Analog Engineer’s

Pocket Reference
Art Kay and Tim Green, Editors

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Analog Engineer’s Pocket Reference

Fourth Edition

Edited by:

Art Kay and Tim Green

Special thanks for technical contribution and review:
Kevin Duke
Rafael Ordonez
John Caldwell
Collin Wells
Ian Williams
Thomas Kuehl

© Copyright 2014, 2015 Texas Instruments Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 3

get help.ti. 4 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .and system- level design formulae.com/thehub). Message from the editors: This pocket reference is intended as a valuable quick guide for often used board. • Search for complete board-and-system level circuits in the TI Designs – Precision reference design library (www. a comprehensive online training curriculum for analog engineers.com Additional resources: • Browse TI Precision Labs (www.com/e2e).ti. This collection of formulae is based on a combined 50 years of analog board. C • Wire L.ti. C • Binary. Those worn pages have been organized and the informa- tion is now available via this guide in a bound and hard-to-lose format! Here is a brief overview of the key areas included: • Key constants and conversions • Discrete components • AC and DC analog equations • Op amp basic configurations • OP amp bandwidth and stability • Overview of sensors • PCB trace R.ti. which applies theory to real-world. share knowledge and solve problems with fellow engineers and TI experts in the TI E2E™ Community (www. L. hex and decimal formats • A/D and D/A conversions We hope you find this collection of formulae as useful as we have. Much of the material herein was referred to over the years via a folder stuffed full of printouts. hands-on examples. Please send any comments and/or ideas you have for the next edition of the Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference to artkay_timgreen@list.com/precisionlabs). • Read how-to blogs from TI precision analog experts at the Precision Hub (www. R.and system-level expertise.ti. • Find solutions.com/precisiondesigns).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 PCB trace resistance for 1oz and 2oz Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Binary/hex conversions . . . . . . 53 PCB and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Common coaxial cable specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Resistive temperature detector (RTD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Inductor equations (series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Self-heating of PCB traces on inside layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Diodes and LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Pole and zero definitions and examples . . . . . . . . 16 Standard capacitance values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 PCB via capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Log scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Basic op amp configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Phase margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Logarithmic mathematical definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 RMS and mean voltage examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Setting time and conversion accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Standard resistor values . . . . 8 Standard decimal prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Noise free resolution and effective resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Discrete components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Capacitor charge and discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Op amp bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 PCB conductor spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Capacitance marking and tolerance . . 96 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Metric conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Stability open loop SPICE analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Effective number of bits (ENOB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Practical capacitor model and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 RMS and mean voltage definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 A/D conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Maximum current for wire types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Resistor color code . . . . . . . 18 Analog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Small signal step response . . . . . . . . . . . 62 PCB adjacent copper trace capacitance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Total harmonic distortion (THD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . energy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Temperature conversions . . 30 Time to phase shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Physical constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Temperature sensor overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parallel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . energy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Thermocouple (J and K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Diode temperature characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Capacitor equations (series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Quantization error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) . . . . . 70 Thermistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Full power bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Error conversions (ppm and percentage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 dB definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Resistance per length for different wire types (AWG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 PCB parallel plate capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parallel. . . . . . . . . . . 50 Instrumentation Amp filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Practical capacitors vs frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 PCB microstrip capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 A/D and D/A transfer function (LSB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Package types and dimensions . . . . . 15 Capacitor type overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Noise equations . . . . . . . 65 Coaxial cable equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

ti.com/precisionlabs Conversions Conversions Conversions Standard decimal prefixes • Metric conversions • Temperature scale conversions • Error conversions (ppm and percentage) • Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 7 .

626 069 57 x 10-34 J•s -23 Boltzmann’s constant k 1. Conversions ti.15 K 3 Maximum density of water ρ 1.997 924 58 x 108 m/s -12 Permittivity of vacuum εo 8.806 65 m/s2 Ice point Tice 273.602 176 565 x 10 C -31 Rest mass of electron me 9.314 462 1 J/(K•mol) 2 Speed of sound in air (at 273°K) cair 3.380 648 8 x 10 J/K Faraday’s constant F 9.00 x 10 kg/m3 Density of mercury (0°C) ρHg 1.312 x 10 m/s Table 2: Standard decimal prefixes Multiplier Prefix Abbreviation 12 10 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 10–3 milli m 10–6 micro µ 10–9 nano n 10–12 pico p 10–15 femto f –18 10 atto a 8 Texas Instruments Analog Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference Engineer's Pocket Reference .673 84 x 10 Nm2/kg2 Standard gravity gn 9.660 538 921 x 10-27 kg -19 Electronic charge q 1.com/precisionlabs Conversions Table 1: Physical constants Constant Symbol Value Units Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.256 637 0614 x 10-6 H/m Plank’s constant h 6.648 533 99 x 104 C/mol Avogadro’s constant NA 6.109 382 15 x 10 kg Mass of proton mp 1.854 187 817 620 x 10 F/m Permeability of free space µo 1.362 8 x 104 kg/m3 Gas constant R 8.022 141 29 x 1023 1/mol Unified atomic mass unit mu 1.672 621 777 x 10-27 kg -11 Gravitational constant G 6.

341x10-3 hp/W horsepower hp Example Convert 10 mm to mil.0353 oz/g ounces oz kilograms kg 2.35 g/oz grams g pounds lb 0.067x10-4 mm2/cir mil square millimeters mm2 2 2 square yards yd 0. Answer mil 10 mm x 39.5682 L/pt liters L ounces oz 28.ti.8361 m square meters m2 pints pt 0.7600 pt/L pints pt grams g 0.184 J/cal joules J horsepower hp 745.4 = 394 mil mm Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 9 .6214 mi/km miles mi square millimeters mm2 1974 cir mil/mm2 circular mil cir mil square meters m2 1.4536 kg/lb kilograms kg calories cal 4.2046 lb/kg pounds lb joules J 0.9144 m/yd meters m miles mi 1.0254 mm/mil millimeter mm feet ft 0.2808 ft/m feet ft meters m 1.3048 m/ft meters m yards yd 0.7 W/hp watts W Table 4: Metric to imperial conversions Unit Symbol Conversion Unit Symbol millimeter mm 0.0394 in/mm inch in millimeter mm 39.4 mm/in millimeter mm mil mil 0.239 cal/J calories cal watts W 1.com/precisionlabs Conversions Table 3: Imperial to metric conversions Unit Symbol Equivalent Unit Symbol inches in 25.6093 km/mi kilometers km circular mil cir mil 5.4 mil/mm mil mil meters m 3.0936 yd/m yard yd kilometers km 0.1960 yd2/ m2 square yards yd2 liters L 1.

12V � 0.1V Answer Error�%� � � 100 � 20% Error in measured value 0.12 V � 0.1V Error�% FSR� � 0.�% Percent FSR 5V � 0.001% Part Partper permillion milliontotopercent percent 10 ppm 10� � 100 � 1000 � 1 m% 10 � Part per million to milli-percent 10 10 ppm 10 ppm � 100 � 1000 � 1 m% Part Partper permillion milliontotomilli-percent milli-percent 10� 10 10 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 10 .com/precisionlabs Table 5: Temperature conversions Table 5: Temperature conversions Table 5:5 Temperature conversions �� � ��F � �2� Fahrenheit FahrenheittotoCelsius Celsius 9 5 ��9� ��F � �2� Fahrenheit to Celsius 9 Celsius CelsiustotoFahrenheit Fahrenheit �F � ���� � �2 5 9 �F � ���� � �2 Celsius to Fahrenheit � � �� �52��.1V � 0. Convert Convert10 10ppm ppmtotopercent percentand andmilli-percent.1V � 100 � 0.12V when the ideal value is 0.15 Celsius to Kelvin �� � � � 2��. milli-percent. Answer Answer Answer 10 ppm � � 100 � 0.1V and Compute the range isthe 5V. the error for a measured value of 0.001% Part per million to percent 10 10 ppm 10 ppm � 100 � 0.15 Kelvin KelvintotoCelsius Celsius �� � � � 2��.1V and the range is 5V.1V 0.12V Error�%� � 0.12 Error�% FSR� � V � 100 � 0. Answer Answer 0.12V 0.Conversions ti.�% Percent FSR Error % FSR 5V Percent FSR Example 5V Example Example Convert 10 ppm to percent and milli-percent.12V when the ideal value is 0.1V � 100 � 20% Error in measured value Error in measured value Error % 0.12V when the ideal value is 0.error for a measured value of 0.1V 0.15 Kelvin to Celsius Table 6: Error conversions Table 6: Error conversions Table 6: Error conversions �easured � Ideal Error�%� � � 100 Error in measured value Ideal � Ideal �easured Error�%� � �easured � Ideal� 100 Errorin Error inmeasured measuredvalue value Error�% FSR� � Ideal � 100 Error in percent of full-scale range Full‐scale range �easured � Ideal Error�% FSR� � ppm � 100 Errorin Error inpercent percent ofof full-scale full-scale range range Full‐scale range % � � � 100 Part per million to percent 10 ppm % � � � 100 ppm Part per Part per million million to to percent 10 m% � � 100 � 1000 Part per million to milli-percent 10�ppm m% � � 100 � 1000 Part per Part per million million to to milli-percent 10� ppm � % � 10� Percent to part per million ppm � % � 10� Percent to Percent to part part per per million ppm � m% � 10 Milli-percent to part per million ppm � m% � 10 Milli-percent to part per million Milli-percent million Example Example Compute the error for a measured value of 0.15 Celsius CelsiustotoKelvin Kelvin � � �� � 2��.1V and Example theCompute range is 5V.

com/precisionlabs Resistor color code • Standard resistor values • Capacitance specifications • Capacitance type overview • Standard capacitance values • Capacitance marking and tolerance • Discrete 11 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .Discrete Components Discrete Components ti.

5% 20 Blue 6 6 0. a 47kΩ. Discrete Components ti.1% 5 Grey 8 8 0. Figure 1: Resistor color code 12 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . -1 5% Silver -na. -na. and 3 zeros.com/precisionlabs Table 7: Resistor color code Additional Temperature Failure Color Digit Zeros Tolerance Coefficient Rate Black 0 0 250 Brown 1 1 1% 100 1 Discrete Red 2 2 2% 50 0. i.1 Orange 3 3 15 0.001 Green 5 5 0. 10% resistor.01 Yellow 4 4 25 0.25% 10 Violet 7 7 0.e. 7. 20% 4 Band example: yellow violet orange silver indicate 4. -2 10% No Band -na.05% 1 White 9 9 Gold -na.

0 20 29.4 34.5 31.5 71.8 13.5% 10% 0.0 20.1 22 32.1 12.4 88.6 15.8 76.7 59.7 11.6 ti.6 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 11.2 14.3 52.2 37.0 86.2 23.7 61.5% 10% 10.2 89.9 16.5 15.6 80.0 10.7 20.9 16.2 56 82.4 37.7 18.4 27.7 21.8 56.7 62.5 10.8 32.0 15.0 77.7 10.6 14.2 73.1 42.7 40.5 84.0 15 22.4 15.9 24.3 13.3 28.7 78.5 37.3 21.5 24.0 11.7 23.7 52.5 21.4 47.8 43.5 97.2 43 63.9 62 90.3 24.4 16.1 17.8 11.9 18.8 37.9 36.7 87.5 25.6 31.8 13 Discrete Components .7 42.6 19.1% 2% 0.7 28.0 54.8 23.0 16 23.2 10.0 30.7 34.7 58.2 39 57.8 20.1 38.1 51.2 33.5 66.3 14.7 96.1% 2% 0.0 24 35.3 16.9 21.4 46.5% 10% 0.0 10 14.6 97.3 38.4 54.1 93.8 15.4 32.5 12.4 43.2 94.3 18.1 68 10.2 56.5 20.4 24.2 44.4 18.8 48.7 17.9 83.0 75.0 20.0 47.5 12.1% 2% 0.3 32.0 10.2 43.4 15.7 26.8 34.2 23.25% 1% 5% 0.2 25.5% 10% 0.8 29.5 21.2 15.5% 10% 0.2 19.1 70.0 75 11.3 29.9 54.3 31.4 50.0 13.2 51.8 65.3 11.1 28.4 63.4 17.5 82.9 80.3 98.6 46.0 13 19.3 14.7 11.2 20.9 67.1 14.5 14.5 44.1 36 53.1 30 44.1 27 39.0 49.7 71.0 12 17.0 41.4 60.7 35.1 22.5 16.25% 1% 5% 0.2 18.7 24.1 51 75.5 19.7 64.6 12.6 81.0 34.9 49.9 90.9 95.8 30.0 13.1 26.0 21.3 66.3 85.5 10.0 47 69.5 82 12.1% 2% 0.5 36.4 93.7 48.9 Table 8: Standard resistor values 11.4 27.2 40.5% 10% 0.1 13.7 18.7 15.7 14.6 57.9 45.6 33.2 41.1% 2% 0.6 25.6 28.3 76.6 13.0 11 16.com/precisionlabs 10.2 60.4 12.8 26.8 51.2 10.4 25.5 69.2 33 48.9 33.3 19.6 49.3 56.9 30.25% 1% 5% 0. Standard resistance values for the 10 to 100 decade 0.5 30.4 40.7 13.2 34.7 12.7 27.7 75.6 12.1 11.6 53.6 18.9 64.7 39.25% 1% 5% 0.2 79.6 84.4 22.6 22.9 91 13.1 16.1 19.8 10.4 68.8 69.2 45.7 88.25% 1% 5% 0.6 92.5 47.4 29.2 39.6 22.8 17.6 78.0 18 26.6 12.2 42.5 11.2 26.9 27.3 35.5 53.2 16.8 17.2 64.9 24.3 95.0 14.6 86.6 12.5 16.25% 1% 5% 0.1% 2% 0.7 13.2 22.9 61.9 73.1 68.0 28.9 55.2 59.3 72.8 11.1 30.5 74.4 38.0 59.3 45.6 36.3 10.2 61.4 41.

Discrete Components ti. the temperature coefficient is zero coefficient The maximum specified drift generally ranges from 10 to 100ppm/°C or greater depending on the capacitor type (See Table 10 for details) 14 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .com/precisionlabs Practical capacitor model and specifications Rp ESR C ESL Figure 2: Model of a practical capacitor Table 9: Capacitor specifications Parameter Description The nominal value of the capacitance C Table 11 lists standard capacitance values Equivalent series resistance Ideally this is zero ESR Ceramic capacitors have the best ESR (typically in milliohms). Tantalum Electro- lytic have ESR in the hundreds of milliohms and Aluminum Electrolytic have ESR in the ohms Equivalent series inductance ESL Ideally this is zero ESL ranges from 100 pH to 10 nH Rp is a parallel leakage resistance (or insulation resistance) Ideally this is infinite Rp This can range from tens of megaohms for some electrolytic capacitors to tens of gigohms for ceramic The maximum voltage that can be applied to the capacitor Voltage rating Exceeding this rating damages the capacitor The change in capacitance with applied voltage in ppm/V A high-voltage coefficient can introduce distortion Voltage C0G capacitors have the lowest coefficient coefficient The voltage coefficient is most important in applications that use capacitors in signal processing such as filtering The change in capacitance with across temperature in ppm/°C Temperature Ideally.

ti.com/precisionlabs Discrete Components

Practical capacitors vs. frequency

Practical capacitors vs. frequency
Impedance (ohms)

Figure 3:Figure
Effect 3:
of Effect
ESR andof ESR
ESL and ESL on capacitor
on capacitor frequency
frequency responseresponse

Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 15

Discrete Components ti.com/precisionlabs

Table 10: Capacitor type overview

Capacitor type Description
C0G/NP0 Use in signal path, filtering, low distortion, audio, and precision
(Type 1 ceramic) Limited capacitance range: 0.1 pF to 0.47 µF
Lowest temperature coefficient: ±30 ppm/°C
Low-voltage coefficient
Minimal piezoelectric effect
Good tolerance: ±1% to ±10%
Temperature range: –55°C to 125°C (150°C and higher)
Voltage range may be limited for larger capacitance values
X7R Use for decoupling and other applications where accuracy and
(Type 2 ceramic) low distortion are not required
X7R is an example of a type 2 ceramic capacitor
See EIA capacitor tolerance table for details on other types
Capacitance range: 10 pF to 47 µF
Temperature coefficient: ±833 ppm/°C (±15% across temp range)
Substantial voltage coefficient
Tolerance: ±5% to –20%/+80%
Temperature range: –55°C to 125°C
Voltage range may be limited for larger capacitance values
Y5V Use for decoupling and other applications where accuracy and
(Type 2 ceramic) low distortion are not required
Y5V is an example of a type 2 ceramic capacitor
See EIA capacitor tolerance table for details on other types
Temperature coefficient: –20%/+80% across temp range
Temperature range: –30°C to 85°C
Other characteristics are similar to X7R and other type 2 ceramic
Aluminum oxide Use for bulk decoupling and other applications where large
electrolytic capacitance is required
Note that electrolytic capacitors are polarized and will be damaged, if a
reverse polarity connection is made
Capacitance range: 1 µF to 68,000 µF
Temperature coefficient: ±30 ppm/°C
Substantial voltage coefficient Tolerance: ±20%
Temperature range: –55°C to 125°C (150°C and higher)
Higher ESR than other types
Tantalum Capacitance range: 1 µF to 150 µF
electrolytic Similar to aluminum oxide but smaller size
Polypropylene Capacitance range: 100 pF to 10 µF
film Very low voltage coefficient (low distortion)
Higher cost than other types
Larger size per capacitance than other types
Temperature coefficient: 2% across temp range
Temperature range: –55°C to 100°C

16 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference

ti.com/precisionlabs Discrete Components

Table 11: Standard capacitance table
Standard capacitance table
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.7 3
3.3 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.6 6.2 6.8 7.5 8.2 9.1

Example
CK06
223K Translate the capacitor marking
2 2 3 K "K" = ±10%

Figure 4: Capacitor 22 000 pF
marking code = 22nF = 0.022µF

Table 12: Ceramic capacitor tolerance markings
Code Tolerance Code Tolerance
B ± 0.1 pF J ± 5%
C ± 0.25 pF K ± 10%
D ± 0.5 pF M ± 20%
F ± 1% Z + 80%, –20%
G ± 2%

Table 13: EIA capacitor tolerance markings (Type 2 capacitors)
Second Second Max. capacitance
First letter Low temp number High temp letter change over
symbol limit symbol limit symbol temperature rating
Z +10°C 2 +45°C A ±1.0%
Y –30°C 4 +65°C B ±1.5%
X –55°C 5 +85°C C ±2.2%
6 +105°C D ±3.3%
7 +125°C E ±4.7%
F ±7.5%
P ±10.0%
R ±15.0%
S ±22.0%
T ±22% ~ 33%
U ±22% ~ 56%
V ±22% ~ 82%

Example
X7R: –55°C to +125°C, ±15.0%

Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 17

8 Table 14: LED forward voltage drop by color Note: The voltages given are approximate.0 Blue/White 470-430 3.4 to 3.1 to 3.7 Red 660-620 1. 18 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .9 Orange / Yellow 620-605 2 to 2. and are intended to show the general trend for forward voltage drop of LED diodes.2 Green 570-525 2.Discrete Components ti.7 to 1. Consult the manufacturer’s data sheet for more precise values. Flat Figure 5: Diode and LED pin names Color Wavelength (nm) Voltage (approximate range) Infrared 940-850 1.4 to 1.com/precisionlabs Diodes and LEDs Anode (+) Cathode (-) Anode (+) Anode (+) Cathode (-) Anode (+) Long Lead Cathode (-) Anode (+) Cathode (-) Cathode (-) Anode (+) Cathode (-) Long Lead Short Lead.

charge. energy) • Capacitor charge and discharge • RMS and mean voltage definition • RMS for common signals • Logarithm laws • dB definitions • Pole and zero definition with examples • Analog Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 19 . parallel. parallel.ti.com/precisionlabs Analog Analog Capacitor equations (series. energy) • Inductor equations (series.

Analog ti. C2. C3…CN = component capacitors Analog V (4) Charge storage (5) Charge defined Where Q = charge in coulombs (C) C = capacitance in farads (F) V = voltage in volts (V) I = current in amps (A) t = time in seconds (s) dv (6) Instantaneous current through a capacitor dt Where i = instantaneous current through the capacitor C = capacitance in farads (F) dv = the instantaneous rate of voltage change dt 1 CV (7) Energy stored in a capacitor 2 Where E = energy stored in an capacitor in Joules (J) V = voltage in volts C = capacitance in farads (F) 20 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 20 .com/precisionlabs Capacitor equations Capacitor equations 1 C 1 1 1 (1) Series capacitors C C C C C C (2) Two series capacitors C C (3) Parallel capacitors Where Ct = equivalent total capacitance C1.

L L33…L …LNN == component componentinductance inductance di v�L Instantaneousvoltage (11)Instantaneous (11) voltageacross acrossananinductor inductor dt Where Where v = instantaneous voltage across the inductor v = instantaneous voltage across the inductor L = inductance in Henries (H) L = inductance in Henries (H) di � = instantaneous rate of current change dt = the instantaneous rate of voltage change �� 1 � � LI� Energystored (12)Energy (12) storedininananinductor Inductor 2 Where Where EE = energy stored = energy stored in in an an inductor inductorininJoules Joules(J) (J) II ==current currentininamps amps L = inductance in Henries (H) L = inductance in Henries (H) Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 21 21 .ti...com/precisionlabs Analog Inductor equations Inductor equations L� � L� � L� � � � L� Series (8)Series (8) inductors inductors 1 L� � Parallel inductors 1 1 1 (9)Parallel (9) inductors � � �� L� L� L� L� L� L� � (10) Two (10)Two parallel parallel inductors inductors L� � L� Where Where LLtt = equivalent totaltotal inductance inductance LL11. L L22.

Figure 7: RC charge curve Figure 6: RC charge curve Figure 7: RC charge curve 22 Texas Texas 22 Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . It is common Graphing equation 13 produces the capacitor charging curve below. It is common practice to consider this fully charged.com/precisionlabs Equation for Equation for charging chargingaan capacitor RC circuit �� V� � V� �� � �� � � � (13) (13) General General relationship relationship Equation for charging a capacitor Where �� V�C =�voltage Where V V� �� � �� � �the across � capacitor(13) at anyGeneral instant inrelationship time (t) VCV ==voltage across the source the capacitor voltage charging at theany RCinstant circuit in time (t) S VSt = =time the source voltage charging the RC circuit in seconds Where t = = time RC. Note that the practice to consider this fully charged.inthe seconds time constant for charging and discharging capacitors VC = voltage across the capacitor at any instant in time (t) τ = RC. Note this fully charged.3% charged at five time constants.3% charged at five time constants.Analog ti.3% charged at five time constants. the time constant for charging and discharging capacitors Graphing equation 13 produces the capacitor charging curve below. capacitor is 99. It is common practice to consider  = RC. Note that the t = time in seconds capacitor is 99. the time constant for charging and discharging capacitors VS = the source voltage charging the RC circuit Graphing equation 13 produces the capacitor charging curve below. that the capacitor is 99.

It is common prac capacitor is 0. this fully discharged. capacitor is 0. ti. Number of Time Consta 100 90 80 90 70 Charged Charged 80 60 70 PercentagePercentage 50 40 60 30 50 20 40 10 0 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 20 Number of time Constants (τ = RC) Figure 10 8: RC discharge curve Figure 7: RC discharge curve 0 0 1 2 3 4 Number of time Constants (τ = RC) Figure 8: RC discharge curve Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 23 . the time constant for charging and discharging capacitors Graphing equation 14 produces the capacitor discharge curve below.7%the capacitor at five discharge time constants. curve belo It is com- Graphing equation 14 produces the capacitor discharge curve below. Percentage Discharged vs. time intime = thethe seconds constant initial voltage of thefor charging capacitor and discharging capacitors at t=0s t == time RC.7% charged at five time constants. Note Graphing that equation the capacitor 14 produces is discharged to 0.com/precisionlabs Analog Equation for discharging a capacitor Equation for discharging an RC circuit �� V� � V� ��� � � � (14) General (14) General Relationship relationship Equation for discharging a capacitor Where WhereV� � V� ��� � � � �� (14) General relationship VV CC == voltage voltage across across the capacitor the capacitor at anyininstant at any instant time (t) in time (t) VV ==thethe i Where initial voltage of the capacitor at t=0s initial voltage of the capacitor at t=0s I t =VCtime in seconds = voltage across the capacitor at any instant in time (t) τ t=V=IRC.in the time constant for charging and discharging capacitors seconds  = RC. It is common practice to consider this fullydischarged. Note that the mon practice to consider this fully discharged.7% charged at five time constants. Number of Time Constants 100 Percentage Discharged vs.

com/precisionlabs RMS voltage RMS voltage RMS voltage RMS voltage1 �� V��� � � � �V�t��� dt (15) General (15) relationship General relationship ��� � �� � �� �� 1 �� V��� � � 1 � �V�t��� dt (15) General relationship V��� �� � � ���� ���V�t��� dt (15) General relationship Where ���� � � �� � �� Where V(t) = continuous function of time V(t) = continuous function of time t=Where time in seconds Where t =V(t) time continuous in seconds function of time T 1 ≤ t=≤continuous T2 = the time interval that the function is defined over V(t) T1t ≤ = function of time = time 2in=seconds t ≤ T the time interval that the function is defined over t = time in seconds T1 ≤ tvoltage Mean ≤ T2 = the time interval that the function is defined over T1 ≤ t ≤ T2 = the time interval that the function is defined over Mean voltage Mean voltage 1 �� Mean V���� voltage � � V�t�dt (16) General relationship ��� � �� � �� �� 1 �� V���� � 1 � V�t�dt (16)(16) General relationship General relationship V ���� � ��� � ��� Where � ��V�t�dt (16) General relationship ��� � �� � �� V(t) = continuous function of time t= Where Where time in seconds Where V(t) = continuous function ofthat time T V(t) = ≤continuous V(t)1 ≤=t continuous T2 = the time interval function function of time the function is defined over of time t =time tt == time inseconds seconds time in in seconds T1 ≤ t ≤ T2 = the time interval that the function is defined over TT11 ≤≤ t ≤ T22 == the the time time interval interval that that the the function functionisisdefined definedover over V���� RMS for full wave rectified V��� � (17) √2 sine wave V���� RMS for full wave rectified V��� �V���� (17) RMS for full (17) waveRMS for fullsine rectified wave rectified wave V��� � 2 √2 � V���� (17) sine Mean wave for full wave rectified V���� � √2 (18) sine wave π sine wave 2 � V���� Mean for full wave rectified V���� �2 � V���� (18) Mean for full(18) Mean for full wave rectified V���� � π (18)wave rectified sine wave sine wave π sine wave Figure 9: Full wave rectified sine wave Figure Figure 9: Full wave 8: Fullsine rectified wave rectified sine wave wave Figure 9: Full wave rectified sine wave 24 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 24 24 .Analog ti.

com/precisionlabs Analog RMS voltage RMS voltage andand mean mean voltage voltage τ RMS for a half-wave V V 2T (19) (19) RMS for a half-wave rectified rectified sine wave sine wave V τ Mean for a half-wave V (20) (20) Mean for a half-wave rectified sine wave π T rectified sine wave Figure 10: Half-wave Figure 9: sine rectified Half-wave wave rectified sine wave τ V V (21) (21) RMSRMS for afor a square square wavewave T τ V V (22) Mean for a square wave T Figure 11: Square wave Figure 10: Square wave Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 25 25 .ti.

Analog ti.com/precisionlabs RMS voltage and mean voltage RMS voltage and mean voltage V (V V V 3 V (( T ( τ (23) RMS (23) for afortrapezoid RMS a trapezoid τ V V V (24) (24) Mean Mean for afortrapezoid a trapezoid 2T Figure 12: Trapezoidal wave Figure 11: Trapezoidal wave τ (25) RMS V V (25) for RMSa triangle wave wave for a triangle 3T τ V V (26) Mean (26) Mean for a triangle for a triangle wave wave 2T Figure 13: Triangle wave Figure 12: Triangle wave 26 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 26 .

(35) notation.com/precisionlabs Analog Logarithmic mathematical Logarithmic mathematical definitions definitions A A B (27)ofLog (27) Log of dividend dividend B log AB A B (28) Log (28)ofLog product of product log A A (29)ofLog (29) Log of exponent exponent log log (30) Changing (30) Changing the of the base base logof log function function log log log (31) Example changing (31) Example to logtobase changing 2 log base 2 log ln X (32) Natural log is log (32) Natural log is base e log base e (33) Exponential (33) Exponential function function to 6 digits.ti. to 6 digits Alternative Alternative notations notations Different (34) Different notation notation for exponential for exponential function exp x (34) function Different notation for scientific (35) Different notation for scientific notation. sometimes confused with sometimes confused with exponential function exponential function Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 27 27 .

001 –40–60 Roll-off rate is the decrease in gain with frequency 0. The other versus degrees half of the phase frequency shift. Phase plots are usually plotted shift onasthesemi-log y-axis.com/precisionlabs dB definitions Bode plot basics dB definitions The frequency response for the magnitude or gain plot is the change in voltage Bode plot gain as frequency changes. and gain on the y-axis.1 –20–40 0.on the x-axis.001 –60 A (V/V) A (dB) 0. This y-axis. Definitions V ((36) 36) Voltage Voltagegain gaininindecibels decibels V P ((37) 37) Power Power gain gain in in decibels decibels P Power Measured (W) (38) Used Powerfor input gain or in decibel Measured (38) output power 1 mW milliwatt A (V/V) A (dB) Table 15: Examples of common gain Table 14: Examples of common gain values and dBvalues and dB equivalent equivalent 0.000 60 80 100.000. and phase frequency versus degrees phase shift. inlog voltage scale. The other on half a Bode plot.Analog ti. linear scale.000 60 (from 10 Hz to 20 Hz is one octave) 1.000. basics a plot of frequency versus voltage gain in dB (decibels).000. log scale.000 140 1. This change is specified on a Bode plot.000 10.000. linear plots with scale.000 100 10.000 80 100 1.000 10. linear frequency scale.(from 10 Hz to 100 Hz is one decade) Octave is the doubling or halving of frequency (from 10 Hz to 20 Hz is one octave) 28 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . Bode plots are usually plotted as semi-log plots response is the phase shift versus frequency and is plotted as frequency with frequency on the x-axis.gain as frequency and gain on the changes. Bode plots are The frequency usually plottedresponse for theplots as semi-log magnitude or gain ploton with frequency is the the change x-axis.000 140 Decade is a tenfold increase or decrease in frequency. log scale.000 120 100.frequency of the a plot of frequency versus voltage gain in dB (decibels). change linear is specified scale. and phase shift on the y-axis.01 0.1 –20 Decade is a tenfold increase or decrease in 1 1 0 0 frequency (from 10 Hz to 100 Hz is one decade) 10 10 20 20 Octave is the doubling or halving of frequency 100100 40 40 1. log scale.000 120 Roll-off rate is the decrease in gain with frequency 10. Phase response plotsshift is the phase are versus usuallyfrequency plotted as andsemi-log is plotted as plots with frequency on the x-axis.010.

6 Hz) = 3. Adjust 3. f = 31. measured with a ruler. (L/D) Given L =(1cm/2cm) 1 cm. D on an axis = 2cm.16 p 4. 31. L/D = log10(fp) 1.ti.16 4. fP = 10 = 10 2. L/D = log10(fP) = 3. Adjust for the decade range (for example.com/precisionlabs Analog Figure 13 illustrates a method to graphically determine values on a logarithmic axis that are not directly on an axis grid line. with a ruler. measured 2. for fP =the 10 decade (L/D) = 10 range (1CM/2CM) (for this example. D = 2cm. grid line. 3. Figure 14 illustrates a method to graphically determine values on a logarithmic axis that areLnot 1. Given directly = 1cm.6 Hz) A (dB) Figure14: Figure 13:Finding Findingvalues valueson onlogarithmic logarithmic axis axis not not directly directly on on aa grid grid line line Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 29 .

Analog ti.1 f < f < 10 fP) = –45°/decade Phase (f < 0. 100 dB) Magnitude (f < fP) = GDC (for example.com/precisionlabs Bode plots: Bode plots: PolesPoles fP 100 0.3° at fP x 10 –45° at fP –90 Figure Figure 15: Pole gain 14: Pole gain and phase and phase Pole Location Pole=Location fP (cutoff freq) = fP (cutoff freq) Magnitude (f < fP) = Gdc (for example.1 fP) = 0° 30 Texas 30 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .7° at –45 10 –90° –84.1 fP) = 0° P Phase (f > 10 fP) = –90° Phase (f < 0.707*GV/V = –3 dB Actual 80 Straight-line function approximation –20 dB/decade 60 G (dB) 40 20 0 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M Frequency (Hz) +90 +45 (degrees) 0° 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 0 fP –45°/decade –5. 100 dB) Magnitude (f = fP) = –3 dB MagnitudeMagnitude (f > fP) = –20 (f dB/decade = fP) = –3 dB Phase (f =Magnitude fP) = –45° (f > fP) = –20 dB/decade Phase (0.1 fP < f <(f10 Phase = ffPP) == –45°/decade –45° Phase (f > 10 fP) = –90° Phase (0.

com/precisionlabs Analog Pole (equations) Pole (equations) V G G (39) As (39) a complex number number As a complex V j f f V G G V (40) Magnitude f (40) Magnitude f f (41)shift (41) Phase Phase shift f G (42) Magnitude (42) Magnitude in dB in dB Where Gv = voltage gain in V/V Where GdB = voltage gain in decibels GGv= voltage gain in V/V dc = the dc or low frequency voltage gain GfdB= frequency = voltageingain Hz in decibels GfDC P == frequency the dc oratlow which the pole occurs frequency voltage gain θ = phase shift of the signal from input to output f = frequency in Hz fP = frequency at which the pole occurs θ = phase shift of the signal from input to output j = indicates imaginary number or √ –1 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 31 31 .ti.

3° at fZ x 10 +45 f (degrees) 5.1 fZ) = 0° 32 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 32 .1 fZ < f(f<=10 fZ)fZ=) +45° = +45°/decade Phase (0.Analog ti.7° at Z +45°/decade 0° 10 0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M Frequency (Hz) –45 –90 Figure Figure 16: Zero gain 15: Zero gain and phase and phase Zero location Zero =location fZ = fZ Magnitude (f < fZ) = 0 dB Magnitude (f < fZ) = 0 dB Magnitude (f = fZ) = +3 dB Magnitude (f = fZ) = +3 dB Magnitude (f > fZ) = +20 dB/decade Phase (f Magnitude = fZ) = +45°(f > fZ) = +20 dB/decade Phase Phase (0.1 Phase (f > 10 fZ) = +90°fZ < f < 10 fZ) = +45°/decade Phase (f Phase < 0.com/precisionlabs BodeBode plotsplots (zeros) (zeros) 80 60 Straight-line approximation G (dB) +20 dB/decade 40 Actual 20 function +3 dB 0 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M +90° +90 +45° at fZ 84.1 fZ(f) = > 0° 10 fZ) = +90° Phase (f < 0.

ti.com/precisionlabs Analog Zero (equations) Zero (equations) V��� f G� � � G�� �j � � � �� (43) As(43) As a complex a complex number number V�� f� V��� f � G� � � G�� �� � � � (44) Magnitude (44) Magnitude V�� f� f � � ����� � � (45) shift (45) Phase Phase shift f� G�� � �������G� � (46) Magnitude (46) Magnitude in dB in dB Where GV = voltage gain in V/V Where GG == V dB voltage voltage gain gain in in decibels V/V GG dB DC==voltage the dc or lowinfrequency gain decibels voltage gain f = frequency in Hz GDC = the dc or low frequency voltage gain fZ = frequency at which the zero occurs f = frequency in Hz θ = phase shift of the signal from input to output fZ = frequency at which the zero occurs θ = phase shift of the signal from input to output j = indicates imaginary number or √ –1 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 33 33 .

Analog ti.225 ms T Ts 0. Example Answer Calculate the phase shift in degrees for Figure 16.com/precisionlabs Time to phase shift P S Figure 17: Time to phaseFigure shift 16: Time to phase shift (47) Phase (47) shift fromshift timefrom time θ • 360° Phase Where TWhere S = time shift from input to output signal TTPS==period time shift from input to output signal of signal θTP= = phase shiftofofsignal period the signal from input to output θ = phase shift of the signal from input to output Example Calculate the phase shift in degrees for Figure 17. Answer T 0.225ms ms ( ) • 360° = 81° 1 θ= • 360° = Tp 1 ms 34 34 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

com/precisionlabs Amplifier Amplifier Basic op amp configurations • Op amp bandwidth • Full power bandwidth • Small signal step response • Noise equations • Stability equations • Stability open loop SPICE analysis • Amplifier ti.ti.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 35 .

com/precisionlabs Basic op amp configurations Basic op amp configurations Basic op amp configurations G�� � � (48) Gain (48) Gain for buffer for buffer configuration configuration G�� � � (48) Gain for buffer configuration VCC VOUT VIN VEE + + Figure 17: Buffer configuration Figure 18: Buffer configuration FigureR18: Buffer configuration � G�� � �� Amplifier (49) (49)Gain forfor Gain non-inverting configuration non-inverting configuration R� R� G�� � �� R1 (49) Gain for non-inverting configuration R� Rf VCC VOUT VIN + VEE Figure 18: Non-inverting configuration Figure 19: Non-inverting configuration + Figure 19: Non-inverting configuration ti. Amplifier ti.com/amplifiers 36 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

) Basic op amp configurations (cont.com/precisionlabs Amplifier G�� � � (50) Gain for inverting configuration R� Basic op amp configurations (cont.) R� ti.com/amplifiers Vee Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference + 37 Figure 21: Inverting summing configuration .) R� G�� � � (50) Gain(50) Gain for inverting for inverting configuration configura R� + R1 Rf VIN VCC VOUT + VEE Figure 20: Inverting configuration Figure 19: Inverting configuration V� V� V� Transfer function for i V��� � �R � � � � � � � (51) Transfer function (51) for inverting R Figure 20: R � Inverting � R summing amplifier summing amplifier configuration � Transfer function for i R� VV� �V� � �V � V Transfer � Transfer function forsumming function V��� V � � � �V � ��� R �R � � � �� (52) � �� � � (52) amplifier. (51)inverting summing as � R� R � R � amplifier. assuming R R1 = Rsumming = …=R N amplifi 1 = R 2 = …=R 2 N RN Transfer function R� V��� � � �V� � V� � � � V� � (52) summing amplifi R� VN RN R1 = R2 = …=RN R 2 V2 VN R2 R Rf RN1 V1 VCC V2 R1 Rf VN R2 VOUT Vcc V1 V2 R1 Rf .Basic op amp configurations (cont.+ VEE Vout + Vcc V1 Inverting summing configuration Figure 20: -+ Vout ti.

) R� V� V� V� Transfer (53) Transfer function function forfor non- V��� � � � �� � � � � � � inverting summing (53)noninverting summing amplifier amplifier R �� N N N forforequal equalinput inputresistors resistors Where R1 = R2 = … = RN Where R1N==Rnumber of input resistors 2 = … = RN N = number of input resistors Rin Rf VCC R1 VOUT V1 R2 V2 RN VEE VN Figure 22: Non-inverting summing configuration Figure 21: Non-inverting summing configuration ti.com/amplifiers 38 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .com/precisionlabs Basic op amp configurations (cont.Amplifier ti.) Basic op amp configurations (cont.

com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 39 39 .com/precisionlabs Amplifier Simple Simplenon-inverting amp non-inverting amp withwith Cf filter Cf filter R � non-inverting amp with Cf filter Simple Gain for non-inverting configuration G�� � �1 (54) Gain(54) for non-inverting configuration for f < fc R� for f < fc R� Gain Gain forfor non-inverting non-inverting configuration configuration G�� G�� ��1 �1 (54) (55) Gain(55) for non-inverting configuration for f >> fc R� forfor f <fcfc f >> G �11 Gain frequency for non-inverting configuration f� ��� (56) Cut off(55) Cut off for for non-inverting (56)frequency for f >> fnon-inverting c configuration 2π R � C� configuration 1 Cut off frequency for non-inverting f� � (56) 2π R � C� Cf configuration R1 Rf VCC VOUT VIN VEE Figure 23: Non-inverting amplifier with Cf filter Figure 22: Non-inverting amplifier with Cf filter Figure 23: Non-inverting amplifier with Cf filter Figure 24: Frequency response for non-inverting op amp with Cf filter Figure 23: 24: Frequency Frequency response response for for non-inverting non-inverting op op amp amp with with C Cff filter ti.ti.

com/precisionlabs Simple inverting amp with Cf filter SimpleRinverting amp with Cf filter G (57) Gain for inverting configuration for f < fC R R Gain for inverting configuration GG −20dB/decade after f C R (57) (58) Gainfor forf inverting < fC configuration for f > fC until op amp bandwidth limitation G −20dB/decade after fC 1until op amp bandwidth (59) Cutoff frequency for inverting configuration f 2π Rlimitation C 1 (59) Cutoff Cf frequency for inverting configuration f 2π R C Cf R1 Rf R1 Rf VCC VIN Vcc VOUT Vin -+ Vout + VEE Vee Figure 24: Inverting amplifier with Cf filter Figure 25: Inverting amplifier with Cf filter Figure Figure 25: Frequency 26: Frequency response response for inverting for inverting op amp op amp with with C Cf filter f filter ti.com/amplifiers 40 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .Amplifier ti.

Open-loop gain and phase vs. set by op amp gain configuration table Gain BW = the loop = closed bandwidth limitation gain. frequency Open-loop gain and phase vs.com/precisionlabs Amplifier Op amp bandwidth Op amp bandwidth GBW = Gain GBW • BW � Gain���BW (60) Gain (60) bandwidth product Gain bandwidth defined product defined Where Where GBWGBW = bandwidth = gain gain bandwidth product. set by op ampof thegain amplifier configuration BW = the bandwidth limitation of the amplifier Example Determine bandwidth using equation 60 Example bandwidth using equation 60(from amplifier configuration) Gain � �100 Determine Gain = 100 (from amplifier configuration) GBW � �22MHz (from data sheet) GBW = 22MHz (from data sheet) GBW 22MHz GBW 22MHz BW BW = � Gain=� � 100 �= 220�Hz 220 kHz Gain 100 Note that the same result can be graphically determined using the AOL curve as Note shown same result can be graphically determined using the AOL curve that thebelow. as shown below.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 41 . frequency Figure 27: Using AOL to find closed-loop bandwidth Figure 26: Using AOL to find closed-loop bandwidth ti. product.ti. listedlisted in opinamp op amp datadata sheet specification table sheet Gain = closed loop specification gain.

frequency �� �. ��/�� �� � � � �. ����� ��� ��������� Figure 28: Maximum output without slew-rate induced distortion Figure 27: Maximum output without slew-rate induced distortion Figure Notice that28: theMaximum above figureoutput withoutusing is graphed slew-rate equationinduced 61 for distortion the OPA188. The determined The example graphically calculation or with the shows the equation.18Vpk or 6.37Vpp VP = 2πf= 2π��0k��� = 3.37Vpp 2πf 2π(40kHz) ti.37Vpp 2πfSR 2π��0k��� 0.com/amplifiers 42 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 42 .�8Vpk or 6. frequency Maximum output voltage vs.8V/μs Example V� � � � 3. peak voltage for the OPA277 at 40kHz.8V/μs V� � SR � 0. with the equation. ����� �� �. example calculation shows the peak voltage for the OPA277 at 40kHz. Notice above figure is graphed using equation OPA188. ��/�� �� � � � �.8V/µs � 3.com/precisionlabs Full powerbandwidth Full power bandwidth Full power bandwidth SR Maximum output without slew-rate induced V� � (61) output without slew-rate induced distortion (61) Maximum 2πfSR distortion Maximum output without slew-rate induced V� � (61) 2πf distortion Where VP = maximum peak output voltage before slew induced distortion occurs Where Where VSR P= = slew ratepeak output voltage before slew induced distortion occurs VPmaximum = maximum peak output voltage before slew induced distortion occurs f = =frequency SR of applied signal SRslew raterate = slew f = ffrequency = frequencyof applied signal of applied signal Maximum output voltage vs. This can be Thisdetermined can be determined graphicallygraphically or with theorequation. frequency Maximum output voltage vs. thethe This can be OPA277. ����� �� �.Amplifier ti. ����� ��� ��������� �� �. The example Notice calculation thatthat thethe above shows figure the peak is graphed voltage using for the equationOPA277 6161 at forfor 40kHz. Example Example SR 0.�8Vpk or 6.

ti.com/precisionlabs Amplifier Small Small signal step signal step response response 0.35 τ� � RiseRise (62) (62) timetime for afor a small small signal signal stepstep f� Small signal step response Where 0.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 43 43 .35 (62) Rise time for a small signal step τ� �of a small signal step response R = the rise time Where f� R C = the closed-loop bandwidth of the op amp circuit t f= the rise time of a small signal step response Wherebandwidth of the op amp circuit fC = the closed-loop Small signal step response waveform R = the rise time of a small signal step response fC = the closed-loop bandwidth of the op amp circuit Small signal step response waveform Small signal step response waveform Figure 29: Small signal step response Figure Figure 28: 29: Small Maximum signal output step response without slew-rate induced distortion ti.

com/precisionlabs Op amp noise model Op amp noise model Figure 30: Op amp noiseFigure model29: Op amp noise model Op amp intrinsic noise includes:  Noise caused by op amp (current noise + voltage noise) Op amp intrinsic noise includes:  Resistor noise • Noise caused by op amp (current noise + voltage noise) • Resistor noise ti.Amplifier ti.com/amplifiers 44 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

13 1.12 4 1.12 Broadband Broadband total noise calculation totalcalculation noise calculation Broadband total noise Broadband E� � ���total �BW noise � calculation Totalfrom (64) noise (64) Total rms rmsbroadband noise from broadband E� � ��� �BW� (64) Total rms noise from broadband E � Where ��� �BW� (64) Total rms noise from broadband � Where Where EN = total rms noise from broadband noise ENrms EN = total = total rms noise noise from from broadband broadband noise noise Where eBB = broadband noise spectral density (nV/rtHz) eBB = broadband e = noise broadband spectral noise density spectral (nV/rtHz) EN = BW = noise totalN rms BB noisebandwidth (Hz) from broadband noise (nV/rtHz) density BWN = noise bandwidth (Hz) eBB =BW N = noisenoise broadband bandwidth (Hz) spectral density (nV/rtHz) BWN = noise bandwidth (Hz) ti.13 3 2 3 1.131.13 4 1.com/precisionlabs Amplifier Noise bandwidth calculation Noise bandwidth Noise bandwidth calculation calculation NoiseBW � � � � f� calculation bandwidth (63) Noise bandwidth BW� � � � f� Noise (63)Noise (63) bandwidth bandwidth BW Where �� f (63) Noise bandwidth Where� BW � =� noise bandwidth of the system N Where BWN = noise Where KN = bandwidth of the the brick wall systemfactor for different filter order correction BWKNN==thenoise bandwidth brick wall of the factor correction systemfor different filter order BWN f=C = –3 dB noise bandwidth bandwidth of of thethe system system KNfC == the brick –3 dB wall correction bandwidth factor for different filter order of the system KN = the brick wall correction factor for different filter order fC = –3 dB bandwidth of the system fC = –3 dB bandwidth of the system Figure 31: Op amp bandwidth for three different filters orders Figure 31: Op amp bandwidth for three different filters orders Figure 30: Op amp bandwidth for three different filters orders Figure 31: Op amp bandwidth for three different filters orders Table 15: Brick wall correction factors for noise bandwidth Table 15: Brick wall correction factors for noise bandwidth KN brickfactors wall for noise bandwidth Table Table 15: 16:ofBrick Brick Number wall wall correction correction poles KN brick factors for noise wall bandwidth Number of poles correction factor Number of correction factorKN brick wall correction factor poles 1 KN brick wall 1.121.221.22 2 1 2 1.57 correction factor 1.57 2 1.ti.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 45 45 45 .22 3 1.12 4 3 4 1.57 1.22 1.57 Number 1 of poles1 1.

6% 4σ (same as3σ (same as ±1. noise or noise normally normalized bandwidth to set 1Hzto 0.8% 5σ (same as ±2.5σ) ±2σ) 95. normally set to 0.6σ (same as ±3σ) 6σ (same as 99.3σ) as ±3.8% 98.1Hz Table 16: Peak-to-peak conversion Table 16: Peak-to-peak conversion Number of Percent chance Table 17:Number standard Peak-to-peak deviations of conversion reading is inchance Percent range 2σstandard (same as deviations Number ±1σ) reading of standard deviations is in range 68.3% 3σ (same as 2σ ±1.6% 68.5σ) 86.6σ (same as(same 6.5σ) 98.3% 3σ (same as ±1.4% 95.5σ) 98.9% 6.com/amplifiers 46 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 46 .3% Percent chance reading is in range 2σ (same as ±1σ) 68.4% 4σ (same as4σ±2σ) (same as ±2σ) 95. normally f = upper cutoff frequency or noise bandwidth L set to 0.5σ) (same as ±1σ) 86.7% 6.1 Hz f = lower cutoff frequency.4% 5σ (same as ±2.com/precisionlabs 1/f total 1/f total noise noise calculation calculation 1/f total noise calculation E�_������ � � ��� �f� (65) Normalized1/f (65) Normalized 1/fnoise noiseatat1 1Hz Hz E�_������ � � ��� �f� (65) Normalized 1/f noise at 1 Hz Where Where E Where = 1/f noise normalized to 1 Hz ENN_NORMAL _NORMAL = 1/f noise normalized to 1 Hz EN_NORMAL eBF = 1/f noise = noise spectral normalized density to 1 in measured Hzthe 1/f region eBF = =noise spectral density measured in thethe1/f 1/fregion fOe=BFthe noise spectral frequency thatdensity the 1/f measured noise eBF isinmeasured region at fOfO= =the the frequency that the 1/f noise eBF is measuredat frequency that the 1/f noise e BF is measured at f� E�_������� � � E�_������ ��� � f� (66) 1/f total noise calculation f � 1/fnoise total noise calculation E�_������� � � E�_������ ��� �� � (66) (66) 1/f total calculation f� Where Where = total rms noise from flicker EN_FLICKER EN_FLICKER= =1/ftotal EN_NORMAL Where noisermsnormalized noise fromtoflicker 1 Hz E E fHN_FLICKER =N_NORMAL ==total 1/f frequency upper cutoff noise normalized rms noise orfrom tobandwidth 1 Hz flicker noise E f=H = upper fLN_NORMAL lower =cutoff cutoff frequency 1/f frequency.6σ ±3.1 Hz H fL = lower cutoff frequency.7% 6σ (same as ±3σ) 99.3σ) 99.3σ) 99.8% 6σ (same as ±3σ) 99.9% 99.6% 86.7% ±3.5σ) 5σ (same as ±2.Amplifier ti.9% ti.

resistance ti. ti.E+04 1.E+07 Resistance (Ω) Figure 32: Figure 31: Noise Noise spectral spectral densitydensity vs. also called thermal noise = Boltzmann’s constant 1.E+03 1.E+01 1.com/precisionlabs Amplifier Thermal noise calculation En_R = (67) Total rms Thermal Noise Thermal noise calculation √ 4kTR�f en_R = √ 4kTR (68) Thermal Noise Spectral Density E�_� � √4 kTRΔf (67) Total rms thermal nois Where En_R = Total rms noise from resistance.E+06 1.E+02 1.38 x 10 J/K Temperature in Kelvin T∆f==temperature Noise bandwidth ininKelvin Hz ∆f = noise bandwidth in Hz 1000 Noise Spectral Density (nV/rtHz) 100 10 ‐55C 25C 1 125C 0.38 x 10-23J/K -23 kT== Boltzmann’s constant 1. also called thermal noise (V rms) Where en_R = Noise spectral density from resistance.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 47 . also called thermal noise (V/√Hz ) EkN_R = total rms noise from resistance.1 1. resistance vs.E+05 1.

peaking. of ac ac peaking. This This graphgraph illustrates illustrates thephase the phasemargin margin for for any anygiven givenlevel of of level ac ac peaking. NoteNote thatthat 45°45°of phase of phasemargin marginor or greater isrequired greater is requiredforfor stable stable operation. Figure 34: Stability – phase margin vs. Figure Figure 33: 32: Stability Stability – ac peaking – ac peaking relationship relationship exampleexample Figure 33: Stability – ac peaking relationship example Phase margin versus ac peaking Phase Phase marginversus margin versus ac acpeaking peaking This graph illustrates the phase margin for any given level of ac peaking.Amplifier ti.com/amplifiers 48 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . peaking for a two-pole system Figure 33: Stability – phase margin vs. operation. Note that 45° of phase margin or greater is required for stable operation. peaking for a two-pole system Figure 34: Stability – phase margin vs. peaking for a two-pole system ti. Figure 33 illustrates a bode plot with four different examples of ac peaking.com/precisionlabs Ac response Ac responseversus frequency (Dominant 2-Pole System) versus frequency Ac response versus frequency Figure 32 illustrates Figure a bode 33 illustrates a bodeplot plotwith four different with four differentexamples examples of peaking.

Note that 45° of phase margin or greater is required stable operation. Noteillustrates theof that 45° phase phasemargin for any margin given level or greater of is required for transient overshoot.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 49 49 .percentage percentageovershoot overshoot Note: The curves assume a two-pole system. Figure 36: Stability – phase margin vs. vs. the phase margin for any given level of transient This graph overshoot. percentage Note that 45° of overshoot phase margin or greater is required Thisforgraph stableillustrates operation.com/precisionlabs Amplifier Transient overshoot (Dominant 2-Pole System) Transient overshoot Figure 34 35 Figure illustrates illustratesa atransient transient response withtwo response with two different different examples of examples percentage of overshoot. percentage overshoot. Transient overshoot Figure 35 illustrates a transient response with two different examples of percentage overshoot. ti. marginvs. for stable operation. Figure 35:Figure Stability 34:–Stability transient overshootovershoot – transient example example Phase margin versus percentage overshoot Figure 35: Stability – transient overshoot example Phase margin This graph versus illustrates the percentage phase margin forovershoot any given level of Phase margin transient versus overshoot. percentage overshoot Note: FigureThe Figure 36:curves 35: assume Stability Stability a two-pole ––phase phase margin system.ti.

RF . 1TH) to make the circuit closed-loop for dc. which may be important to the amp.com/precisionlabs VFB R1 RF C1 1T VIN L1 1T V+ VO VOUT Riso CL V– Figure 36: Common spice test circuit used for stability Figure 37: Common spice test circuit used for stability V� A��_������ � � (68) (69) Loaded Loaded open-loop open-loop gain gain V�� β � � V�� (70) Feedback Feedback factor (69) factor 1 1 �� (71) Closed-loop (70) noise gain noise gain Closed-loop β V�� A��_������ � β � � V� (71) (72) Loop gain Loop gain Where VO = the voltage at the output of the op amp.Amplifier ti. analysis. are large (1TF. R1. ti. Where VVOOUT = the = the voltage voltage at output delivered the output of thetoopthe load. C1 and L1 are components that facilitate SPICE analysis. but open loop for ac frequencies. to the rule (multiple feedback). application but is not considered in stability VOUT = the voltage output delivered to the load. C1 andOther op components L1 are amp topologies thatwill have different facilitate feedbackThey SPICE analysis. most CL = the op amp Figure feedback 38 shows network and the exception load. SPICE requires closed-loop operation at dc for convergence. ac frequencies. SPICE requires Figure 37 showsoperation closed-loop the exception at dc to forthe rule (multiple feedback). convergence. which may be important to VFB =thefeedback voltage application but is not considered in stability analysis. Other op amp VFB = feedback voltage topologies will have different feedback networks. RISO and CL = the op amp feedback network and load. R1for . RiS0 andcases. 1TH) to make however. networks. They are large (1TF. the test the circuit circuit will closed-loop forbe the dc. however.com/amplifiers 50 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . the test circuit will be the Rsame F . butsame openfor most loop for cases.

VOUT = the voltage output delivered to the load.com/amplifiers Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 51 . Because there are two paths for feedback. when using this simulation method the capacitance is isolated by Cthe = theinductor. SPICE requires closed-loop operation at dc for capacitance normally does not need to be added because the model includes it. VFB =the application feedback but is not considered in stability analysis. However. C =(1TF.op but open amp loop for This datasheet. Riso and CF = the op amp feedback network. RISO and voltage =1feedback CF = the op amp feedback network. R RFB . This may be important to the V OUT = the voltage application output but is not delivered considered to the load. They are large (1TF. R1.com/precisionlabs Amplifier VFB VFB R1 RF R1 RF CIN CF Cin CF L1 1T V+ V- VIN C1 1T . They are large dc for convergence. SPICE C 1 and L1 requires are components closed-loop thatatfacilitate operation SPICE analysis. VO = the voltage at the output of the op amp. in stability This may be important to analysis.ti. the loop is broken at the input. Riso . voltage V F. ti. the loop is broken at the input. but open loop for ac frequencies. IN 1TH equivalent input capacitance taken from the op amp datasheet. when using this simulation method the capacitance is isolated by the 1TH inductor. to make the circuit closed loop for dc. convergence. RF. 1TH) to make the equivalent inputthe circuit closed capacitance loop taken forthe from dc. This capacitance normally does not need to be added because the model includes it. IN ac frequencies. Because there are two C and L1 are components that facilitate SPICE analysis. Riso VOUT C1 1T Vin + VO Vout C + L + Vo CL V– V+ Figure 37: Alternative (multiple feedback) SPICE test circuit used for stability Figure 38: Alternative (multiple feedback) SPICE test circuit used for stability A��_������ � V� LoadedLoaded (73) (72) open open loop loop gain gain V�� β � (74) (73) Feedback Feedback factor factor V� 1 V� � (75) (74) Closed-loop Closed-loop noise gain noise gain β V�� A��_������ � β � V�� (76) (75) Loop gain Loop gain Where Where VO = the voltage at the output of the op amp. 1TH) 1 paths for feedback. However.

Amplifier ti. • Use Voffset as desired to check all output operating points for stability • Set scope = ac couple and expand vertical scope scale to look for amount of overshoot. undershoot. 1 kHz) • Adjust VIN amplitude to yield output ≤ 50 mVpp • Worst cases is usually when Voffset = 0 (Largest RO.com/precisionlabs R1 RF +Vs . and ringing on VOUT • Use 1x attenuation scope probe on VOUT for best resolution ti. for IOUT = 0A). VOUT + Voffset -Vs + VIN Volts VOUT Voffset 50mVpp Figure 38: Transient real world stability test Test tips • Choose test frequency << fcl • Small signal (Vpp ≤ 50 mV) ac output square wave (for example.com/amplifiers 52 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

This prevents common-mode noise from being converted into differential noise due to component tolerances. This prevents common-mode noise Note: than lower Selecting CDIF ≥ 10 CCM sets the common-mode cutoffthe differential frequency. mode This cutoff common-mode prevents frequency 10 times noise from from being lowerbeing converted than the into differential common-mode converted into differential noise due due to cutoff frequency.com/precisionlabs Amplifier +15V CCM1 1nF RIN1 VIN.com/amplifiers 53 53 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 53 53 . ti. 1kΩ RG VOUT CDIF Rg 10nF Out 1kΩ Ref RIN2 RG U1 INA333 VIN+ 1kΩ CCM2 1nF -15V Figure 40: Figure 40: Input Input filter39: forInput filter for instrumentation instrumentation amplifier amplifier Figure filter for instrumentation amplifier Figure 40: Input filter for instrumentation amplifier (77) Differential Differential filter is sized filter is sized 10 is sized times 10 the Select C��� � Select C � 1�C 1�C��� (76) Differential (76) filter 10 ��� ��� common-mode times filter the Differential times common-mode filter is sized 10 the common-mode filter filter RSelect C �R R��� � 1�C��� (76) Input resistors must be equal (77) R ��� � ��� ��� ��� (77) times Input the common-mode resistors must be filter equal (78) Input resistors must be equal Common-mode capacitors CR��� ��� � � RC��� (77) (78) Input resistors Common-mode must be equal capacitors C��� � C��� ��� (78) must be equal Common-mode must be equal capacitors C��� � C���1 (79) Common-mode (78) capacitors must be equal ff �� � � 1 (79) must be equal Differential filter cutoff cutoff �� 2πR ��� 1 C��� (79) Differential filter 2πR ��� C��� f�� � (79) Differential (80) Differential filter cutoff filter cutoff 2πR ��� C��� 1 1 ff��� ��� �� 1 (80) Common-mode (80) Common-mode filter filter cutoff cutoff 2π�2R �����C ��C1��� � �1C C����� f��� � 2π�2R ��� ��� 2 21 ��� (81) Common-mode filter cutoff (80) Common-mode filter cutoff 2π�2R ��� ��C��� � C��� � 2 Where Where ffWhere DIF = differential cutoff frequency DIF = differential cutoff frequency Where ff CM == common-mode common-mode cutoff frequency fDIFDIF==differential CM differentialcutoff cutoff frequency cutoff frequency frequency R fRCMIN == common-mode input resistance input resistance cutoff frequency IN fCM C ==common-mode common-mode cutoff frequency filter capacitance capacitance C RCMIN = CM =input resistance filter common-mode C DIF = RC = =input differential filter resistance common-mode differential capacitance filter filter capacitance capacitance INDIF CM CCCMDIF== common-mode differential filter filter capacitance capacitance Note: Selecting Note: Selecting C CDIF ≥≥ 10 10 C CCM sets sets the the differential differential mode mode cutoff cutoff frequency frequency 10 10 times times DIF CM Clower DIF = differential than the filter capacitance common-mode cutoff frequency. component common-mode noise Note: from Selecting CDIF ≥ into being converted 10 Cdifferential CM sets thenoise differential due to mode cutoff tolerances. prevents tolerances.ti. component frequency 10 times lower than the common-mode cutoff frequency. noise to component This tolerances.

Amplifier ti.com/amplifiers 54 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .com/precisionlabs Notes ti.

ti.com/precisionlabs PCB and PCB andWire Wire PCB trace resistance for 1oz and 2oz Cu • Conductor spacing in a PCB for safe operation • Current carrying capacity of copper conductors • Package types and dimensions • PCB trace capacitance and inductance • PCB via capacitance and inductance • Common coaxial cable specifications • Coaxial cable equations • Resistance per length for wire types • Maximum current for wire types • PCB and wire Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 55 .

6 mm 0. Table 6-1.0492 in] [0.8 mm 0.4 mm 0. with conformal coating (any elevation) Extracted with permission from IPC-2221B.5 mm 0.016 in] [0.org 56 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .05 mm 0.0591 in] [0.1 mm 0.00512 in] 0.020 in] [0. sea level to 3050m A7 External component lead termination.2 mm 0.5 mm 0.0079 in] [0.com/precisionlabs Table 18: Printed circuit board conductor spacing Minimum spacing Voltage between Bare board Assembly conductors (dc or ac peaks) B1 B2 B3 B4 A5 A6 A7 0.0079 in] [0.05 mm 0.0039 in] [0.0079 in] [0.4 mm 0.024 in] [0.05 mm 0.1 mm 0.8 mm 0.13 mm 31-50 [0.5 mm 0.13 mm 0.25 mm 3.016 in] [0. PCB and Wire ti.2 mm 0.8 mm 0.4 mm 171-250 [0.4 mm 0.00984 in] [0.8 mm 0.0079 in] [0.0039 in] [0.2 mm 1.016 in] [0.492 in] [0.0039 in] [0.05 mm 0.492 in] [0.016 in] [0.00512 in] [0.024 in] [0.2 mm 0.13 mm 0.2 mm 1.13 mm 16-30 [0.5 mm 12.00512 in] [0. uncoated.031 in] 0.0591 in] [0.1 mm 0.016 in] 0.8 mm 0.25 mm 0.8 mm 1.1 mm 0.0492 in] [0.4 mm 0.016 in] [0.00512 in] [0.1 mm 0.4 mm 0.00512 in] [0.016 in] [0.016 in] 0.25 mm 12.00512 in] [0. For additional information.25 mm 2.13 mm 51-100 [0.031 in] [0.016 in] 0.016 in] [0.0039 in] [0.4 mm 0.8 mm 251-300 [0.031 in] [0.126 in] [0.13 mm 0.0039 in] [0.4 mm 0.00512 in] 0.13 mm 0.13 mm 0.0492 in] [0.5 mm 0.024 in] [0.00512 in] [0.13 mm 0-15 [0.8 mm 301-500 [0. the entire specification can be downloaded at www.00512 in] 0.00197 in] [0.00512 in] 0.4 mm 151-170 [0.031 in] [0.0984 in] [0.252 in] [0.031 in] [0.1 mm 0.016 in] [0.ipc.6 mm 1.00197 in] [0.00197 in] [0.024 in] [0.4 mm 0.126 in] [0.00197 in] [0.031 in] B1 Internal conductors B2 External conductors uncoated sea level to 3050m B3 External conductors uncoated above 3050m PCB and wire B4 External conductors coated with permanent polymer coating (any elevation) A5 External conductors with conformal coating over assembly (any elevation) A6 External component lead/termination.13 mm 0.2 mm 1.25 mm 6.13 mm 0.6 mm 3.016 in] [0.031 in] [0.6 mm 0.4 mm 0.031 in] [0.5 mm 0.4 mm 101-150 [0.0039 in] [0.00512 in] [0.00984 in] [0.4 mm 0.

ipc. using bottom chart. using top chart For additional information the entire specification can be downloaded at www. using top chart (Answer = 5A).org (Answer = 5A). Figure 5-1. mils. using bottom chart.) First translate 0. mils.1 inch to 250 sq.ipc. (Assume traces on outside of PCB.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire Figure Figure 41: Self 40: Self of heating heating of PCB PCB traces on traces on inside layer inside layer Example Example Find the current that will2 cause a 20Ԩ temperature rise in a PCB trace that is 0.1 inch to 250 sq.) PCB trace 2 that is 0. mils.ti. Next find the current Answer associated with 10Ԩ and 250 sq. First translate 0. (Assume a 20°C traces on outside temperature rise in of a PCB.org 57 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 57 . Extracted with permission from IPC-2152. Figure 5-1. associated with 10°C and 250 sq.1 Answer inch wide and uses 2 oz/ft copper. Next find the currentExtracted with permission from IPC-2152.1 inch wide and Find the current useswill that 2 oz/ft cause copper. mils. For additional information the entire specification can be downloaded at www.

com/precisionlabs PCBtrace PCB trace resistance for 1 oz-Cu PCB traceresistance resistancefor for11oz ozCu Cu 11 5mil 5mil 10mil 10mil 25mil 25mil 100m 100m 50mil 50mil 100mil 100mil 10m 10m 1m 1m 100µ 100µ 10µ 10µ 1µ 1µ 11 10 10 100 100 1000 1000 10000 10000 Trace Tracelength length(mils) (mils) Figure Figure 42: 42:PCB Figure 41: trace PCBPCB resistance trace trace vs.PCB and Wire ti. length length width andand for for11 width width oz-Cu. and length length width andand for width width 11oz-Cu. long. theon the curves. vs. = mΩ. curves. 25°C25°C Figure Figure 43: Figure PCB 43:42: PCB trace PCB trace resistance trace vs.length resistance resistance and vs. R125C R125C ==33mΩ. 5 mil wide trace for a 1 oz-Cu thickness at 25°C and 125°C? Answer Answer Answer R25C R25C==222mΩ. 125°C 125°C Example Example Example What Whatisisthe theresistance resistanceof ofaa2020mil millong.length resistance resistance vs.55mil milwide widetrace tracefor foraa11oz-Cu oz-Cuthickness thicknessat at What 25°C is and the resistance 125°C? 25°C and 125°C? of a 20 mil long. oz-Cu. points TheThe are arecircled points points on onthe are circled circled curves. forfor 125°C 1 oz-Cu. for 25°C 1 oz-Cu. R25C mΩ. 58 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 58 58 .R125C mΩ. oz-Cu. The 3 mΩ. vs.

length length and and width width forfor 2 oz-Cu.R125C == 3 R125C = mΩ. Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 59 . mΩ. 25 mil wide trace for a 2 oz-Cu thickness at 25°Cisand What the125°C? resistance of a 200 mil long. curves. 125°C 125°C Figure 45: PCB trace resistance vs. length and width for 2 oz-Cu. length and width for 2 oz-Cu. oz-Cu. mΩ. 25 mil wide trace for a 25°C and 125°C? 2 oz-Cu thickness at 25°C and 125°C? Answer Answer Answer R25C R25C= = 22mΩ. 2 oz-Cu.length length and and width width for for 2 2 oz-Cu. 125°C Example Example What is the resistance of a 200 mil long.ti. mΩ. The points are circled ononthe thecurves. 25°C 25°C Figure Figure 44: 45: PCBtrace PCB traceresistance resistancevs.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire PCB trace resistance for 2 oz Cu PCB trace 1 resistance for 2 oz-Cu PCB trace resistance for 2 oz Cu 5mil 10mil 1 25mil 5mil 100m 10mil 50mil 100m 25mil 100mil 10m 50mil 100mil 10m 1m 1m 100µ 100µ 10µ 10µ 1µ 1µ 1 10 100 1000 10000 1 Trace length 10 100 (mils) 1000 10000 Trace length (mils) Figure 44: PCB trace resistance vs. 25°C Figure Figure 44:43: PCBPCB trace trace resistance resistance vs.vs. 25 mil wide trace for a 2 oz-Cu thickness at Example What is the resistance of a 200 mil long. R125C 33 mΩ. vs. The Thepoints pointsare arecircled circled on theR25C =2 curves.

2mil 3.05mm 60 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 60 .com/precisionlabs Common package Common packagetypetype and dimensions and dimensions 120.PCB and Wire ti.

5 w=500mil.63pF 62mil εr = 4.854 ∙ 10 pF⁄mm) ∙ (5.08mm. 45: PCB h=1. or 2.5 for FR-4) Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given.854·10-3 pF/mm. k ∙ ℓ version Both the metric and imperial ∙ w ∙ εofr the constant are given.854·10-3 pF/mm.5 for FR-4) length (metric k ∙ in ℓ ∙ mm.7mm) capacitance ∙ (4.5) C(pF) = Calculate Example w=12.08mm) ∙ (12.5) = 1. and imperial or 2. parallel plate capacitance εr = 4. or imperial in mil) l or imperial in mil) w = width (metric in mm.247 ∙ 10Calculate –4 the total pF⁄mil) capacitance ∙ (200mil) for∙ (4. r Example C(pF) = (2.247·10-4 pF/mil ℓ = separation between or imperial inplanes (metric in mm.247 ∙ 10 pF⁄mil) ∙ (200mil) ∙ (500mil) ∙ (4. h=62mil. or imperial in mil) pF/mil r Where ℓε == PCB relative dielectric constant (εr ≈ 4.5) for ℓ=5.575mm. Capacitance for parallel copper k = Both the 8.5 total capacitance = 1.7mm.247·10-4 pF/mil ℓ = length (metric in mm. or imperial in mil) PCB relative separation dielectric between planes of free space. planes ℓ =PCB parallel plate capacitance length (metric in mm.854 ∙ 10–3 pF⁄mm) Calculate ∙ (5.247∙10 h = separation between planes (metric in mm. h Figure w=12.5) ∙ (500mil) ℓ=200mil. h=1. ε = 4. = 1. or imperial in mil) k = in mm.63pF C(pF) = (2.575mm r Example Calculate –3 the total capacitance for ℓ=5.7mm) ∙ (4. or imperial in(ε constant r mil) ≈ 4. h=1. or-3 8.7mm. A h = separation between planes (metric in mm.63pF for ℓ=200mil. h=62mil.575mm εr = 4. C(pF) = 45: PCB parallel plate capacitance Figure = 1. of free space. h=62mil.5 for FR-4) w h l A εr A Figure 45: PCBl parallel plate capacitance h εr Example Calculate the total capacitance for ℓ=5.854∙10 -4 w = width (metric pF/mm.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire PCB parallel PCB parallel plate plate capacitance capacitance k ∙ ℓ ∙ w ∙ εr Capacitance for parallel copper (82) Capacitance (81) for parallel copper planes planes Where PCB parallel plate capacitance Where kk ==Permittivity Permittivity of free space. or imperial in mil) k = Permittivity of free space.575mm total ∙ (500mil) capacitance for ∙ℓ=200mil.5 w=500mil.7mm) ∙ (4. or imperial in mil) w εr = PCB relative dielectric constant (εr ≈ 4. h= k = 8.575mm.5) C(pF) = –4 = 1.7mm. w ∙ εr or imperial in mil) Capacitance for parallel copper (81) w = width (metric in mm.5 for FR-4) εr = PCB relative dielectric constant (εr ≈ 4. (metric in mm. εr = 4. w=500mil.08mm.ti. –4 C(pF) = (2.5) = 1.08mm) the total ∙ (12. k = 8.854 ∙ 10–3 pF⁄mm) ∙ (5.575mm.854·10-3 metric pF/mm. planes Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given. or 2. or imperial w in mil) Where length (metric in mm.08mm.5 1.63pF 62mil ε = 4. (4.63pF 62mil Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 61 61 . the1. imperial in mil) or 2.247 Example ∙ 10 pF⁄mil) Calculate ∙ (200mil) the1.5 εr Example(8. mil) εrhk === Permittivity w = width (metric in mm.5 (8.63pF w=12.247·10-4 pF/mil version of (81)the constant are given.08mm) ∙ (12. (8.

254mm + 0.071nH/in kC = PCB capacitance per unit length.8mm.41) = 1.98 ∙ h (84) Capacitance for microstrip Where kL = PCB inductance per unit length.2nH C(pF) = (0. or imperial in mil) i. 1oz Cu = 1. kC = 0.8 ∙ 0.41) C(pF) = ln ( 0.254mm + 0.67056pF/in ℓ = length of microstrip (metric in cm.8mm 0.54cm. εr = 4. 62 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .3pF. Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given.PCB and Wire ti. εr = 4.8 ∙w+t ( 5. approximately 4.0356mm ) Example Calculate the total inductance and capacitance for ℓ=1in. Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given.5 for FR-4 L = 15.98 ∙ 0. h=0.5 for FR-4 5. or imperial in mil) Copper thickness (mils) = 1.264pF/cm. t=0.54cm) ∙ ln ( 0.54cm)(4.0356mm.com/precisionlabs Microstrip capacitance and inductance L(nH) = kL ∙ ℓ ∙ ln ( 0. or 5.e.8 ∙ 0.e. or imperial in inches) w = width of microstrip (metric in mm. t=1.8mm L(pF) = (2 nH⁄cm) ∙ (2.37mils εr = relative permittivity. h=31. kL = 2nH/cm.85.254mm.4mil. or 0. w=10mil.98∙ w∙ +h t ( (83) Inductance for microstrip kC ∙ ℓ ∙ (εr + 1. ½oz Cu = 0.98 ∙ 0.5mil.5 + 1.264pF/cm) ∙ (2.5 for FR-4 PCB i.37 • (number of ounces) h = separation between planes (metric in mm. C=1.3pF ln ( 5.2nH. Note: this is the same problem as above with imperial units.0356mm ) = 15.684mils ℓ W t h Figure 46: PCB Microstrip capacitance and inductance Example Calculate the total inductance and capacitance for ℓ=2. or imperial in mil) For imperial: t = thickness of copper (metric in mm. w=0.

0031pF Same 0. Note: this is the same problem as above with imperial units.247*10-4 pF/mil w = 25 t = thickness of mils trace (in mil. C=0. εr = 4.854 ∙ 10–3 pF/mm) (0. (mil. Where l = length of copper trace (mils) t = thickness of copper trace (mils) copper thickness (mils) = 1. εr = 4. (mil.254mm layer (8.635mm. copper thickness = 1. or mm) εr = 4.37 mils ex: ½ oz.635mm) (2.6mm.254mm.854*10 -3 pF/mm. or k=2.54mm) 63 C(pF) ≈ = 0.54mm) C(pF) ≈ = 0.5 for FR-4 (8.0031pF (Same layer). 1oz Cu = 1.0348mm. t=1.6mm Adjacent layers Example: Calculate the total capacitance for both cases: ℓ=100mil.5 for FR-4) (different layers) = 0.5mm) (0. ½oz Cu = 0. Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 63 .37 mils (1 oz.54mm.37 • (number of ounces) h = separation between planes.037 pF i. or mm) Copper thickness (mils) = 1. d=0.37mil. copper) ℓ = length d of themils = 10 copper trace (mil.04pF 1.5 for FR-4 C = 0.2 k = 8. d=10mil.685 mils Adjacentd = distance copperbetween tracestraces (mils) r =∙ tPCB k ∙ ℓ dielectric constant ((85) r ≈ 4. t=0. copper thickness = 0.2 for FR-4) C(pF) ≈ w = width of copper trace (mils) Same layer d h = separation between planes (mils) εr ∙ w ∙ ℓ k∙ (86) Different layers C(pF) ≈ Example h l = 100 mils Where t = 1.37mils εr = PCBCdielectric constant (εr = 4.854 ∙ 10–3 pF/mm) (4.0348mm) (2. w=0.684mils Figure 47: Capacitance for adjacent copper traces Figure 48: Capacitance for adjacent copper traces Example: Calculate the total capacitance for both cases: ℓ=2.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire ex: 1 oz.4pF (Adjacent layers).e. h=63mil. or mm) For imperial: w = widthAnswer of trace. or mm) C (same layer) = 0.e.37 * (number of ounces) ti.003 pF i. w=25mil. or mm) h = 63 mils d = distance between traces if on same layer (mil. h=1.

4mm ∙ 1.8mm Example: Calculate the total inductance and capacitance for h=63mil.2 nH⁄mm) ∙ (1. d1=0.8mm) C(pF) ≈ = 0. or 1.com/precisionlabs PCB via capacitance and inductance [ L(nH) ≈ kL ∙ h 1 + ln (4hd )] (87) Inductance for via kC ∙ εr ∙ h ∙ d1 (88) Capacitance for via C(pF) ≈ d2 — d1 Where kL = PCB inductance per unit length. Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given.PCB and Wire ti.4mm.2nH/mm. Both the metric and imperial version of the constant are given.5mm — 0.076∙10-3nH/mil kC = PCB capacitance per unit length. d2=59mil L=1. εr = PCB dielectric constant (εr = 4. kL = 0.6mm.6mm) ∙ (0.46pF 1.41∙10-3pF/mil h= separation between planes d= diameter of via hole d1 = diameter of the pad surrounding the via d2 = distance to inner layer ground plane.2nH.6mm) 1 + ln [ (40. or 5.5mm L(nH) ≈ (0.6mm )] = 1.5) ∙ (1. 64 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . d=15. Note: this is the same problem as above with imperial units. C=0.5mil.5 for FR-4) d1 d Top Layer Trace Middle Layer GND h Plane d2 Bottom Layer Trace Figure 48: Inductance and capacitance of via Example: Calculate the total inductance and capacitance for h=1.0555pF/mm) ∙ (4.8mm. d1=31.2nH (0.46pF. kC = 0. d2=1.8mil. d=0.0555pF/mm.

6 PF Video and CATV applications.242 7.100 23.412 3.7 ST runs due to higher loss. RG-59/U 73Ω 29 0. and a couple hundred MHz RG-8 52Ω 29.65 PE hundred MHz Used in some test equipment and 100Ω RG-62/U 93Ω 13.5Ω 28.425 6.96 PE RF power to a few kW.7 PE hundred MHz 9914 50Ω 26. up to several RG-11/U 75Ω 17 0.1 ASP video applications RG-174 50Ω 31 0.195 13.6 0.405 5.ti.8 0.1 PE hundred watts.7 PE sometimes to higher frequencies if losses can be tolerated RF power to a few kW.0 0. Usually short RG-178/U 50Ω 29 0.242 9. up to a few hundred MHz.5 PE Miniature coax used primarily for test equipment interconnection.8 0. Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 65 .0 PE RG-6 75Ω 20 0. up to several RG-214/U 50Ω 30.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire Table 19: Coaxial cable information dB attenuation /100 ft at 750 MHz Capacitance / length (pF/feet) Outside diameter (inches) Dielectric type Type ZO Application Test equipment and RF power to a few RG-58 53. RF to a few hundred watts.5 0.071 42.270 5.405 4.

com/precisionlabs Coaxial cable Coaxial cable equations equations C 2πε ℓ D (89) Capacitance (84)Capacitance per length per length Coaxial d cable equations L μC D2πε ℓ 2πℓ d D (90) (84) Inductance (85)Inductance per per length length Capacitance per length d LL μ1 μD (91) (85) Characteristic (86)Characteristic impedance impedance Inductance per length ℓ C 2π 2π εd L 1 μ (86) Characteristic impedance Where Where C 2π ε LL==inductance inductance in in henries henries (H) (H) C = capacitance in farads (F) C = capacitance in farads (F) Z = impedance in ohms (Ω) Where Zd == impedance diameter of in ohms inner (Ω) conductor L = inductance in henries (H) D = inside diameter of d = diameter of inner conductorshield. or diameter of dielectric insulator μ = magnetic permeability ε = dielectric constant (μof = insulator μr μo ) (ε = εr εo ) ℓ = lengthµ = magnetic permeability (µ = µr µo ) of the cable l = length of the cable Insulation Figure 49: Coaxial cable cutaway Figure 49: Coaxial cable cutaway Figure 49: Coaxial cable cutaway 66 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 65 . Z = impedance ohms or (Ω)diameter of dielectric insulator µ = magnetic permeability (µ = µr µo ) d = diameter of inner conductor εl = length dielectric cable of insulator (ε = εr εo ) constant of the D = inside diameter of shield.PCB and Wire ti. or diameter of dielectric insulator C = capacitance in farads (F) ε = dielectric constant of insulator (ε = εr εo ) D = inside diameter ofinshield.

032 0.3 22 7/30 0.020 1620 0.080 70.032 174 571 32 7/40 0.020 280 918 34 7/42 0.7 12.7 16 7/24 0.064 1.2 16 Solid 0.4 22 Solid 0.203 67.012 0.9 213 26 Solid 0.022 237 777 32 Solid 0.330 159 0.080 2.6 21.8 18 Solid 0.192 43.3 33.7 0.060 1.5 34.010 0.511 404 0.008 0.610 448 0.016 0.219 1770 0.160 39.8 232 28 7/36 0.2 13.038 0.6 143 26 10/36 0.290 2580 1.442 3.025 0.ti.014 371 1271 34 Solid 0.0063 0.4 24 7/32 0.381 175 0.034 164 538 30 Solid 0.015 0.3 7.073 1.030 0.021 0.3 89.057 103 339 28 Solid 0.024 0.7 48.6 14 7/22 0.6 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 67 .854 4480 2.519 10.305 112 0.com/precisionlabs PCB and Wire Table 20: Resistance per length for different wire types (AWG) Outside diameter Area dc resistance AWG Stds in mm circular mils mm2 Ω / 1000 ft Ω / km 36 Solid 0.128 43.229 23.128 41.127 25 0.965 1111 0.006 0.357 14.152 28 0.8 55.902 5.051 113 365 30 7/38 0.040 1.533 250 0.020 0.6 8.3 76.8 18 7/26 0.254 100 0.524 2828 1.090 64.8 0.005 0.0 14 Solid 0.013 445 1460 36 7/44 0.048 1.409 256 0.0075 0.205 27.4 20 Solid 0.285 2.5 137 24 Solid 0.203 67.630 4110 2.813 1020 0.823 6.008 0.051 1.6 20 7/28 0.562 10.324 16.3 0.9 19.762 700 0.310 4.3 0.013 0.643 640 0.

AWG Thermoplastic at 125°C Polyvinylchloride Nylon (high density) at 90°C (semi-ridged) at 80°C Polyvinylchloride Silicon at 200°C Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyethylene Polyethylene Wire gauge Neoprene at 105°C Kapton Teflon Kynar AWG Imax (A) Imax (A) Imax (A) Imax (A) Imax (A) 30 2 3 3 3 4 28 3 4 4 5 6 26 4 5 5 6 7 24 6 7 7 8 10 22 8 9 10 11 13 20 10 12 13 14 17 18 15 17 18 20 24 16 19 22 24 26 32 14 27 30 33 40 45 12 36 40 45 50 55 10 47 55 58 70 75 Note: Wire is in free air at 25°C Example What is the maximum current that can be applied to a 30 gauge Teflon wire in a room temperature environment? What will the self-heating be? Answer Imax = 4A Wire temperature = 200°C 68 Texas Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .com/precisionlabs Table 21: Maximum current vs.PCB and Wire ti.

Sensor Sensor ti.com/precisionlabs Thermistor • Resistive temperature detector (RTD) • Diode temperature characteristics• Thermocouple (J and K) • Sensor 69 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

correction. Follows nonlinear. full scale 0. excitation. diode excitation.type. Slope Slope fullscale.5% scale.< 4. processing. nonlinear. Very Very Follows nonlinear.8V 0.8V to0. Sensors 70 Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor RTDRTDRTD RTD RTD Diode Diode Diode Diode Diode Thermocouple Thermocouple Thermocouple Thermocouple Thermocouple TableTable Sensor 22: Temperature Temp range Temp range Temp range Temprange–55°C –55°C–55°C < T < 150°C < –55°C T < 150°C 150°C <150°C –200°C –200°C <–200°C T<T –200°C 850°C <<<T850°C 850°C –55°C –55°C < –55°C T<T –55°C 150°C <<<T150°C T< <150°C –250°C –250°C <–250°C T<T –250°C 1800°C <<<T1800°C T< <1800°C Temp range –55°C < T< << T T<150°C –200°C <T<T<850°C < 850°C –55°C <150°C T < 150°C –250°C <1800°C T < 1800°C Cost CostCost Cost LowLow Low Low HighHighHigh High LowLow Low Low LowLow Low Low Accuracy Good AccuracyGood CostAccuracy Low accuracy Good accuracy at one accuracy at one at one Excellent Excellent accuracy Excellent accuracy High accuracy PoorPoor accuracy Poor accuracy without accuracy without Low calibration. Good Good accuracy Good accuracy accuracy withwith polynomial with polynomial Low polynomial Accuracy Good accuracy at one Excellent accuracy Poor accuracy without calibration.40. diode type. type. range. function.4 to 0. function. 18 to 390 Ω for PT100 resistance. correction. fullover full full fullrange.5% of full scaleexcitation. 10s VeryVery scale. Excellent accuracy Poor accuracy without calibration Less accurate over full range polynomial correction sensor overview Linearity Linearity VeryVery Linearity Linearity nonlinear.5% Nonlinearity < 4.4 to 0. Nonlinearity function. diode excitation. accuracy at one accurate Less temperature accurate over range. Follows Follows Fairly Fairly linearlinear Fairly Fairly linear linear Fairly Fairly linear Fairly linear Fairly linear linear Fairly Fairly linear Fairly linear Fairly linear linear reciprocal of logarithmic reciprocal reciprocal of logarithmic reciprocal logarithmic ofoflogarithmic Nonlinearity Nonlinearity Nonlinearity < 4. temperature. wide scale.5% 4.function. ≈ -2mV/C Slope -2mV/C ≈Slope Fairly -2mV/C -2mV/C ≈ ≈linear Nonlinearity Slope ≈ -2mV/CNonlinearity Nonlinearity < 10% Nonlinearity < 10% 10% full <of<10% full of scale scale ofoffull scale fullscale function. temperature. calibration. processing.8V 10s 10s of 10s millivolts of millivolts 10s millivolts ofofmillivolts Typically scale.9 to 180 3. Relatively Relatively Fairly simple Relatively simple Relatively linear quadratic simple quadratic simple quadratic Slope quadratic Slope varies Slope varies Slope according varies according varies to current according to current according to current Complex Complex tocurrent Complex 10th10th Complex orderFairly order 10th 10th linear polynomial order polynomial order polynomial polynomial Very nonlinear.9 kΩ to kΩ 3. Follows reciprocal Slope varies according to current Table 21: Temperature sensor overview 21: Temperature sensor overview Table 21: Temperature sensor overview Table 21: Temperature sensor overview Linearity function. diode and diode anddiode Nonlinearity < 10% of full scale 70 70 70 |of logarithmic function excitation.com/precisionlabs . resistance.8V toto0. Goodtemperature. Good accuracy with Accuracy LessLess accurate Less overover accurate range. correction. Very 100s wide toVery wide variation wide kΩ variation variation ofvariation in in inin180 180 to 180 3.function.4 0. diode type. processing. correction.9 kΩ for PT1000 Very Applications Applications Applications Applications wide Generalvariation General General purpose General in resistance purpose purpose purpose Scientific ScientificScientific and and industrial industrial Scientific and industrial andindustrial LowLow costcost Low Low temperature cost temperature cost monitor temperature monitor temperature Industrial monitor Industrial monitor temperature Industrial temperature temperature Industrial temperature LowLow costcost Low Low linear cost linear cost response linear response linear response response measurement measurement measurement measurement Low cost temperature monitor Industrial temperature Applications General General General General General Requires Requires purpose excitation Requires excitation excitation Requires excitation Scientific Requires Requires and industrial excitation Requires excitation excitation Requires excitation Requires RequiresRequires Requires excitation excitation excitation Self-powered Self-powered Self-powered Lowexcitation cost linear response Self-powered Requires Requires Requires measurement coldcold junction cold junction comp junction comp comp Requires cold junction comp Self-powered General Requires excitation Requires excitation Requires excitation Requires cold junction comp Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference ti.4 0. Relatively simple quadratic function Complex 10th order polynomial Construction LessLess Construction Construction rugged Less rugged rugged Depends Depends Depends on TypeType on (can(can Type (can Rugged Rugged Rugged diode processing MostMost rugged Most rugged rugged Construction Less rugged Dependson on Typebe(can be bebe Rugged Most rugged rugged) rugged) rugged) rugged) Construction Less rugged Depends on Type (can be rugged) Rugged Most rugged Output Output range Output range Output range range Typically TypicallyTypically 10s 10s Typically to 10s 100s 10s to 100s toof 100s kΩ to100s kΩ of full full ofofkΩ 18 to18 fullto18390 kΩfull 18 390 Ωtofor to Ω 390 390 for PT100PT100 ΩΩfor PT100 forPT100 0. and processing.9 for PT1000 kΩ PT1000 kΩfor PT1000 forPT1000 Output resistance.9 for to3. resistance. without calibration. ofoffull scale. Good accuracy with polynomial temperature. function. scale.5% full full of scale.8V 10s of millivolts range 180 to 3. <of<4. diode diode and and type.

(87) (92) Convert Steinhart-Hart resistance to temperature T equation temperature for for a thermistor a thermistor 1 Where Convert resistance to Where R R (87) T T = temperature in Kelvin temperature for a thermistor T = temperature in Kelvin a. b. Steinhart-Hart equation 1 Convert resistance to Thermistor: RResistance R to temperature. Steinhart-Hart equation Thermistor: Resistance to temperature. b. resistance yresistance = ininΩohms Steinhart-Hart factors used in temperature to resistance equation T = temperature ininKelvin T = temperature Kelvin a. c = Steinhart-Hart equation constants R = resistance in ohms RT==resistance temperature in Kelvin in ohms a. y = Steinhart-Hart factors used in temperature to resistance equation Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 71 71 . Steinhart-Hart equation Convert temperature to y Temperature Thermistor: y+ (88) to resistance.com/precisionlabs Sensor Thermistor: Resistance to temperature. Steinhart-Hart equation 2 2 resistance for a thermistor [ [ 1y x x Convert temperature to y+ (93) Convert(88) x T 2 2 (89)temperature Factor to resistance resistance usedforinaEquation thermistor 88 c for a thermistor 1 x T (94) Factor(89) Factor used in used93 Equation in Equation 88 y cb x (90) Factor used in Equation 88 3c 4 b x (95) Factor(90) used in Equation Factor used93 in Equation 88 y 3c 4 Where R = resistance in ohms T = temperature in Kelvin Where Where a. c = Steinhart-Hart equation constants R== Rx. c = Steinhart-Hart equation constants a. b. b. c = Steinhart-Hart equation constants a. b. R = resistance in ohms [ [ Thermistor:x Temperature x to resistance.Where b. c = Steinhart-Hart equation constants x. c = Steinhart-Hart Thermistor: Temperature equation constants Steinhart-Hart equation to resistance. y = Steinhart-Hart factors used in temperature to resistance equation x.ti.

9888E-3 Standard ASTM-E1137 D-100 B0 BS –5.9888E-3 B0 –5.8686E-7 –5.775E-7 –5.9888E-3 A0 +3.9739E-3 +3.9692E-3 –3. B0. CO = Callendar-Van Dusen coefficients Where RRTD = resistance of RTD over temperature range of (–200°C < T < 850°C) RTRTD = temperature = resistanceinofdegrees RTD over Celsius ( ) temperature range of (–200°C < T < 850°C) Ro = 100 Ω RA0O=. B100Ω for PT-100.8686E-7 –5.8495E-7 –5.8495E-7 –5.4E-12 +3.9692E-3 US Industrial +3.9787E-3 +3.9739E-3 –4. 1000Ω for PT-1000 RWhere A0O=.915E-7 American ITS-90 EN-60751 JISC 1604 D-100 American American ITS-90 C0 A0 –4.4E-12 –4.9692E-3 +3.775E-7 1904 ASTM-E1137 –5. BO. CO = Callendar-Van Dusen coefficients RTD equation resistance to temperature (T>0°C) T = temperature in degrees Celsius ( ) R RTD equation A resistance to temperature RTD resistance RTD equation resistance toRtemperature 0 (T>0°C) (T>0°C) (93) for T>0°C 2B R A (98) RTD resistance RTDfor resistance T>0°C Where R0 (93) for T>0°C RRTD = resistance2B of RTD over temperature range of (–200°C < T < 850°C) Ro = 100 Ω Where AO.8686E-7 American Standard –5.870E-7 EN-60751 JISC 1604 Standard –5.85E-12 Example C –4.9083E-3 +3. C0 = Callendar-Van Celsius ( ) coefficients Ro = 100 Ω for PT-100.4E-12 –4.9888 ∙ 10 100 100 72 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 72 . 1000Ω for PT-1000 TA=O.167E-12 –4.Sensor ti. CO = Callendar-Van Dusen coefficients Rrtd = resistance of RTD over temperature range of (–200°C < T < 850°C) AT0.com/precisionlabs RTD equation RTD equation temperature temperature to resistance to resistance RTD resistance for R 0 0 0T 0 T (91) (96) RTD resistance for T<0°C RTD equation temperature to resistance T<0°C RTD resistance for R 0T T (97) RTD resistance (92) (91) for T>0°C 0 0 0 T>0°C T<0°C Where RTD resistance for Where R 0 T over temperature range of (–200°C (92) Rrtd = resistance 0 0 of RTD < T < 850°C) T>0°C Rrtd = resistance of RTD over temperature range of (–200°C < T < 850°C) Ro = 100 Ω for PT-100.temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) BO.233E-12 +3.9083E-3 –4.915E-7 B0 –5.9787E-3 –4.85E-12 +3.85E-12 0 What is the temperature given an ITS-90 PT100 resistance of 120 Ω? Example Answer What is the temperature given an ITS-90 PT100 resistance of 120 Ω? Example What is the temperature3.167E-12 –4.870E-7 –5.9787E-3 US Industrial +3. C0 = Callendar-Van Celsius ( ) coefficients IEC-751 T = temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) US Industrial Table 22: DIN 43760 Callendar-Van Dusen coefficients for different RTD standards BS 1904 Standard US Industrial IEC-751 D-100 Standard ASTM-E1137 Table 23: Callendar-Van DIN 43760 Dusen US Industrial coefficients for different RTD standardsITS-90 American EN-60751 JISC 1604 American BS 1904 Standard US Industrial A0 +3.167E-12 +3.=Btemperature in degreesDusen 0.183E-12 –4.775E-7 –5. C = Callendar-Van Dusen coefficients TableO22:OCallendar-Van Dusen coefficients for different RTD standards T = temperature in degreesDusen A0.915E-7 C0 –4.9083E-3 IEC-751 DIN 43760 +3.9739E-3 +3.183E-12 –4.183E-12 +3.9888 given∙ an 120 10 ITS-90 PT100 resistance of 120Ω? Answer 100 Answer 120 120 3.233E-12 –3.870E-7 –5. 1000Ω for PT-1000 O. B100Ω .233E-12 –3.8495E-7 –5.

1831E-10 –4.2011E+00 αα4 2 –2.2011E+00 αα2 0 –2.4719E-10 1.3818E+02 Standard –2.7791E-06 2.1973E+00 –4.9702E-08 α5 1.1898E+00 D-100 American Standard 2.3492E-10 –4.5857E-03 –2.5224E-10 Example 1.3831E-08 –2.7009E-08 –2.8266E-06 2.9702E-08 2.5226E-03 –2.3223E-03 2.ti.4202E+02 ASTM-E1137 –2.1956E+00 American 2.7517E-06 2.4802E-03 –2.3820E+02 2.5226E-03 –2.1973E+00 ITS-90 2.3791E+02 α1 EN-60751 2. Answer Example � � ��������� � 0�� ∗ �60�� � ����0��� � 00� ∗ �60�� � �������� � 0�� ∗ �60�� � � Find the temperature given an � �������� ITS-90 � 0�� ∗ �60�PT100 � resistance of 60 Ω.1956E+00 –4.1898E+00 –4.5157E-08 2.8152E-08 –2.2228E+00 JISC 1604 2.7825E-06 2.4202E+02 2. � ����6� Answer • 60 • 60 • 60 • 60 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 73 73 .3492E-10 1.7517E-06 1.5224E-10 1.4020E-10 –4.5857E-03 –2.3864E+02 US Industrial –2.4413E-03 –2.3791E+02 αα3 1 –4.3831E-08 2.8266E-06 –4.3223E-03 αα5 3 1.8152E-08 2.7791E-06 1.6280E-06 2.1831E-10 Find the temperature given an ITS-90 PT100 resistance of 60 Ω.7825E-06 1.3818E+02 2.5157E-08 –1.3820E+02 –2.4802E-03 –1.3864E+02 2.2228E+00 –4.7009E-08 2.4020E-10 1.4719E-10 –4.com/precisionlabs Sensor RTD equation RTD equation resistance resistance to temperature to temperature (T<0°C) (T<0°C) � RTD resistance � � � �� �� ��� �� (99) RTD resistance for T<0°C (94) for T<0� ��� Where Where (�) T = temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) RRTD = resistance of RTD over temperature range of (T<0�) RRTD = resistance of RTD over temperature range of (T<0°C) αI = polynomial coefficients for converting RTD resistance to temperature for T<0� αi = polynomial coefficients for converting RTD resistance to temperature for T<0°C th Table 23: Coefficients for 5 order RTD resistance to temperature IEC-751 Table 24:DIN Coefficients 43760 for 5th orderUS RTD resistance to temperature Industrial BS 1904 Standard US Industrial IEC-751 Standard ASTM-E1137 D-100 DIN 43760 EN-60751 JISC 1604 American American ITS-90 BS 1904 US Industrial α0 –2.6280E-06 α4 –2.4413E-03 –2.

charge of an electron J/K. charge of an electron k = 1. Boltzmann’s constant q VD= =1. Boltzmann’s constant I= T forward = temperature in Kelvinin amps diode current -19 qV� q I =�1. temperature and current G α = constant related to the cross sectional area of the junction n = diode ideality factor (ranges from 1 to 2) VkG == 1.38 x 10 J/K. Boltzmann’s constant T = temperature in Kelvin q = 1.Sensor ti.38xx1010 current -23 C.38 diodex voltage -23 10 J/K.60 V diodex 10 C. temperature and current n = diode ideality factor (ranges from 1 to 2) Where -23 IkS == 1.60 x 10 diode voltageC.60 x 10-19 C. temperature Diode equation vs. charge �� � of an electron (96) Saturation current IS = saturation current � nkT I = forward diode current in amps IS = saturation current Where IS = saturation current qV� α �T ��⁄�� ��� I� =�constant related �� to�the cross sectional area of the (101) junction Saturation Saturation current (96) current nkT VG = diode voltage vs. temperature nkT I nkT I V� � �n � � �� � �n � � (100) Diode(95) voltage Diode voltage q I� q I� Diode equation vs. charge voltage of an electron vs.60 �T ��x 10 ⁄�� ��� C. Boltzmann’s factor constant (ranges from 1 to 2) T = temperature in Kelvin k Where = 1. vs.Boltzmann’s temperatureconstant and current n T= =diode temperature in Kelvin ideality factor (ranges from 1 to 2) -19 q = 1.60 saturation 1. nkT temperature I and current VVD�= n diode�n =�diode voltage � � �� vs.38 x 10-23 -19 J/K. Boltzmann’s constant T= α = constant temperature in Kelvin related IS = saturation-19 currentto the cross sectional area of the junction q = =1.60 x 10-23 C. temperature and current TI==temperature forward diode in current Kelvin in amps n = diode ideality factor (ranges from 1 to 2) -19 qkIS===1. temperature Where Where VD = diode nkT voltageI vs. charge of an electron vs.�temperature and1 current �n � �from (95) Diode voltage q ideality I-23 � factor (ranges q I� to 2) n k==diode 1.com/precisionlabs Diode equation vs.38 Where x 10 current saturation J/K. charge of an electron 74 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 74 .38 xideality 10 J/K.

However.ti. Figure 50: Diode voltage Figuredrop vs. However. A forward drop of about 0.com/precisionlabs Sensor Diode voltage versus temperature Figure 50 shows an example of the temperature drift for a diode. characteristics of the diode and the forward current the slope and offset of this curve will change. A forward drop of about 0. temperature 50: Diode voltage drop vs.6V is typical for Figure 50 shows an example of the temperature drift for a diode. Depending on the room temperature. temperature 75 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 75 . typical diode drift is about –2mV/°C. typical diode drift is about –2mV/°C. Depending on the characteristics of the diode and the forward current the Diode slopevoltage versus temperature and offset of this curve will change.6V is typical for room temperature.

4976127786E+03 1 c3 –8.0381187815E+01 –1.9645625681E+05 760°C to 1.3228195295E-07 1.7052958337E-10 –3.0381187815E+013.200�to voltage c0 0.5720819004E-06 c6 2.200°C c1 c0 5.5631725697E-20 — 76 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 76 .4976127786E+03 0.1847686701E-03 c5 –1.0475836930E-02 3.7052958337E-10 –3.2538395336E-16 -- c6 c8 2.0691369056E-10 c75 –1.5681065720E-05 –3.1787103924E+00 –1.0948090697E-13 -- c –1.0000000000E+00 –219°C to 760°C2.5720819004E-06 c3 –8.5631725697E-20 -.3228195295E-07 1.5681065720E-05 –3.9645625681E+05 c2 c 3.1787103924E+00 c4 1.1847686701E-03 c2 3.0691369056E-10 c4 1.com/precisionlabs Type J thermocouples translating temperature to voltage (ITS-90 standard) Type J thermocouples translating temperature to voltage (ITS-90 standard) � Thermoelectric V� � � �� ���� (102) Thermoelectric voltage (97) voltage ��� Where Where VV T = thermoelectric voltage T = thermoelectric voltage T = temperature in degrees Celsius T = temperature in degrees Celsius ci = translation coefficients ci = translation coefficients Table 24: Type J thermocouple temperature to voltage coefficients Type J thermocouple temperature to voltage Table 25: Type J thermocouple temperature to voltage coefficients –219� to 760� 760�temperature Type J thermocouple to 1.0475836930E-02 5.0948090697E-13 1.Sensor ti. — c7 –1.2538395336E-16 — c8 1.0000000000E+00 2.

200°C –219°C to 0°C 0°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.430334680E-15 cc5 4 –5.075217800E-09 1.005436840E-01 c2 –1.099890000E-31 -.344285000E-26 5.344285000E-26 4.725671300E-16 –2.947732300E-06 c2 –1.396337000E-24 -- 5.382332100E-29 — — Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 77 .430334680E-15 4.113581870E+03 c1 1.908693300E-13 –2.738860840E-21 cc6 5 –1.978425000E-02 3.000000000E+00 –3.702766300E-10 c3 –1.com/precisionlabs Sensor Type J thermocouples translating voltage to temperature (ITS-90 standard) Type J thermocouples translating voltage to temperature (ITS-90 standard) � � � � �� �V� �� (103) Temperature (98) Temperature ��� Table 25: Type J thermocouple voltage to temperature coefficients Table 26: Type J thermocouple voltage to temperature coefficients Type J thermocouple voltage to temperature Type J thermocouple temperature to voltage –219°C to 0°C 0°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.952826800E-02 1.228618500E-06 –2.382332100E-29 –2.549687000E-16 –1.396337000E-24 –5.000000000E+00 0.585153000E-21 –5.113581870E+03 c0 0.978425000E-02 3.— cc8 7 –8.549687000E-16 3. — c8 –8.001204000E-07 –9.000000000E+00 –3.738860840E-21 -- cc7 6 –2.725671300E-16 –2.228618500E-06 –2.947732300E-06 c3 –1.813151300E-20 –2.200°C c0 0.702766300E-10 c4 –5.ti.005436840E-01 c1 1.075217800E-09 1.952826800E-02 1.000000000E+00 0.001204000E-07 –9.036969000E-11 1.813151300E-20 3.585153000E-21 –1.036969000E-11 1.908693300E-13 –1.099890000E-31 -.

9457592874E-05 3 c7 –3.7600413686E+01 K thermocouple temperature to voltage coefficients c1 3.0451609365E-14 9.8921204975E+01 –219°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.6075059059E-13 αc07 –3.7151147152E-20 c –6.7410327428E-10 –1.7509059173E-08 –5.9450128025E+01 3.2020720003E-16 αc1 -- –1.1859760000E+02 α1 — –1.200°C c0 27: Type Table 0.2104721275E-23 c10 –1.1840945719E-07 c8 –1.1834320000E-04 9.0000000000E+00 –1.8558770032E-02 c0 0.7600413686E+01 c 3 –3.1088872894E-12 -.9450128025E+01 3.9904828777E-06 3.com/precisionlabs Type K thermocouples translating temperature to voltage (ITS-90 standard) translating temperature to voltage (ITS-90 standard) Type K thermocouples � V� � � �� ���� (99) Thermoelectric (104) Thermoelectric voltage voltage for T<0°C ��� for T<0� � V� � �� �� ���� � � �� e��� ������������� � (105) Thermoelectric voltage forT>0°C (100) Thermoelectric voltage ��� forT>0� Where VT = thermoelectric voltage Where VTT==temperature in degrees thermoelectric voltage Celsius Tci == temperature translation coefficients in degrees Celsius α0.Sensor ti.1859760000E+02 –3. 1.6322697486E-20 — α0 — 1. α1 = translation coefficients –219°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.1834320000E-04 78 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 78 .0000000000E+00 –1.2020720003E-16 c4 –4.7151147152E-20 8 c9 –1.2104721275E-23 cc 106 –5.3622373598E-02 –5.200°C c2 2.2858906784E-04 5.6072844889E-10 c9 5 –1.9457592874E-05 cc41 3.7509059173E-08 cc6 –5.0451609365E-14–1. 5.6075059059E-13 –9.7410327428E-10 –3.6072844889E-10 1.9889266878E-17 –1. α1 = translation coefficients ci = translation coefficients αTable 26: Type K thermocouple temperature to voltage coefficients 0.1840945719E-07 3.6322697486E-20 -.9904828777E-06 cc52 2.8921204975E+01 –4.9889266878E-17 –1.8558770032E-02 –6.3622373598E-02 1.1088872894E-12 –3.2858906784E-04 –9.

ti.3180580E+02 c0 0.8021930E-21 c6c7 –1.4130300E-26 — -- c9 -.7342377E-16 8.0000000E+00 –1.5083550E-02 4.0833638E-09 7.8601060E-08 –2.8601060E-08 –1.0000000E+00 0.5083550E-02 4.9773540E-13 –2.7342377E-16 9.3152700E-14 –1.6460310E-06 c2c3 –1.8302220E-02 c2 –1.0450598E-23 –8.4130300E-26 9.6507150E-16 8.6460310E-06 5.3180580E+02 c1 2.8040360E-22 –1.6507150E-16 c4c5 –8.1108100E-26 c7c8 –5.1662878E-06 –1.200°C –219°C to 0°C 0°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.0000000E+00 0.6632643E-20 –4.4647310E-11 –9.0833638E-09 –8.0577340E-30 — c9 — –1.1920577E-28 1.9773540E-13 –3.8021930E-21 c5c6 –8.5031310E-10 –1.1920577E-28 –1.2280340E-17 –9.0527550E-35 -- c8 –5.6632643E-20 –3.2280340E-17 –3.0527550E-35 — Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 79 .4647310E-11 c3c4 –1.8040360E-22 -- –3.0450598E-23 1.0000000E+00 –1.5031310E-10 8.3152700E-14 5.5173462E-02 2.5173462E-02 2.8302220E-02 c1 2.0577340E-30 –4.1108100E-26 8. –1.com/precisionlabs Sensor Type K thermocouples translating voltage to temperature (ITS-90 standard) Type K thermocouples translating voltage to temperature (ITS-90 standard) � � � � �� �V� �� (106) Temperature (101) Temperature ��� Table 27: Type K thermocouple voltage to temperature coefficients Table 28: Type K thermocouple voltage to temperature coefficients –219°C to 0°C 0°C to 760°C 760°C to 1.1662878E-06 7.200°C c0 0.

0 Constantan –35 Nickel –15 Tantalum 4.5 Copper 6.5 Carbon 3 Nichrome 25 Sodium –2. All data at temperature of 0°C 80 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .5 Rhodium 6 Antimony 47 Iron 19 Selenium 900 Bismuth –72 Lead 4 Silicon 440 Cadmium 7.5 Mercury 0.5 Note: Units are μV/°C.Sensor ti.5 Platinum 0 Tellurium 500 Germanium 300 Potassium –9.com/precisionlabs Table 29: Seebeck coefficients for different material Seebeck Seebeck Seebeck Material coefficient Material coefficient Material coefficient Aluminum 4 Gold 6.0 Tungsten 7.6 Silver 6.

com/adcs 81 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .A/D Conversion A/D conversion ti.com/precisionlabs Binary/hex conversions • A/D and D/A transfer function • Quantization error • Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) • Signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) • Total harmonic distortion (THD) • Effective number of bits (ENOB) • Noise-free resolution and effective resolution • A/D conversion ti.

decimal. decimal. decimal.341 MSD = Most significant digit 2(1000) + 3(100) + 4(10) + 1(1) = 2.com/adcs 82 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . and hexadecimal Numbering systems: Binary.com/precisionlabs Numbering systems: Binary. and hexadecimal Binary (Base-2) 0 1 Decimal (Base-10) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hexadecimal (Base-16) 01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 2(1000) + 3(100) + 4(10) + 1(1) = 2. A/D Conversion ti. and hexadecimal Numbering systems: Binary.341 Example conversion: Example conversion: Binary todecimal Binary to decimal MSD = Most significant digit Example conversion: Binary to decimal Binary Decimal Binary Decimal = = LSD LSD 8  +  4   +  0   +  1 8  +  4   +  0   +  1 Example conversion: Decimal to binary Example conversion: Example conversion:Decimal Decimalto binary to binary Decimal Binary Decimal Binary LSD = = LSD 128 + 64 + 32 + 8 + 4 = 236 MSD 128 + 64 + 32 + 8 + 4 = 236 A/D conversion LSD = Least Significant Digit MSD = Most Significant Digit ti.

com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 83 .com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion Example conversion: Binary Example to hexadecimal conversion: Binary to hexadecimal Binary Example conversion: Binary MSD to hexadecimal LSD 128 + 64 + 16 + 8 + 1 = 217 Hexadecimal Conversion 128 + 64 + 16 + 8 + 1 = 217 8 + 4 + 1 = 13 (D) 8 8++14=+91 = 13 (D) 8+1=9 161 160 161 160 Hexadecimal D 9 D 9 MSD LSD MSD 208 + 9 = 217 208 + 9 = 217 Example Conversion: Hexadecimal to decimal and Example Conversion: decimal totohexadecimal Hexadecimal binary Decimal (Base-10) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hexadecimal (Base-16) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A BCDE F Hexadecimal Decimal x16 3 x16 2 x16 1 x16 0 16 9903 R = 15 (F) LSD 16 618 R = 10 (A) = 2 6 A F 16 38 R = 6 (6) 16 38 R = 2 (2) MSD LSD LSD MSD 2(4096) + 6(256) + 10(16) + 16(1) = 9903 LSD = Least Significant Digit MSD = Most Significant Digit83 ti.ti.

com/adcs 84 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .5V PGA 2 FSR 2.5V x2 12 bits I/O ADC in 0 to 5V Figure 51: ADC full-scale range (FSR) unipolar Full Scale Range (FSR) Unipolar VREF FSR = PGA FSR 1LSB = 2n Example calculation for the circuit above.com/precisionlabs A/D Converter with PGA 5V VREF FSR PGA ADC Digital 0 to 2. VREF 5V FSR = = = 2.A/D Conversion ti.5V 1LSB = = = 610.35µV 2n 212 ti.

ti.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion

A/D Converter with PGA
2.5V

VREF
FSR PGA ADC Digital
0 to ±1.25V x2 12 bits I/O
ADC in
0 to ± 2.5V

Figure 52: ADC full-scale range (FSR) Bipolar

Full Scale Range (FSR) Bipolar
VREF
FSR =
PGA

FSR
1LSB =
2n

Example calculation for the circuit above.
±VREF ±2.5V
FSR = = = ±1.25V ⇒ 2.5V
PGA 2

FSR 2.5V
1LSB = = = 610.35µV
2n 212

ti.com/adcs
Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 85

A/D Conversion ti.com/precisionlabs

Table 30: Different data formats

Code Straight binary Offset binary 2’s complement
Binary Decimal value Decimal value Decimal value
11111111 255 127 –1
Table 29: Different data formats
11000000
Code
192
Straight binary
64
Offset binary
–64
2’s complement
Binary
10000000 128Decimal value Decimal
0 value Decimal –128
value
Table 29: Different data formats
11111111 255 127 –1
01111111 127 –1 127
11000000
Code 192
Straight binary Offset 64
binary –64
2’s complement
01000000
10000000
Binary 64Decimal
128value –640value
Decimal –128
Decimal 64
value
01111111
11111111
00000000 0 127
255 –1
127
–128 127 0
–1
01000000
11000000 64
192 –64
64 64
–64
00000000
10000000 1280 –128
0 –1280
01111111 127 –1 127
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
01000000 64 –64 64
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
Negative number example
00000000 0 –128 0
Negative number example
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
SIGN x4 x2 x1
Negative number example
Step 1: Check sign bit
This case is negative 1 x40
SIGN 1 x11
x2
MSD LSD
Step 1: Check sign bit
This case is negative 1 0 1 1
Step 2: Invert all bits 0 1 0 0
MSD

Step 2: Invert all bits 0 1 0 0
Step 3: Add 1 0 1 0 1
Step
Final3result
: Add 1 0–(4+1) = 
1 0 –51
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
Final result –(4+1) =  –5
Positive number example
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
Converting two’s complement to decimal:
Positive number example
Positive number exampleSIGN x4 x2 x1

Just add bit weights 0 x41
SIGN 0 x11
x2
MSD
Just add bit weights
Final result
0 4+1 = 5
1 0 1
MSD LSD

Final result 4+1 = 5

84 ti.com/adcs
86 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference
84

ti.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion

Table 31: LSB voltage vs. resolution and reference voltage

FSR Reference
(Full-Scale Range)
voltage
1.024V 1.25V 2.048V 2.5V
8 4 mV 4.88 mV 8 mV 9.76 mV
10 1 mV 1.22 mV 2 mV 2.44 mV
12 250 µV 305 µV 500 µV 610 µV
14 52.5 µV 76.3 µV 125 µV 152.5 µV
Resolution

16 15.6 µV 19.1 µV 31.2 µV 38.14 µV
18 3.91 µV 4.77 µV 7.81 µV 9.53 µV
20 0.98 µV 1.19 µV 1.95 µV 2.384 µV
22 244 nV 299 nV 488 nV 596 nV
24 61 nV 74.5 nV 122 nV 149 nV

Table 32: LSB voltage vs. resolution and reference voltage

FSR Reference
(Full-Scale Range)
voltage
3V 3.3V 4.096V 5V
8 11.7 mV 12.9 mV 16 mV 19.5 mV
10 2.93 mV 3.222 mV 4 mV 4.882 mV
12 732 µV 806 µV 1 mV 1.221 mV
14 183 µV 201 µV 250 µV 305 µV
Resolution

16 45.77 µV 50.35 µV 62.5 µV 76.29 µV
18 11.44 µV 12.58 µV 15.6 µV 19.07 µV
20 2.861 µV 3.147 µV 3.91 µV 4.768 µV
22 715 nV 787 nV 976 nV 1.192 µV
24 179 nV 196 nV 244 nV 298 nV

ti.com/adcs
Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 87

98V Output voltage (V) Resolution 1LSB = 19mV Full-scale code = 255 Resolution = 8bits Number of codes = 2n Figure Figure 51: DAC transfer 53: DAC transfer function function ti.A/D Conversion ti.com/precisionlabs DAC definitions DAC definitions Resolution = n The number of bits used to quantify the output Resolution Codes == 2n n The The number number of bits used of input codetocombinations quantify the output Number of Codes = 2n The number of input code combinations Reference voltage = V Sets the LSB voltage or current size and Full-Scale Range output = FSRREF Sets the converter output range and the LSB voltage LSB = FSR / 2 n converter rangestep size of each LSB The voltage n LSB = V Full-scale REF / voltage output 2 = (2n – 1) • 1LSB The output voltage Full-scale or current output voltage of thestep DAC size of each Full-scale input code = 2n – 1 code Largest code that can be written n n Transfer Function: Full-scale code Vout==2Number – 1 of Codes • (FSR/2 The ) largest Relationship code between output that can bevoltage writtenand input code Full-scale voltage = VREF – 1LSB Full-scale output voltage of the DAC n Transfer function = VREF x (code/ 2 ) Relationship between input code and output voltage or current FSR = 5V Full-scale voltage = 4.com/adcs 88 86 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

n Full-scale output code = n 2 –1 Largest code that can be read Full-scale code = 2 – 1 The largest code that can be written. each and the LSB voltage Note that n LSB = FSR / 2 The voltage step some topologies maysize use of 2 n eachasLSB opposed to Full-scale input voltage = (2n – 1) • 1LSB 2n – 1 inFull-scale input voltage of the ADC the denominator. n Transfer function = VREF x (code/ 2 ) Relationship between input code and output voltage or current Full-scale code=255 Input voltage (V) Full-scale Range FSR = 5V Figure Figure 52: ADC transfer 54: ADC transfer function function 87 ti. Transfer Function: Number of Codes = Vin / (FSR/2n) Relationship between input voltage and output code Full-scale voltage = VREF Full-scale output voltage of the DAC.com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 89 . Note that the full-scale voltage will differ if the alternative definition for resolution is used.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion ADC definitions Resolution = n The number of bits used to quantify the output ADC Codesdefinitions =2 n The number of input code combinations Reference Resolution = nvoltage = VREF Sets theTheLSB voltage number of bitsorused current sizethe to quantify and input Number of Codes = 2n converterTherange number of output code combinations n Full-Scale LSB = VRange input REF / (2 = FSR – 1) Sets the The voltage converter step size of input rangecode.ti.

The rms of the quantization signal is 1LSB ⁄√12 88 ti. The amount of this error is a function of the resolution of the converter. The quantization error of an A/D converter is ½ LSB. The quantization error of an A/D Quantization error converter is ½ LSB. The quantization error signal the difference between the actual The error introduced voltage applied andastheaADC result of the output quantization (Figure 53). The amount of the quantization signal of is this error is 1LSB⁄√12 a function of the resolution of the converter. The quantization error signal is the difference between the actual voltage applied and the ADC output (Figure 55).com/precisionlabs Quantization error of ADC Quantization error of ADC Quantization error Figure 53: Quantization error of an A/D converter Figure 55: Quantization error of an A/D converter Quantization error The error introduced as a result of the quantization process.com/adcs 90 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference . The rmsprocess.A/D Conversion ti.

76 = 49.02(8) + 1. assuming only quantization noise? SNR�dB� � 2�log�314� � 4��� dB Answer SNR = 2N-1 SNR�dB� √6 = 28-1 � 6��2�8� � 1��6 √6 =�314 4��� dB SNR(dB) = 20log(314) = 49. VREF/2n of the ADC’s full-scale input RMSNoise = the rms noise from quantization NSNR = the= resolution the ratio ofofrms thesignal A/D converter to rms noise MaxRMSSignal = the rms equivalent of the ADC’s full-scale input RMSNoise = the rms noise from quantization Example SNR = the ratio of rms signal to rms noise What is the SNR for an 8-bit A/D converter with 5V reference.9 dB SNR(dB) = 6. assuming only quantization noise? Answer Example SNR �is2��� What the√6 � 2� �� SNR for√6an�8-bit 314 A/D converter with 5V reference.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion Signal-to-noise ratio Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (SNR) from quantization from quantization noise only noise only FSR/2 1LSB � 2��� MaxRMSSignal � � (102) (107) √2 √2 1LSB RMSNoise � from quantization only (103) (108) √12 MaxRMSSignal 1LSB � 2��� /√2 SNR � � � 2��� √6 (109) (104) RMSNoise 1LSB⁄√12 √6 SNR�dB� � 2�log�SNR� � �2� log�2��N � 2�log � � (110) (105) 2 SNR�dB� � 6��2N � 1��6 (106) (111) Where FSR = full-scale range of the A/D converter Where n 1LSB = the voltage of 1LSB.9 dB ti.com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 91 89 . VREF/2 FSR = full-scale range of the A/D converter N = the resolution of the A/D converter MaxRMSSignal 1LSB = the voltage= the rms equivalent of 1LSB.ti.

V3. …Vn = harmonics of the fundamental MaxRMSSignal = the rms value of the input signal Where THD = total harmonic distortion.A/D Conversion ti. …V = harmonics of the fundamental V n= the fundamental. V4. …Vn = harmonics of the fundamental Figure 56:and Figure 54: Fundamental Fundamental harmonicsand harmonics in Vrms in Vrms Figure 54: Fundamental and harmonics in Vrms ti. RMSDistortion = the rmsgenerally sum of the MaxRMSSignalinput signal all harmonic components V2. the• 100 • 100rms(107) ratio of the rmsVdistortion to the signal Where MaxRMSSignal RMSDistortion = the rms sum of all harmonic components THD = total harmonic MaxRMSSignal = thedistortion.com/precisionlabs Total harmonic distortion (Vrms) Total harmonic distortion (Vrms) RMSDistortion V V V V (112) % • 100 • 100 (107) MaxRMSSignal V RMSDistortion (113) THD dB (108) MaxRMSSignal Total harmonic distortion (Vrms) Where RMSDistortion V V V V THD = total harmonic % distortion. V4. generally the input signal 1 V2. rms value the ratio of the RMSDistortion of the input rms distortion to the rms signal signal THD dB (108) V1 = the fundamental. the ratio of the rms distortion to the rms signal V1 = the fundamental. V3. V4. V3.com/adcs 90 92 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 90 . generally RMSDistortion = the rmsthe suminput signal components of all harmonic MaxRMSSignal = the rms value of the input signal V2.

The ratio of the rms distortion to the rms signal THD D = total harmonic distortion. The ratio of the rms distortion to the rms signal D . generally the input signal. This is normalized to 0 dBc THD = total harmonic distortion.com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 91 93 91 . The ratio of the rms distortion to the rms signal 1 = the fundamental. …Dn = harmonics of the fundamental measured relative to the D2. D4. D3. D 4. example above.. ିଽଶ ିଽଶ ି଻ହ ି଻ହ ିଽହିଽହ ିଵଵ଴ ିଵଵ଴ ቀ ቁ ቀ ቀ ቁ ቀ ቁ ቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ቁ    ൌ ͳͲŽ‘‰ ൤ͳͲቀ൤ͳͲ ൌ ͳͲŽ‘‰ ଵ଴ ቁ ଵ଴ ൅ ͳͲ ଵ଴ ቁଵ଴ ൅ ͳͲ ൅ ͳͲ൅ ቀͳͲ ଵ଴ ቁଵ଴൅ ‫ڮ‬൅൅ ‫Ͳͳ ڮ‬ ቀ ଵ଴ ൅ ͳͲ ൨ ൨ Answer ) -75 ) -95 ) -110 ) -92 ) ) ) ) 10 10    ൌ= THD(dBc) ൌ െ͹ͶǤ͹͸†10 െ͹ͶǤ͹͸† 10 log 10 +10 10 +10 + . D1 = the DD . …Dn = harmonics fundamental. D4. ti. of the generally the fundamental input signal.76 dB ti. +10 THD(dBc) = -74. Example Answer Answer Determine THD for the example above. generally the input signal.. This is normalized to 0 dBc 2 3 fundamental D 2.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion Total harmonic distortion (dBc) Total harmonic distortion (dBc) Total harmonic distortion (dBc) ୈమ ୈయ ୈర ୈ౤   ൌ ͳͲŽ‘‰ ൤ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൨ THD(dBc) (114) (109) ୈమ ୈయ ୈర ୈ౤   ൌ ͳͲŽ‘‰ ൤ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൅‫ڮ‬൅ ͳͲቀ ଵ଴ ቁ ൨ (109) Where WhereTHDWhere = total harmonic distortion. Thismeasured relative is normalized to 0to the dBc 1 = the fundamental. …Dn = harmonics of the fundamental measured relative to fundamental the fundamental Figure Figure 57: Fundamental 55: 55: Fundamental andand andin harmonics harmonics dBc in dBc Figure Fundamental harmonics in dBc Example Example Determine THDTHD Determine for the example for the above. D3.

com/adcs 94 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 92 .76V � rms� �� � �� ���. THD.76 Vrms Example RMSDistortion Calculate the = 50 µVrms SNR.76dB (117) �N�B � (112) 6. SNR = the ratio of rms signal to rms noise Example Calculate the SNR. sum of The ratio of the all harmonic rms distortion to the rms signal.� dB 1.�1.�dB � 1.65 10 6.02 ti. components SNR = the ratio of rms signal to rms noise SINAD = the ratio of the full-scale signal-to-noise ratio and distortion THD = total harmonic distortion.� �� SINAD dB � �20 log ��10� SINAD�dB� �� � 10 � � ��.76dB �N�B SINAD�dB � 1�. The ratio of the rms distortion to the rms signal.76 Vrms 1. SINAD and ENOB given the following information: MaxRMSSignal = 1.com/precisionlabs Ac signals Ac signals Signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) and effective number of bits (ENOB) MaxRMSSignal SINAD�dB� � 20 log � � (110) (115) √RMSNoise� � RMSDis�or�ion� �������� ������� SINAD�dB� � �20log ��10 (116) � � � � �� � 10 �� � (111) SINAD�dB� � 1.02 Where MaxRMSSignal = the rms equivalent of the ADC’s full-scale input Where RMSNoise = the=rms MaxRMSSignal the noise integratedofacross rms equivalent the A/D the ADC’s converters full-scale input RMSDistortion = the rms sum of all harmonic components RMSNoise = the SINAD = the ratiorms noise of the integrated full-scale across the A/D signal-to-noise ratioconverters and distortion THD = total harmonic RMSDistortion = the rms distortion.� dB ��100 μVrms� � � �50 μVrms�� 1.A/D Conversion ti.02 6.76 Vrms ���.76 Vrms μVrms SNR�dB� � 20 log � � � ��.76 Vrms Answer RMSDistortion = 50 μVrms RMSNoise = 100 1.� dB ��. THD. SINAD and ENOB given the following RMSNoise = 100 µVrms information: MaxRMSSignal = 1.76 Vrms THD�dB� SNR dB � 20 log � � � � �0.� dB 100 μVrms Answer 50 μVrms 1.76V rms SINAD�dB� THD dB � 20 log � � � ��.

7 (121)(116) Note: The maximum effective resolution is never greater than the ADC resolution.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion Dcsignals Dc signals Noise free resolution and effective resolution 2� Noise�ree�eso��tion � �o� � � � (118)(113) PeaktoPeakNoiseinLSB 2� ���e�ti�e�eso��tion � �o� � � rmsNoiseinLSB � (119)(114) PeaktoPeakNoiseinLSB � 6. Note: a 24-biteffective The maximum converter cannot have resolution an effective is never resolution greater than greater the ADC than resolution. Forbits.6 ���e�ti�e�eso��tion � 2�. a 24-bit converter cannot have an effective resolution greater than 24 bits.6 � rmsNoiseinLSB (120)(115) ���e�ti�e�eso��tion � Noise�ree�eso��tion � 2.ti. For example. 24 example.2 72 7 2�� ���e�ti�e�eso��tion � �o� � � � � 2�.2 � 2.� ti.6 7 6. Example Example What is the noise-free resolution and effective resolution for a 24-bit converter What is the assuming the noise-free peak-to-peakresolution noise is 7and effective resolution for a LSBs? 24-bit converter assuming the peak-to-peak noise is 7 LSBs? Answer �� Answer 2 Noise�ree�eso��tion � �o� � � � � 2�.� 7 2 6.com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 93 95 .7 � 2�.

com/precisionlabs Time Constant R VIN A/D VIN C Figure 58: Settling time for RC circuit-related to A/D converters Figure 56: Settling time for RC circuit-related to A/D converters Table 33: Conversion accuracy achieved after a specified time Table 32: Conversion accuracy achieved after a specified time Settling time in time Settling time in time Settling time constants (NTC)in Accuracy in bits (N)Settling constants time in (NTC) Accuracy in bits time constants Accuracy in time constants Accuracy in (N1 ) 1. For single-ended input ADC with no PGA front end FSR (Full Scale Range) = VREF ti. NTC = the number of RC time constants NTC = the number of RC time constants Note: For a FSR step.10 16 16 23.77 13 18.A/D Conversion ti.com/adcs 96 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 94 .77 13 18.442.64 21.31 3 4.21 14 14 20.76 4 5.97  ൌ Ž‘‰ ଶ ሺ‡ି୒౐ి ሻ (122) (117) Where Where N = the number of bits of accuracy the RC circuit has settled to after NTC number of N = the number of bits of accuracy the RC circuit has settled to after NTC number of time constants.33 11 12 15.54 11. time constants.08 88 11.53 9 12.20 66 8.98 18 25.10 10.31 4 5.64 77 10.53 24.21 20.43 TC 21 1.668.76 55 7.98 18 25.20 7.43 15.89 10 11 14.54 17 17 24.66 15 15 21.894.87 17.44 bits (NTC) 10 bits 14.08 23.97 9 12.33 12 17.87 32 2.

48 13.64 16 11.04 25 17.25 14 14 9.40 10.5 Accuracy 17 time constants 11.33 N�� � ����� � (123) (118) Where NTC = the number of time constants required to achieve N bits of settling Where N the NTC = = the number number ofof bitsconstants time of accuracy required to achieve N bits of settling N = the number of bits of accuracy Note: For a FSR step.78 10 9 6. For single-ended input ADC with no PGA front end FSR (Full Scale Range) = VREF ti.25 15.94 15 15 10.32 21 14.24 18 12.70 9.93 6.01 9.94 15.86 12 8.62 19 20 13.33 16 11.com/precisionlabs A/D Conversion Table 34: Time required to settle to a specified conversion accuracy Table in Accuracy 33: Time required bits to settle Settling time in timeto a specified Accuracyconversion in bits accuracy Settling time in time (N) constants (N Settling time inTC ) (N) Settling timeconstants in (NTC) Accuracy 8 time constants 5.62 20 13.ti.com/adcs Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference 97 95 .17 13.78 in bits (N) (NTC) in bits (N) (NTC) 9 6.09 25 17.24 18 19 12.64 16.32 21 14.55 17 11.01 22 22 15.17 11 10 6.86 11 7.40 24 24 16.56 12 8.93 7.48 8 5.70 23 23 15.56 13 13 9.

ti.com/precisionlabs Notes 6 98 Texas Instruments Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference .

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