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info Design Code BS 8110

ANALYSIS FOR RETAINING WALL

1. DESIGN DATA.
Unit weight of soil =  = 19.0 kN/m3
Angle of internal friction of soil =  = 32.0
Safe bearing capacity of soil = qb = 230.0 kN/m2
Surcharge load = Qs = 10.0 kN/m2
Co-efficient of friction =  = 0.39
Total height of retaining wall = H = 3.80 m
Depth of base slab below ground level = D = 1.2 m
Width of base slab = B = 3.0 m
Width of heel = C = 2.40 m
Thickness of stem = t = 0.40 m
Thickness of base slab = h = 0.45 m
Grade of concrete = fcu = 30 N/mm2
Grade of reinforcement = fy = 420 N/mm2
Density of concrete = c = 25 kN/m3
Elastic modulus of concrete = Ec = 2.60E+04 N/mm2

2. RETAINING WALL ARRANGEMENT
+29.5

2.6 W1 W3
3.80

+26.9 0.20 0.40 2.40

1.2
W2

T 22.4 kN/m2 3.10

3.0 Earth pressure Surcharge

A B C D pressure

29.7 kN/m2

100.73

118.5 kN/m2

BASE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

3. CALCULATION FOR LATERAL FORCES / MOMENTS
Co-efficient of active earth pressure = Ka = 0.31 (DBM-3.4.6.2)
Lateral pressure due to earth = p1 = Kas H
p1 = 22.4 kN/m2
Lateral pressure due to surcharge = p2 = Ka Qs
= 3.10 kN/m2

Retaining wall Page 1 of 7
Prepd. By: Shanti Srinivasan
email:shanti.srinivasan@gmail.com

3 MR 343.31 kN Total vertical restoring force = WR = 222.50 The eccentricity = e = B/2 .53 kN Horizontal force due to surcharge = P2 = 11.2 kN.60 > 1.m Moment of surcharge pressure about toe = M2 = 22.38 kN.civildesignhelp.80 279.49 kN/m2 OK Minimum soil pressure = f2 = 29.40 13.m 2 W2 33.30 m < B/6 No Tension Gross bearing capacity of soil at fdn.78 kN Total horizontal force = P = 54. of CG Moment about 'T' 1 W1 33.m 3 W3 155.info Design Code BS 8110 Horizontal force due to earth pressure = P1 = 42.1 kN. CHECK FOR OVERTURNING Total induced moment at base = M = 76.8 1.m 4.m Total induced moment at base = M = 76.z = 0.No Load due to Magnitude (kN) Dist. Level = qs(gross) = 252.20 m B/2 = 1.87 kN. CHECK FOR SLIDING Total horizontal force = P = 54.1 kN.31 kN Moment of earth pressure about toe = M1 = 53.m 5.4 kN.50 > 1.29 kN Horizontal frictional resistance = WR = 86.com .50 B/6 0.69 kN Restoring force = WHR = 86. the extreme pressure (W) {1 + (6e/B)} = f = B Maximum soil pressure = f1 = 118.1 kN.71 kN/m 2 OK 8.80 OK 7. RESTORING FORCES / MOMENT CALCULATION SL.5 0.m Factor of safety against overturning = 4.0 1.m Total W 222.50 OK 6. CHECK FOR DEFLECTION (STEM) Deflection due earth pressure = axmax = P1H3/15EcI (Table-26 Deflection due surcharge pressure axmax = P2H /8EcI 3 Reynolds Retaining wall Page 2 of 7 Prepd. CHECK FOR BEARING PRESSURE Distance of the point of application of the MR-M = z = resultant force from "A" SUM (V) = 1.6 kN.69 kN (Passive resistance of soil above Toe slab is not considered conservatively) Factor of safety against sliding = WHR/P = 1. By: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.50 50.8 kN/m2 Therefore.http://www.25 kN.srinivasan@gmail.m Total restoring moment at base = MR = 343.

info Design Code BS 8110 Moment of Inertia for 1m wide wall = I = 5.civildesignhelp.com .3E+09 mm4 Handbook) Retaining wall Page 3 of 7 Prepd.srinivasan@gmail. By: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.http://www.

CALCULATION OF DESIGN FORCES / MOMENTS 9.2 FOR HEEL SLAB Moment due soil over heel slab = Mh1 = W3 x C / 2 = 186.4 kN.m Net moment for Heel slab = Mh = Mh1+Mh2+Mh3-Mh4 = 93.8 kN Shear due to selfweight = Fh3 = (C x E x c) = 27.0 kN Shear due to upward earth pressure = Fh4 = 156.3 Heel slab 450 93.3 kN 9.2 54.m Shear due to soil over heel slab = Fh1 = W3 = 155.m Moment due to selfweight of toe slab = Mh3 = (C x h x c)C/2 = 32.m Moment due to upward soil pressure = Mh4 = 153. By: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.12 mm Horizontal deflection due to P2 = ax2 = 0.20 mm H/250 9.58 mm Total Horizontal maximum deflection = axmax = 1.5 kN Total design SF for Heel slab = Fh = Fh1+Fh2+Fh3-Fh4 = 37.7 kN.civildesignhelp.1 FOR VERTICAL STEM BM due to Earth pressure (p1) = M1 = 53.8 N Horizontal force due to surcharge = P2 = 11780.4 kN.m BM due to Surcharge pressure (p2) = M2 = 22.2 kN.70 mm < 15.BM (kNm) Max.8 kN.3 kN 10.info Design Code BS 8110 Horizontal force due to earth pressure = P1 = 42525.SF (kN) Stem 400 76.srinivasan@gmail.0 kN.0 N Horizontal deflection due to P1 = ax1 = 1.m Moment due to Surcharge pressure = Mh2 = Qs x C2/2 = 28.9 kN.m Total Maximum moment = Ms = 76.3 Retaining wall Page 4 of 7 Prepd.com .m Total Maximum shear force = Fs = P1+P2 = 54. ABSTRACT DESIGN VALUES (SERVICE) Component Thickness (mm) Max.http://www.5 37.0 kN Shear due to surcharge = Fh2 = P2 = 11.5 kN.

1 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE.civildesignhelp.25 .8[Sqrt(fcu.com . / bd = 0. = Diameter = 16 mm Spacing = 150 mm = 1340 mm2 1340 Safety index = = 1.k/0.26 > 1 OK 1061 2.http://www.m Design ultimate shear force = V = 37.08 Therefore 400/d = 1.0 DESIGN 2.4 N/mm2 < 0.95 fy z = 1061 mm2 (As)Prov.m Design ultimate moment = M = 149.9)0.30 mm 2.6E+04 N/mm2 Elastic modulus of reinforcement = Es = 2.036 z = d [ 0.49 N/mm2 > Design shear stress. RETAININGWALL -BASESLAB .0036 Base slab of Retaining wall by: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.3 kN Assumed width of slab = B = 1000.DESIGN FOR MAIN REINFORCEMENT 1.5 kN.08 Design concrete shear stress = vc = 0.2 CHECK FOR SHEAR Design shear stress = v = V / bvd = 0.360 % (400/d) = 1.0E+05 N/mm2 Clear cover to main reinforcement = c = 70 mm Design allowable crack width = w = 0. DESIGN DATA.)] = 4.8[sqrt(fcu.5 +( 0. = 353 mm (As)req.0 mm Grade of concrete = f cu = 30 N/mm2 Grade of reinforcement = fy = 420 N/mm2 Elastic modulus of concrete = Ec = 2.5] = 356 mm z .srinivasan@gmail. Hence no shear reinforcement required OK 2.6 kN.)] & 5 N/mm2 100As / bd = 0.3 CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH Rebar spacing = S = 150 mm Steel ratio =  = (As)Prov. Effective depth = d = D-c-(Dia/2) = 372 mm k = M / bd fcu 2 = 0. = M / 0. Design service moment = Ms = 93.info Design Code BS 8110 I.10 N/mm2 0.Max.0 mm Thickness of slab = D = 450.

stress in concrete = fcb' = 0.) / (h-x)] = 0.828E-04 Acr = [(S/2)2+(c+ Dia.38 e * = 0.5 .http://www.54E-04 Em = E1 .3.srinivasan@gmail.34E-03 Stiffening effect of concrete bt * (h-x) * (a' . % of steel required = Astmin = 585 mm2/m (As)Prov.1 Check stress levels Allowable comp.055 X /d = e*{[(1+ (2 /e* .x) = 3*Es * As * (d-x) (For bending only) = 5.1} = 0.com .0E+05 = 1.Dia /2 = 100.X/3 = 337.2 mm 3 * Acr * Em Crack width = 1+2[(Acr-Cmin. = Diameter = 12 mm = Spacing = 150 mm = 754 mm2 Safety index 754 = = 1. OK 2.3 N/mm2 Tensile stress on steel = fs = Ms / Z As = 207.4 DESIGN FOR DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT Min.9 mm Lever arm = Z = d .282 Depth of neutral axis = X = 104.0 mm Concrete compressive stress = fcb = 2Ms / Z b X = 5.200 mm < Allowable crack width.0 N/mm2 2.29 > 1 OK 585 Base slab of Retaining wall by: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti./2)2]0.30E+04 = 15.5 N/mm2 > fcb OK Allowable tensile stress in steel = fs ' = 0.info Design Code BS 8110 Modular ratio = e = Es / (Ec/2) 2.civildesignhelp.8 fy = 336.0 N/mm2 > fs OK (h-x) * fs Elastic strain at surface = E1 = (d-x) * Es = 1.Stiffening effect of concrete = 7.45 fcu = 13.

24 Therefore 400/d = 1.1-DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Effective depth = d = D-c-(Dia/2) = 322 mm k = M / bd fcu 2 = 0.9 kN.m Design ultimate shear force = V = 54.0 DESIGN 2. = 306 mm (As)req. RETAININGWALL -STEM .53 N/mm2 > Design shear stress.srinivasan@gmail.k/0.9)0.)] = 4.4 N/mm2 < 0.DESIGN FOR MAIN REINFORCEMENT 1.8[sqrt(fcu. CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH Rebar spacing = S = 150 mm Stem of Retaining wall by: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.2-CHECK FOR SHEAR Design shear stress = v = V / bvd = 0.416 % (400/d) = 1. = M / 0.m Design ultimate moment = M = 121.34 > 1 OK 999 2.0 mm Grade of concrete = f cu = 30 N/mm2 Grade of reinforcement = fy = 420 N/mm2 Elastic modulus of concrete = Ec = 2.civildesignhelp.0 mm Thickness of slab = D = 400.2 kN.0E+05 N/mm2 Clear cover to main reinforcement = c = 70 mm Design allowable crack width = w = 0.3 kN Assumed width of slab = B = 1000.com .6E+04 N/mm2 Elastic modulus of reinforcement = Es = 2.30 mm 2.95 fy z = 999 mm2 (As)Prov.5 ] = 307 mm z . = Diameter = 16 mm Spacing = 150 mm = 1340 mm2 1340 Safety index = = 1. Design service moment = Ms = 76.3.info Design Code BS 8110 I.Max. Hence no shear reinforcement required OK 2.8[Sqrt(fcu.http://www.24 Design concrete shear stress = vc = 0.039 z = d [ 0.25 .5 +( 0.17 N/mm2 0.)] & 5 N/mm2 100As / bd = 0.0 DESIGN DATA.

/2)2]0.4.1 N/mm2 2.1 Check stress levels:- Allowable comp. % of steel required = Astmin = 520 mm2/m (As)Prov.x) = 3*Es * As * (d-x) (For bending only) = 5.) / (h-x)] = 0.064 X /d = e*{[(1+ (2 /e* .32E-03 Stiffening effect of concrete bt * (h-x) * (a' .45 fcu = 13.38 e * = 0.5 N/mm2 > fcb OK Allowable tensile stress in steel = fs ' = 0. DESIGN FOR DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT Min.0 N/mm2 > fs OK (h-x) * fs Elastic strain at surface = E1 = (d-x) * Es = 1.2 mm 3 * Acr * Em Crack width = 1+2[(Acr-Cmin.9 mm Concrete compressive stress = fcb = 2Ms / Z b X = 5.300 Depth of neutral axis = X = 96. stress in concrete = fcb' = 0.30E+04 = 15.1} = 0.civildesignhelp.Dia /2 = 100. / bd = 0.5 N/mm2 Tensile stress on steel = fs = Ms / Z As = 196.5 .204 mm < Allowable crack width.08E-04 Em = E1 .Stiffening effect of concrete = 8.118E-04 Acr = [(S/2)2+(c+ Dia.X/3 = 289.0E+05 = 1.http://www.8 fy = 336.info Design Code BS 8110 Steel ratio =  = (As)Prov.srinivasan@gmail.com .4 mm Lever arm = Z = d . = Diameter = 12 mm = Spacing = 150 mm Stem of Retaining wall by: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.3.0042 Modular ratio = e = Es / (Ec/2) 2. OK 2.

srinivasan@gmail.com .45 > 1 OK 520 Stem of Retaining wall by: Shanti Srinivasan email:shanti.civildesignhelp.info Design Code BS 8110 = 754 mm2 Safety index 754 = = 1.http://www.

info Design Code BS8110 33400mm A C A New Retaining wall (Existing bund wall to be demolished) Access stair over the existing bund PLAN Existing Bund (To be retained) D SECTION A-A 0.9 1.5 3.com .civildesignhelp.srinivasan@gmail.80 +26.http://www.2 3 REINFORCEMENT DETAILS 16 @ 150 12 @ 150 (Both faces) 12 @ 150 Earth side 12 @ 150 (Top & Bottom) By: Shanti Srinivasan emailto:shanti.40 +29.

civildesignhelp.srinivasan@gmail.http://www.com .info Design Code BS8110 16 @ 150 (Top & Bottom) By: Shanti Srinivasan emailto:shanti.