2 views

Uploaded by Teferi

google

save

- differentiation examples sort 433 answers
- CSL102
- Joel
- Fundamental of Calculus (Presentation Slide)A
- Anti Derivatives
- Secodary Mathematics Express, Normal. & Vocational (More......)
- Lazy Evaluation
- Math 1109 FinalVersion Spring 2016withhomework
- combinatorics and probability whole name hidden
- Single and Multivariable Calculus Early Transcendentals
- Fall2016_MATH1105_Syllabus
- Assignment - 2
- popov2
- SyllabusCalc1Fall2013(1)
- concept checklist
- Modul SBP SPM 2014 Perfect Score Add Math
- b.tech Ece Syllabus 2008-09
- Jntuk i Year Syllabus-ece_r16
- Carson User Manual
- The Action of an Unsteady External Load on a Circular Elastic Plate Floating on Shallow Water
- Ploting with Mathematica
- Solution of the Integral of the Square Root of the Tangent of a Number
- Integration
- CourseOutline
- Chapter 07
- pp15
- centroids
- 07 05 Gauss Quadrature
- jurnal 2
- scholarschallenge4
- 15082012115920BAB VIII SWAKELOLA.pdf
- planul-de-afaceri-al-companiei-memoriae.pdf
- 1D-Ecologia.docx
- Post Tension Systems
- Vectores
- Laporan Praktikum Ipa 2 Simbiosis
- GUIAS_FISICOQUIMICA_Fisicoquimica_I_y_II.pdf
- caridokumen.com_sop-identifikasi-amp-lapor-salah-obat-ampkncdocx-.docx
- Zubair Ahmed Article 11.docx
- emaniero
- PDF
- اختبار التربية الإسلامية 2015 2016
- monografía de plastico final.pdf
- review jurnal Penalaran matematis.docx
- ENTAH1
- Flauta niños
- TARWI
- DIEEEO72-2012_MercadoTierrasRaras_GSirventZ.pdf
- Contemporary Marketing 2013 Update 15th Edition Boone Test Bank
- Esquadrias de Aluminio
- Alkes.docx
- Qadha dan Qadar.pdf
- DAFTAR OBAT ANESTESI.docx
- Pengembangan Dan Pemanfaatan Sumber Daya Air Ramah (1) Bab 7
- Decreto_1609_2002 Transporte de Mcia en Carretera
- Icge Vi_herry wahyudi_penang_7-8 May 2018
- ACUERDOS DE CONVIVENCIA EN LA INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA.docx
- 293759569-Daftar-distributor-obat-DPHO-2013-pdf.pdf
- PNL comisión INCREMENTO PLANTILA CAMF
- Unidad de Control SHIPA 2 EN60204-1 (440N-S32021)
- chapt5.pdf
- Romberg Slides
- Lecture 15.pdf
- sol05
- The People Are Peace Owners
- Nagel 2012 - Solving the Generalized Poisson Equation using FDM.pdf
- solution2.pdf
- 5_BlkSch_FDM.pdf
- lectnotes4 numerical integration and differentiation.pdf
- pdenum.pdf
- 2250week6Ch5Page284.pdf
- solution2.pdf
- lecture18.pdf
- lecture29.pdf
- lec31.pdf
- 373soln04
- chapt5.pdf
- diffint.pdf
- 373soln03
- Lecture 7
- ch8
- lecture_2
- Laplace.pdf
- Lecture_Notes_10-Romberg_Integration.pdf
- f4-3.pdf
- lect_4.pdf
- lecture.pdf
- numericalanalysis_ppt
- Answers 9
- For Diff Int

You are on page 1of 10

م

1.00 1.0000

1.10 0.9514

1.20 0.9182

1.30 0.8975

1.40 0.8873

1.50 0.8862

1.60 0.8935

1.70 0.9086

1.80 0.9314

1.90 0.9618

2.00 1.0000

Fig. 1

The equation (2) is a recurrence relationship that leads to the factorial concept. First

observe that if , then (1) can be evaluated, and in particular,

From (2)

If , where is a positive integer, then

(3)

**If is a real number, then is defined by .The value of this
**

identification is in intuitive guidance.

If the recurrence relation (2) is characterized as a differential equation, then the definition

of can be extended to negative real numbers by a process called analytic continuation. The

key idea is that even though is defined in (1) is not convergent for , the relation

allows the meaning to be extended to the interval , and from there to

, and so on.

The factorial notion guides us to information about in more than one way. In

the eighteenth century, Sterling introduced the formula (for positive integer values n)

2

An exact representation of is suggested by the following manipulation of n!.م √ (4) This is called Sterling’s formula and it indicates that n! asymptotically approaches √ for large values of n. therefore. It suggests the possibility that for sufficiently large values of x. This infinite product is symbolized by ∏ ∏ It is called Gauss’s function and through this symbolism.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري. Put (6a) in the form ( ) 3 . This information has proved useful.م.) This factorial representation for positive integers suggests the possibility that (6) Gauss verified this identification back in the nineteenth century. since n! is difficult to calculate for large values of n. (It depends on (n+k)! = (k+n)! Since is fixed the second limit is one. √ (5a) It is known that satisfies the inequality √ √ (5b) Since the factor for large values of x. There is another consequence of Sterling’s formula. (This must be read as an infinite product. ∏ (7) The expression for (which has some advantage in developing the derivative of ) results as follows. the suggested value (5a) of is consistent with (5b).

.م.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري. a few of which are By letting the representation (6) can be further modified so that ⁄ ⁄ ∏ ∏ ⁄ ⁄ ∏ Since ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ∏ (9) ⁄ ⁄ Another result of special interest emanates from a comparison of with the ‘‘famous’’ formula { } ∏ { } (10) is obtained from by letting . introduce Then is Euler’s constant. or Now use (8) to produce ({ ∏ }) ( ∏ ) ∏ Thus (11a) 4 . This constant has been calculated to many places.م Next.e. i.

It follows that ∫ (14a) This result can be obtained (after making assumptions about the interchange of differentiation with limits) by taking the logarithm of both sides of (9) and then differentiating.م.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري.م Observe that (11) yields the result () √ (11b) Another exact representation of is √ { } (12) The method of obtaining this result is closely related to Sterling’s asymptotic series for the gamma function. ( is the Euler's constant. . It helps to recall that ∫ and that if then Therefore. They are obtained by differentiating (with respect to the parameter) under the integral sign. The duplication formula is ( ) √ (13a) The duplication formula is a special case of the following product formula: ( ) ( ) ( ) (13b) It can be shown that the gamma function has continuous derivatives of all orders. In particular.) (14b) It also may be shown that ( ) ( ) ( ) (15) Example 1: Prove that Solution: ∫ Put ∫ [ ] Proved 5 .

م Example 2: Prove that (i) (ii) Solution: (i) ∫ Integrating by parts.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري. (a) (b) (c) 6 .م. we have [ ] ∫ [ ] ∫ ··········() Replacing by Proved (ii) Replace by in () we get Putting the value in () we get Similarly ··········() Putting the value of in () we have: Replacing by we have Proved Example 3: Evaluate each of the following.

...م (d) Example 4: Evaluate ∫ √ √ Solution: Let ∫ √ ...GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري. Example 7: Prove that ( ) √ Solution: ( ) ∫ Letting thus integral becomes ∫ 7 .م.. (1) Putting √ or in (1) we get ∫ ∫ ( ) ( ) √ Ans........... we get ∫ ∫ By definition ( ) ( ) √ Ans..... Example 5: Evaluate ∫ √ √ Solution: Let ∫ √ √ ... Example 6: Evaluate ∫ Solution: Let ∫ .......... (1) Putting √ or in (1).......... (1) √ Putting or √ √ Thus (1) becomes ∫ ( ) √ ∫ ∫ √ () Ans......

GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري.2).م.م Let ∫ ∫ let the required value of the integral. we have ∬ ∬ (1) Where and are the regions in the first quadrant bounded by the circles having radii and √ respectively. Using polar coordinates. √ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ (2) Or (3) Then taking the limit as in (3).2 1. Since integrand is positive. we have from (1). Then ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∬ Where is the square of side (see Fig. we find ⁄ and √ ⁄ Then √ ( ) ∫ ( ) √ Proved Homework Fig. Evaluate each integral: a) ∫ b) ∫ c) ∫ d) ∫ √ e) ∫ f) ∫ √ 8 .

3. this is a proper integral. Evaluate ∫ [ ( )] THE BETA FUNCTION The beta function is a two-parameter composition of gamma functions that has been useful enough in application to gain its own name. Its definition is: ∫ (1) If and . and either or both 1 or . the integral is improper but convergent. Two of special interest are: ∫ (3) ∫ (4) Example 1: Prove that (a) (b) ∫ Solution: a) Using the transformation . It is shown in Example No.م.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري. we have ∫ ∫ ( ) ∫ Example 2: Prove that 9 .م 2.2 that the beta function can be expressed through gamma functions in the following way (2) Many integrals can be expressed through beta and gamma functions. we have ∫ ∫ ∫ b) Using the transformation . Evaluate ∫ 5. Evaluate ∫ where are positive constants. Evaluate: a) ( ⁄ ) b) ( ⁄ ) 4. If .

1 and No. ∫ Then (∫ )(∫ ) ∫ ∫ Transforming to polar coordinates.2 we show that: ∫ Example 3: Evaluate each of the following integrals. Proved From example No. ∫ ∫ (∫ ) (∫ ) (∫ ) Thus.م.م Solution: Letting we have ∫ ∫ Similarity.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري.e. ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Then the required integral has the value ⁄ b) Letting the required integral has the value 01 . a) ∫ b) ∫ √ Letting the integral becomes √ (⁄) √ √ ∫ √ ∫ √ ( ) √ ( ) c) ∫ √ Letting or √ the integral becomes ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ∫ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Example 4: Evaluate (a)∫ (b) ∫ (c) ∫ a) Let i.

Evaluate: a) ∫ ⁄ ⁄ b) ∫ √ ⁄ c) ∫ d) ) ∫ 00 .م c) The given integral ∫ ⁄ ⁄ Thus letting the required integral has the value Homework 1. Evaluate (a) (b) ⁄ (c) ⁄ ⁄ 2. Find: a) ∫ b) ∫ ( √ ) ⁄ c) ∫ d) ∫ √ ⁄ ⁄ e) ∫ 3.م.GAMMA AND BETA FUNCTIONS حممد جاسم الشكري.

- differentiation examples sort 433 answersUploaded byapi-241619704
- CSL102Uploaded byShashank Kushwah
- JoelUploaded bySonjoy Saha
- Fundamental of Calculus (Presentation Slide)AUploaded byJosephineSinaga
- Anti DerivativesUploaded byZain Ulabideen
- Secodary Mathematics Express, Normal. & Vocational (More......)Uploaded byThesok Kumar Nagaratennam
- Lazy EvaluationUploaded byNeev Tighnavard
- Math 1109 FinalVersion Spring 2016withhomeworkUploaded byJohn Beezly
- combinatorics and probability whole name hiddenUploaded byapi-255303924
- Single and Multivariable Calculus Early TranscendentalsUploaded bylyf
- Fall2016_MATH1105_SyllabusUploaded byAmin Abdellaoui
- Assignment - 2Uploaded bymaspf201
- popov2Uploaded bySapta Wae
- SyllabusCalc1Fall2013(1)Uploaded byAnonymous 8dvZH6ac
- concept checklistUploaded byapi-317922107
- Modul SBP SPM 2014 Perfect Score Add MathUploaded byCikgu Faizal
- b.tech Ece Syllabus 2008-09Uploaded byVelagala Vivek
- Jntuk i Year Syllabus-ece_r16Uploaded byratnams
- Carson User ManualUploaded bydad1968
- The Action of an Unsteady External Load on a Circular Elastic Plate Floating on Shallow WaterUploaded bymrmoh3n
- Ploting with MathematicaUploaded byomitsaras
- Solution of the Integral of the Square Root of the Tangent of a NumberUploaded byMark
- IntegrationUploaded byAmreen Meeajun
- CourseOutlineUploaded byAli Faycal
- Chapter 07Uploaded byTonee Cruz
- pp15Uploaded byTushaarKumar
- centroidsUploaded byAnthony Abel De Calito
- 07 05 Gauss QuadratureUploaded byJohn Bofarull Guix
- jurnal 2Uploaded byDewi Ichu TauruSs
- scholarschallenge4Uploaded byapi-255402067

- chapt5.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- Romberg SlidesUploaded byTeferi
- Lecture 15.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- sol05Uploaded byTeferi
- The People Are Peace OwnersUploaded byTeferi
- Nagel 2012 - Solving the Generalized Poisson Equation using FDM.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- solution2.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- 5_BlkSch_FDM.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lectnotes4 numerical integration and differentiation.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- pdenum.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- 2250week6Ch5Page284.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- solution2.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lecture18.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lecture29.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lec31.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- 373soln04Uploaded byTeferi
- chapt5.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- diffint.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- 373soln03Uploaded byTeferi
- Lecture 7Uploaded byTeferi
- ch8Uploaded byTeferi
- lecture_2Uploaded byTeferi
- Laplace.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- Lecture_Notes_10-Romberg_Integration.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- f4-3.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lect_4.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- lecture.pdfUploaded byTeferi
- numericalanalysis_pptUploaded byTeferi
- Answers 9Uploaded byTeferi
- For Diff IntUploaded byTeferi