Integrals (2

):
Gamma Function
Lecture 15
Dr. Amr Bayoumi
Spring 2015
Arab Academy for Science and Technology - Cairo

1994 Dr. 2nd Ed.” Fourier Analysis with Applications to Boundary Value Problems”. McGraw-Hill... Kreyszig.R. 1999 • M. Bronson. “ Differential in Equations”. Amr Bayoumi.Lec. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 2 . “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”.Spiegel. References • E. Schaum’s Outlines Series. McGraw-Hill • R. 8th Ed. Schaum’s Outlines Series.Spring 2015.

Amr Bayoumi.Lec. Outline • Definition of Gamma Functions • Properties of Gamma Functions • Integrals using Gamma Functions • Bessel Functions using Gamma Functions Dr.Spring 2015. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 3 .

Amr Bayoumi.Lec. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 4 .Spring 2015. Definition of Gamma Function Γ ? ∞ Γ(?) = ? −? ? ?−1 ?? 0 • ? ≠ 0 can be any positive or negative real or complex number • Used to get factorials of non-integer numbers • Evaluated using tables for small ? Dr.

Spring 2015. Amr Bayoumi.Lec. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 5 . Special Gamma Function Γ ? ∞ −? 0 ∞ −? ∞ • Γ 1 = ? ? ?? = ? ?? = −? −? = 0 − −1 = 1 0 0 0 • Γ 0 → ????????? 1 • Γ = ? 2 Dr.

Lec. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 6 .Spring 2015. Amr Bayoumi. Properties of Gamma Function ∞ ∞ Γ ?+1 = ? −? ? ? ?? = ? ? ?(−? −? ) 0 0 ∞ ∞ Integrate by parts: Γ ? + 1 = (−? −? ) ? ? − −? −? ?(? ? ) 0 0 ∞ =0+? ? −? ? ?−1 ?? = ?Γ ? 0 Γ ? + 1 = ?Γ ? Dr.

Lec.physicsforums. Properties of Gamma Function (2) Γ ?+1 Γ ? + 1 = ?Γ ? → Γ ? = ? Γ 0+1 1 1 →Γ 0 = → lim+ + = +∞. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 7 .489613/ Dr. lim− − = −∞ 0 ?→0 0 ?→0 0 For negative ? = ? − 1. Amr Bayoumi.com/threads/gamma-function-on-negative-fractions. ? ≠ 0: Γ ? Γ ? =Γ ?−1 = ?−1 Γ 0 ±∞ → Γ −1 = Γ 0 − 1 = = 0 − 1 −1 1 1 1 Γ 1 →Γ − =Γ −1 = 2 = −2Γ = −2 ? 2 2 1 2 −1 2 Check for example: https://www.Spring 2015.

5625 ? Dr.5)Γ 0.5)(1. Amr Bayoumi. Γ(3) = 2Γ(2) = 2! For n=integer: Γ(? + 1) = ?! For any ? = ? + ?. where ? > 0 is not an integer: Γ ? =Γ ?+? = ?+?−1 Γ ?+?−1 = ?+?−1 ?+?−2 Γ ?+?−2 Γ ? + ? = (? + ? − 1)(? + ? − 2) … (? + 1)Γ(? + 1) Example: Γ 4. Generalization of Factorials using Gamma Function Γ 2 = 1 Γ 1 = 1!.Lec.Spring 2015.5 = 5.5)(2.5)(0. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 8 .5 = (3.

Plots of Γ(?) Source: http://en.org/wiki/Gamma_function Dr.Lec. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 9 .Spring 2015.wikipedia. Amr Bayoumi.

for Energy ? = ?? to ? → ∞: ∞ ?1 = ? − ?? ? −(?−?? ) ?(? − ?? ) ?−??=0 Using ? = ? − ?? ∞ ∞ 3 3 (2−1) → ?1 = ? 1/2 ? −? ?? = =Γ −? ? ? ?? 0 0 2 = Γ 1 + 0.5 Γ 0.Spring 2015. Amr Bayoumi. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 10 . Example Integrals Using Γ(?) • Example: Integral used to calculate number of conduction electrons in semiconductors.5 = 0.Lec.5 = ?/2 Dr.

Lec.1.4.1. ?. 2. … ?. ?2 = 0.9. 15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 11 . Reminder: Bessel’s Function of First Kind for ? = ?? = ? = ? = ??????? General Formula (? = ? = 0. … ): (−1)? ?2? = ?0 22? ?! ?+1 ?+2 … ?+? 1 a0 is an arbitrary coeff. typically expressed as: ?0 = ? 2 ?! (−1)? ?2? = 2?+? 2 ?! ? + ? ! One of the solutions of Bessel’s Equation is Bessel’s Function of First Kind of order ?: ∞ −1 ? ? 2? ?? ? = ? ? 22?+? ?! ? + ? ! ?=0 Where ? = ? = ??????? Dr. Amr Bayoumi..Spring 2015.

15 EC760 Advanced Engineering Mathematics 12 . Amr Bayoumi.Lec.Spring 2015. Application to ? ? in Bessel Function when ? = ?? = ?? = ? ≠ ??????? (−1)? (−1)? ?2? = 2? ?0 → ?0 2 ?! ?+1 ?+2 … ?+? 22? ?! ?+1 ?+2 … ?+? 1 1 ?0 = ? → ? 2 ?! 2 Γ(? + 1) (−1)? (−1)? ?2? = → 22?+? ?! ?+? ! 22?+? ?!Γ(?+?+1) One of the Solutions of Bessel’s Function (including ? = 0): ? 2 ? ′′ + ?? ′ + ?2 − ?2 ? = 0 is Bessel’s Function of First Kind of order ? : ∞ −1 ? ? 2? ?? ? = ? ? 22?+? ?! Γ(? + ? + 1) ?=0 Dr.