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NSWC TR 84-204

A THEORETICAL VIEW ON THE STRESS ANALYSIS
OF FULLY INFLATED PARACHUTE CANOPIES

BY W. P. LUDTKE

UNDERWATER SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT

28 MAY 1984

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER
Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 • Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

TL752
X8187
1984

LINDA HALL LIBRARY
Science Engineering Technology

'v-Mi'MKgg

LINDA HALL LIBRARY

3 3690 00617 2307 J

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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM
1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER

NSWC TR 8 4 - 2 0 4
4. T I T L E (end Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED
A THEORETICAL VIEW ON THE STRESS ANALYSIS OF
FULLY INFLATED PARACHUTE CANOPIES
6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

7. AUTHORS 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERfsJ

W. P . Ludtke

9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK
AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS
Naval Surface Weapons Center (U13)
0&M5 N
White Oak 4U15MA
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
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28 May 1984
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75
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18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide if nec@®a®ry mid Identify by block number)
Parachute Stress analysis
Cloth stress Pressure distribution
Canopy shape
Force distribution

20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeesry &nd identify by block number)
This report describes a theoretical approach to the analysis of the
force distribution in fully inflated parachute canopies based upon the
inflated gore mainseam shape. Normal and tangential forces for any
arbitrary point along the gore mainseam can be determined and the magnitude
and location of the maximum normal force and cloth stress evaluated.
Methods, CjJlt©iTX3. g and rationale for calculating the force distributions
are presented.

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MO . ' ' • • / 'GEORGE KALAF. Normal and tangential forces for any arbitrary point along the gore mainseam can be determined and the magnitude and location of the maximum normal force and cloth stress evaluated. NSWC TR 84-204 FOREWORD This report describes a theoretical approach to the analysis of the force distribution in fully inflated parachute canopies based upon the inflated gore mainseam shape. Methods. -fiead Mine Warfare Division i/ii UNDA HALL LIBRARY KANSAS CITY. criteria. Approved by: / / . and rationale for calculating the force distributions are presented.

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. . . . . DETERMINATION OF THE FORCE TANGENT TO THE BILLOWED CLOTH AT THE LOAD i . . .2 0 4 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . L i N L . . . CANOPY STEADY STATE INFLATED SHAPE . . . . . t_i IV o a e a B a s a a e a B S B e a a s e o e e o s B o o n a a CANOPY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION . . j a e s s B a e s B a o a B a e o a e o g e s a s s a B S B O s a MINIMUM TANGENTIAL FORCE . . . . . . NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE LOAD LINE . . . . LOAD-LINE CONCEPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOADING PER UNIT ARC LENGTH . . . . . . . . . NOMENCLATURE iii/iv . . REFERENCES . . DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NSWC TR 8 4 . . . . . . . . . J . . . . TANGENTIAL FORCE IN THE CANOPY CLOTH AT AN ARBITRARY POINT ON THE LOAD i-f J_ IN £li a o a e * a a a a e e a s a a » e e B s B B e s a s 8 a a s a a FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH OF SOLID CLOTH PARACHUTES . . . . . . . . EXAMPLE 1: STRESS ANALYSIS OF A 24-GORE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF 24-FOOT LJ _L t\x 1X-J A. FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH OF RINGSLOT PARACHUTES COMMENTS ON WIND TUNNEL TESTING . . . THE FULLY INFLATED STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPARISON OF THE NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE LOAD LINE AND THE DRAG FORCE PER SUSPENSION LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . 8 6 COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR ELLIPTICAL ARC LENGTH 9 7 CANOPY LOAD LINE NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS AS FUNCTIONS OF dl3 FOR 16-GORE 24-PERCENT GEOMETRICALLY POROUS RIBBON Ik CANOPY LOAD-LINE NORMAL-FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS AS FUNCTIONS OF dB FOR 16 SUSPENSION LINE CROSS PARACHUTE 13 8 DIAGRAM FOR NORMAL FORCE SUMMATION 14 9 BILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR AN ARBITRARY POINT ON THE LOAD XjJ-lNl-J o o o e o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o e o o J_ O 10 BILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR MINIMUM STRESS 20 11 COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL FLAT CIRCULAR PARACHUTE GORE LAYOUT AND MINIMUM CLOTH STRESS GORE CONFIGURATION . . . . o o o o o J J 22 UNBILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF t-i A / \ . . 32 19 WIND TUNNEL TEST PHOTOGRAPH OF THE 24-GORE 16-PERCENT GEOMETRICALLY POROUS PARACHUTE OF TABLE 2 . . 35 21 CIRCUMFERENTIAL RIBBON HEM RAKE ANGLES VERSUS PERCENT OF CxORE L E N O T H O B o e e o o e e e o o s o u . 22 13 VARIATION OF MINIMUM CLOTH STRESS GORE GEOMETRY AS A FUNCTION OF GORE LENGTH 23 14 GORE BILLOW FOR 29 = 180 DEGREES 26 15 TRANSCENDENTAL EQUATION 9/SIN 9 SOLUTION AS A FUNCTION OF 9 . O 24 NORMAL FORCE PER UNIT OF GORE LENGTH VERSUS PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 49 25 EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE GORE BILLOW ANGLE FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 50 26 EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE CANOPY CLOTH RADIUS OF CURVATURE FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 51 v . r l IT J_I£J X o o o o o e o o B O O o a s o o o o o o o o o s a o o 4 1 23 BILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF iltXAIVlir L i E l o o o o e e o o O o i > 9 ( J ( ? o o e o < . . 21 12 EFFECT OF EXCESS CLOTH BILLOW ON RADIUS OF CURVATURE . . . . . . . . . . 28 16 SHAPE OF AN INFLATED GORE REPRODUCED FROM REF ( 4 ) 29 17 EFFECT OF ANGLE 4 ON THE CLOTH TANGENTIAL FORCE STRESS 30 18 FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH . 7 5 INFLATED PARACHUTE PROFILE SHAPES FOR EQUAL DRAG AREA CROSS TYPE CANOPY VERSUS A 16-GORE 24-PERCENT GEOMETRICALLY POROUS RIBBON CANOPY . . . . 1 PARACHUTE STEADY STATE INFLATED SHAPE 3 2 VISUALIZATION OF THE LOAD-LINE CONCEPT 5 3 FORCE DIAGRAM AT AN ARBITRARY POINT ALONG THE LOAD LINE 6 4 SIMPLIFIED FORCE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . NSWC TR 8 4 . . . . . . B O o i . o e o » M. . . .2 0 4 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure ZjLH6. . . . . . 34 20 HEM FORCES IN A RINGSLOT PARACHUTE CIRCUMFERENTIAL RIBBON .

vi . .) CANOPY CLOTH TANGENTIAL FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH VERSUS PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 . . EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE ANGLE <|> AND STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 ESTIMATED STATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS ALONG THE GORE LENGTH FOR BILLOWED AND UNBILLOWED GORES FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 . NSWC TR 84-204 ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont. . .

. . NSWC TR 8 4 . . 58 vii/viii . 56 10 EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE CANOPY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION .2 0 4 TABLES Table Page 1 SUMMARY OF PARACHUTE SHAPE TEST RESULTS FOR 12-GORE AND 16-GORE CONFIGURATIONS 4 2 SUMMARY OF PARACHUTE SHAPE TEST RESULTS FOR 24-GORE AND 30-GORE CONFIGURATIONS 4 3 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION OF AXIAL FORCE 16 4 BILLOW CONFIGURATIONS AND EFFECTS 25 5 EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF GORES ON THE CANOPY CLOTH FORCE LEVELS OF SOLID CLOTH PARACHUTES 31 6 STRESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY OF THE 24-FOOT. 24-GORE RINGSLOT PARACEUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 37 7 TENSILE FORCES IN THE HEM OF THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL RINGS AND TEARING FORCES AT THE GORE MAINSEAM OF THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 39 8 ACCURACY OF ARC LENGTH CALCULATIONS FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF d(3/2 43 9 RANGE OF AVERAGE STEADY STATE CANOPY PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS . . .

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the suspension-line length. surfaces. 2. radii of curvature. This can be accomplished from photographs by the use of descriptive geometry or by the methods of References 1. Faced with the many angles. CANOPY STEADY STATE INFLATED SHAPE One analysis requirement is that the coordinates of the inflated mainseam and the slope of the tangent to the coordinates be known. At this point the parachute canopy is reintroduced into the analysis. The inflated shape of the mainseam-suspension line system is caused by a distribution of forces which are normal to the mainseam at all points along the arc from the canopy hem to the vent. we can record the effects of the normal force distribution. the inflated mainseam-suspension line system shape. i.e. The forces in the canopy cloth are transmitted through the gore mainseams and suspension lines to the attached payload. I have attempted to devise a simple method of analysis. and the variation of canopy geometry on forces assessed. Methods for analysis of the canopy geometry and force distributions are presented. and the applied aerodynamic forces. A coordinate system related to the tangent angle between the gore mainseam and the parachute center line is used to calculate the magnitude of the canopy normal force. and a method of estimating a static canopy pressure distribution is suggested. Once the geometry of the inflated mainseam shape has been determined theoretically the rest of the parachute canopy may be temporarily discarded and the normal force distribution required along the mainseam in order to yield the particular inflated shape calculated. Reference 1 presents methods for determining inflated gore coordinates and angles. maximum loads determined. tangent force. NSWC TR 84-204 INTRODUCTION The complexity of analyzing the force distribution in a parachute is as much a psychological problem as it is technical. References 2 and 3 demonstrated that the steady state inflated gore mainseam shapes of several parachute types consist of 1 . and the coordinates of application.. and the force distributions in the canopy surface calculated at any arbitrary point. While the normal force distribution along the canopy mainseam-suspension line system cannot be directly measured. or 3. the engineer can at first feel overwhelmed. The technique is derived from the "law of strings" and is based upon the premise that the parachute inflated shape is developed from the interaction of the canopy-gore shape. and three dimensional awesomeness of the inflated parachute structure. With this in mind.

it seems reasonable to assume that if applied distributed forces determine a parachute's inflated shape that the converse should be possible. and for values of X less than zero the minor axis (b) must be utilized. Theoretically the parachute canopy may now be temporarily discarded. 2 + i2i = i en b a tan B = . the suspension-line length and confluence point define a particular parachute's characteristic steady state inflated shape and transient shape during the inflation process. Therefore. £?. the geometry of the canopy gores.ll\" I (2) The parameter of variation in the analysis is the tangent angle B. conical. and scale factors for determining the inflated shape ar|e reproduced from References 2 and 3 in Tables 1 and 2. The canopy shapes of References 2 and 3 are to be used in the analysis as they permit the expression of the inflated shape as y = f(x) and the slope angle B = f'(x). flat. LOAD-LINE CONCEPT The aerodynamic drag force exerted by the parachute is a predictable and measurable quantity. the load line is perpendicular to the parachute center line at the vent.. The gore mainseam-suspension line assembly is theoretically replaced by a single "load line" having the identical inflated shape and anchored at points A and B of Figure 2.. The generalized inflated gore mainseam is illustrated in Figure 1. etc.e. The angle B varies between defined limits from B 0 at the canopy hem to the vent angle B v . when the shape of the gore mainseam is known the force distribution which produces this shape can be analytically determined. It should be noted in all calculations that for values of X greater than zero the minor axis b' must be utilized. Relative to this coordinate system the inflated canopy shape is defined by equations (1) and (2). 2a. That is. and different minor diameters b and b'. Upon determination of the normal forces and load distribution. For a flat type of parachute. The equilibrium between the applied aerodynamic forces. but the analysis is not limited by this. NSWC TR 84-204 two elliptical sections of common major diameter. the X axis of the system. NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE LOAD LINE The X-Y coordinate system is illustrated in Figure 1. i. which is determined by the type of parachute. The "load-line" concept is proposed as an aid to visualizing the problem. and the variation of canopy geometry on forces assessed. maximum forces determined. the forces into the canopy cloth from the load line can be calculated at any arbitrary point.e. 2 . i.

< Ml < > a UJ o < < (D 3 .NSWC TR 84-204 Q.

5980 .48S3 Ribbon 24% 24 34 25 37 .€$®4 30 34 100 147 .5800 .8126 1.6566 .670 .8735 1.4148 16 34 100 147 .769 3 8 0 1.729 .4020 1"' 100 10% E x t e n d s * * 24 34 147 .1006 REPRODUCED F R O M R E F E R E N C E 2 TABLE 2.4484 30 34.856 .673 .665 .8817 1.782 .2776 2.671 .8494 1.4082 Skirl » 34 .4932 16 ^4 BO 73 .8768 1.8187 1.4167 Geom©?3"Jcsa!y 24 34 100 147 .1006 47 100 147 .9053 1.8463 1.110 .6021 .854 .8494 1.242 .825 .206 .1643 34 200 293 .285 . SUMMARY OF PARACHUTE SHAPE TEST RESULTS FOR 12-GORE AND 16-GORE CONFIGURATIONS Pis/achuta Ha.B44 .530 16 3".657 .784 .996 1. 200 293 .922 .2512 2.6004 .710 3 4 3 1.8735 1.8578 1.654 785 5580 8502 1.5570 .00 147 .994 1.678 513 .696 M09 .5800 .824 .785 £758 .663 659 .698 . K Axes R a t i o ' lypw Gorss U n § Length mpli fpi 21 N ii b' b b' inches D l 6 F i I If z + = FG^t Circulars 24 34 » 50 73 .877 .6566 .8890 1.4853 Porous 24 ?A 200 293 6B4 .626 . t®WTc4 phosocprsp-hs yye-r® t a k e n at @sch £ .679 J123 .4167 30 34 37 .8867 1.645 .9129 .820 .819 .650 .5326 Porosity 12 34 200 293 .254 1.804 J5980 J187 1.1643 -11 .848 .640 Floptical 12 34 75 •no .663 .6S4 .5558 903S 1.845 .678 .5570 .2512 2.7962 1.686 .8578 1.8004 .878 .9053 1.817 .3884 30 34 17 2S .530 16% G e o m e t r i c 12 34 100 147 .8735 1.669 .1643 47 25 37 .685 .699 JS00 .540 1.185 .p ^ d .837 .776 3 9 2 1..8890 1.880 . IMSWC TR 84-204 TABLE !. o f Suspension Velocity Stele F &c&or.632 .881 6424 .8463 1.658 .2776 2. e/1 £u& p s m i o n Velocity S-cii 1 e Fgctor.5326 24% GeomsSrk 12 34 100 147 .797 .4853 SO 34 200 293 .682 .679 .5570 .S053 1.8578 1.632 .791 .B053 1.5980 .827 .6115 .2776 2.6021 .669 .5326 16 34 25 37 .5800 .9380 1.6558 .6-03 .8463 1.802 .586 . SUMMARY OF PARACHUTE SHAPE TEST RESULTS FOR 24-GORE AND 30-GORE CONFIGURATIONS Psr©c&iu?9 Uo.0005 .8768 1.875 .44S4 °St*^Sis t h b p-sraehtjts w m "forBathing™ d u r m g 4H--3 test.618 .617 .698 .90B5 16 34 76 110 .827 .4894 Ribbon 12 34 26 37 .8053 1.4597 1U*fe E>uar>d©d 12 34 '.770 .7806 1.665 .4853 G©cm®?rse^ly 24 34 100 147 .2S12 2.655 .4853 30 34 100 147 .530 Poroaity 12 34 200 283 . 2 6 4 34 100 147 .633 .603 .800 6169 8163 1.687 .607 .8887 1.5949 .677 .5800 .6558 . K A EEI hetio Typs Go? 91 Ling Length 21 2i 2« 2i H b b' b b' mcSiaa rnp^i fps D D D L 8 I ? a a o F fl Fie? Circular 12 34 60 73 . REPRODUCED FROM REFERENCE 3 4 .663 .0657 1 5283 16 34 1V 26 .547 1.650 .811 .864 .4148 CroBl Cbut® 34 28 37 .6021 .864 .663 . The d s t n were FeaJucsd f r o m t h e p h o t o g r a p h whsc£a most F&E&wwibiy mp%mm®d to represmn tbs Mfuiiebfiiim siMtm.4894 16 34 200 283 .§50 .113 .557 1.668 .648 J) 34 .677 .5676 .8768 1.788 .5 BOO .9053 1.4332 Hsmiipherjcri 12 M '125 183 .859 .707 .637 .4894 16 34 100 147 .8867 1.6860 1.8509 Rtnpiio! 12 34 26 37 .6214 .881 .8494 1.6566 .1006 47 200 293 .816 .695 .4167 ftWQ'JR 24 34 2tX) 293 .8890 1.9080 1.4853 30 25 37 .4148 16 34 200 293 .§74 .4127 R i n s SloS 1 6 % 24 34 25 37 .8187 1.5284 17 25 .781 .6004 .4720 Shirt 30 34 17 26 .853 .5800 .6255 .8771 1.877 .652 .918 .716 .816 . .689 .270 . 25 37 .6558 .

LI. NSWC TR 84-21K a UJ ec o O a: ii. u. U. o O f. ^ u. < o < So > UJ QC > -* . KSi COS < s a.<w z II ii II o Q . o < D iN a . O a u- «t UJ cc z D j " 2? tr a 3 -- x «S .

NSWC TR 84-204 The presence of a force normal to the load line results in a change in direction of the load line and the force tangent to the load line. approaches SFfq and is assumed to be applied at the coordinate (Xjvj. The force diagram for a small change in B is illustrated in Figure 3 between two arbitrary points. This seems reasonable as dB approaches zero. FORCE DIAGRAM AT AN ARBITRARY POINT ALONG THE LOAD LINE points and makes equal angles dB/2 with the tangential force of each coordinate point. A simplified force system is shown in Figure 4. EF^/F^. The important conclusion of Equation 4 is that the normal force distribution as a percentage of the suspension-line load F^ is dependent only upon the angular change dB. Y N ) . is constant and is the same for all types of parachutes. (x^. The highest unit loading occurs in the region of the maximum inflated diameter where dA/dB is a minimum. The load line loading in pounds per unit of arc length varies along the load line as the subtended arc length varies for a constant angular dB. 6 . For a constant dB along the load line the normal force distribution. Y N ) is located between the two arbitrary FIGURE 3. dl. The coordinate (Xjq. y\) and (*2> v 2 ^ * As dB approaches zero the summation of the normal forces over the arc length. The construction of the normal at equal deflection angles is equivalent to assuming a constant tension along the load line. The theoretical discontinuity of the normal force distribution at the maximum diameter is caused by the substitution of b for b 1 in the elliptic inflated shape (Equation 1 ) .

Fn> of the Cross and Ribbon Parachutes are equal.264. The suspension-line loads. is identical for both canopies for a constant dfl as shown by Equation (4). It is not necessary to calculate the entire arc length to determine local loading. The elliptic shape (Equations (l) and (2)) is restated to present the x and y coordinates as functions of B. The steady state drag forces. it is necessary to calculate the arc length between the chosen limits. 7 . the appropriate minor diameter. di. The ratio of normal force to suspension-line load. b.F2 COS d£ = 0 (3) * N 2 2 F ! =F2 (3a) 2 COSf3r 2F = 2F. SIMPLIFIED FORCE SYSTEM LOADING PER UNIT ARC LENGTH The variation in the inflated load-line shape and suspension-line confluence angle among the several types of parachutes accounts for different loadings per unit length even though the normal force distribution is the same. Two methods are available. 16 suspension line Cross Type Parachute of Reference 2 for equal drag areas.. F^. over the angular change d(3 need be considered. One method of accomplishing this is to express the x and y coordinates as a function of B as 13 varies from B 0 at the skirt hem to the B v at the vent. In order to calculate the unit arc length loading in pounds per inch. the following conclusions may be drawn: a.2 0 4 ny 2 F 2 F x = F1 COS d/3 . are slightly different due to the variation m ft o' c. S I N d | 3 =0 y IM 1 _ 1 _ 2 SF (4) N. = 2SINdj3 FIGURE 4. SF^/F^. Figure 5 compares the inflated shapes of the 16-gore Ribbon Parachute and the W/L = 0.2 F . and the semi-major diameter. NSWC TR 8 4 . Only the local arc length. . For a given dynamic pressure.

INFLATED PARACHUTE PROFILE SHAPES FOR EQUAL DRAG AREA CROSS TYPE CANOPY VERSUS A 16-GORE. ft* 100.56 b. f t * 201. 24-PERCENT GEOMETRICALLY POROUS RIBBON CANOPY .3 OUTLINE S0.78 L s /D 0 1. ft 4.589 C D S 0 . f t 19.53 2a.45 6.0 RIBBON CANOPY L.7 cD 0. L s = 34 INCHES FIGURE 5.89 4.5 0.05 6.5 14. ft 10.0 L s /L 1.06 170. f t 2.4 PROFILE SHAPE DATA TAKEN FROM TABLE 1 FOR 200 MPH TEST VELOCITY.37 10.74 N.53 100.0 0o« D e 9 17. f t 4. PARACHUTE CROSS CANOPY OUTLINE RIBBON CROSS o0.68 b'.n 16.

Y N ) h(Si . t h e e l l i p t i c a r c l e n g t h b e t w e e n B^ and B 2 c a n be determined as f o l l o w s . NSWC TR 8 4 . ii) 2 With r e f e r e n c e t o F i g u r e 6 . Y2) g ( S l ~ dB) (X N . COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR ELLIPTICAL ARC LENGTH I -Cf^j dx 9 .2 0 4 (5) •y1 + tan 2 B ( . b' FIGURE 6. YL) f(6i) (X2.b ) Y = ± a (6) and (xx.

Equation (7) can be used to calculate the total arc length from the canopy hem to the maximum diameter and from the maximum diameter to the vent by using appropriate b or b 1 . Effects of elongation due to F]. 2 -X 2 where x^ and X2 are determined from Equation (5). may not be fully accounted for. c. Errors in measurement may exist when taking canopy shapes from relatively small photographs.2 _ x2 therefore dY\ = /a" \ X dX/ lb'/ b .2_ x2 and . 10 .2 / \4/ \ 2 dX/ lb'/ lY from Equation (1) 1 _ b'\ 1 2 la/ b ._ /¥\2 X dX b' Y . Canopy shape may not be truly described by y = f(x). NSWC TR 84-204 from Equation (2) dY .JU -X d / *=/ V1 + ff^ 2 -^T dx T (7) aL XL \b / b . b. Some of the reasons for this are: a. Total arc lengths calculated by Equation (7) have varied from measured arc lengths as much as 6 percent.

The minimum unit load line forces occur in the parachute vent area. the maximum canopy cloth stresses are shown to likely occur in the vent area. (9b) o 1 . in Figures 16 and 17. (8) The arc length can be calculated to any desired accuracy by successive iterations of Equation (8) and subdividing the constant arc length Al to smaller Ax and Ay. = F-i CosB. in Figures 7 and 7A. the gore width at 40 percent of the mainseam length should be the same as the drawing layout even though the measured mainseam is in error by a small amount. Angles R^ were selected at 1°. NSWC TR 84-204 The effects of the above conditions can be minimized when translating inflated mainseam measurements to drawing gore coordinates by using percentages of mainseam length. 20° 80° and 90° and arc lengths calculated over the B range of 8f( + 1 degree. 10°. The appropriate limits of x\ and x? are again determined from Equation (5) and the y coordinates from Equation (1) then dl = f (X -Xi) 2 : + (Y 2 -Y 1 ) > . F A = ZFNCos(90°-BN) (9) FA FNCos(90°-BN)] (9a) -P. A truly hemispherical canopy would have constant normal force and unit loading over the canopy. the parachute drag force per suspension line. 2F^. £Fjv]/F]_. The maximum normal forces occur at the maximum inflated diameter for both parachutes. Figure 8 illustrates the force diagram used for the normal force summation. Comparison of the Cross and Ribbon Parachute loadings illustrates that the elliptic nature of the Ribbon Parachute causes a wider variation in loading per inch of arc length than the more nearly hemispherical Cross Parachute for the same load line normal force loading. However. of the normal forces at each ftN. COMPARISON OF THE NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE LOAD LINE AND THE DRAG FORCE PER SUSPENSION LINE If the developed normal force distribution is a realistic analysis. The second method can be used to estimate short arc lengths with a desk calculator. This was the method used to calculate the load-line loading per inch of arc length SF^/FidA. must be equivalent to the summation of the axial components. For example. Fj)/Z.

24-PERCENT GEOMETRICALLY POROUS RIBBON PARACHUTE 12 . FIGURE 7.5° LOAD LINE LOADING PER INCH OF ARC LENGTH £FN <d£)F. -d/3 = 1.5 j3 0 = 17.5° -80 I i l_Li I J_ ->-X 08 04 I 02 -40 -20 20 LOADING SCALE LOAD LINE h 1 Zcos^o /L=17. CANOPY LOAD LINE NORMAL FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS AS FUNCTIONS OF dj3 FOR THE 16-GORE.

F PER INCH OF ARC LENGTH F~£- (diJF. CANOPY LOAD-LINE NORMAL-FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS AS FUNCTIONS OF dj3 FOR THE 16 SUSPENSION LINE CROSS PARACHUTE 13 . FIGURE 7A. FOR dj3 = 2° LOAD LINE LOADING y.

1° = 17 14 .2 0 4 FIGURE 8.B N ~ Bg dB B£ = 18° . DIAGRAM FOR MORMAL FORCE SUMMATION FN = 2 F ! s i n dB (3) Therefore. NSWC TR 8 4 . and dB = 2C Then Che first B N = 13^ I3j_ .B N ) ] s i n £Lii = ?\ Cos BQ (9c) 2 6i = (9d) 2F A = 2 [2 sin l i COS(90-BN)] COSBQ n • 2 As an example let B 0 = 18°. BT 2F A = 2 [2Fj da C O S ( 9 0 .

The percent error induced by the numerical integration for a dB of 2 degrees is: Percent error = lilll°±S °-. tangent to the billowed cloth at the 15 . b. Conclus ion: This approach to normal force distribution is reasonable because it meets the criteria of the aerodynamic drag force being equal to the summation of the normal force components along the load line. F]_. the load-line inflated shape.9.IB) I3F = -(90° .0349 Z Cos(90-BN) = CosB0 17° The summation of the Cos (90 .B^) summation refers to the direction of the axial force component. F-p. The minus sign in the Cos (90 .95106 Error = 0.B^) for each B^ from 17 to -89 degrees was performed in the manner of Table 3.509l x 100 0.014% The following important points should be noted: a.1°) B F = -89° -89° ZFA dB Cos(90-BN)] = COSBQ I [2 sin £!* 2 17° -89° 0. The summation is not quite F^/Z due to the numerical integration. NSWC TR 84-204 and the final S H = Bw BF = -(Bv . and the parachute diameter. The axial force summation is independent of the suspension-line force. DETERMINATION OF THE FORCE TANGENT TO THE BILLOWED CLOTH AT THE LOAD LINE Now that the force per unit length along the load line has been determined as a function of Bfj) the force.

77614 11 0.24730 -89 -0.99985 -27.01745 1.08716 1.38475 -3 -0.12339 7 0.05234 1.24525 5 0.40220 -1 -0. NSWC TR 84-204 TABLE 3.22495 0.24715 16 .12187 1.29237 0.33241 3 0.38475 1 0. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION OF AXIAL FORCE Cos (90-(3w) 2 Cos (9O-0N) *N 17 0.19081 0.08716 1.25882 0.99863 -26.01745 1.29237 15 0.24526 'r • ' '' -85 -0.99619 -25.96695 9 0.55119 13 0.24867 -87 -0.05234 1.33241 -5 -0.15643 1.

Y N the force balance is: 2FTCos<|> EF FT = 5L_ ik (10) 2dS.e + if' (li) therefore when <t> = 0 9 = 90 + V = 6' (11a) To find \f' f = Y N sin if (12) f = A sin if' (12a) 17 . and is a minimum at 0 = 0°.T T = e . R^). The angle 0 is a function of if. The plane of analysis passes through the arbitrary point perpendicular to the slope of B^j and passes through the parachute center line. Y^. with reference to the geometry of the section through X^. <t> = 9 0 . YJJ. F>p.Cos<|> in MINIMUM TANGENTIAL FORCE Inspection of Equation (10) shows that the tensile force in the cloth. decreases as 0 approaches 0 degree. at % of Figure 9. At the point X^. The canopy is reintroduced to the analysis and the canopy geometry is illustrated in Figure 9 for an arbitrary point (X N .if' 4> = 90 . NSWC TR 84-204 load line can be resolved. if'j 6 and 6^.

NSWC TR 84-204 tu 2 Q < O _J UJ I h- Z o o a. >- < cc cc < z < cc o UL >• CC h- UJ o UJ O CC o Q en UJ cc D 18 .

a summary of the possible billow configurations and their effects upon design would be helpful. NSWC TR 8 4 . Therefore. by an additional 2\p* . it was shown that excessive billow is undesirable.2 0 4 where A-J!s.1 (sinIi^CosBN) (13b) Z At the condition of 0 = 0 degree. Use of cloth dimensions greater than C' are likely to cause a condition wherein the excess cloth between successive gores support each other and produce an area of large local radius of curvature as in Figure 12. Therefore. CosB N ( 1 2 b ) YNsin^' Y N sini() CosBj^ SinV = Sim|>Cosl3N (13) \\>' = s i n _ 1 ( S i n t Cos B N ) (13a) and i|) is a function of the number of gores in the parachute. In Figure 12. the inflated gore geometry is as shown in Figure 10. The theoretical shape of a "minimum cloth stress" gore design is compared to a conventional gore design in Figure 11 for a Flat Circular Parachute of D 0 = 30 feet and 30 gores. as usually stated. but realizing that the inflated shape may modify to a new profile. 19 . The properties of the "minimum cloth stress" gore design are illustrated in Figure 13. The minimum stress configuration is based on the assumption that the profile shape of the gore mainseam remains unchanged. 360 li'= ° Z * = Ml y' = sin . and varies with location along the gore length. The billowed cloth in the gore is denoted by C 1 . the optimum cloth angle is somewhat larger than 180°.

is 20 . NSWC TR 8 4 . BILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR MINIMUM STRESS C' = 2 r ' 9 ' f = r'Cosi))' r' = f Cos\|i' 2f C* = A'+lA (14) Cosip* I 2I Where "f" comes from Equation (12) The minimum force.2 0 4 FIGURE 10. FT.

COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL FLAT CIRCULAR PARACHUTE GORE LAYOUT AND I CLOTH STRESS GORE CONFIGURATION 21 . NSWC TR 84-204 MINIMUM CONVENTIONAL CLOTH STRESS 100 r— FLAT CIRCULAR PARACHUTE 90 30 GORES D o = 30 FEET 80 - 70 60 o I 50 h- UJ O 40 30 20 MAXIMUM INFLATED 10 . 40- FIGURE 11. DIAMETER LOCATION 0<— -37 5/8.

EFFECT OF EXCESS CLOTH BILLOW ON RADIUS OF CURVATURE 22 . NSWC TR 84-204 VERY LARGE LOCAL RADIUS OF CURVATURE DUE TO EXCESS CANOPY CLOTH MAINSEAM LOCATIONS FIGURE 12.

NSWC TR 84-204 1 1 1 ^ ^ ~ — ^"~~*^'"*^\ c' 3 — X X h- in 9 *- O f AND !•' 1 1 i 1 200 20 1 I 1.w ^ M A X I M U M INFLATED DIAMFTER LOCATION — -20 — UJ Q -40 — -60 — -80 — ^-^ — . 20 40 60 80 100 GORF LENGTH .PERCENT FIGURE 13. 1 26' AND 2 0 ' CD a UJ a 190 Q CM 180 ~ ~r^-~r-_ -3- CM 20 1 1 I I — 0 . VARIATION OF MINIMUM CLOTH STRESS GORE GFOMFTPY AS A FUNCTION OF GORE LENGTH .

F-y. Calculate the load-line arc length from the canopy vent or hem to the coordinates under study. c. This width can be compared to the theoretical gore widths required for 26 = 180 degrees and 26 = 180 + 2if' degrees. can be determined at any arbitrary point along the load line in the following manner: a. Table 4 lists the possible configurations and effects. C. % ) the width of the gore pattern C is known. Determine the gore width. Calculate X^j from Equation 5. d. See Figure 11. and Y^ from Equation 6. (12) Z 24 . from the gore pattern for the mainseam arc length determined in step c. With reference to Figure 14 C = 2r6 when 26 = 180 degrees = TT radians then r = f f = YNsin\p c = 180 wYNs in^j (16) TANGENTIAL FORCE IN THE CANOPY CLOTH AT AN ARBITRARY POINT ON THE LOAD LINE The cloth tangent force. Then with reference to Figure 9: C = 2r6 f = rsin6 C_ = 6__ 2f sin9 (17) where f = Y N sinil2. Assume d^ b. Y^. from Equation 7 or 8. NSWC TR 84-204 FT = _!ll Ik (15) 2d£ in At the arbitrary coordinates (XN.

BILLOW CONFIGURATIONS AND EFFECTS CONFIGURATION EFFECT ^ RADIUS / ^ Ny CENTER C<C 180 ^ ^ ^ ^ BELOW ^*~-"^ CHORD / ._ | CHORD C= C MINIMUM CANOPY CLOTH STRESS EXCESS BILLOW C>C CONDITION OF FIGURE 12 NO BILLOW C<2f HIGH CANOPY CLOTH STRESS 25 .\ RADIUS X X CENTER C = C180 / \ ON y> ^ RADIUS C>C 180 / X CENTER / \ ABOVE I . NSWC TR 84-204 TABLE 4.

NSWC TR 84-204 FIGURE 14. GORE BILLOW FOR 20 = 180 DEGREES 26 .

FT = ^N lb (10) 2diCos(|) in Figure 16 is reproduced from Reference 4 and illustrates the shape and billow of an inflated gore.9 + \|>' (11) EFN = 2Fj_ sin i£ lb (4) 2F 2FN = 5_ sin M lb ZCosB„ 2 to + e. 27 . d£. The effects can be investigated by assuming a change in the central angle ty by an increment +_ dty and recalculating the resulting geometry and loads. Calculate the arc length. In the vent area the cloth tangent force can be greatly affected by large <$> angles as shown in Figure 17. especially in the vent area. but are bound to have an effect on the cloth tangent force. These excursions may be small. The increase in the angle § at the various sections between the skirt hem and vent is evident. Assume that the load-line inflated shape is constant. Vary 9 from the estimated value until the calculated value of 9/sin9 = C/2f. Inflated canopies are sometimes seen to vibrate in that the adjacent mainseams spread apart and then approach each other. therefore r = _ 29 (18) i|>' = sin_1[sinlM COSBM] (13a) Z then (J) = 90 . or appropriate changes in the load-line shape can be introduced. from % ~ — % — usinj the method of Equation 8. This points out the importance of canopy billow in the vent area. NSWC TR 84-204 and the angle 9 is estimated from Figure 15.

0 n 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 CLOTH BILLOW ANGLE d DEGREES FIGURE 15.. TRANSCENDENTAL EQUATION 0/SIN0 SOLUTION AS A FUNCTION OF 6 .U 1.8 1. £.6 CD CO CD 1 4 o ro -i 33 00 I 1.2 1.

SHAPE OF AN INFLATED GORE REPRODUCED FROM REF. NSWC TR 84-204 SUSPENSION LINE FIGURE 16. 4 29 .

EFFECT OF ANGLE 0 ON THE CLOTH TANGENTIAL FORCE STRESS 30 . NSWC TR 84-204 30 50 70 90 ANGLE ch DEGREES FIGURE 17.

777F T 0.643F T F C2 0. TABLE 5.087F T As the number of gores approaches infinity the apex angle \JJ approaches zero and Frjj approaches F^2• In the limit: \|) = 0 F = F = F s i n cl c2 T (^5->|J) = 0 . The magnitude of the force components resisted by the canopy cloth depends upon the geometric orientation of the warp and fill directions in the cloth relative to the force. Ff.996F T F C4 0.766F T F C3 0. NSWC TR 84-204 FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH OF SOLID CLOTH PARACHUTES Solid cloth parachute canopies are usually constructed of gore sections which are either bias cut or block cut as shown in Figure 18. it is also a function of the number of gores in the canopy.104F T 0.994F T 0.629F T 0. which is tangent to the cloth.793F T 0.130F T 0.609F T 0.ty (21) and for block cut gores: F c 3 = F-p Cos i|i (22) F c4 = F T sin ^ (23) While the force level in the cloth is dependent on a number of variables. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF GORES ON THE CANOPY CLOTH FORCE LEVELS OF SOLID CLOTH PARACHUTES FORCE NUMBER OF GORES LEVEL 24 30 36 F C1 0. 7 0 7 FT 31 . In the case of bias cut gores the force components are: F cl " F T s ^n V (19) = Fc2 F'p cos u (20) where U = 45° . The variation of force levels due only to variations of the number of canopy gores is presented in Table 5.991 F T 0.

FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH . 2i> VENT HEM—»- SECTION WARP YARN DIRECTION SECTION SEAM SKIRT HEM o to -\ 00 BIAS CUT GORE BLOCK CUT GORE FIGURE 18.

F T . Y^j. This results in a wider spacing of the cloth rings along the gore center line and a subsequent rake angle. into two components at arbitrarily selected angles and the stress variation assessed. Ff. a.32 psf). the rake angle distribution of the 24-foot Ringslot Parachute versus l/lj is assumed to be similar to the model parachute./&T* For lack of any better data. but the tangent force Ft is in opposition to the tangent force of the forward hem. Bfj. x Then F RF = L_ (27) Cosap F t F = FTtanaF (28) FRR = j ~ ^ ~ <29> Cosa^ F = tR FT tana R (3°) The values of ap and C*R plotted in Figure 21 were estimated by measuring the arc length of the Figure 19 parachute to determine the rake angles and angle locations as a function of X. A similar condition exists at the trailing hem of the circumferential ring.B^ the force F-p is tangent to the inflated cloth ring and must be resolved into two components F^ (the force in the ring) and F t (a tearing force tangent to the mainseam). At the arbitrary point XN. Due to the multi-directions of curvature. As designed the gore was flat and the gore center line length was actually shorter than the mainseam. the inflated parachute gore center line arc length is longer than the mainseam arc length. Care must be exercised not to assign unrealistic angular excursions. the actual angles of the warp and fill directions to the load line may be distorted from the theoretical. at the forward and rear hems of the rings.YN. With reference to Figures 19 and 20. FORCE RESOLUTION IN THE CANOPY CLOTH OF RING SLOT PARACHUTES Figure 19 is a wind-tunnel test photograph of the 24-gore. NSWC TR 84-204 The force systems of Figure 18 are tangent to the billowed canopy cloth at the coordinates Xjq. Let the subscript F denote the forward edge of the circumferential ring and the subscript R denote the rear edge of the ring. 16-percent geometrically porous parachute of Table 2 at 200 miles per hour test velocity (q = 102. 33 . The effects of angular distortions on stress variation may be examined by resolving the cloth tangent force.

: 84-204 < o re Hi o UJ tr> UJ o DC UJ a. en ma IP ^ ( ^ 34 . NSV" . X O CO d to "~ => D o s o I'll * l / / ^ a. CD a: o CM x a. <N a os o < O u.

NSWC TR 84-204 CIRCUMFERENTIAL GORE RIBBON CENTER LINE GORE MAINSEAM FIGURE 20. CIRCUMFERENTIAL RIBBON HEM RAKE ANGLES VERSUS PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH 35 . HEM FORCES IN A RINGSLOT PARACHUTE CIRCUMFERENTIAL RIBBON 30 20 — a IS < oc < Q 10 20 40 60 80 100 PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FIGURE 21.

This would minimize the discrepancies between inflated and constructed gore lengths. forces. (c) the geometry. not envisioned at the time of the test. The Table 6 summary consists of four sections (a) the canopy geometry. Parachute surface area and drag area. EXAMPLE 1: STRESS ANALYSIS OF A 24-GORE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF 24-FOOT D 0 DIAMETER As an example of the stress analysis technique. These stripes of known width and orientation in the model provide improved definition of warp and fill direction angles in the inflated state. and pressure coefficient distribution for the unbillowed gore. and (d) the geometry. This is also true of camera coverage of wind tunnel tests for all types of parachutes. or printed on. (b) the normal force per unit mainseam length. forces. The stress distribution of the unbillowed gore is to be determined.3904 C D S 0 = 248. The shape of the inflated steady state canopy is taken as similar to the 24-gore. However.3904 ft2 C D S 0 = 0. 24-gore Ringslot Parachute for conditions of 200 mph at sea level air density. In future tests where rake angle data is required two cameras would be used: One in the plane of the skirt hem and one in the plane of the vent. attempting to use available coverage for other purposes. a sample calculation is presented for a 24-foot DQ diameter. The camera coverage for use in the original test purpose was adequate. and pressure coefficient distribution for the billowed gore. 16-percent geometrically porous Ringslot Parachute of Table 2. gives poor rake angle definition in the top three circumferential rings. S =ID2 o 4 o S = JL (24)2 o 4 S 0 = 452. Data gathering on solid cloth types of parachutes can be enhanced by stripes of alternating colors woven into the canopy cloth. during manufacture.55 x 452. or some other approach which defines a true side view of the entire inflated parachute. and the moderating effects of gore billow shall be compared. NSWC TR 84-204 COMMENTS ON WIND TUNNEL TESTING The limited rake angle data of Figure 21 is caused by problems in placement of the camera during the test.8147 ft2 36 . The results of this analysis are summarized in Tables 6 and 7. The tensile forces in the circumferential ring hems and tearing forces are presented in Table 7. Measurement of the elongation of a suspended gore mainseam assembly subjected to static forces in the range of expected suspension-line forces before and after the test would also be beneficial. Striped patterns on radial reinforcement tapes would also be an aid in determining where circumferential rings are located in percent of gore length in the inflated state.

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86 20.306 RAKE ANGLE DATA UNAVAILABLE 63.285 22. NSWC TR 84-204 TABLE 7.55 2.5 23 7.76 19 . TENSILE FORCES IN THE HEM OF THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL RINGS AND TEARING FORCES AT THE GORE MAINSEAM OF THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1.086 .043 .086 .98 5.92 22.44 44.043 .7 22.39 2.438 * FROM FIGURE 27 FOR BILLOWED GORE CONFIGURATIONS * * FROM FIGURE 21 t NUMBERS IN THE PARENTHESES CORRESPONDS TO THE EQUATION USED TO CALCULATE THE DESIGNATED VARIABLE 39 .4 8.153 8.132 7.45 41. R Vh FT aF F RF FtF n aR ** F RR FtR lb/in DEG lb/in lb/in lb/in lb/in (10) + (27) (28) DEG (29) (30) 0 0 6.75 8.33 13.06 2.19 16.

5 ' 40 . F]_ 130 = 18° (measured from Figure 19) ZCosB0 Fi = 2 5 4 5 6 . q = |pV2 q = ^002378 (293)2 2 q = 102.31 lb/ft2 F C D = q DSG FD = 102. 2 6 1 2 lb R c = Do 2 Rr = lit x 12 c 2 R c = 144 inches 2Z « = 360 2x24 i|> = 7 .8147 F D = 25456.2340 lb Suspension line force.31 x 248. 2 3 4 0 1 24 x Cos 18° F]_ = 1 1 1 5 . NSWC TR 84-204 Dynamic pressure and parachute drag force at 200 mph.

UNBILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 With reference to Figure 22. NSWC TR 8 4 . 41 .2 0 4 GEOMETRIC POROSITY = 16 PERCENT R c = 144 FIGURE 22.

C = CH I 1 _. 42 .T = 145. *When x>0 use b' in calculations. 5 ° CH = 3 7 . The mainseam arc length calculations are summed from the canopy hem to the canopy vent. " -b. 5 ' *T = Cos S. Determination of the unbillowed gore widths as a function of the l/l^ ratio.2426 inches nominal unstressed gore mainseam length.4_ &T Determination of the inflated canopy arc length. i^.2 0 4 CH = 2R c tartt|/ CH = 2 x l 4 4 t a n 7 .T C = ] _ I cH tj. and arc length ratio X = % + ~b tan2* (: r Y = ± ¥'_ rfw. 9 1 5 9 inches C iT = Cos \|) _ J 47!. When x<0 use (-b). NSWC TR 8 4 . Therefore: c a VR = V* CR Rc «.

1°.0 152. 2.assigning dB/2 values of 0. 6.694.0000 0. b' = 90.580. h INCHES ? T1 FOR — =0.1727 0. b = 57. = Z y(x2-x]V+^2-Y^2 (8) X From Table 2 the inflated parachute shape parameters are: 2a~ = 0.0014 2. The effect of varying the value of dB/2 on the calculated accuracy of A-p for various dB/2 iterations was analyzed by. and 8 were programmed to calculate X.5. TABLE 8.9629 inches.0.1650 0. ACCURACY OF ARC LENGTH CALCULATIONS FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF dj3/2 d d )3 0 d/3/2 DEG.The accuracy of the four determinations of arc length can be judged by their differences as listed in Table 8. Y.1708 0.1 .£ 2 T l F O R - 2 0. I. 0.4721 inches.0005 1.0 152. 1.8482 inches. JL_ ££ b* = 0. and l/ly for selected B N angles from the canopy hem to the vent. Arc lengths calculated for dB/2=2° are accurate to the second decimal compared to the arc length calculated for dB/2=0. Jl = 0. Equations 5.9053.936 inches.0 and comparing the resulting values of &x. N = 80. g = 0.809 For a D Q = 24 feet a = 99.1 152.1722 0.5 152.1. NSWC TR 84-204 X2 dX.0077 43 .

Other high stress indicators are the reduction of the gore billow angle 9 to zero degree which results in an infinite local radius of curvature.00 indicate a high stress condition.9159 (1 . The maximum allowable billow C1 is: 2f C = /V + 1\ (14) = 4>' sin-1[ sinv|> CosB^] (13a) from the arc length calculations %/%i = 0. and the next step is to determine the amount of billow to be provided. or.9545 2f Values of C/2f of less than 1. from equation (11).5017 sin 7. 9 = 0 ° .5017 in 44 .5°.9507 occurs at a BR = -87.6 degrees.5° f = 0.9507 in the example. NSWC TR 84-204 The angle $ is an important parameter in the stress analysis since it denotes a stress concentration factor which determines the maximum cloth stress. Y N = 7. The need for addition of billow to the gore to reduce cloth stress to a manageable level has been established.9507) C v = 1. Then Cv = C H (l .. and the 4> = 90° condition occurs at 3W = -56.9792 in -1 = 0. <j> = 90 . the angle $ becomes 90 degrees when 9 = \|>' and 1/Cos 90° = °°.9 + i>' (11) For the unbillowed gore of example 1 the infinite radius.L-\ (24) C v = 37. The canopy vent is the most likely maximum stress location and occurs at l(li = 0. condition occurs at a % = 56.3 degrees.8692 in and f = Y N sin \|> (12) f = 7.

0871x57.0871 in. 3 2 6 2 \ 2/ C = 3.9792 in. V and the local radius of curvature r = £l 20 r = 3.9792 in.9792 L> + A V Cos 0 .8692 C 1 = 1.3 2x90. 45 . NSWC TR 84-204 i|»' = sin _1 [sin 7.5] <|i' = 0.6516 C V The unbillowed gore can be restructured to a billowed configuration as shown in Figure 23.3262 degree f = YJN s i n <|t f = 7.5 Cos -87. The ratio of billowed to unbillowed gore width at the vent is: C V = 3.5017 s i n 7.0871 Cv 1.3262 r = 0. 2 C = x.5 f = 0.

BILLOWED GORE GEOMETRY FOR THE RIIMGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 46 . NSWC TR 84-204 FIGURE 23.

R = 2tany C B = 2(RB-R) tany CB = 2^RB-Rc L-\ tany (25) X*rp 47 .1272 Y = 7.9159 2x0.2493° RB = _ i L 2 tany R B = 37.Rcf- B RR .1272 RB = 149.9159-3.9507 tan y = 0.0352 inches B tan y = 2(RB-R) R.0871 2xl44x. NSWC TR 8 4 .2 0 4 tany = ^ l ^ J = !lL = _ ^ V 2 Rv 2RB JJJ^R^J when Cy = C\ tan Y = 37.

2 to B N + 2 The geometry. The stress tangent to the canopy cloth. F^. Fp. THE FULLY INFLATED STEADY STATE The preceding force analysis resolved the parachute drag force. The several variables were calculated by means of the formulas listed in parenthesis in each column. XF^/dJl. F^. was then derived from the normal forces per unit arc length. NSWC TR 84-204 In the computation of the mainseam normal force per unit length. The canopy cloth stress may be expressed as: F T = APr (31) FT = N I (10) d«. CANOPY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION An advantage of the load-line approach to canopy force analysis is that it presents an opportunity to estimate a theoretical static pressure distribution over the canopy surface. Graphs of the several variables as related to percent of the gore length are illustrated in Figures 24 through 28 for billowed and unbillowed gore designs. 2Coscj> IF APr = N 1 dl 2Cos<j> Substituting equations (3a) and (4) for SFj^ and solving for the pressure coefficient at any point (X^j. The order of calculation is the same as the order of presentation. the local d!3 dR arc length di is the particular gore length from fiN .Cos<j) (32) Equation (32) illustrates the variables which affect the local pressure coefficient. The affect of gore billow on stress relief is clearly illustrated. force. and pressure coefficients for the billowed and unbillowed gores were calculated for various 13M from the canopy hem to vent and listed in Table 6. to the load line. B M ) on the load line. and normal. canopy oscillations. into components which were tangent. CP N = AP = { D ° 1sindfi/2 q \ZCos(30 / rd«. Y M . Another advantage of the load-line approach is that the cloth 48 . or changing air flow patterns due to canopy inflation. This approach is called a static pressure distribution because it does not include the dynamic effects of fluttering cloth. 2 F M .

1 . in £ o cc o u. NORMAL FORCE PER UNIT OF GORE LENGTH VERSUS PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 49 . | 20 40 60 80 100 FIGURE 24. -J 2 -o < ". NSWC TR 84-204 60 — Q LU < UJ _J L i AX INF DIAME I o z 40 2 cc Ul o. 1 . 20 -*• CC o z -i 1 . 1 .

EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE GORE BILLOW ANGLE FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 50 . NSWC TR 84-204 C/3 UJ LU cc LU Q LU -I C3 2 < 0Q LU cc o a 4> 100 PERCENT OF GORE MAINSEAM LENGTH FIGURE 25.

NSWC TR 84-204 300 r 200 w LU I o D (- < EC UNBILLOWED o GORE to Q < 100 20 40 60 80 100 PERCENT OF GORE MAINSEAM LENGTH FIGURE 26. EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE CANOPY CLOTH RADIUS OF CURVATURE FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 51 .

CANOPY CLOTH TANGENTIAL FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH VERSUS PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 52 . NSWC TR 84-204 /0 r~ o o z UJ < X H- O -J O 100 i/ij PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FIGURE 27.

40 h o 2 O O e/> t/J 30 20 10 0 L- 100 PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FIGURE 28. EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE ANGLE 0 AND STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR FOR THE RINGSLOT PARAPH? "TP QF EXAMPLE 1 •53 . NSWC TR 84-204 90 1470 UNBILLOWED GORE 1460 4-. •&/ OOSC 80 270 260 70 60 cc o i_ o 50 h < C/5 LU CE < e> IX LU a LU -e.

Fj. The. 54 . AP av s p = q cDSo AP _ C S av . r. NSWC TR 84-204 tangent force. The average pressure coefficient was estimated as follows. have been previously independently calculated.p (note: D = 2"a) P •4 "The instant during inflation when the design drag area of the parachute has been achieved for the first time is designated as t Q . parachute steady state drag force may be expressed in two ways: FD = q c D s 0 F D = A Pav S p where S p is the projected area of the inflated canopy.Dn o CPav S q P n2 J o 4 ^2 S = I2. t O J " of several types of solid cloth parachutes. a more convenient form of pressure coefficient is: F T = APr qr qr q F CPN = _1T qr Reference 5 utilizes an average steady state parachute pressure coefficient t calculate the reference inflation time. and local radius of curvature. Therefore.

Table 9 lists the expected average pressure coefficient range based on Equation (34) for the data of Reference 4.1 of Reference 4 lists the value range of these parameters for solid textile parachutes. 55 . Since these values vary for a given type of parachute. etc. of a fully inflated parachute in steady state is the parachute drag coefficient referenced to the inflated canopy projected area and is subject to variation by all of the parameters that usually alter drag coefficients: i. NSWC TR 84-204 D I 2 2 S p = L D 0 K! C. C P a v . The estimated static pressure distribution for the Ringslot Parachute of example 1 is tabulated in Table 6 and graphically illustrated in Figure 29... Table 2.75 (2/3) 2 C P a v = 1.e. a range of average steady state pressure coefficients is to be expected. Cp = 0. This is due to the <j> angle stress concentration factor causing the tangent force in the unbillowed gore to increase at a greater rate than the local radius of curvature.S C(TT/4)D2 D o = D o S p (TT/4) D K2 2 o 1 C nS C n CPav AV = JL_° S = _D2 (34) p K ? ov a flat circular parachute with a C D = 0. Figure 29 indicates an apparent radical shift in static pressure distribution between the unbillowed and billowed canopy gores. cloth permeability. suspension-line length.75 and D_/D0 = 2/3.688 The average pressure coefficient. The average pressure coefficient depends upon the canopy drag coefficient and projected diameter.

3 degrees.78 0. from b' to b.249 degrees.997 0. At Bjq = -60 degrees the triangular gore still has stress problems for y > 7. y was limited to 7.791 Table 10 is a survey of the effects of gore billow on the canopy pressure distribution. RANGE OF AVERAGE STEADY STATE CANOPY PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS PARACHUTE C D VDo CP av TYPE FLAT 0.45 instead of 7. however. the canopy skirt hem circumferential rings of Ringslot Parachutes have been observed to flutter in field tests indicating a low value of pressure differential. NSWC TR 84-204 TABLE 9.5.531 CIRCULAR 0.592 SKIRT 0.75 0.72 1.157 CROSS 0.70 1.5 degrees to the y associated with the maximum allowable billow at the canopy vent hem of y = 7.70 1. The shift in the theoretical pressure distribution at the maximum inflated diameter is due to the variation of the minor axis length.66 1.80 0.78 0. At all other B^ angles the pressure coefficients are only slightly affected by billow.87 0.66 1.56 0.70 1. For B^ of -60 degrees and -87.782 EXTENDED 0. in the inflated shape. 56 . Several values of B^ were selected and the billow at each fSjsf studied by varying the billowed gore half angle from \|> = y = 7. The calculated pressure distribution at the canopy skirt hem is less than one.67 1.326 0.60 0.67 1.65 0.5 degrees.247 RINGSLOT 0.

0 UNBILLOWED GORE UJ o u. ESTIMATED STATIC PRESSURE D I S T R I B U T I O N S A L O N G THE GORE LENGTH FOR B I L L O W E D A N D U N B I L L O W E D GORES FOR THE RINGSLOT PARACHUTE OF EXAMPLE 1 57 . NSWC TR 84-204 6. u. UJ O O LU cc 10 CO LU QC 0. O II < o w Q UJ H < w LU PERCENT OF GORE LENGTH FIGURE 29. Q.

3 17.458 7.249 13.344 7.4 1.579 1.679 7.5 17.3 21.957 -20 7.508 -60 7.3 0.3 14.5 15.578 4.4 14.45 1.1 7.082 1.659 1.7830 7.544 0.5 7.950 7.9 7.3 26.3 12.928 1.45 OO -87.5 12.732 5 7.7836 7.249 12.202 1.851 7.447 7.714 58 .544 0.844 7.029 1.205 1.951 7.145 1.140 4.249 17.986 0.7840 -0. NSWC TR 84-204 TABLE 10.249 14.4 22.4 17.987 1.512 1.048 0.005 0.5 24.101 7.544 0.3 15.704 1.732 7.249 23.249 20.732 7.481 7.067 7.954 7.732 7.988 4.883 1.267 1.684 7.030 0.840 7.5 14.4 46.249 0.859 -40 7.979 4.411 1.7831 7. EFFECT OF GORE BILLOW ON THE CANOPY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION r ^N 7 B CP DEG DEG (IN) 17.035 1.4 15.696 7.544 0.4 12.

D. P. Recovery Systems Design Guide. P. NSWC TR 84-204 REFERENCES Topping. May 1973. WADC TR 55-294.. AFFDL TR 78-151. NOLTR 69-159. 11 Sep 1969. Dec 1978. Ludtke. A Study of Canopy Shapes and Stresses for Parachutes in Steady Descent. NOLTR 70-1787 3 Sep 1970.. Ludtke.. P. 59/60 . A. W.." AIAA Paper 73-477. Ludtke. A New Approach to the Determination of the Steady-State Inflated Shape and Included Volume of Several Parachute Types. Irvin Industries. "A Technique for the Calculation of the Opening Shock Forces for Several Types of Solid Cloth Parachutes. W. W. A New Approach to the Determination of the Steady-State Inflated Shape and Included Volume of Several Parachute Types in 24-Gore and 30-Gore Configurations. Oct 1955.

NSWC TR 84-204

DEFINITIONS

LOAD LINE

A theoretical replacement of the parachute suspension line and canopy
mainseam from the suspension-line confluence point to the canopy vent. The load
line has the identical shape of the inflated parachute mainseam.

NORMAL FORCE

The distributed perpendicular force along the load line which provides the
inflated canopy shape.

PLANE OF ANALYSIS

The geometric plane, perpendicular to Bjg, which contains the gore
mainseam coordinates Xpj, Y N , 13^ of the surface under analysis and the
parachute center line.

TANGENT FORCE

Tensile force in the load line that is tangent to the load line at any
arbitrary point.

61/62

NSWC TR 84-204

NOMENCLATURE

A Perpendicular distance from the tangent at the point X^, Y N on
the load line to the parachute center line

2a Maximum inflated diameter of the gore mainseam

b Minor axis of the ellipse bounded by the major axis a and the vent

of the canopy

b1 Minor axis of the ellipse which includes the canopy skirt hem

C Circumference of the billowed gore and the width of the gore at the

point which is under analysis

C' Theoretical billowed gore circumference for minimum cloth stress

CigQ Theoretical billowed gore circumference for a subtended angle of

26 = 180 degrees

CQ Parachute drag coefficient

CQSQ Parachute steady state drag area, ft^

CPjg Pressure coefficient at the point Xjq, Y N , B^

Dp Flat constructed canopy diameter

dl Incremental length along the load line, inches

dm Mouth diameter of the inflated canopy, measured at the junction of
i-S
D0 the gore canopy
Nominal mainseam and the
diameter =»'canopy
° skirt hem
#

Dp Projected diameter of an inflated parachute

DR Design diameter of elliptical and hemispherical shaped gore canopies

F^ Axial force used to verify the drag force component per suspension
line in the load-line force distribution = FJJ/Z, lb
63

lb/in. lb/in. lb/in. lbs. 13JJ Scale factor = 2a/D Q . Y^. lb/in. lb/in. Stress in the rear hem of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring. lb/in. B^. lb Parachute suspension-line force. psf Billowed gore radius of curvature 64 . Inflated parachute chord line between two adjacent load lines at the point X^. Stress tangent to the gore mainseam at the rear hem of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring.) Forces in the warp and fill cloth directions in a bias cut canopy. Total parachute drag force. NSWC TR 84-204 NOMENCLATURE (Cont. lbs A component of the distributed load-line normal force which is tangent to the billowed cloth at the load line . or D p /D 0 Diameter of the cross-type parachute Suspension line length Canopy depth is the distance from the skirt hem of the canopy to the vent of the canopy along the parachute center line Pressure differential between the inside and outside of the parachute canopy at the point X^. lb/in. Summation of the normal forces at a point on the load line. psf Dynamic pressure = 1/2 pV . psf Pressure differential acting on the inflated canopy projected area. Forces in the warp and fill cloth directions in a block cut canopy.cloth mainseam. Yjg. also the tension force tangent to the load line at any arbitrary point Summation of the normal forces at a point on the load line. lb Stress in the forward hem of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring. Stress tangent to the gore mainseam at the forward hem of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring.

degrees Angle between the load line normal force and the force tangent to the canopy cloth at the load line. Y between the load line and the parachute center line. NSWC TR 84-204 NOMENCLATURE (Cont. Y^j between the load line and the parachute center line. degrees Semi-vertex angle between the suspension lines and the parachute center line. degrees Central angle subtended by the billowed gore for minimum stress . slugs per ft J Angle between the billowed gore radius of curvature and the length A.) Billowed gore radius of curvature for minimum stress Canopy reference area = TT/4 D Q . degrees A small change in angle B. degrees 65 . degrees Slope angle at the point XJJ. ft z Trajectory velocity. ft^ Inflated canopy projected area. fps Width of the arm of a cross-type parachute Coordinates in the plane of analysis is that contains the load line Coordinates of the point under analysis where the normal force is considered to be acting Number of gores in the parachute Rake angle on the leading hem edge of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring. degrees Rake angle on the trailing hem edge of a Ringslot Parachute circumferential ring. degrees Smaller acute angle between the tapered gore edge and the direction of the fiber in a bias cut gore. degrees Central angle subtended by the billowed gore. and tangent angle of the mainseam canopy hem. degrees o Air density. degrees Slope angle at the point X. degrees Semi vertex angle of the billowed parachute gore.

degrees 2^' Angle subtended by a parachute gore in the plane perpendicular to the load line at the point X^f. B N . NSWC TR 84-204 NOMENCLATURE (Cont. also the unbillowed gore vertex angle.) 2<|J Angle subtended by a parachute gore in the plane of the canopy mouth = 360°/Z. YJJ. degrees 66 .

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