LOADS & CODES 1 of 16
ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date
5 Oct2013


A1. Significant Changes between ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10
There have been some significant changes in regard to format and philosophy for wind loads
in the 2010 edition of ASCE 7 as compared to ASCE 7-05. The wind provisions have been
reorganized from a single chapter to a set of chapters (26 through 31). For the most part the
actual content and requirements are unchanged and the organization is somewhat more
logical. The chapters are broken down as follows:
Chapter 26 – Wind Loads - General Requirements
Chapter 27 – Wind Loads on Buildings – MWFRS (Directional Procedure) – “All Heights”
Chapter 28 – Wind Loads on Buildings – MWFRS (Envelope Procedure) – “Low-Rise”
Chapter 29 – Wind Loads on Other Structures and Building Appurtenances – MWFRS
Chapter 30 – Wind Loads – Components and Cladding (C & C)
Chapter 31 – Wind Tunnel Procedure

Commentary: Chapters 29 and 31 have little or no impact on our types of buildings. The remaining chapters will
be discussed below.

The philosophical change has two major components. The first change is that wind loads are
now expressed at an ultimate level, similar to seismic loads. The LRFD load factor for wind
load now becomes 1.0 rather than the previous 1.6. The ASD load factor is now 0.6 rather than
the previous 1.0. Wind speeds have been adjusted to reflect that change of reference with the
intent that, on average, no effective change in wind load will be noticed. The second change is
that the concept of importance factor for various risk categories has been eliminated. In place
of an importance factor there are now 3 wind speed maps corresponding to “Category 2 -
Normal” structures, “Category 3 – High Occupancy and Category 4 - Essential Facilities”
structures, and “Category 1 – Low Risk” structures. (Figures 26.5-1A, B, and C respectively),
i.e., the importance factor is now built into the mapped wind speeds.

A2. Buildings with Common Wall Not Exposed to Wind
When multiple shapes or buildings are tied together, where the common wall areas are not
directly exposed to wind (“the contact area” shown in Figure 1) they are not subject to any wind
loading (pressure or suction). The same is true whether the buildings are tied together
structurally or with non-structural connections such as nonporous flashing. Wall parts and
partitions within that area, if any, are subject to the code prescribed minimum partition loads,
which are considered live load by code (5 psf for IBC jobs - see DP 1.2.3).

When either of the connected shapes contain large openings in the building envelope, or open
walls, the common wall may experience pressures from direct wind loads or be subject to
interior pressure/suction loading as a “partially enclosed” building, or when contract specifies
common wall to be designed for wind loads due to planned future removal of one of the

When printed, this document becomes uncontrolled. Verify current revision number with controlled, on-line document. Author:
Igor Marinovic

4. For additional explanation about wind load spatial and time dependency.Buildings with common wall not exposed to wind Commentary: This “common wall” condition should not be confused with the shielding effect (ASCE7 Sec. on-line document. These effects are accounted for through the selection of the Surface Roughness Category (Wind Exposure). Leeward to illustrate this subject. Wind loads (suction) must be applied in all directions as Windward required by ASCE 7 (pressure) “Contact area” (no wind loads) Not exposed to wind.1. Verify current revision number with controlled.4) which pertains to the situations where parts or a whole structure is shielded from the wind exposure by detached nearby buildings (i. skylight assemblies.2. A building envelope is defined by ASCE7 Chapter 26 as: “Cladding. When printed. The calculated values after adjustment for Zone 2 and Zone 3 coefficients are to be not less than the corresponding Zone 1 (Field of Roof) coefficient. exterior walls. or multi-bay condition.” By this definition. no further adjustment or increase is applied to MWFRS wind loading. regardless of one. A4. glazing. When wind load is applied to continuous secondary members. buildings that have common walls inside the overall building envelope are not considered “exterior walls” and therefore need not be designed for pressures/suctions originating from velocity wind pressures from outside the building envelope. door assemblies.4. Figure 1 . AISI NASPEC Appendix A Section D6. and the derivation of wind load pressure coefficients refer to ASCE 7 Commentary. already accounting for the location and distribution of short-duration wind loads throughout all roof and wall planes. and Appendix 7 of the MBMA Metal Building System Manual. and 30. or other terrain features. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. 27.not connected) and structures.5 Page LOADS & CODES 2 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Wind Note: This Figure shows wind from one direction only.. Author: Igor Marinovic .1. and other components enclosing the building.1a permits that ASCE 7 wind loads used in the uplift load combinations may be multiplied by 0.67 for the roof perimeter (roof edges = Zone 2. This condition is not considered “shielding”. three. Load Reduction for Standing Seam Roofs Beginning with the 2007 Edition.1. window assemblies. and roof corners = Zone 3). 28. Load Adjustment Due to Secondary Member Continuity The Standard prescribed MWFRS loading represents an averaged effect on the parts of that system. this document becomes uncontrolled.e. two.4. A3. roofing.

5 Page LOADS & CODES 3 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Based on stated geometric and testing limitations. Wind Directionality Factor.5) (Vult in IBC 2012) As noted above. the Standard now provides three separate wind maps (Figures 26. 26. B1. Verify current revision number with controlled. when categories B or D are not confirmed. Vult. SSR. Author: Igor Marinovic . standing seam roof systems. A5. VSRII. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. All BlueScope building designs will use Kd = 0. Vasd = Vult * 0. An additional wind speed designated as “nominal wind speed”. PARTITION LOADS See DP 1. Vasd. 26. B. is defined specifically to cover situations where components have been designed under the previous wind definitions. and special wind regions. gorges. In all cases there may be local code amendments that modify the values in the maps to accommodate mountainous terrain. When printed. or 22 ga. this document becomes uncontrolled. However. such as MR-24.edition.5-1A.85.7) This user input parameter is obtained from the “Surface Roughness” (also defined by this Standard). 26. this AISI load reduction is permitted for standard BlueScope 24 ga. and the characteristics of the terrain under consideration. prior to the 2010. and C) to be used with the various building risk categories. Wind Exposure Category C must be selected.2. B2.6 = 0. and Liberty Loc systems. ASCE 7 estimates that between 60% and 80% of all buildings are located within Exposure Category B. B3. ocean promontories.6) Table 26. Exposure Category (Sec.775 Vult. Commentary: IBC 2012 identifies the wind speed from the wind maps as “ultimate wind speed”. V (Sec.4. Commentary: In VISION the reduction factor is reported combined with the Components and Cladding coefficients (since the roof interior wind load is not affected by this exception). on-line document. Kd (Sec. This factor does not apply to NBC (Canadian) jobs.6-1 in the standard provides a listing of appropriate directionality factors for different structural configurations. This reduction factor is not permitted in conjunction with the Florida Building Code.3 for the application of partition loads. Both wind speeds are to be shown on the Construction Documents. HWR. CHAPTER 26 – WIND LOADS – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS This chapter covers those provisions of the Standard that are applicable to all of the various methods explained in later chapters for both MWFRS and C&C conditions. SLRII. B. Basic Wind Speed.

T. 26. The gust effect factor for all rigid buildings can be set to 0. The typical BlueScope building will fall well within this criteria. Kzt (Sec. Verify current revision number with controlled. Exposure D was only considered away from the hurricane coastline.. Author: Igor Marinovic . unobstructed areas and water surfaces exceeding 5. The Wind Exposure Category is often related to the similar selection found under snow loads.e. In past editions. Kzt.9) Rigid buildings are defined as structures with a frequency greater than 1 Hz. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. ridges.8) Buildings situated at or near the tops of isolated hills.e. Detailed explanation and equations are given in the ASCE 7 Commentary C27.1. Start Surface Roughness B or C Surface Roughness D x 5000 ft Exposure B or C True h y x y 600 ft y 20 h True True Shoreline Exposure D Figure 2 Exposure D verification Note that ASCE 7 allows for interpolation between exposure categories.0 which is an unconservative assumption where these conditions exist. B5.000 feet in width (see Figure 2 below)..85. less than 1 second. a fundamental period. When printed. i. Note that any increase in wind exposure category has beneficial effect on the snow accumulation on the roof (i. This is an extremely rare localized condition and requires the builder to properly define the condition to the designer. and escarpments experience additional wind loads due to the topography. Commentary: The determination to interpolate between exposure categories should be made by the local EOR or building official and will require a signed document defining the exact wind design to be followed.4. Topographic Factor. The designer is responsible for evaluation of the correct value to use for this factor when alerted by the builder to the specialized site conditions. Gust Effect Factor.5 Page LOADS & CODES 4 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 The definition for Exposure Category D has been revised with the 2010 edition of the Standard. on-line document. Commentary: VISION assumes a topographic factor. B4. G (Sec. 26. Note: The gust effect factor is built into the “Envelope Procedure” coefficients and internal pressure coefficients and should not be separately applied. lower exposure coefficient Ce). of 1. this document becomes uncontrolled. Exposure D applies for any location adjacent to flat. With the 2010 edition.3.

Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. Wind-borne Debris Regions (Sec.20 Agi the structure? Y Y Enclosed Partially Free Roof – Free Roof – Open – Enclosed Clear/Obstructed Clear All Heights Figure 3 Building Enclosure Category Design Aid B7. this document becomes uncontrolled. Author: Igor Marinovic .3) Wind-borne debris regions consist of the following: (a) Areas where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 140 mph.25 ? N more than 10%? Ao > 1.0 ratio Y satisfied? where: N Roof slope < 5° N Does area of openings in the h = mean roof height “windward” wall (Ao) exceed Y L = building width ( to ridge) N sum of all other openings (Aoi) Y 0. Enclosure Classification (Sec. 26. apertures or holes in N the building envelope that will stay open during wind events? Y (Open) Is each wall 100% open? (no wall sheathing Is there any exterior wall that is not at least 80% open? N present except for the gable areas) N Y Y Does area of openings in the Monoslope or gable roof with slope 45°? N N “windward” wall exceed 4 ft2 Y Ao > 4 ft2 Is 0.4.10) ASCE 7 provides specific checks for the applicability of the selected enclosure categories. 26.25 h/L 1. (b) Areas within 1 mile of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 130 mph. Start Note that “Enclosed” is a “catch-all” E category for all building exposures! Does the building have open walls. or to select one of the five options used by VISION.05 h/L 0. Use the Design Aid (flow chart) in Figure 3 to verify the enclosure category.1 Aoi Y Y Is the sum of all other Is space under the roof “clear” openings less than 20% of the of obstructions (less than 50% N surface area of walls & roofs blockage) and will remain N “clear” during the design life of not including windward walls? Aoi < 0. Verify current revision number with controlled.5 Page LOADS & CODES 5 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 B6. on-line document.2 and 26.10. When printed.

6 psf ASD) acting in either direction normal to the surface. Fig. 9. ASCE 7 Figure C27. Minimum wind loads are applied to the MWFRS in the transverse and longitudinal directions applied separately. or any other factors. 30.5-1B is used for Risk Category 3 healthcare facilities and all Risk Category 4 buildings.5-1A is used for all Risk Category 2 buildings and for Risk Category 3 buildings that are NOT healthcare facilities. 26. this document becomes uncontrolled.11) Table 26.2. For roof members the MW load case never governs over other load types or load combinations. Fig. therefore Vision does not run DL + MW load case for roof members. Components and cladding wind load (MW load type). pressure coefficients. applied to walls. VISION supports both major options1. MWFRS WIND DESIGN METHODS ASCE 7 is the main source of IBC wind load related provisions (IBC 1609) which are used for the design of BlueScope buildings. 28.1. Minimum Wind Loads (Sec. These coefficients are unchanged from the previous edition. B9. shall not be less than a net pressure (16 psf LRFD. Author: Igor Marinovic . 27. 26. Sidewall cases include an additional line load which accounts for the minimum 8 psf wind applied to the vertical projection of the roof plane (above eave). Verify current revision number with controlled. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1.4. GCpi (Sec.2. Commentary: In wind load cases that are combined with other transient loads. specifically mean roof height is less than 60 feet and the mean roof height does not exceed the least horizontal dimension. or other transient loads (ref. When printed.4- 1).11-1 lists the applicable internal pressure coefficients based upon the enclosure classification of the building.5 Page LOADS & CODES 6 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 The basic wind speed is determined in a slightly different manner for the purpose of this evaluation than for all other wind applications. C.5. 26. Internal Pressure Coefficient. B8.4. wind load coefficients are derived directly from ASCE7 wind loading procedures and are permitted to be less than 16 psf MW when so combined. on-line document. For all buildings the minimum 16 psf wind load is applied as an independent load case (MW load type) to each side.2) Minimum wind load provisions of ASCE 7 are independent of the selected design procedure. 1 Either method allows for eave height to be used as a mean roof height when roof slope is less than 10°.4. referring to: (Envelope Procedure) “Low-rise” buildings (Chapter 28 Part 1) o Standard approach for all buildings that satisfy geometrical limits stated under ASCE 7 Definitions in Section 26. Risk Category 1 buildings are not subject to the wind-borne debris region provisions.

This requirement comes with several exceptions of which the following two will exclude the majority of BlueScope buildings from this requirement: One-story buildings with height less than or equal to 30 ft (the exception for eave height to be used instead of the mean roof height. When printed. this document becomes uncontrolled.1 External Wind Coefficients (Figure 28. one for transverse loading. As mixing of wind design options is not permitted – if one shape does not fall within the “low-rise” limits. These are highlighted below. The Envelope Procedure is applicable only to Enclosed and Partially Enclosed buildings. wind loads will exist on all walls simultaneously. for roofs with slope 10°.4. Endwall members are generally controlled by endwall wind anyway. There are only minimal changes between ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10.2 Roof Overhangs (Sec. The BlueScope standard product does not meet the limitations cited for this building type and will not be used. Commentary: For buildings with multiple parts and/or lean-tos.e. C1. on-line document.4. Author: Igor Marinovic . Additional zones 1E and 4E have been created which apply a slightly increased load on the corner of the sidewall adjacent to the assumed prevailing wind direction. i.4-1) For the transverse wind load case (Load Case A). C1. since it is the predominant design method for BlueScope buildings. more than one “shape”. This coefficient should be combined with the top surface coefficient determined from Figure 28. and another for longitudinal loading.4-1 Note 5) In addition to the eight standard cases. i.4-1.8 to 0. the requirement for wind loads on the endwalls (equal and opposite) has been removed. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. C1. 28. All other coefficients are identical to previous editions.. the “all heights” provisions.7. Envelope Procedure – “Low-Rise” Buildings (Chapter 28) This option will be addressed first. Verify current revision number with controlled. VISION checks the “low-rise” geometry limits on all listed shapes. Buildings two stories or less designed with flexible diaphragms. The simplified methods shown in Chapter 27 Part 2 and Chapter 28 Part 2 are restricted to “Simple Diaphragm” buildings. This method is also an optional method for all buildings. applies). ASCE 7 Figure 28.e.5 Page LOADS & CODES 7 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 (Directional Procedure) “All Heights” Buildings (Chapter 27 Part 1) o Applied when building geometry exceeds the criteria of low-rise building. two more torsional wind cases may be required. C1.3 Torsional Load Cases (Figure 28.3) The positive external pressure on the bottom surface of a windward overhang has been reduced from 0.. all shapes will require the same option.4-1 shows two required torsional cases. For the longitudinal wind load case (Load Case B). (see section C2 below for details) Commentary: Note that all “open” buildings fall under the Directional Procedure by default.

This method can be used at any time. VISION will show a message when building height (eave height or mean roof height. (c) For transverse loading on MWFRS: (i) Uplift force depends on the building geometry: Buildings with h/L ratios (height / width) greater than 0. the “rigid building” provisions would apply here.85) given in Section 26. Wider buildings will generally have less uplift using the “all heights” method. (b) For all practical applications.e. i.e. When printed. with slightly higher wind in the higher portions of the building. which is only a few percent different from the calculated value. (ii) Horizontal wind calculated per the “low-rise” procedure is generally lower. C2. on-line document. The parabolic distribution does not apply to the lowest 15 feet above ground.4-1. (d) A distribution of wind loads: (i) Along the windward wall the wind load distribution is uniform for the “low-rise” calculation method.). and the wind pressure qh is based on the building eave height. the “low-rise” method should be selected. or when user selected. therefore.4. the approximate gust effect factor (=0. will generally have less uplift using the “low-rise” method. (a) The majority of BlueScope buildings have a low structural period with a frequency greater than 1 Hz (f 1 Hz.9. i.2 are exceeded (this may happen even for some low buildings).. therefore. as shown in ASCE 7 Section 27. Some advantages and disadvantages are listed below.5 Page LOADS & CODES 8 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Commentary: Instead of full automation for torsional cases. Commentary: Vision is using simple rectangular distribution of wind loads. Torsional wind loading is an item on the Designer’s check list and must be manually entered into Vision if needed. Verify current revision number with controlled.1 should be used. wind loads will be calculated using the provisions for the rigid buildings of “all-heights”. T<1 sec. Author: Igor Marinovic . For the “all-heights” method the wind loading distribution is parabolic. this document becomes uncontrolled. for all open buildings regardless of the building height. (ii) The “all-heights” method does not use the interior and end zones for either the walls or the roof. which is conservative. when frame lateral deflection is a concern. depending on the roof slope) exceeds 30 ft and the selected roof type is other than one of the standard BlueScope metal roofs. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1.4. tall narrow buildings. Directional Procedure – “All Heights” Buildings (Chapter 27) When the limits of low-rise buildings given in ASCE 7 Section 26.

with one or more zones of lower coefficients applied towards the back of the roof.7 -0. Example: The following shows how the “all-heights” wind cases are applied to BlueScope systems on a typical gabled building. h. (iii) For the “low-rise” method.7 -1.7 -0.04 -0. L/B = 1. and the lower wind zone is everything else (roof). the peak values are applied at the leading eave. Single slope roofs will use a constant coefficient for the entire roof depending upon whether the wind direction defines a windward or leeward roof. The higher load zone is the shorter of 2. h/L=1 Case 1 – 100% Longitudinal (typ.8 -0. + 75% Transversal… (frame columns w/ reactions from bracing) When printed. Verify current revision number with controlled.7 -1. similar rules apply.12:12).7 -0. on-line document.7 -0.5 h or the windward half of the roof. the peak values are applied based upon the two roof slopes with the wind coefficient changing at the ridge. (ii) For the “all-heights” method when the roof slope is greater than or equal to 10 .7 -0.4.7 -0.5 +0.5 -1. this document becomes uncontrolled. however there are only two zones.7 -0.4-8: Given: (H = B = L) > 60 ft.04 -0.5 -0.5 Page LOADS & CODES 9 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 (e) Distribution of wind loads on the MWFRS roofs – stepped as follows (transverse cases): (i) For the “all-heights” method when the roof slope is less than 10 (2.04 +0. and 2h from the windward edge.8 -0. For bracing) -0.5 +0. For frames) RIDGE +0.7 -0.8 Case 3 – 75% Long. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. Author: Igor Marinovic . The “Case” numbers refer to design cases shown in ASCE 7 Figure 27.8 RIDGE -0. <10°. Transitions are at distances h/2.7 -1.04 1.04 -0.7 Case 1 – 100%Transverse (typ.

4-1 through 30.4.38 -0. on-line document. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1.53 -0.38 -0.2) When calculating wind pressure coefficients for components and cladding.6-1.4-8 Cases 2 & 4 with torsional effects are not automated in VISION.78 +0.38 -0. Buildings with an h dimension greater than 60 feet use Figure 30. except for roofs where the roof angle > 10 . However. used for MWFRS design.6 -0. all buildings with an h dimension less than or equal to 60 feet use Figures 30. Verify current revision number with controlled. The Effective Wind Area is defined as the span multiplied by an “effective width” that need not be less than one-third the span length. ASCE 7 uses the Effective Wind Area. the tributary area must be used in the calculation of wind coefficients for the cladding fasteners (screws and clips)! Example: GCp for a girt in a 25-foot bay will use Aeff = Span2 / 3 = 25 (25/3) = 208. For each load case above there will be two cases in VISION due to +/– internal pressure.3 ft2. D1.38 -0.78 -0.78 +0.38 +0.78 -0. D. instead of the Wind Tributary Area.6 -0.4-6.6 +0. Regardless of the procedure.53 -0. this document becomes uncontrolled.53 -0. When printed.38 -0. COMPONENTS AND CLADDING WIND DESIGN METHODS (CHAPTER 30) Wind coefficient charts are unchanged between ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10. Effective Wind Area (Section 26.6 Commentary: ASCE 7 Figure 27.53 +0.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.5 Page LOADS & CODES 10 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 +0.38 +0. “Directional” or “Envelope”. Author: Igor Marinovic .6 +0.38 -0.

Two load cases. Verify current revision number with controlled. must be considered: When printed.4. E. Main Wind Force-Resisting System The combined net pressure on the parapet (front and back) is determined per ASCE 7 Section 27. for the adjacent roofs and walls.5 GCpn=-1.9.3 Overhang coefficients Overhang coefficients in the Figures include an allowance for both the underside and topside pressures. D2.4. where “Combined” refers to the sum of external and internal pressure coefficients.2 Monoslope roofs less than or equal to 3 Monoslope roofs less than or equal to 3 are to use the gable roof coefficients shown in Figure 30.1 Wall coefficients for roof slopes less than or equal to 10 Wall external coefficients shown in Figure 30. on-line document. Components and Cladding The design wind pressure on the components and cladding elements of parapets is applied per ASCE 7 Section 30.4-1 may be reduced by 10% when the roof slope is less than or equal to 10 per Note 5. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. PARAPETS E1. D2.2. Coefficient Nuances D2. Author: Igor Marinovic . shown in Figure 2.5 Page LOADS & CODES 11 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 D2.4.4-2A.5 or 28.5 GCpn=-1. Note that the internal pressure coefficient is not reduced. WIND GCpn=+1.0 GCpn=+1. this document becomes uncontrolled. These values are not combined with any other values as was the case for the MWFRS evaluation.0 WINDWARD TWO PARAPET LEEWARD PARAPETS PARAPET ONLY ONLY Note: For wind blowing in the opposite direction ( ) the above coefficients would be reversed. These provisions rely on the standard set of coefficients. Figure 1 explains the application of the combined coefficients. Figure 1 Application of parapet loads on MWFRS E2.

4-1 or Fig. Case A: WIND Case B: WIND Roof Suction (-) ASCE 7 Fig. on-line document. Author: Igor Marinovic . Main parapet structural members and parapet girts that resist wind loads from both front and back surfaces must be designed for the sum of those front and back side pressures. Load Case B combines the applicable positive wall pressure to the back of the parapet surface with the applicable negative wall pressure to the front surface. 30. since standard parapets always use sheeting on both external surfaces. 30. When the parapet cavities connect to the internal space of the building. both load cases should be evaluated under positive and negative internal pressure. 30. 30. the BlueScope parapet is remote to the building. The same is true for the internal pressure coefficient. therefore. the internal pressure and suction can be ignored as it will have no effect on the design of the parapet cladding.6-1). Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. which is tabulated in ASCE 7 Table 26. in most cases.5 Page LOADS & CODES 12 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Load Case A combines the applicable positive wall pressure to the front surface of the parapet with the negative edge or corner zone2 roof pressure to the back surface.6-1 ASCE 7 Fig.6-1) is available for qualifying parapets.6-1 ROOF or Fig.11-1.4-1 through 30.4-1 ASCE 7 Fig.4-1 or Fig. Edge and corner zones shall be arranged as shown in those figures. Verify current revision number with controlled. 30.4-6 and 30. 30. this document becomes uncontrolled.4.6-1 Wall Pressure (+) Wall Suction (-) ASCE 7 Fig.4-2A thru Wall Pressure (+) PARAPET PARAPET Fig.4-6 or Fig. the design of parapet panels and panel fasteners is based on wind loads applied to one surface only.6-1 WALL WALL Figure 2 Load cases for parapet C&C loading The applicable external pressure coefficients are taken from the existing ASCE 7 figures for components and cladding in walls or roofs (ASCE 7 Figures 30.4-2A (or Note 7 in Figure 30. 30. 30. The same roof suction load would apply to the back side of the parapet (loading case A). When printed. 30. 2 Roof pressure reduction per Note 5 in ASCE 7 Figure 30. On the other hand. However.

and the building conforms to one of the geometries shown in ASCE 7 Figure 27. mansards.0 where “h” refers to the building mean roof height (there is no “eave height” option for low pitched roofs and “L” is the horizontal dimension perpendicular to the ridge for all wind directions as defined in ASCE 7 Figure 27. non-free-roof open buildings. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. facades and similar roof and wall sub- structures. F. When printed. Free Roofs If all walls are fully open (100%).25 when roof slope is less than 5 use the values shown in Figure 27.4-7. 0.05 h/L < 0.4-4 through 27. Limits of applicability: ASCE 7 free roof provisions apply only to buildings that satisfy one of the following rules: 0. the building becomes a “free roof” structure. OPEN BUILDINGS Open Buildings are defined as buildings having each wall at least 80% open.4-7. Note that ASCE 7 is silent about other. this document becomes uncontrolled.4-7. on-line document. Author: Igor Marinovic .5 Page LOADS & CODES 13 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Case A: WIND Case B: WIND MANSARD MANSARD Roof Suction (-) Wall Pressure (+) ROOF ROOF Wall Pressure (+) Wall Suction (-) WALL WALL WALL Figure 3 Load cases for mansard C&C loading These provisions apply equally to parapets.25 h/L 1. F1. Verify current revision number with controlled.4. Buildings that do not meet either of these limitations will be designed by VISION using the approach defined in Section F2 below.

The wall coefficients for the components and cladding condition should be based on Section 30. therefore. The Code treats fascia panels as inverted parapets. the selection of the “All Heights Wind” method is not required for proper application. This option often yields larger wind loads. ASCE 7 selection of free roof wind coefficients is depended on the air flow under the roof. Verify current revision number with controlled. Commentary: 1) VISION neither checks nor reports when the h/L ratio is out of range – wind enclosure is user’s responsibility! 2) For the “obstructed wind flow” VISION uses a consolidated set of coefficients for simplicity (longitudinal MWFRS and C&C. Author: Igor Marinovic . Vision will run BOTH sets of coefficients. this document becomes uncontrolled.3. for both clear and obstructed conditions as separate load cases since both cases are expected during the lifetime of the structure. which represents the envelope of all applicable ASCE 7 wind loads).4.9 with the exception that Load Case B should be used for both the windward and leeward fascias. See Table 1 and Table 2 for consolidated coefficients used by VISION.4. See Section E2 for more information.5 with qp equal to qh”. Commentary: Load Case A utilizes the roof wind uplift coefficient in lieu of the leeward wall coefficient. the use of the roof uplift value is inappropriate. In VISION. where the contribution of loads on the fascia to the MWFRS are calculated using Section 27.4. 4) Free Roofs are only defined in the “All Heights” method. as long as the roof slope does not exceed 5°. There are two options: (a) Clear wind flow – the space under the roof is “clear” by ASCE7 definition (less than 50% blockage). regardless of a design method or wind enclosure option. but it will generally be less than the wall wind suction coefficient anyway so would not control. It could be argued that the roof wind pressure coefficient should be used instead. on-line document. When printed. Since a fascia panel in this connotation is below the roof surface. (b) Obstructed wind flow – if the building does not qualify as “clear”. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1.5 Page LOADS & CODES 14 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Free roof structures with sheeted gables are also covered under the same provisions of ASCE 7 Section 27. 3) VISION coefficient reporting is consistent.85 for open buildings). the reported coefficient is always a product G*Cp where G is the gust factor (0.

1 1.8 -2. 2h B (<W6) 0.6 1.2 -1.2 2 1.8 1.9 -3.1 1.7 1.8 -2.4 1.1 -1.1 -1.1 1.4 -2.6 -2.6 1.7 -2.9 2.6 -2.2 -1.1 15° a < Aeff 4a2 2 1.1 -1.6 -4.6 -2.6 1.8-2) CLEAR Wind Flow OBSTRUCTED / CLEAR* Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 A B A B A B Pitch Aeff A B A B A B 2.1 -1.8 2.7 1.5 2 5.9 a 3. this document becomes uncontrolled. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1.7 -2.9 -3.2 1.1 > 4a 1.3 a 5.5 2.4 -2.8 1.2 -3.5 2.4 1.2 -1.4 -3.2 2 2 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.1 -1.8 1.6 -0.5° a < Aeff 4a 2.6 -2.4 7.6 -2.9 -3.2 2 2.8 -2.2 -1.7 -1.8 1.1 -1.7 2 3.1 0° a < Aeff 4a 1.8 -1.6 -1.2 2 1.7 -1.3 1.6 1.6 -2.2 -4.9 -3.4 1.5 a 5.2 -1.2 -5 3.4.8 1.8 3.7 1. Author: Igor Marinovic .6 -1.4 1.6 3.2 -5.2 2.1 -1.2 -5 3.2 1.6 -1.8 -2.1 -0.6 -2.2 1.3 -1.5 2.3 1.9 -3.1 -1.2 -3.4-7) Horizontal Distance Wind Flow CLEAR OBSTRUCTED / CLEAR* Roof Angle from Windward Edge Load Case CN CN A (W5>) -0.6 2 2.8 2.4 1.9 -3.8 1.9 30° a < Aeff 4a 2 -1.8 -1.8 > 4a 1.8 1.6 -2.6 1.7 1.6 1.2 -4.8 -1.9 -3.1 -1.5 2.8 2.2 2 2 1.6 1.7 -1.5 3.1 -1.6 1.7 -1.1 -1.2 -1.9 1.2 Monoslope R o o f s (ASCE 7 Figure 30.1 -1.1 -1.4 -3.7 -1.2 1.1 -1.2 -1.4 2 -1.7 -2.7 -1.6 -2.3 > 4a 2.4 -3.2 1.8 -1.8 2 -1.6 -2.6 -1.3 -0.7 1.6 -2.5 0.6 -2.7 -2.6 -2.1 1.7 -2.8 -1.4 a 3.3 2.7 -2.2 -5.8 2.2 -1.8 All Shapes A (W5>) -0.8 2 -1.6 3.2 2.3 * Red color indicates consolidated coefficients Table 2 – Free roof coefficients for “Components and Cladding” Pitched R o o f s (ASCE 7 Figure 30.3 2.2 2.4 -3.5 2 2 3.1 1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.2 1.7 1.2 1.3 -0.3 * Red color indicates consolidated coefficients When printed.6 -2.8 -1.6 -2.7 2 2 1.3 2.3 -1.2 -1.6 1.1 a2 2.7 -1.8 -1.6 -2.1 -1.2 2 2 1.2 1.7 -3.6 -1.2 -1.2 -1.7 1.1 1.3 -0.2 -4.1 -1.5 > 4a 2.2 a 2.2 7.9 -3.1 -1.5 Page LOADS & CODES 15 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 Table 1 – MWFRS coefficients for longitudinal wind cases (ASCE 7 Figure 27.2 2 1.8-1) CLEAR Wind Flow OBSTRUCTED / CLEAR* Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 A B A B A B Pitch Aeff A B A B A B 2 2.1 2.6 -2.8 -2.1 -1.7 1.8 1.8 -1.3 -1.7 -2.9 1.1 -0.2 -1.5 2.2 1.6 2.6 -1.7 1.6 1.9 -3.4 -2.2 1.3 2.7 1.5 30° a < Aeff 4a 3.6 -2.2 1.1 1.7 -1.5 2 2.5 2.3 -0.2 2 3.2 > 4a 1.1 -0.8 1.1 -1.2 2 1.2 1.3 2 2 3.8 1.3 45° a < Aeff 4a 3.2 -1.8 -1.8 1.2 -1.4 2 -1.6 1.4 1.2 -1.8 -1. Verify current revision number with controlled.8 3.4 -2.1 2 2 2.7 2 2 2.8 a 2.9 > h.7 1.2 h B (<W6) 0.8 -1.7 -3.4 -2.2 -1.6 -1.8 2.8 -1.5 3.1 a 2.9 15° a < Aeff 4a 2.2 -2.8 1.5 2.9 1.7 -2.1 1.1 0° a < Aeff 4a 1.7 2 1.7 -1.7 1.9 -3.9 -3.2 2 2.5° a < Aeff 4a 1.1 1.1 a 2.1 1.7 -2.8 1.1 > 4a 1.2 1.9 -3.1 2.1 -1.8 -1.1 -1.3 2 2.6 -2.6 -1.7 1.1 1.7 -1.8 45° a < Aeff 4a 1.3 -0.8 -1.8 -1.3 0.2 1.8 0.2 -1.1 2 5.3 -1.2 -1.6 2 1.9 1.2 1.4 > 4a 1.6 -1.8 1.2 -2.1 2 1.3 -0.3 -1.7 -1.7 -1.6 -1.8 1.2 1.5 2. on-line document.1 -0.9 a 2.2 -1.8 -1.8 -1.9 > 4a 1.6 -3.7 2 1.6 -1.4 1.4 -2.6 1.1 -1.8 -1.6 -2.6 -2.1 -0.2 2 2 2 -1.5 45° A (W5>) -0.2 -1.8 1.6 >2h B (<W6) 0.2 1.7 -3.7 2 2.1 > 4a 1.2 -1.9 > 4a 1.

3 04/01/2013 Igor Marinovic Figure 3 (flow chart) added option for low slope roofs under 5°. With either free roof option. about load reduction for standing seam roofs. taking into consideration wind azimuth. 4. Verify current revision number with controlled. Revised Section B9 – Minimum Wind Loads to clarify that MW is a separate LC and is not combined with any 5 Oct 2013 S. When printed. Document and Revision History REV. 4. on-line document. 2 10/15/2010 Skip Hyder Expanded section on Open buildings to show the level of automation in VISION Updated sections on Minimum wind loads 3 01/2012 Al Harrold Update for ASCE7-10 provisions. ASCE 7 provides limited criteria for the application of wind loads on MWFRS.Hyder other transient loads in LC’s. In the longitudinal direction (|| to ridge). The “2010 method” is more accurate and less conservative than the method shown in the 2006 MBMA Manual (or earlier editions) – the older method was not applicable for design of steel frames in buildings with any roofing attached.4-1. The use of the minimum wind load defined in Section B8 is adequate for all cases. Author: Igor Marinovic .4. 4 6/01/2012 Al Harrold Correct statement regarding minimum wind loads for components and cladding. or on clad surfaces on the endwalls.1 01/03/2013 Igor Marinovic Updated 2nd commentary in section C. frame span. Note about MBMA “bare frame” wind loads – not used by BBNA and VISION: For wind pressures on the bare frames. Section: DESIGN PROCEDURES DP 1. Based on wind tunnel studies on multiple building configurations.2 01/14/2013 Igor Marinovic Figure 3 typo corrected. For Open buildings the internal pressure coefficients GCpi = 0. the 2010 Supplement to the 2006 MBMA MBS Manual recommends the method developed by researchers at the University of Western Ontario in 2008. Use “W” in code specified LC’s.5 Page LOADS & CODES 16 of 16 Revision ASCE 7: Wind Loads & Date 5 Oct2013 At eave canopies attached to free roofs receive the same wind loads (coefficients) as the roof plane to which they are attached. Added section about building exposure categories Igor Marinovic Added section about shielding and buildings with common wall not exposed to wind. Open – All Heights (Not a Free Roof) MWFRS loads for open buildings are calculated as follows: In the transverse direction ( to ridge) the wind loads are applied along the frame rafters using the “all heights” roof coefficients per ASCE 7 Figure 27. Other minor corrections.0. # DATE NAME DESCRIPTION 0 10/01/2009 Igor Marinovic Original document Revised or added commentaries about: “all heights” winds. and about partition loads. this document becomes uncontrolled. the researchers developed a procedure for assessing drag wind loads on multiple bay open structures. if any portion of the sidewall is sheathed the “all heights” wall coefficients will be used with zero internal pressure and the loads applied along the sheathed portions of the affected members only. after the 2010 Edition. It is expected that the new method will become part of the ASCE 7 wind loads. MBMA open building wind 1 07/01/2010 Igor Marinovic loads. F2. solidity ratio and number of frames. torsional load cases. the minimum wind as defined in Section B8 is the only requirement for the building bracing system. Similarly. 4.