at high speed.

In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating
machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is non-mathematical
or non- numerical nature. Hence, to define a computer merely as a calculating device is to
ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device
that operates upon data. Data can be anything like bio-data of applicants when computer is
used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in various
subjects when used for preparing result; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when
used for making airlines or railways reservations; or number of different parameters when
used for solving scientific research problems, etc.

Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer
application. A computer can store, process, and retrieve data as and when desired. The fact
that computers process data is so fundamental that many people have started calling it as
data processor.


Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is very powerful and useful tool. The
power and usefulness of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics.


An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers are
automatic machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job until it is finished.
However, computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find
problems and solutions. We need to instruct a computer using coded instructions that
specify how it will do a particular job.

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1.1.2. SPEED

A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that
a human being can do in an entire year. While talking about speed of a computer we do not
talk in terms of seconds or milliseconds but in terms of microseconds, nanoseconds and
even picoseconds. A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion simple
arithmetic operations per second.


In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is
consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer
performs every calculation with the same accuracy.


Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about computer. One moment it is preparing
result of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills etc. In brief, a
computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite
series of logical steps.


The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different
generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a
major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate,
resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful, more efficient and reliable

1.2.1. First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and
were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in
addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the
cause of mal functions.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming
language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solveone
problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was
displayed on printouts.

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2. more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time. or assembly. 1. faster.Census Bureau in 1951. 1.1 First generation computer Fig. Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. Fig.2 Second generation computer 1. it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.1. such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.1 shows first generation computer. Fig. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client. allowing computers to become smaller. which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. languages.2 shows second generation computer 3 E-Ball PC . 1. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s.2.S. cheaper. which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and print outs for output. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. the U. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. Fig.

users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system. 1. which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. 4 E-Ball PC . In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user. located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.2. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips. Instead of punched cards and printouts. The Intel 4004 chip. Fig 1. the mouse and handheld devices. which eventually led to the development of the Internet Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.4 shows fourth generation. As these small computers became more powerful.2. they could be linked together to form networks. as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. called semiconductors.3. which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.1. Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors Fig. and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.4.3 shows third generation computer. developed in 1971. Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. 1.

1. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. are still in development. that are being used today. this is exactly what designer Apostol Tnokovski was feeling when he decided to create the smallest PC ever made. 1. Fig. though there are some applications. DEFINING E-BALL PC Aren’t you tired of your PC? By his ugly shape and the way that it looks? Well. based on artificial intelligence.5.2. Fig. 5 E-Ball PC . Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices.5 Fifth generation computer CHAPTER 2 THE MEANING OF E-BALL PC 2.3 Third generation computer Fig.1. 1. such as voice recognition.4 Fourth generation computer 1. Fig. 1.5 shows fifth generation computer.

Apostol Tnokovski introduced a new pc that is E-ball Concept pc. 2. E-ball is designed to be placed on two stands. elements like keyboard. mouse. large screen display etc.1 Sphere shape of E-ball 2. It has a button when you press this button a projector will pop and it focus the computer screen on the wall which can be adjusted with navigation keys. This computer has all the feature like a traditional computer. Fig. E Ball concept pc doesn’t have any external display unit. opens by simultaneously pressing and holding the two buttons located on each side. This concept PC will measure 160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft Windows OS.2. The E-ball concept pc is a sphere shaped pc which is the smallest design among all the laptops and desktops. FEATURES OF E-BALL  I-TECH VIRTUAL KEYBOARD  DUAL CORE PROCESSOR  2 GB–RAM  350-500 GB HARDDRIVE  INTEGRATED GRAPHICS AND SOUND CARD  SPEAKERS  WIRELESS OPTICAL MOUSE  LAN AND WLAN CARD  LCD PROJECTOR  PAPER HOLDER 6 E-Ball PC . dvd.

2. A kilobyte is equal to 1024 bits. and megabyte is equal to 1024 kilobyte. and 8 bits equal to 1 byte.  MODEM Fig.1. Figure shown below shows the Intel core 2 duo process. RAM is measure in “bits”. PROCESSOR Intel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high-end consumer and business microprocessor made by Intel. Though the data itself is stored tighter.2. it could be anywhere in the “container” or amount of RAM available. It gets the word “random” Because information can be accessed in non-sequential order. 2. 7 E-Ball PC . The current lineup of Core processors includes the latest following processors: Intel Core i7 Intel Core i5 Intel Core i3 Intel Core Intel Core Intel Core 2 Duo Intel Core 2 Solo Intel Core 2 Quad The e-ball pc basically uses Intel core 2 Duo processor.2 Different views of E-Ball 2. 2. The E-BALL pc uses 2 GB of RAM. RAM RAM stands for Random Access memory.2.

Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics. GRAPHIC & SOUND CARD A video card. or graphics adapter is an expansion card which generates output images to a display. 8 E-Ball PC . display card.2.4. The e-ball pc basically consists 350-500GB of hard drive 2.2. Video hardware is often integrated into the motherboard. or the ability to connect multiple monitors(multi-monitor ).  SRAM is several times more expensive than DRAM 2. HARD DRIVE Hard drive is basically a secondary storage device. such as PC games. Other modern high performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes.  SRAM is faster than DRAM.  SRAM is more power-efficient when idle.3. TV output. We can directly access the data from hard drive.  SRAM doesn’t require external refresh circuitry. MPEG 2/MPEG-4 decoding. graphics card. however all modern motherboards provide expansion ports to which a video card can be attached. It is non-volatile in nature. It consists of metal platter coated with oxide that can be magnetized to represents data.

9 E-Ball PC . being a small. well-designed and easy to use application. Virtual Keyboard is a small Java application that lets you easily create multilingual text content on almost any existing platform and output it directly to web pages.1. VIRTUAL KEYBOARD Virtual Keyboard is just another example of today’s computer trend of ‘smaller and faster’. Virtual Keyboard. It uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. CHAPTER 3 VIRTUAL KEYBOARD 3. turns into a perfect solution for cross platform multilingual text input. handy.

COMPONENTS This system comprises of three modules. The Sensor Module operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the intended keystrokes. Used with Smart Phones and PDAs. copy/paste etc.1 Virtual keyboard The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any surface.2. 3. SENSOR MODULE The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology. or mouse movements. and small file size. allowing the user to leave the laptop computer at home.1. VKey technology has many applications in various high-tech and industrial Sectors. and disappears when not in use. Electronic Perception Technology: 10 E-Ball PC . easy and user- friendly interface and design.  The sensor module  IR-light source  The pattern projector 3. Mouse tracking and keystroke information is processed and can then be output to the host device via a USB or other interface. The main features are: platform-independent multilingual support for keyboard text input. Fig. operations support just as in a regular text editor.2. These include data entry and control panel applications in hazardous and harsh environments and medical markets. already existing system language settings remain intact. the VKey (TM) provides a practical way to do email. word processing and spreadsheet tasks. 3. built-in language layouts and settings.

with replaceable templates allows system flexibility. Finger makes keystroke on virtual keyboard. 3.2. IR-LIGHT SOURCE The Infrared Light Source emits a beam of infrared light. The camera photographs angle of incoming infrared light. detected co-ordinates determine actions or characters to be generated. 3. This light beam I designed to overlap the area on which the keyboard pattern projector or printed image resides. It’s an action that is continually repeated. This helps in recognizing the hand movements and the pressing of keys. gaining functionality and ease of use. The light beam facilitates in scanning the image. THE PATTERN PROJECTOR The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the keyboard or mouse zone of the system. A printed image. This information is factored through an on-chip processor running imaging software that translates the image into defined events before sending it off-chip for application-specific processing. The Sensor chip in the sensor module determines where the infrared beam was broken. Electronic perception technology enables ordinary electronic devices to “see” the world around them so they can perceive and interact with it. permitting most any kind of keyboard configuration for greater functionality. a second infra-red beam is not necessary. generating over 30 frames of 3D information per second. This is done so as to illuminate the user fingers by the infra-red light beam. 3.2. An invisible infra-red beam is projected above the virtual keyboard. The tiny electronic perception chips and embedded software work by developing a 3D“distance map” to nearby objects in real-time. Reflected infrared beam passes through infrared filter to camera. ADVANTAGES  Portability 11 E-Ball PC . This image can be projected on any flat surface. The projected image is that of a standard qwerty-keyboard. This breaks infrared beam and infrared light is reflected back to projector.2. The Projector features a wide-angle lens so that a large pattern can be projected from relatively low elevations.3. Now everyday electronic devices in a variety of markets can perceive users actions. In some types of virtual keyboards.3. with all the keys and control functions as in the keyboard. Accordingly the information is passed on to the sensor module which decodes the information.

email. Only people who are good at typing can use a virtual keyboard efficiently.  It is very costly ranging from 150 to 200 dollars.4. Since it involves typing in thin air. 3. DISADVANTAGES  Virtual keyboard is hard to get used to.5. APPLICATIONS  High-tech and industrial Sectors  Used with Smart phones.  The room in which the projected keyboard is used should not be very bright so that the keyboard is properly visible. word processing and spreadsheet tasks  Operation Theatres  As computer/PDA input  Gaming control  TV remote control 12 E-Ball PC . PDAs.  Accuracy  Speed of text entry  Lack of need for flat or large typing surface  Ability to minimize the risk for repetitive strain injuries  Flexibility  Keyboard layouts can be changed by software allowing for foreign or Alternative keyboard layouts 3. it requires a little practice.

These devices use dichroic mirrors to split the light from the input source into red. green. Each panel consists of two plates of glass with a layer of liquid crystal between them. and blue components. the crystals open to allow light through or close to block it. The three colors are then recombined in a prism before being projected 13 E-Ball PC . the technology used to project images. This opening and closing of pixels is what forms the image. where pixels form an image. older systems which serve the same purpose. When a charge is applied. green. CHAPTER 4 PROJECTOR USED IN E-BALL 4. LCD PROJECTORS LCD projectors are systems that display or project information or video onto a surface. They are most commonly used for displaying images in presentations or lectures. but are also used in home theaters. LCD stands for liquid crystal display. They are the technological descendants of overhead and slide projectors. Video signals are comprised of three colors: red. and blue. LCD projectors contain a separate glass panel for each. Each then passes through the corresponding panel.1.

Each red. green and blue beam then passes through a dedicated LCD panel made up of thousands of miniscule pixels. green. The three colors are then recombined in a prism and projected through the projector lens and onto the screen. naturally colored images that are easy on the eyes. referred to as 3 LCD. LCD projectors are also capable of detailed shadow reproduction that is ideal for demanding business and home theater applications.through a lens. special mirrors that only transmit light of a specified wavelength.2 Internal parts of projector The white light from the projector lamp is split into red. LCD projectors use separate panels for each color because it results in better color saturating than using a single panel for all three. Fig. LCD projectors crisply reproduce bright. and blue components using two dichroic mirrors. 4. Fig. 14 E-Ball PC . 4.1 LCD Projector LCD projectors employ a three-panel LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) system. An electrical current turns the panel's pixels on or off to create the grayscale equivalent of that color channel.

In essence.1. LCDs are not just found in projectors.  DLC panel can fail.  LCD also delivers a somewhat sharper image than DLP at any given resolution. A video projection technology.  LCD projectors can project bright. 4. The micro mirrors on the chip (remember: each micro mirror represents one pixel) then tilt very rapidly as the image changes. and blue independently through 4.  LCD trends to produce a sharper image  More accurate color. 3LCD is the world's most popular projection technology.  Dead pixels. developed by Texas Instruments.  One benefit of LCD is that it controls red. green. DISADVANTAGE  More bulky as there are more internal components. ADVANTAGES  LCD is generally more light efficient than DLP. LCD projectors are capable of billions of colors and smooth grayscale gradations.2.  Screen door effect. from a cell phone to an MP3 player to your digital alarm clock. 15 E-Ball PC . New panels promise resolutions as high as 4K (3840 x 2160). A reliable. By using a combination of three LCDs to produce a final image. sophisticated technology with universal appeal. Currently LCD panels offer resolutions as high as true HD (1920 x 1080) for home theater applications. and draw less power than many competing display technologies. LCDs are very common because they offer distinct advantages: they are thinner. every pixel on a DMD chip is a reflective mirror. The video image is displayed on the DMD chip.1.  1000 lumen LCD is more preferred than 1200 lumen DLP. delivering high quality images for the most demanding business and consumer audiences. vivid images with a low output lamp.1.  Image degradation. that utilizes a chip.  LCD competes extremely well when high light output is required.  Another benefit of LCD is that it is more light-efficient. They are found in many of the electronics you use every day. lighter. referred to as a DMD (Digital Micro mirror Device). 4.  Contrast. DLP PROJECTORS DLP stands for Digital Light Processing.  Portability. The resolution of the image is determined by the number of pixels in the LCD panels used.2.  Sharper image.

4.2. This process produces the grayscale foundation for the image. DLP projectors tend to be more compact.  Reliability. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION I. 4. it is sent through the lens and can be projected on a large screen. and from there.  Less screen door effects.  Sealed optics this makes it better for use in dusty environment. Then.2.1.  Since the DLP light engine consists of a single chip rather than three LCD panels. color is added as light passes through a high-speed color wheel and is reflected off of the micro mirrors on the DLP chip as they rapidly tilt towards or away from the light source.2. Light from a single source is passed through a prism. The degree of tilt of each micro mirror coupled with the rapidly spinning color wheel determines the color structure of the projected image. projected onto a screen. screen applications. and blue light sources. Fig. in comparison to the color wheel method. 4. then reflected on each of the chips designated for each primary color.3 DLP projector 4.  High cost. DISADVANTAGES  Rainbow effect  Light leakage. As the amplified light bounces off the micro mirrors.  Reduced pixilation. Pixelization (fill factor) 16 E-Ball PC . This application very expensive. high contrast video. and is used only in higher-end consumer and commercial DLP projectors. which creates separate red.3. green.  Higher contrast. Another way that DLP is implemented is to utilize a separate DLP chip for each primary color. This technology is used in both rear-projection televisions and in separate video projector.  Another DLP advantage is that it can produce smooth. ADVANTAGES  Portability.

Video Quality DLP = Fast switching. DLP = Seam-less . Color Quality DLP = Can match any LCD color gamut LCD = Can’t match any DLP color gamut R. Pixellated. more difficult light management III. bandwidth is depend on each color because of non–sequential system. significant lag IV. performance degrades 17 E-Ball PC . LCD = Grainy. easier light management LCD = Complex optics. VI. B. II. Film-like. Contrast Ratio DLP = Simple optics. Smallest & Brightest DLP = Simple optical system. minimal lag LCD = Slow switching. G. LCD = Complex optical system VII. good reflectivity. Reliable DLP = Reflects heat LCD = Absorbs heat. Sharpness DLP =No misalignment LCD =Misalignment likely over time V.

It has a button when you press this button a projector will pop and it focus the computer screen on the wall which can be adjusted with navigation is interpreted by lasers that appear after you press the respective button. I am sure that everybody would like to see a small spherical PC like this one. If there is no wall then it has a paper sheet holder that divides into three pieces like an umbrella just after popping up. CHAPTER 5 WORKING OF E-BALL 5. The software interface of E-ball concept pc is highly stylized with icons that can be remembered easily that support all type of windows operating system. E-ball concept pc has a laser keyboard that is fully a concept keyboard that is visible when the pc is in working. For the moment there is no word on pricing or when it’s going to be available. while the mouse is a pop out wonder making this an unique piece of technology. however. sorry about the others. and it will show desktop on the paper sheet. It recognizes your fingers with the help of an IR sensor when you are typing at a particular place. WORKING E Ball concept pc don't have any external display unit. Also. the E- ball PC supports a paper holder and the paper sheet on the holder could act like a screen where you can watch movies or something. listening music watching large screen movies. This concept PC will measure 160mm in diameter and it was designed for Microsoft Windows OS. 18 E-Ball PC . The keyboard is not physical . and chatting on the net. E-ball concept pc work very easy while you are making video presentations.

and find a motherboard that’ll fit inside this palm-sized baby. He was trying to create the smallest PC in the world when he came across this idea. a pico projector inside that illuminates either the wall or a sheet of paper for a screen. HD-DVD recorder. 250-500GB HDD. modem. 2GB of RAM. E-ball will feature a dual core processor. the computer size is becoming smaller. wireless optical mouse and laser keyboard. and Apostol might be onto something here. 2 x 50W speakers.As year passes.1 working on paper 19 E-Ball PC . LAN and WLAN card. It is shaped like a sphere because in Tnokovski’s opinion this is the best shape in nature and it draws everybody’s attention. and that laser keyboard that would almost certainly be a clumsy input device. Fix that. This ball is known as E-ball and its design is given by Apostol Tnokovski. You'll see the pop-out laser mouse. Web cam and integrated LCD projector. 5. Fig. integrated graphic card and sound card.

 Paper sheet holder is placed at the back panel of this computer.3 Paper sheet holder 5.3.5.  The holder can be opened by pressing it in the lower part Fig. IF THERE IS NO WALL  When we are working in an open place we can make use of a paper sheet as a screen.4 Scenario in use 20 E-Ball PC . 5. Fig.2. 5. SCENARIO IN USE Fig.2 How to open the stands 5.

 E-BALL support user defined keyboard layouts.  E-BALL is efficient. 21 E-Ball PC .4. ADVANTAGES  E-BALL is portable.  E-BALL has large memory.  It is difficult to understand if any problems occur in hardware part. 5. DISADVANTAGES  Normal operating systems cannot work in these computers.5.  E-BALL is useful for making video presentation.5.  E-BALL is very easy to use  E-BALL is more secure than other computer.  Cost of E-BALL is very high.

Today’s technology is at its peak point beyond what we could ever imagine. word processing and spreadsheet tasks. the computer size is becoming smaller. PDAs. New inventions and innovations are emerging on daily basis. used with smart phones. email. CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Summary As year passes. It can be PDA input/ as computer. Also in gaming control and TV remote control 22 E-Ball PC . Future scope It can be used in high-tech and industrial sectors. This ball computer has taken the computer technology to new horizons. also in operation theatres. Our imaginations have dressed into reality and today it has become possible to have a whole computer in our pocket all the time.

http://www.html [6]. http://www.smarttech. [5] [8].com/cgi-bin/prnh [4]. [2]. http://www. [11].co.slideshare. [10].com [3].com/doc/177282692/FULL-SEMINAR-REPORT- ON-E-BALL [12].com [7].com/computer%20science/E-Ball- Technology 23 E-Ball PC . http://dukedk666.3m. http://wikipedia.REFERENCES [1]. [9].newscom.