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GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬.‫م‬.

‫م‬

1.00 1.0000
1.10 0.9514
1.20 0.9182
1.30 0.8975
1.40 0.8873
1.50 0.8862
1.60 0.8935
1.70 0.9086
1.80 0.9314
1.90 0.9618
2.00 1.0000

Fig. 1
The equation (2) is a recurrence relationship that leads to the factorial concept. First
observe that if , then (1) can be evaluated, and in particular,

From (2)

If , where is a positive integer, then

(3)

If is a real number, then is defined by .The value of this
identification is in intuitive guidance.
If the recurrence relation (2) is characterized as a differential equation, then the definition
of can be extended to negative real numbers by a process called analytic continuation. The
key idea is that even though is defined in (1) is not convergent for , the relation
allows the meaning to be extended to the interval , and from there to
, and so on.
The factorial notion guides us to information about in more than one way. In
the eighteenth century, Sterling introduced the formula (for positive integer values n)

2

An exact representation of is suggested by the following manipulation of n!.‫م‬ √ (4) This is called Sterling’s formula and it indicates that n! asymptotically approaches √ for large values of n. therefore. It suggests the possibility that for sufficiently large values of x. This infinite product is symbolized by ∏ ∏ It is called Gauss’s function and through this symbolism.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬. Put (6a) in the form ( ) 3 . This information has proved useful.‫م‬.) This factorial representation for positive integers suggests the possibility that (6) Gauss verified this identification back in the nineteenth century. since n! is difficult to calculate for large values of n. (It depends on (n+k)! = (k+n)! Since is fixed the second limit is one. √ (5a) It is known that satisfies the inequality √ √ (5b) Since the factor for large values of x. There is another consequence of Sterling’s formula. (This must be read as an infinite product. ∏ (7) The expression for (which has some advantage in developing the derivative of ) results as follows. the suggested value (5a) of is consistent with (5b).

.‫م‬.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬. a few of which are By letting the representation (6) can be further modified so that ⁄ ⁄ ∏ ∏ ⁄ ⁄ ∏ Since ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ∏ (9) ⁄ ⁄ Another result of special interest emanates from a comparison of with the ‘‘famous’’ formula { } ∏ { } (10) is obtained from by letting . introduce Then is Euler’s constant. or Now use (8) to produce ({ ∏ }) ( ∏ ) ∏ Thus (11a) 4 . This constant has been calculated to many places.‫م‬ Next.e. i.

It follows that ∫ (14a) This result can be obtained (after making assumptions about the interchange of differentiation with limits) by taking the logarithm of both sides of (9) and then differentiating.‫م‬.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬.‫م‬ Observe that (11) yields the result () √ (11b) Another exact representation of ‫‏‬is √ { } (12) The method of obtaining this result is closely related to Sterling’s asymptotic series for the gamma function. ( is the Euler's constant. . It helps to recall that ∫ and that if then Therefore. They are obtained by differentiating (with respect to the parameter) under the integral sign. The duplication formula is ( ) √ (13a) The duplication formula is a special case of the following product formula: ( ) ( ) ( ) (13b) It can be shown that the gamma function has continuous derivatives of all orders. In particular.) (14b) It also may be shown that ( ) ( ) ( ) (15) Example 1: Prove that Solution: ∫ Put ∫ [ ] Proved 5 .

‫م‬ Example 2: Prove that (i) (ii) Solution: (i) ∫ Integrating by parts.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬. (a) (b) (c) 6 .‫م‬. we have [ ] ∫ [ ] ∫ ··········() Replacing by Proved (ii) Replace by in () we get Putting the value in () we get Similarly ··········() Putting the value of in () we have: Replacing by we have Proved Example 3: Evaluate each of the following.

...‫م‬ (d) Example 4: Evaluate ∫ √ √ Solution: Let ∫ √ ...GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬. Example 7: Prove that ( ) √ Solution: ( ) ∫ Letting thus integral becomes ∫ 7 .‫م‬.. (1) Putting √ or in (1) we get ∫ ∫ ( ) ( ) √ Ans........... we get ∫ ∫ By definition ( ) ( ) √ Ans..... Example 5: Evaluate ∫ √ √ Solution: Let ∫ √ √ ... Example 6: Evaluate ∫ Solution: Let ∫ .......... (1) Putting √ or in (1).......... (1) √ Putting or √ √ Thus (1) becomes ∫ ( ) √ ∫ ∫ √ () Ans......

GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬.2).‫م‬.‫م‬ Let ∫ ∫ let the required value of the integral. we have ∬ ∬ (1) Where and are the regions in the first quadrant bounded by the circles having radii and √ respectively. Using polar coordinates. √ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ (2) Or (3) Then taking the limit as in (3).2 1. Since integrand is positive. we have from (1). Then ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∬ Where is the square of side (see Fig. we find ⁄ and √ ⁄ Then √ ( ) ∫ ( ) √ Proved Homework Fig. Evaluate each integral: a) ∫ b) ∫ c) ∫ d) ∫ √ e) ∫ f) ∫ √ 8 .

3. this is a proper integral. Evaluate ∫ [ ( )] THE BETA FUNCTION The beta function is a two-parameter composition of gamma functions that has been useful enough in application to gain its own name. Its definition is: ∫ (1) If and . and either or both 1 or . the integral is improper but convergent. Two of special interest are: ∫ (3) ∫ (4) Example 1: Prove that (a) (b) ∫ Solution: a) Using the transformation . It is shown in Example No.‫م‬.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬. we have ∫ ∫ ( ) ∫ Example 2: Prove that 9 .‫م‬ 2.2 that the beta function can be expressed through gamma functions in the following way (2) Many integrals can be expressed through beta and gamma functions. we have ∫ ∫ ∫ b) Using the transformation . Evaluate ∫ 5. Evaluate ∫ where are positive constants. Evaluate: a) ( ⁄ ) b) ( ⁄ ) 4. If .

1 and No. ∫ Then (∫ )(∫ ) ∫ ∫ Transforming to polar coordinates.2 we show that: ∫ Example 3: Evaluate each of the following integrals. Proved From example No. ∫ ∫ (∫ ) (∫ ) (∫ ) Thus.‫م‬.‫م‬ Solution: Letting we have ∫ ∫ Similarity.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬.e. ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Then the required integral has the value ⁄ b) Letting the required integral has the value 01 . a) ∫ b) ∫ √ Letting the integral becomes √ (⁄) √ √ ∫ √ ∫ √ ( ) √ ( ) c) ∫ √ Letting or √ the integral becomes ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ∫ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Example 4: Evaluate (a)∫ (b) ∫ (c) ∫ a) Let i.

Evaluate: a) ∫ ⁄ ⁄ b) ∫ √ ⁄ c) ∫ d) ) ∫ 00 .‫م‬ c) The given integral ∫ ⁄ ⁄ Thus letting the required integral has the value Homework 1. Evaluate (a) (b) ⁄ (c) ⁄ ⁄ 2. Find: a) ∫ b) ∫ ( √ ) ⁄ c) ∫ d) ∫ √ ⁄ ⁄ e) ∫ 3.‫م‬.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS ‫حممد جاسم الشكري‬.