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Final Reading Assessment: Selections from Cradle to

EAPP 8330: Critical Reading and Debate

Name: Ratna Gamage

Directions: Skim the Introduction of the book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking
the Way We Make Things (McDonough & Braungart, 2002) in order to answer
the questions below.

A. Determining the Authors’ Purpose (1 point each)
1. What problem are the authors identifying?

Industry and the Environment are being at odds with each other. However, the authors are
trying to approach to designing and producing the objects we use with the next industrial
revolution. As of now, the two systems cannot thrive in the current world. Over century
of human industry in full swing has brought decline in every eco system on the planet
“nature does not have a design problem. People do.”

2. What are the complexities of this issue?

Consumers have unwittingly become party to a process of waste and destruction even
with good intentions when we the consumer deliberately shop foe items from recycled
materials. Manufacturing process required much energy as well as much waste as
producing a new. Examining closely everything we use in healthy environment as much
as we think as peace, comfort and safety. In fact, hazardous except when sold to
customers, it is considered as acceptable to regulators. There lies the dilemma.

3. For whom is this topic important and why?

This topic is important to designers– chemical researchers, architectures, urban designers,
industrial product and process designers to the project of transforming industry. And also
to manufacturers – corporate and government both federal and local to implement the
design principle. This topic is important because it enables the human designed products
and systems to celebrate an abundance of human creativity, culture and productivity.

B. Interpreting the Evidence (2 points each)

Please answer each of the following questions in 2 – 3 complete sentences.
For each question, you must include specific evidence from the reading to
support your answer.

1. Read paragraphs 1 – 2 to answer the following questions. Do the
authors support the cradle-to-grave model? Why or why not?

The authors do not support the cradle-to-grave model. Life comforts in daily life find us


Main Claim / Thesis: Cradle-to-grave designs and one-size-fits-all solutions are problematic Reason 1: Cradle-to-grave designs wastes resources have recyclable value. The second reason has been done for you. and other additives. According to the authors. And some products are built to be used for only a short of time. dangerous chemicals. 2. Originators of international style intended to convey hope in the “brotherhood” of human kind. uniform structure isolated from the particulars of place – from local culture. 95% of the other raw materials are wasted during the manufacturing process. is the International Style a positive or negative product design? What reasons do they give to support their claim? According to the authors International style is a negative product design which advanced during the early decades of the twentieth century as a reaction to Victoria era styles. soap manufacturers design one detergent for all parts of the United States even though water qualities and community needs different. The computers contain thousands different kinds of materials including toxic gases. Today the international style has evolved in to something less ambitious: a bland. Read paragraphs 3 – 5 to answer the following questions. acids. and material flows. Outlining the Argument Structure (6 points total) Complete the argument outline for the sections “From Cradle to Grave” and “One Size Fits All”. It is cheaper to buy a new version of even the most expansive appliance than to repair the original items. and mercury and other substances harmful to humans. A completed outline will include two reasons and 2 – 3 pieces of evidence for each reason. toxic metals. energy. C. The comfortable chair fabric contains mutagenic materials. comfort and in safety. The dusts from printer toner cartridges contain nickel. plastics. 2 . heavy metals.  Evidence: Because 90 percent of materials extracted to make durable goods in the United States become waste almost immediately. For example. in peace.” It is therefore easier for consumers to buy a new replacement than to have the products repaired. and dyes. chlorinated and brominated substances. However.  Evidence: Many products are designed with “built-in-obsolescence. However. we have a closer look it is indeed a other way around. the universal design solution does not work for all parts. nature.  Evidence: On average only contain 5% of raw materials in the final product. The main claim/thesis is listed below. cobalt. Please add specific warrants/reasons and evidence from the text that support the main claim.

d. provide a definition of intergenerational remote tyranny.  Evidence: To achieve their universal design solutions manufacturer design for a worst case scenario. c. present the subsequent topics. Directions: Read the section “A Strategy of Tragedy. 3 . ask the readers a question. lack of day light and fresh air and uniform fluorescent lighting making a house not for humans but to house like machines.Reason 2: One-size-fits-all solutions do not work because one size fits all solutions assume that needs are the same everywhere. and developers” (p. circle (or highlight) the best answer to the question. The final paragraph on page 44 is most likely intended to a. b. heating systems. designing a product for the worst possible circumstances so that it will always operate with the same efficiency. or a Strategy of Change” (pp. optimistic d. This aim is guaranteeing the largest possible market for a product. place blame on designers for the problems we face today. e. designers. The authors’ attitude toward “industrialists. 42 – 44) to answer the questions below. D. 43) can best be described as: a. The passage (pp. b. 42 – 44) is most likely intended to a. empathetic c. explain a strategy that can be used to implement change. motivate people to change unintelligent design problems. define important movements. c. describe a possible solution. Sealed windows constantly humming air conditioners. For each question. describe the main problems of industrial infrastructure. d. e. 3.  Evidence: The one-size-fits-all design itself is not consumer’s friendly. resentful b. critical e. cheerful 2. introduce new terminology. engineers. Making Inferences (1 point each) 1. It can be uninspiring and inhuman.

” According to the authors “at some point a manufacturer or designer decides we can’t keep doing this. Analyzing the Argument (4 points total) Please answer the following question in a well-structured paragraph. the environmentalists I knew were looking ahead to upcoming 1992 Earth Summit. Is the reasoning and evidence convincing? Why or why not? (Consider: How do the authors acknowledge the complexities of the issue? Do the authors include a counterargument (concession + refutation)? What is the tone of the counterargument? Do the authors rely on logos. Only as the consequence of outdated and un-intelligent design. We can’t keep supporting and manufacturing this system at some point they will decide that they would prefer to live behind a positive design legacy. is as a great combination as Steve Jobs (marketing) Steve Wozniak (computer expert) in the computer revolution. and developers of the past did not intend to bring about such devastating effects. confusing and could not figure out where it was going with it. pathos and ethos persuaded me and the authors chosen correct approach to bring to the audience attention – the whole world. 4 . or ethos to persuade their readers? Have the authors chosen the correct approach(es) for the intended audience? Is the evidence credible and sufficient given the audience and the context of the argument?) The authors used reasoning and evidence so convincingly to grab our attention.E. The tone of the counter argument the authors do not blame the corporations or the consumers’. engineers. The authors include a counter argument by saying “except for a few generally known positive side effects most industrial methods and materials are unintentionally depletive”. The evidence the authors have brought in are so effective that the next industrial revolution truly a visionary one. The authors Bill the architect and Michael the chemist. as in page 12 it says “ when I first met Bill. Industrial infrastructure design to chase economic growth at the expense of other vital concerns particularly human ecological health. designers. You must include specific evidence from the reading to support your answer. I regret in not reading this article before my “career goal” essay. both made their mark in their own fields. pathos. In fact the authors state “ Just as industrialist. Because now that president elect trump is taking oath on January 20th we would have to wait till his term ends.” In fact the waste pollution and crude products are not the result of corporations doing something morally wrong. frustrating. But when is that point?” Even though the authors say that that point is today I do disagree. Only there after a newer administration will say enough is enough. The authors have so effectively used logos. those who perpetuate these paradigms today surely do not intend to damage the world. First by showing the strategy of tragedy there after showing the strategy of change. 1. At first reading it was intimidating. cultural and natural richness.

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