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International Congress on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for

Construction, Energy and Transportation Systems (AWST - 2011)
24-25 October 2011, Antalya, Turkey
AWST-11/31

New Equipment for Underwater Mechanized and Automatic Flux-
Cored Wire Welding and Cutting
S. Y. Maksimova, V. A. Lebedevb
The E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute, NASU, Kiev, Ukraine
a
maksimov@paton.kiev.ua, b lebedevvladimir@ukr.net

Construction and erection of equipment for production mechanism, operating in a close vicinity with the site of
of oil, gas and mineral sources of sea ground, salvaging process conductance, communications, coming to
and repair of ships, emergency-rescue works, repair of electric motor, supply and control system, as well as
underwater pipelines, regular and repair works on port sealed connectors. A welding current source occupies a
engineering structures and bridges are not the full list of special place in this structure. The main problems,
examples of the underwater welding applications [1]. which should be solved in designing the new generation
The requirements for the quality and reliability of of equipment, are the distant removal of an immersion
welded joints, which are made and operate under the unit with a feeding mechanism from the supply and
water, are continuously growing. The welds of modern control systems, and also air-tightness of electric motor
critical underwater metal structures should not be to protect it from the water environment. The solution
inferior by the level of properties to those made in air or of the problem of a local sealing of a driven electric
should differ from them negligible. Thus, the analysis motor is its complete air-tightness with filling of
of state-of-the-art and trends of development of cavities with insulating fluid lubricant. In the new
welding production, made by OJSC Gasprom (Russia), design of the semiautomatic machine for underwater
where welding is one of the basic technological welding and cutting , shown in Figure 1,
processes in construction and repair of main and
industrial gas pipelines, revealed the need in the further
development and improvement of technologies of repair
of pipelines crossing the inland water basins and seas
[2].
For this purpose, the technology of flux-cored welding
and cutting, developed at the E.O.Paton Electric
Welding Institute, has found a wide spread. Its
application opens up the challenges in mechanization
and automation of the process, the future fulfillment of
works under especially dangerous conditions and at
increased depths. To realize the method of the flux-
cored welding and cutting, a specialized equipment is
required. Therefore, in parallel with the development of
electrode materials the E.O.Paton Electric Welding
Institute has designed a series of semiautomatic
machines of unique design, protected by the Author’s
Certificates of the USSR and patented in a number of
industrialized countries. The present element base, new
consumables and completing parts allow us to renovate
the park of semiautomatic machines for underwater
welding and cutting to impart them the new technical
and technological capabilities.
The aim of the present work is to analyze the
challenging developments of the E.O.Paton Electric
Welding Institute in the field of equipment for
mechanized underwater welding and cutting using
special flux-cored electrode wires, and also some Figure 1. New semiautomatic machine for underwater
systems for them to attract attention of specialists and welding and cutting: 1- cleat for fixation of welding cable
and control cable; 2- control cable; 3- sealed connector; 4
organizations, having problems connected with these
– air-tight electric motor; 5 - cassette; 6 – casing; 7 – hose
technologies. The main and most specific components holder; 8 – removable cover; 9 – supply and control unit;
of the mechanized equipment for underwater welding 10 - stand
and cutting are an electric drive of a feeding

A……………………………………………. i. Maximum welding current at 60% duty cycle. transistor electric drive and a feeding mechanisms. allowing selection of a required level of the elements in operation under the water. was selected. special supply unit. m/h …. consequently. as the commutator unit of d.. i. designed for mechanized welding (rigid external volt-ampere characteristics).Paton Electric of tough friction at relative movement of reduction Welding Institute.1. At present the electric drive of this modern inverter power source LET-500 with very wide design has been manufactured. electric drive supply.c. Service life tests of valve electric drive in water cable. First of all. A supply and control unit has been designed.100….straight or reverse selection of the electric motor. investigations. an optimum design of the reduction gear The designed semiautomatic machine for underwater and its additional elements was defined. For this purpose. including also pulse gears of which. It should be noted that the design of gears and fluid. capable to withstand the weight of an immersion unit taking into account the weight of the cable itself at a deep immersion..400 predetermined the development of special designs of Kind of welding current …………… …………direct cables.c. thus. the reference model of preset algorithm. allowing welding corresponds to the following conditions and decrease the load to the electric motor down to the parameters: value.e.O. when the process is conducted at increased depths the need arises in the design of a specialized power source allowing compensation of voltage drop in the welding Figure 2.450 the voltage drop is inevitable in the cable. commutatorless electric motors in the design of their having an adjustable d. supply system of adjustable electric drive and Polarity …… ……………………. It was additionally insulating fluid lubricant. and. 5 min Large and changing lengths of supply cables cycle. the influence the welding process. it should have a margin of output welding environment after its filling with insulating-dielectric fluid voltage . accounting and compensating the it was suggested to use the design of a specialized losses in the cable. However. adjustable by a value of output electric machines is one of the most problematic voltage. range. provide high load to the power source provides its protection from action of the driven electric motor. acquire an additional technically modified and by programs according to the resistance due to sufficiently high values of coefficients requirements formulated at the E. and experimental testing of its service life in a water also possibilities to make this cable load-carrying. as the supply and control unit has a built-in welding current switchboard. The cable design has elements allowing its application with new challenging systems of adjustable electric drives.c. provide the process parameters and preserve the rigidity of The electric drive provides control with a change in characteristics. which has permanent magnets. close to that which is typical for mechanism operation under the atmospheric conditions. having a sufficiently .6…3. min not less than 70 additionally the hydrodynamic resistance of a rotor and reduction gear elements during rotation in the fluid The prospect for new developments of equipment for environment) and admits supply within the 20-24 V underwater welding and cutting is the application of d. To solve the problems of underwater parameters of rotation according to a programmed mechanized welding and cutting. Taking into account that Range of electrode wire feed speed. 2 this technical solution had an important improvement in capabilities as to characteristics and possibility to optimizing the design of a step-down reduction gear.. The set with the semiautomatic machine can include almost any welding current power sources. adjustable by the level.O. low rated machine without change of electrode frequency of shaft rotation (this factor reduces wire. Basing on experimental unfavorable factors of the environment. after rotation in the mentioned algorithms [4].0 offered.. and. It should be noted that this cable has no analogs and manufactured by the enterprises of Ukraine using the developments of the E. mm ……………. the following Change in feed speed …………………………smooth design of the feeding mechanism electric drive was Diameter of electrode wire. environment is shown in Figure 2 [5]. The variant of design of this electric drive at provide a minimum level of electric losses in it. All this in combination with an electric drive with a valve electric motor having a optimized reduction gear solves the problem of a stable microprocessor system of control and adjustment. allowing realize within the wide range the digital The task of design of the new supply cable of the adjustment of shaft rotation frequency and use it by equipment for underwater welding was solved keeping placing into a sealed casing with insulating lubricant the following conditions. A torque motor of DPU87-75 type was Time of continuous operation of semiautomatic selected. it was necessary to fluid. and reliable feeding of the electrode wire..e.Paton Electric Welding Institute [3].

2011) 24-25 October 2011. It is seen that in this case allow improving greatly the quality and power the deposited bead is fine-flaky. The control unit of the automatic machine is placed in a pressure chamber directly on the welding automatic machine to decrease the number of communications and to increase the noise protection. tasks of welding: 1. 5. preset by a program. 6 – sealed The mock-up of welding automatic machine is connectors. Design of automatic machine for underwater welding process are also displayed. that defines accordantly the possibility of operation of the developed conception of the automatic machines for underwater wet welding. Two electric drives are used for plane movement. welding and cutting.electric motor of feed mechanism. where welding tool is moved at adjustable and preset speeds along coordinates “x” and “y”. the preset trajectory of tool movement and its current position are shown on the display.3. 2. characteristics of the flux-cored wire underwater with a smooth transition to the base metal. The unique method of programming the trajectory of welding head movement was developed and offered for realization.Support of automatic machine structure. thus using pulsed algorithms of operation of the above- realizing the complex enough algorithms of electrode mentioned welding current source of LET-500 type.International Congress on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for Construction. Program hardware has been developed for movement along the mentioned coordinates. The programmed trajectory of movement is described by calculation of number of pulses of feedback sensors in frequency of rotation of driven electric motor shaft. These sensors can fulfill two functions: to be elements of stabilization of frequency of valve electric motor shaft rotation and play a role of path sensors. Figure 5. designed for reliable operation at depths of up to 600 m. Turkey AWST-11/31 high torque moment on its shaft that allows the feeding inscription made in the form of deposited beads at 200 roller to be installed directly on it. were applied as these sensors. “х”. Thus. All these capabilities of feeding mechanisms source is shown in Figure 6. 8 – pressure presented in Figure 3 in the position before its chamber immersion into a test pressure chamber. The developed specialized It was possible to improve the weld metal formation valve electric drives possess high quick-response. whose installing and service in underwater conditions is rather complicated. Energy and Transportation Systems (AWST . Deposits were Figure 4. 3. Figure 4 shows the appearance of beads deposited at 200 m depth. Tests of welding automatic machine were performed in a pressure chamber. Wide opportunities of programming the two-coordinate movement of welding tool are shown on the example of . Digital incremental sensors. avoiding the use of m depth. The above-mentioned design of electric drive on the base of a valve electric drive with a microprocessor digital control made it possible to realize one more challenging development. Here. One more peculiar feature of the automatic machine is the application of special sealed connectors. Beads deposited at 200 m depth with made by experimental flux-cored wires of 1. Antalya. 4 – electric motor for movement along coordinate additionally.electric motor for movement along coordinate “y”. step-down reduction gears. in which the conditions for wet welding at different depths were created. uniform in width. The parameters of Figure 3. allowing refuse the special sensors. realized by means of a computer.8 mm programming of welding movement trajectory diameter on plates of steel St. wire feeding. namely the automatic machine for arc underwater welding with a contour control of trajectory of a welding tool movement. providing modulated and pulse modes of The appearance of butt joint made by using this power operation. All the applied valve electric motors are of a similar type and sealed.welding documentation of the welding process are solved table. 7 –immersion control unit. encoders.

. Liu S.Yu.42- developments is sufficiently wide and can be spread 44. Among the challenging works in the field of equipment 5.M. made by using a pulsed directions in the development of welding production of welding current source OJSC Gasprom / State-of-the-art and main directions in the development of welding production of OJSC Two-coordinate system of the automatic machine can “GASPROM”.e. under the conditions. 2... including repair and dismantling source for arc welding and plasma cutting.: be transformed without any difficulties into a three.-P. 2009.41-46.22-24.М. -P. depth of penetration at different parameters of a pulsed feeding. State-of-the-art and main Figure 6. References 1. etc.Yu. Vyshemirsky E. Issue 74. Pichak V. There were no cases of decrease in density of deposited layer metal.. realized equipment /Elektromashinobuduvannya and by special commutatorless valve electric motors should Elektroobladnannya.N. -2005. This work is carried out at the present time by inviting a number of companies-developers in Ukraine and Russia..-No. for example. coordinate system (“z” coordinate additionally) with a 3.. quality hose packets for underwater welding and The sphere of application of these kinds of cutting/ Avtomaticheskaya Svarka.. Lebedev V.A. high depths. i.-P. Lendel I. One more challenging direction in updating the equipment for mechanized and automatic underwater Figure 5.. Bead of deposited metal. Maksimov S. Martinovich V.1. pulse feeding. Figure 7. Opportunities of programming the trajectory of welding will be the simultaneous use of welding current welding tool movement in the form of deposited beads source and electrode wire feeding mechanism. operating made at 200 m depth by definite coupled algorithms of functioning.G. Galyshev A. Martinovich N.- be noted. Vladimirov A. Experimental investigations made in this direction show the feasibility of bead formation. I. Versatile power hazardous conditions.-No. Perez F. -№11. Maintenance and repair welding in the open sea // Welding Journal. Materials of branch meeting. Modern and technologies the works on using pulsed algorithms valve electric drives in systems of mechanized welding of electrode wire movement. Avtomaticheskaya Svarka. Khabuzov V. P. feasibility to perform the three-dimensional welding Maksimov S. . is difficult or impossible. Beads made under water using a pulsed electrode wire feeding . Radimov. V. Kyiv. V.V.208 p. It should be noted that during underwater welding with a pulsed feeding of electrode wire the more stable process is observed as compared with conventional feeding with a low spattering of electrode metal. Rymsha.P.V. .Lebedev. 2011. where the work of a welder-diver 4. 2011.A. / of nuclear reactors in air and water environment.. Tekhnika. High- and cutting. 4 Figure 7 shows beads deposited under water using a pulsed electrode wire feeding..N.54-59. Lebedev V.A.V.9. “IRTs” Gasprom 2009.A.A.