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Society for Music Theory

Why Do Jazz Musicians Swing Their Eighth Notes?
Author(s): Matthew W. Butterfield
Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring 2011), pp. 3-26
Published by: {oupl} on behalf of the Society for Music Theory
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Why Do Jazz Musicians Swing Their Eighth Notes?
matthew w. butterfield

In jazz, the function of durational inequality at the eighth-note level is the production of anacrusis
on the offbeats, thereby generating the sense of forward propulsion and drive thought to typify the
rhythmic quality known as “swing.” The common use of relatively “straight” eighth notes by improvising
soloists helps to sustain forward momentum, whereas the less even, triplet-like “swing” eighth notes used
more frequently by drummers facilitate the perception of a quarter-note beat. Varying the Beat-Upbeat
Ratio (BUR)—i.e., moving between straight and swing eighth notes—enables jazz musicians to ma-
nipulate the flow of motional energy across a phrase in systematic ways in conjunction with other melodic
processes. Analyses of melodic phrases by John Coltrane, Lee Konitz, and Sonny Clark reveal the central-
ity of such aspects of microrhythmic expression to the affective power of jazz improvisation.

Keywords: anacrusis, beat-upbeat ratio, BUR, Sonny Clark, John Coltrane, rhythm, jazz, Lee
Konitz, microrhythm, microtiming, motional energy, swing, swing eighth note, swing ratio

lthough swing is the central rhythmic quality the non-syntactical, processual domain of expression Keil finds
native to jazz, identifying its precise nature has been in groove-based musics such as jazz and polka.5 Vital drive is
no less difficult than explaining its effects. The term central to engendered feeling for Keil, and he uses the term to
“swing” designates the use of uneven eighth notes, to be sure, designate a quality of energy and propulsion that stems from
but it also refers to a lilting rhythmic groove emerging from the cumulative tension achieved by “pulling against the
the interaction of bass and drums as they maintain the beat. pulse”6—i.e., the timing of note attacks either “on top” of or
More importantly, however, swing designates a general rhyth- “behind” the beat, a practice he later termed “participatory dis-
mic ethos—a mysterious quality purportedly transcending rep- crepancies,” or PDs.7 Though many timing discrepancies are at
resentation in musical notation—prompting active listener en- play in any jazz performance, most work on the PD model has
gagement, often expressed through spontaneous foot-tapping, made the assumption that specifically “the gaps, large or small,”
head-bobbing, hand-clapping, finger-snapping, or even danc- between bass and drums in their joint articulation of the beat,
ing.1 Often casting this elusive phenomenon as a manifestation “provide the push or layback feel of a particular performance.”8
of an African-derived “hot rhythm,”2 many writers have sought Unfortunately, neither Keil nor anyone else has ever provided
to capture it in language and explain the means of its produc- any evidence that such discrepancies are actually perceptible,
tion. André Hodeir called it “vital drive,” a quality involving “a much less that they do in fact generate the rhythmic quality we
combination of undefined forces that creates a kind of ‘rhyth- call swing. Indeed, there is significant evidence to the contrary.9
mic fluidity’ without which the music’s swing is markedly at- For Gunther Schuller, the defining character of swing in-
tenuated.”3 At the same time, he was at a loss to explain its volved both “a specific type of accentuation and inflection with
cause: “If I weren’t afraid of straying too far afield,” he wrote, “I which notes are played or sung” and “the continuity—the forward-
would suggest that this drive is a manifestation of personal propelling directionality—with which individual notes are linked
magnetism, which is somehow expressed—I couldn’t say ex- together.”10 These features of jazz rhythm, he proposed, result from
actly how—in the domain of rhythm.”4 “the perfect equilibrium between the horizontal and vertical rela-
Undaunted by the fog of Hodeir’s conception, Charles Keil tionships of musical sounds.”11 However, what constitutes this
later appropriated “vital drive” as an aspect of what he called
“engendered feeling”—essentially, a more general term for
5 On “embodied meaning,” see Meyer (1956, 34–35). On his objection to
swing or groove. Defined in opposition to Leonard Meyer’s Meyer and his argument for “engendered feeling,” see Keil (1966, 337–39,
concept of “embodied meaning,” engendered feeling concerns 345–48) and (1995, 1). Briefly, Keil objected to the “deferred gratification”
he thought was central to embodied meaning. He asserted instead that
I would like to thank Eugene Narmour and Fernando Benadon for the music operates on a more immediate and visceral level drawing participants
invaluable feedback they provided in the early stages of this project. into the experience in an emotionally pleasing way without requiring some
1 “Swing,” of course, also refers to music of the swing era. In this article, level of denied expectation for the production of affect.
however, I am concerned only with the unique rhythmic quality specified 6 See Keil (1966, 341).
by this term since one of its earliest appearances in print in Kingsley 7 Keil (1987, 275–79).
(1917). 8 Prögler (1995, 34).
2 See, for example, Waterman (1948). 9 Butterfield (2010).
3 Hodeir (1956, 207). 10 Schuller (1968, 7).
4 Ibid. (207–08). 11 Ibid.


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MTS3301_01.indd 3 3/17/11 12:41 PM

as shown in systematically to the production of swing—the engaging.” or BUR. 16 Benadon introduces the acronym UBR. one of which is the microrhythmic variation of swing Narmour (1990. Keil. the quarter note.” It induces perceptual grouping of eighth My treatment of the expressive function of the swing eighth notes “into the larger regular interval. it draws per. The conven- ward-propulsive quality Hodeir. facilitating listeners’ motor present essay. whereas cumulative durational patterning.”13 the short offbeats—a function of the BUR—and the attenuation Enhanced perception of the tactus. typically entails an increase in mo- notes in the first place. Similarly. whereas lower values tend in- ied BUR values employed by jazz musicians contribute creasingly toward evenness. though define and explain. Following this ally failed to explain the affective consequences of the wide logic. following Fernando Benadon. that is.0. Surprisingly. as shown in Example 1(b). reflect an underlying expressive function of the swing eighth note. movement from longer search on jazz rhythm is why jazz musicians swing their eighth durations to shorter ones. But the motional qualities we perceive in interest in quantifying the essence of swing. Jazz musicians achieve this in mul. UBRs emerge in his Example 4 as “hidden low BURs” created by pianist Bill Evans’s insertion of three-note dactylic groups in the 12 Benadon (2006. What do they gain from it? Vijay Iyer tional energy. downbeat eighth note by that of the short upbeat. triplet pulse and are performed as a quarter-eighth triplet pair is less a specifiable rhythmic essence than an active rhythmic with a BUR of 2. a series of sixteenth notes imparts more motional energy range of BUR values actually employed by jazz musicians in than a series of eighth notes. In what follows.”16 A broader range of affect the locomotive channel of human motion”—i.jstor. tends to decrease swing eighth notes “facilitates the perception of higher-level motional energy and draw it toward closure. it has gener. downbeat eighth note and the short up. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. 78–79). have taken a more limited approach to the swing phe. midst of a normative pattern of two-note groups (2006. especially as it pertains to rhythm section performance. whose work is detailed below. example 1. durational inequality on the production of motional energy on tion. momentum with which some musical events are directed toward ship between the long. I present a theory of the commonly notated as in Example 1(a). what remains largely unexplored in most re. as opposed to explaining the expressive effects of swing or the specific means of its production. As a result.0 MTS3301_01. I suggest. Swing. as though finding music also exhibit varying degrees of velocity or intensity. I shall have more to say This is certainly one important consequence of swing eighth about the UBR later. but does not in fact define it ex- plicitly. Example 1(a). eighth-note durations over the course of a melodic phrase. expressive effects of swing eighth notes beyond the rather func. 88–94). move- has observed that durational inequality between successive ment from shorter durations to longer ones. 26). other ways in which the var. Benadon (2006. 17 On the tenacity of the “triplet” swing eighth note in the jazz literature. are even and have a BUR of 1.15 rhythmic structure.14 ad hoc basis in the context of analysis. and it is this quality that I mysterious character once and for all. 13 Iyer (2002. events. Motion perceived in music is often oriented around beat that follows it. Swing-ratio research has typically sought to points of emphasis or stability. and a dissonance is drawn toward Though promising. or “Upbeat-Beat Ratio. he suggests. But I would like to suggest that there are additional the long. Povel’s experiments 1 and 2 This content downloaded from 192. supports the or closure of such energy on the longer downbeats—a function basis of swing rhythms in dance contexts. concentrating more closely on the “swing ratio”— what I shall call. suing downbeat. hope to convey with the term motional energy. for now.188. 15 “Durational cumulation” and “countercumulation” are terms drawn from tiple ways.  BUR values for straight and “triplet” swing eighth notes More recently a number of scholars. remain unexplained a) Straight eighth notes b) “Triplet” swing eighth notes in Schuller’s account of swing. others. I will concentrate on the BUR. toward its resolution with greater force than a weak one. as The BUR is calculated by dividing the absolute duration of we shall see. He was concerned with detailing   the emergence of swing as an outcome of the superimposition         of a European metrical framework upon African rhythmic im.53. notes.indd 4 3/17/11 12:41 PM .17 process involving the skillful management of “motional energy” in the midst of performance. for. but I will not treat this relationship systematically in the moving quarter-note pulse layer. tween successive eighth notes. it would be more difficult to perceive the main beat. Higher BUR values indicate greater durational inequality be- tional explanation offered by Iyer. note will be narrowly limited to the affective consequences of If all subdivisions were performed with exactly the same dura. 404).12 The BUR expresses the durational relation. and Schuller sought to tional assumption has been that swing eighth notes. and a strong dissonance is drawn performance. the “Beat-Upbeat I use the phrase “motional energy” to designate the force of Ratio.” as it were. 4 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) “perfect equilibrium” and how it is achieved. (405). Instead. countercumulative durational patterning.0. grounding swing “in of the UBR. ensues from durational inequality in conjunction with pitch ceptual attention from the eighth-note level to the slower. BUR = 1.0 BUR = 2. for example. might unlock and define its motion we perceive in physical space. this work has often seemed motivated by an its implied resolution. 74–76).. an upbeat moves toward the en- define the average ratios used either by drummers or soloists. as does the ideal “golden ratio. preliminary terminology nomenon. See also Povel (1981).214 on Fri. Thus “straight” eighths. though some idea of its effects will emerge on an engagement with the rhythmic groove. see 14 Ibid.

05 to simpler 1:2. I will nevertheless continue continue to employ ordinary eighth notes in notation with BUR to speak of BUR values at or above 2.214 on Fri.18 All of these have shown a preference for BUR values well below the classic 2. 3. the first of which is longer than tion to be inaccurate. Thus subjective interpretation of swing ratios tends toward the triplet model simply because any succession of unequal durations tends to 18 Swing ratio figures of all studies cited in this essay have been converted to sound to us like triplets. soloist vs. teenth pair. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 5 example 2. this raises the nevertheless conceived in the same way: as a pair of eighth notes question of just how swing eighth notes should be notated. I will one of several quintuplet MTS3301_01. beat-oriented context. Consequently. Naturally. values shown underneath the staff to indicate the degree of un- In part.0 reveal that.indd 5 3/17/11 12:41 PM . notation and “swinging” them in performance. is accompaniment).0. BUR values. however. the second.” one di- vides the beat into two equal parts. evenness.. listeners tend to assimilate durationally uneven ratios ranging from 1:4 to 4:5 to a “triplet” feel. dotted eighth-sixteenth note figures. this is in keeping with conventional jazz notation prac. though considerably more uneven than a BUR of 1. This best reflects what I believe jazz musicians under- tices: jazz musicians are accustomed to seeing eighth notes in stand swing eighth notes to be.0 to as high as gorical distinction that would be reflected in notation. in the absence of a well-defined. division into two unequal parts. varying with tempo and ensemble function (i.5. Richard Rose reported BURs ranging from 1. This content downloaded from 192.0 in terms of eighth notes. a BUR of 3. whereas swinging involves Example 2 shows the BUR values reported for jazz soloists in a number of recent studies on the swing ratio. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.5. The degree of inequality does not stipulate a cate- cians are now known to range from an even 1.188.  A summary of empirical studies of BUR values among soloists Current research on the swing ratio has shown this assump. as discussed below.jstor. BUR values among jazz musi. or ifies. it would not be notated as a dotted eighth-six- could surely represent passages with high BUR values in quar.53. But this tradi- tion also speaks to habits of thought concerning the division of recent research on the swing ratio the quarter-note beat in jazz: when playing “straight. even though that is technically what the ratio spec- ter-eighth triplet pairs.e. in the transcriptions that follow. One made unequal.

24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.20 range of 0. he found average BUR values ranging acclaimed bop and post-bop jazz musicians fell within the BUR from 1. refrained from calculating an overall average in their study of six Rose found an average BUR of 2. see especially Figure 5). and Dexter Gordon. tended to level off as tempo increased until they reached 1.2. 14–15). See Benadon (2006.  A summary of empirical studies of BUR values within rhythm-section accompaniments 1.19 Mark Ellis asked three pro. bass. high as 3. tionally renowned jazz drummers active since the 1960s to be as 2 0 Ellis (1991.0 at tempos above terns “common to the swing style” over a twelve-bar blues with 260 bpm.0 at 22 I have calculated this figure from an average of the “composite swing style derived” measures reported by Busse in his Table 8 (2002. 19% had shown BURs of 1. In a detailed study of the timing relationships among sional jazz pianists. only Busse’s figures from Table 8 are John Coltrane.24 ues of 1.89 in a study of solo breaks found on fifteen recordings of es. the metronome’s beat.” the standard “ding-ding- and Walter Gerard Busse found a composite average BUR of a-ding” figure played on the ride cymbal since the bebop about 1. with a significant cluster around 1.871.” respectively.9–1.5 at slower tempos (less than ca. In fifteen trials.61 and 1. 341.58 for Louis Armstrong’s stop-time solos in In contrast.23 Finally. 150 bpm). 476). 79% were within the range of 0. BUR values for soloists (three horn players and three pianists) of fessional jazz saxophone players to perform three melodic pat. 6 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) example 3. which shows indi- the note actually played by the performer.188. This content downloaded from 192.25 On the six recordings investigated in their study.4.701.74 in his study of eighth-note timings in 281 measures era—have found relatively higher BUR values. with a grand average BUR of 1. Consequently.9–1. under 2.53. 710–12).43 irrespective of tempo.214 on Fri. 454). 84–86). but they 21 Collier and Collier (2002.22 Anders Friberg and Andreas Sundström piano. studies of rhythm section accompaniment—par- “Cornet Chop Suey” and “Potato Head Blues. three each at of eighth notes drawn from the recordings of five internationally five different tempos. Benadon found that about 61% of 831 pairs bass and piano accompaniment. comparable to the other figures reported here. live jazz recordings by internationally renowned jazz musicians tablished jazz musicians from the 1940s–60s. and drums on a Jamey Aebersold play-along record. 87). as shown in from thirty-three performances by three contemporary profes. Friberg and Sundström found BUR values among four interna- 19 Rose ( MTS3301_01.474 to 1. Miles Davis. The swing percentages Busse reports in his Tables 1–7 measure the upbeat swing 23 Friberg and Sundström (2002. eighth note against the downbeat defined by a metronome pulse instead of 2 4 These figures are calculated from Benadon’s Figure 1.38 at a tempo of about 130 bpm. but only Geoffrey and James Lincoln Collier identified average BUR val. with an average of made between 1960 and 1990.jstor.5 or higher.0. but most of their figures reveal about 1. Cannonball Adderley. Example 3. which was uniformly played after vidual BUR histograms for Bill Evans. 25 Rose (1989.indd 6 3/17/11 12:41 PM .21 ticularly the drummer’s “ride rhythm.

These figures have therefore been omit- ted from Example 3. they did not find that swing ratios continued to approach swing eighth notes so differently? Do high or low scale linearly with tempo—as did Friberg and Sundström—but. 475).2.31 1.188.63 1. alto sax solo (excerpt) on “Confirmation.31 The excerpt shown in Example 5 is drawn be less pronounced. 28 Honing and Haas (2008.33 How much the BUR must vary for the do not generally employ the ride rhythm figure in the way in which they were asked to in the Colliers’ experiment. from Charlie Parker’s alto saxophone solo on his original tune loists than among drummers. This leveling-off effect seems to recorded in 1944.32 Each passage consists al- that “there appears to be no relationship between upbeat note most entirely of an extended series of eighth notes across a four- placement and performance tempo” among the piano players in bar phrase that closes an eight-bar period at the end of a his study. They also compared these drummers’ per. Collier and Collier re- these passages are quite similar and provide a good basis for ported BUR values for their drummers as high as about 6. less systematic. BUR values for each pair of consecutive eighth notes are shown below the staff.214 on Fri. but these were at comparing each musician’s conception of swing.29 and Benadon found “no systematic interdependence thirty-two-bar chorus. toward increased evenness at high tempos in soloists’ swing Example 4 shows an excerpt from Coleman Hawkins’s tenor eighth notes. by the author. since at least than the triplet ratios”—i. Why do drummers and soloists pos. is what this means.71 1.44 (1. for example.2 at tempos below about 170 bpm.87 2.” recorded in 1953. What is not clear. he found evidence of systematic variation of BUR values in rela- rary professional jazz drummers who performed the ride rhythm tion to phrase structure—a factor not considered in other studies. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. 2 6 Friberg and Sundström (2002. in most swing styles. What is clear from this research is that jazz soloists have formance of swing eighth notes with strict triplets and found “a generally tended to divide the quarter notes more evenly than tendency for the swing ratios to be more rather than less extreme drummers at most tempos.04 1.20 2. BUR values for each pair of consecutive eighth notes are shown below the staff.. 33 BUR values in all musical examples included in this study were calculated 29 Busse (2002. 32 Parker (1957). about 100 bpm). BUR values generate greater motional energy? And what are rather.26 Collier and Collier’s data also revealed this tempos or slow tempos that clearly evoke a 12/8 MTS3301_01. Both passages involve a return to tonic har- mony via cyclic-fifth motion. at or above 3 0 Benadon (2006. The digital sound-editing program Audacity was used on a This content downloaded from 192. Friberg and Sundström (2002) and Honing and Haas (2008).. and less universal among so. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 7  =204 Fm 7 B7 E E 5  4       6         7 8 1   4                   8  BUR: 2. jazz drummers shown below the staff. 27 Collier and Collier (1996. Henkjan Honing and does tend to diminish at the fastest tempos.  Charlie Parker.jstor. At more conventional swing tempos (i.85 1. (The articulation of the progression by the rhythm section is understood but not transcribed here.) about 300 bpm.30 Instead. Each is performed at a fast jazz tempo of between tempo and subdivision ratios” except at extremely fast just over 200 bpm. Busse. a finding seen by Ellis in two of the three saxophon. 479.indd 7 3/17/11 12:41 PM . their figures correspond more closely to those provided in 31 Hawkins (2000).e. though the difference in BUR values drummers recorded on a MIDI drum kit. (The articulation of the progression by the rhythm section is understood but not transcribed here. particularly slow tempos—at or below 67 bpm—employed by jazz musicians BUR values for each pair of consecutive eighth notes are only in the most relaxed ballad performances. when the ride rhythm became the foundational com- a more tightly controlled experiment involving three professional ponent of jazz drumming. At such tempos. that drummers’ BUR values tended instead to “stabilize” the expressive effects of changing BUR values over the course of at around 2.53. however.  Coleman Hawkins.28 a melodic phrase? Consider in this regard the passages in Friberg and Sundström nevertheless found a similar tendency Examples 4 and 5. Bas de Haas also found the leveling-off effect at faster tem.42 (2. ” ists who participated in his study. saxophone solo on the Gershwin composition “ ’S Wonderful.e. 457). however. However. leveling-off effect at fast tempos in a study of three contempo. 337–40). found “Confirmation.” recorded in 1953. though the Parker progression is a bit more complex and uses a faster harmonic rhythm.27 In the 1940s. In short. emphasis in original).” recorded in 1944. on a MIDI drum pad.00) example 4. 83). W. to exhibit higher BUR values. tenor sax solo (excerpt) on “ ’S Wonderful.) example 5.84) 2.

By employing a consistent set of criteria to resolve tional energy over the course of the phrase.5% for IOIs ranging from 240 to 720 ms ployed by these musicians.93 (SD 0.84). Benadon has observed a tendency BUR differential of ±. playing of some swing musicians. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.32).6. There triplet-like swing eighths of m. In of 170 bpm (2002. 6 prepare the change to actual triplets in m. BUR values vary locally in relation to liseconds. In this respect. 80–81).”37 which can be seen in both Examples 4 differential—I would estimate between ±. a phenomenon he jazz listening contexts. Data reported by Gert ten Parker’s as even.34 This means that under pressive nuances which stem from variations in their BUR val- ideal listening conditions. 6. in Example 4. Both of these notes are syncopations anticipating the en- What is immediately apparent from Examples 4 and 5 is suing downbeat and their early arrivals enhance the surprise ef- that Hawkins generally employs higher BUR values than fect generated by the syncopation. With one exception. I am confident that my figures are accurate to within ±5 mil. with one excep. which translates into a BUR value accuracy of ±.10–.. the JND for changing BUR values in a jazz melody would have to involve 38 On “metrical types. 7. 8 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) difference to register perceptually can be extrapolated from re. Anders Friberg and Johan Equally important in both passages.20 based on my and 5 along with some interesting consequences. . the more triplet-like swing places where many swing era musicians employed dotted eighths in m. 7.”36 In Examples 4 and 5. 7 emerge as metrically consonant with the aural analysis of its waveform. In both passages.e. Ideally. From these MTS3301_01. late BUR values in the melody line.34 (SD 0. 5 and 6.e. and a constant rela. The overall effect is of continuous intensification of mo- mination impossible. however. needed. 8 further reflects a lengthening of the Db4 which al- line remain above 1.188. his average is 1. listeners probably require a larger calls the “BUR surge. 45–46]).05 at the tempos aspects of syntactical structure. . played swing or not” (personal communication). “[t]he Had Parker maintained m. tone rather than swing.” making the BUR decrease from 2. Hawkins’s subjective experience with recorded examples for which I have eighth notes become especially uneven through the rising ges- calculated the BUR values. then. Hawkins’s sequences in which every other tone is lengthened. seemed to chug from isochrony in patterns with cyclic displacement—i.” By contrast. . 6. 35 Friberg and Sundström report a JND of 20% in a music example at a tempo flow of motional energy across the phrase in very subtle ways. dissonance” (see Krebs [1999. 73–75).0] in in mm. of course. In actual for BUR values to increase at phrase endings. one might perceive the triplets in m. (1994. . cific melodic and rhythmic features and serve to modulate the 34 See ten Hoopen et al. tious swing of a good bop performance . 7 as metrically dissonant—a change from a duple to a triple division of the beat. Parker’s phrase in Example 5 shows a BUR surge in m. Parker moves excerpts of recorded jazz. 6 tion. however. Macintosh computer to identify the onset of each note from a visual and the triplets in m. reflecting the greater even. I am nevertheless inclined to agree with him Hoopen et al. ambiguities. an elaboration of a tonic triad. whereas Parker’s exhibits JND of around 10 ms for Inter-Onset Intervals (IOIs) below greater forward propulsion and drive.39 Instead. 7. 11). the B b3 at the end of m. interrupted by the sequence of triplets in m.” see London (2004. for instance.00. Specifically. resulted Parker seems to move from one “metrical type” to another in part from the use of “. like Coleman Hawkins. the first few of ness of his idea of swing. 1–4–7–10 and 1–7 subcycles. complete with rhythm section accompaniment.0].” he wrote. eighth-sixteenth note figures [BUR 3. listeners should be able to perceive a ues as their phrases develop. and participants would be asked to 39 In Harald Krebs’s terms. level at the expense of its more rapid division. . it seems reasonable to of the measure nevertheless arrives “early” in relation to the pre- assume that. this more? Jazz critic Harvey Pekar favored Parker and other bebop. however. in their Experiment 3 suggest a constant absolute that Hawkins’s line “chugs” along. Higher BUR values entail longer downbeat What difference does this make? Which passage swings eighth notes and therefore greater downbeat emphasis. similar to a eighth notes are not quite as uneven as Pekar suggests.38 Here. nor are sequence of swing eighth notes. his average is 1. line. 6. thus setting up a dramatic is inevitably some degree of uncertainty in identifying the attack point of acceleration into the cadence through a rapidly rising melody each note. the researcher would be able to manipu. to here from an 8-cycle with 1–3–5–7 and 1–5 subcycles to a 12-cycle with improve ecological validity. 7. and that the difference about 240 ms (i. Hawkins’s BURs in this melody three of m. In contrast. as noise and other onset ambiguities can render an exact deter.indd 8 3/17/11 12:41 PM . 2. which are ghosted. IOIs between successive notes were defined and then employed to calculate the BUR values. 5’s low BUR values in m. listeners probably will not register a sig.53.42 BUR on beat Parker. 340). Friberg acknowledges that this figure is “extremely large” and speculates that it results from a categorization effect: “it is either 36 Pekar (1974. This content downloaded from 192. BUR values generally remain well below 1. These variations bring out spe- shown in Examples 4 and 5.26). triplet-like swing conception. 8 also shift in m. tempos above 250 bpm). are several ex- Sundberg corroborate these figures.. listeners will perceive ceding pairs of eighth notes. generally results in an enhancement of the slower quarter-note pers over their swing-era predecessors. to be sure. arrives slightly “early. who search on the just-noticeable difference ( JND) for deviations relied on dotted eighth-sixteenth note lines.045 for tempos below 250 bpm. though a more systematic empirical ture in m. 6 in Example 5.214 on Fri. 346).. creating a significant decline in the minimal variation in the BUR values of m.6. this would be understood as an “indirect grouping judge whether they increase or decrease over the course of a phrase. eighth note lines [BUR 1.e. Similarly. “The extremely infec.42 to nificant BUR shift until midway through m. A more systematic study of 37 Benadon (2006. reflecting a lows Hawkins to draw out the expressive effect of the dissonant very uneven. emerges chiefly from the widely divergent BUR values em- tive JND of about 4. The E b4 at the end study is. Similarly. (i. tempos between 83–250 bpm).35 At any rate. 114–15) and Friberg and Sundberg (1994. but a significant BUR of beat 4 (1.jstor. The high 2. Parker’s and very bluesy b7 over tonic harmony.

quence in which every other interval is lengthened (after Povel and cluding frequency. effects of these varied durations on the production and expres.e. b a b a b a b a 41 For more on subjective rhythmization. and dura. interval (IOI) is indicated by t This content downloaded from 192. suggesting an iambic organization.42 Moreover. section 3 (Durational patterns and rhythmic groups). though my use of poetical feet in analysis is considerably more Sufficient metrical context is assumed for preparing listeners to limited than theirs. producing swing eighth notes musical events as trochaic or iambic has a precedent in Cooper and Meyer (1960). a BUR of 1. [b–a] will produce a series of swing eighth notes.0 strongly enhances metrical (accessed 26 October 2010). 1:1..05—generates the substantially.e. especially Figure 6). perception of a duple grouping begins to t.e. In Example 6(a).org/terms MTS3301_01. three. Okkerman [1981]) tion—Dirk-Jan Povel and Hans Okkerman established that if Each tone is identical in all respects: frequency. in fact.. Certainty as to when exactly 44  the shift from trochaic to iambic grouping takes place varies b a b a b a b a according to each listener. The accent on [b] is perceived to be quite strong.jstor. less pronounced and uniform beneath that ratio. I develop a more systematic way of a) Trochaic grouping [ a]–[b] understanding the role of varied eighth-note durations in gen- erating the sense of forward propulsion and drive characterizing a  b a  b a  b a  b the rhythmic quality we call swing. listeners will tend to hear a slight accent on not indicate phenomenal accents the first tone [a]. and duration: inter-onset interval (IOI) is indicated by lengthened by just 5%.214 on Fri.. perceive b as a downbeat and a as an upbeat. as shown by / We can imagine this tone sequence in a metrical context as a series of eighth notes in common time. A mere 5% ually hear the accent shift to the second tone [b] and intensify increase in this interval—i. or increase in the intensity of the second tone [b]—no more than through the simple decision on the part of the listener to per- about 1 dB is required.53. and not by any increase in and assume just enough context such that the listener will un- the intensity of the tone—i. If we reverse the polarity b) Strong iambic grouping [a]–[b ] 44  4 0 Bolton (1894).  Perception of accent and grouping in a metrical cyclic displacement found by ten Hoopen et al. “Subjective rhythmization. is 1: ~ 2 which can be offset by a 4 dB increase spontaneous but unpredictable—one cannot determine with any in the intensity of [a] degree of certainty how a given listener will group the tones. sequences of tones identical in all respects. intensity.188. according to Povel and Okkerman.40 t ~ 2t Strong interval-produced accent on [b]. spectral composition.oxfordmusiconline. increase in the intensity of [b] the expressive function of the swing eighth note b) Iambic grouping [a]–[b]         a b a b a b a b It has long been known that listeners will tend to organize an isochronous series of tones into groups of two.  Perception of accent and grouping in an equitone se- sequences”—i. I evaluate the t t + 5% Weak interval-produced accent on [ a]. spectral composition. accent marks show interval-produced accents perceived by the emerge. and can be easily offset with a very slight through counting off a measure before the sequence begins.05 which can be easily offset by a 1 dB sive manipulation of motional energy.” in Grove Music Online. discussed above.05 interval-produced accent on [a]. in.indd 9 3/17/11 12:41 PM . but Povel and Okkerman’s data sug. suggesting a trochaic organization. inter-onset 44 Povel and Okkerman (1981. a tendency present but Metrical accent on [ b ] nullifies BUR = 1. context of eighth notes in which every other interval is 43 My characterization of the grouping and accent structure of consecutive lengthened. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 9 the theory presented below. it is not a phenomenal accent. http:// ~ 2t t Interval-produced accent on [b ] www. see London (2004. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. it requires a considerable increase in the intensity of [a] to bal. Incidentally. their figure of 5% corresponds roughly to the 4. they do notes.” as this phenomenon is called. or four. this Example 6(b). “Rhythm §I: Fundamental concepts and terminology. as shown in Example 6(a) by the brackets atop the listener when t is increased between every other tone. BUR ~ 2. (1994).41 In a series of experiments on the perception of “equitone example 6. 14–15) and        London.44 As ceive [b] as the downbeat—lengthening the temporal interval the temporal interval [b]–[a] is increased further. accent on [ b] 42 Povel and Okkerman (1981). 570.5% JND for deviations from isochrony in patterns with example 7.43 This ac- cent is an emergent feature of perception produced by the lengthened temporal interval itself.           / / / / gest that most listeners will tend to hear a decisive accent on the t +5% t second tone at ratios above about 1:2. a) Modest iambic grouping [a]–[b ] ance it—up to about 4 dB. listeners grad. as shown in grouping shown in Example 7(a). the inter-onset interval (IOI) between every other tone is intensity. It derstand [b] as the downbeat and [a] as the upbeat—perhaps is quite weak. however.

10 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) lengthening produced a weak accent on [a].214 on Fri. this Thus. (108). the relative force of anacru- backward as a denial of ending for a prior beginning. is rather like a continuation released from its dependency on a prior the principal musical factor motivating jazz musicians to swing beginning. which of straight eighth notes. simple con- continuation. for example. as shown in Example 7(b). To be sure. . grouping emerges linking the off- beat eighth note to the ensuing downbeat. directed toward a future event. notes will serve as anacrusis and thereby generate greater mo- ented toward a new beginning: “Anacrusis. In his theory of metric projection. in which only enough context is assumed to de- as anacrustic.” anacrusis sis generated on the offbeat swing eighth note is proportional “points forward.” writes Hasty. an anacrustic event denies closure and sustains the ward slash [/]. creating a trochaic a) Even eighth notes organization. Low BUR values produce minimal anacrusis. as shown in grouping is iambic. presents a series of swing eighth notes. draw more attention toward function. A continuation. [as] their eighth notes. only weak motional energy directed toward the ensuing 4 6 Ibid. anacrusis engenders an active anticipatory orienta.0. Thus continuation is shown in than the completion of a present duration. forward flow of motional energy. ning. This. is a special kind of continuation ori. listen. all other things being equal. (69–76. beginning. beats than those shown in Example 8. . example 8. Crucially. But relative to anacrusis. gener- Christopher Hasty distinguishes rhythmic events with respect to ated from durational inequality. continuation. See also Mine Do˘gantan’s entry for “Upbeat” in the wards the accent” (Dog˘antan [2001]) http://www. 10–16). and as such it is rhythmically unstable: its most 49 For a more detailed account of the energizing “power of anacrusis. 48 Ibid. Povel and Okkerman’s study suggests.53. seems tional energy toward the ensuing downbeat. it is anticipatory. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians: “An anacrusis is in essence an com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/28812 (accessed 26 October 2010). in any musical a vertical dash [|]. ‘from nowhere.188. yet also draws it toward a conclusion. it were. the addition of a metrical context stipu- lates a metrical accent on [b]. in Example 8(b).” see But. counterpoint) can lead to different interpretations of the off- represented with a backwards slash [\]. one directed toward the emergence of a new event. fundamental characteristic is the forward rhythmic impulse it generates to- terfield (2006. unanchored. With respect to swing eighth notes.46 Other events serve to continue durations context. offbeat anacruses.jstor.      ers will likely perceive a modest iambic grouping of [a–b] in- b) Swing eighth notes stead of the trochaic grouping found in Example 6(a). 104). Insofar as it creates an expectation for a new The crucial point here is that anacrusis.  Beginning. and anacrusis in straight tional inequality between successive eighth notes is perceived.’ ” Whereas continuation “in a sense points As illustrated in Example 9(a). results in a higher BUR value. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. they open up the future becoming and thereby produce a motional energy that a potential for the becoming of duration. and (in some cases) seeming to come.49 Example 9(a) as closural in relation to the nonclosural nature of anacrusis. this is true of a while enhancing expectation for a new beginning. This content downloaded from 192. Increasing the interval [b–a]. in a series of straight eighth notes. To the extent that the downbeat eighth note acquires accent of any kind. “. By contrast. and the offbeat eighth note will be perceived Example 8(a). and are represented with series of straight eighth notes lacks. 47 Ibid.”48 to the BUR value. each downbeat functions as a begin- eighth notes draw their motional energy. tinuation is closural in the sense that it draws a larger duration tion. it denies closure of the larger dura- tion confers motional energy upon the anacrustic event for. In one sense. it is from anacrusis that swing fine the downbeats as such.oxfordmusiconline. This expecta. and the offbeats.indd 10 3/17/11 12:41 PM .org/terms MTS3301_01. My point here is simply pansion and fulfillment of “a presently emerging (and ‘reproduc. initiation on a non-accent. this: when taken tout court in the absence of a greater context. by contrast. rather tation for a new beginning. here further enhanced by the metrical accent on the Beginning Continuation downbeat [b]. note duration of which they are a part. As in Example 6(b). that once dura. It prompts a more aggressive cognitive strategy from the lis. harmony and begun earlier. and swing eighth notes (after Hasty [1997]) whether consciously or not. represented with a for. ible’) durational quantity. which I believe will tend to nullify the weak interval-produced accent on [a]. In 7(a). This produces an increasingly decisive iambic Anacrusis grouping as the BUR approaches 2. serve as The energizing power of anacrusis on the offbeat swing eighth continuations—they complete the quarter-note duration prom- note is best seen by comparison with the continuative nature ised on the downbeats. (120). numerous factors (including. as well. this also entails a shift of the      interval-produced accent from [a] to [b] and the intensification of its effect. and Example 7 intends to show. unlike tion of which it is a part. as opposed to initiating new ones. and 45 Hasty (1997).”47 It keeps the becoming of the earlier straight eighth notes will serve as continuations of the quarter- event open and alive. Consequently.45 Some events serve as beginnings. toward its conclusion without necessarily calling forth expec- tener. continuative event. I believe. is directed toward the ex. keeps the becoming of a prior event’s duration alive. whereas swing eighth Anacrusis. I believe.

a high BUR value does not necessarily lead to Fraisse’s findings that listeners employ two working durational greater forward propulsion. 297–315) and (1996. and a mation of A and the materialization of a higher-level process concomitant increase in motional energy directed toward the en. My usage is never. more complex durational ratios. the 50% cumulation on the dotted quarter proaches an even 1. double the shorter one.5 2. and from this we can get a sense of the motional the implication-realization model. sameness or similarity of energy that arises from offbeat anacrusis.5 0.0 1. and a perfect-fifth dyad at level three. grouping of a pair is iambic (i. [P] linking F.5—the longer tone veers toward the long dura- theless consistent with his theory of metric projection in that anacrustic tional category. In his theory. subjects tended to Eugene Narmour has proposed that cumulation of 50% beyond equalize durations when the interval ratio between them was the realized duration of a particular note’s immediate predeces. the BUR In contrast. which is melodic implication. BUR values indicate the unevenness of a given pair of swing 51 This claim is consistent with Eugene Narmour’s use of parametric scales in eighth notes. are limited to the level of their occurrence and elicits the perception of closure. when cu- moderate and strong anacrusis respectively is an expansion of Hasty’s sym. For this.0 P b) d b) Strength of downbeat closure P P 4   4      Strong [ ] Moderate [ ] Weak [ ] Closure Nonclosure Cumulation: 50% 200% UBR: 0. 54 Fraisse (1946. upbeat to downbeat).e. Narmour’s 50% rule suggests that. This content downloaded from 192..67 1.53. as seen in Example 10(a). only slightly above 1:1. differentiation of consecutive elements generates a strong im. does not provide a measure of downbeat closure. sufficient to produce closure.. a series of highly uneven categories: short and long. process. such that an F major triad emerges at suing downbeat. In contrast. Following this of ascending quarter notes produces a melodic process [P] unin. though Povel 53 Strictly speaking.  Durational cumulation in a simple melody downbeat. than 1:1. But because the consecutive elements generates a weak implication of continuation (A+A->A).53 A perfect-fifth dyad emerges from less than 50%—i. 287–91). since nothing follows the half-note C. and C. they can never function as beginnings for the projection of larger durations.0 at the left side of the scale. such as 1:3 or 1:4. such that melodic implication remains in effect and any 50 My usage in Example 9(a) of double and triple forward slashes to indicate ongoing durational process remains open. Fraisse’s subjects routinely gravitated in their responses toward a This is. leading to the structural transfor- offbeat anacrusis acquires progressively greater strength. A. plication of change (A+B->C).5—the longer tone remains within the short durational category. where anacrusis note in Example 10(b) (i.54 swing eighth notes tends to feel halting and choppy—it lacks Asked to reproduce a sequence of unequal durational intervals. they exhibit greater implicative force. level two. Offbeats thus tend increasingly toward nonclo. for there is simply too much starting and stopping. when the ratio from short to long bology—he does not distinguish degrees of anacrusis.. See Narmour (1990. Thus. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. 55 Fraisse’s findings were strongly confirmed in Povel (1981).51 Narmour’s “50% rule” draws empirical support from Paul However. in part. a series tations of rhythms in the simplest possible ratios. mulation exceeds 50%— MTS3301_01.. when the ratio from short to long is less the transformation of the initial and terminal tones of this than 1:1.214 on Fri.  Motional energy produced by offbeat anacrusis across a range of BUR values and downbeat closure as a function of UBR value example 10.0 Cumulation: 100% 50% 0% P = Process 5 = Perfect 5th d = Durational cumulation example 9. even when the longer stimulus interval was less than from a relatively short duration to one that is relatively long. as BUR values increase. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 11 a) Offbeat anacrusis and motional energy 5 a) Motional energy: P 4   4  Weak Moderate Strong     Anacrusis: Closure Nonclosure Cumulation: 100% (Continuation) (Anacrusis) 5 BUR: 1. like continuations.. 105–12). In contrast. Instead.50 The offbeats tend toward closure as the BUR ap.e. principle.e. when durational cumulation is sents a cumulation of 100%.5 to an even 1:1. a function of durational cumulation—movement ratio of 1:2. It is the categorical shift from short to long that events. 52 Narmour (1990. for the purposes of terrupted until it reaches closure on the half note C. This implies that listeners tend to nor- sor leads to melodic closure and the structural transformation of malize durational eccentricity in order to form internal represen- a melodic pitch. sure at high BUR values. continuity.e. a quarter note plus half its value) is gives way to continuation.52 Therefore.indd 11 3/17/11 12:41 PM .e. do not transform to higher levels of metric structure—i. listeners will tend to assimilate ratios of less twice the length of the preceding quarter notes and thus repre.jstor. 1956).55 On the other hand. rises above 1:1. generally related in a 1:2 ratio. durational cumulation here is perhaps perceived as also found that a beat-based context facilitates the perception of slightly greater than 100%. In contrast.

however.0.e. and then UBR=1.5 result in rela- It is important to understand that Examples 9(a) and 9(b) are tively moderate motional energy.indd 12 3/17/11 12:41 PM . offbeat anacrusis generates necessarily entail a subsequent UBR of 0.67.0 to the 0. the very increase in a melodic line consisting of a sequence of swing short duration of offbeats entailed by high BUR/low UBR eighth notes. time for listeners to experience their motional energy. before it is swallowed up in the durational cumulation emerges.0. since swing ratio studies have only been concerned with accented pitch by just 1 dB. UBRs beneath this value will tend toward strong clo.67 ematical inverses of one another—i. BUR threshold because durational cumulation is not supported by an and UBR values converge at 1.0 rising BUR values). 570. the intensity the determination of BUR values. which is again offset by not perfectly symmetrical with one another. duced MTS3301_01. 57 The correlation of motion left/closure and motion right/nonclosure is con. “triplet” swing eighth notes. tional energy are short. See Narmour (1990.56 because durational cumulation ex- 11(b). The an indication of the durational cumulation that accrues on a intensity of this accent is very low for UBRs above the 0. the inhibition of forward momentum from one beat to the next.5 (i. the strength of downbeat closure increases slowly as UBRs drop from 1. swing eighth notes This reflects Povel and Okkerman’s findings of the difference in the perceived intensity of accents produced by lengthened tem- I propose we must instead consider the UBR. calculated from the same upbeat and downbeat. the point at which both desig. of 100% coupled with a strong interval-produced accent.5 because in actual strong motional energy as a result of high BURs in the vicinity performance the downbeat eighth note from which the UBR is of 2. not the pre.0 BUR=2. In con. Here. as dis- in the implication-realization model. I suggest. but a UBR of 0.5 quite rapidly beneath that.. as BUR values ever. In contrast. however. 2:1). 58 Povel and Okkerman (1981. Whereas mo-         tional energy increases gradually with durational inequality (i. and that the actual sounding durations from which such val- 1992. Moderate motional energy will most likely not Superficially. indicating the brevity of its effect and sure as the value approaches 1.e.188.. motional energy cannot overcome the increasingly strong closure trast. and example 11. This content downloaded from 192. BURs in the vicinity of 1. cally opposed by an increase in strength of closure on the down. BUR=1. despite its mulation at 50%.67 the upbeat eighth note by that of the ensuing downbeat. even though able to calculate the other—this would be the case if they were the effects of interval-produced accent are not very strong there. given one. and that tion on the downbeats with greater closural force than the non- motion left on either scale is toward closure. If we now compare Examples 9(a) and 9(b) we see that a rise Listeners. discussed in relation to Examples 6 and 7. Consequently. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor. The low UBRs around 0. Figure 6). 1:2). old UBR of 0. Example 12(b) illustrates the same effects around the thresh- beat—motion left in Example 9(b).57 An increase in motional energy on the eighth-note level to the slower quarter-note level that the offbeats—motion right in Example 9(a)—is therefore typi. 12 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) a) Straight eighth notes b) “Triplet” swing eighth notes consequently the effects of rising BUR values are not exactly   inversely proportional to those of falling UBRs.0 (i. as shown in Example 11(a).67 (i.. however. have a BUR of 2. like those shown in Example of UBRs below about 0. 297–303 and cussed above. Thus. downbeat eighth note. values—especially at faster tempos—simply leaves insufficient If we accept Narmour’s claim of closure with durational cu. No systematic study has yet been done on the threshold—it can be offset by increasing the intensity of the un- UBR..56 which provides poral intervals. we should be threshold because durational cumulation is at 50%.58 This suggests that weak motional The UBR is calculated by dividing the absolute duration of energy can overcome the weak closure of UBRs above the 0.56 requires an increase of 4 dB on the unaccented of its impact on downbeat closure. They are not. 78).50 entail durational cumulation calculated may be longer or shorter than the one used in calcu. that follows. will tend to perceive the durational cumula- in BUR values corresponds to a fall in UBR values.53. whereas motion closural power of the offbeat. 59 BUR and UBR values are varied in this and subsequent examples to remind sistent with Narmour’s use of these terms as they apply to parametric scales the reader that they are not mathematical inverses of one another. the arrows designating strong mo- sure. a BUR of 2. how- lating the preceding BUR. As I will show. the of the interval-produced accent increases quite rapidly—a UBR UBR’s effects on motional energy are highly significant because of about 0. 19–20). overcome moderate closure of UBRs in the vicinity of the 0. ceeds 50% and is supplemented by a very strong interval-pro- reflecting durational cumulation of 100%. BUR and UBR values may appear to be math. This draws attention away from right is toward nonclosure.e. and those above it will tend toward weak closure or nonclo. interval-produced accent on the downbeat. UBR values tend to decrease. and that sufficient durational cumulation (approximately 50%) to induce 56 Benadon (2006. a threshold UBR value of 0.67 given downbeat. ues are calculated in musical performance vary considerably.5) strength. In Example 12(a). Example 12 illustrates the interaction of motional energy however: the UBR is calculated from the ensuing.59 Moreover..e. 1:1.0 does not UBR values. and downbeat closure across a range of corresponding BUR and ceding.67 threshold.0 UBR=0. tone to offset the accent. as illustrated in Example 9(b).e.  BUR and UBR values for straight and “triplet” this supplements the closural effects of durational cumulation. This is because perceived accent ac- crues to downbeats with greater force below that threshold. In general. strong nate straight eighth notes. entailing a net decrease in motional energy. and this provides strong closure. groups it.214 on Fri. Below that threshold.

23 1. as forward momentum sustained from beat to beat. the anacrusis must be more powerful on the offbeat (mo- notes played by Sonny Clark on piano.65 It can be seen in Example 15.”63 This tendency.20 1. which greatly facilitated by a teacher who advised me to play my eighth notes shows the waveform envelopes of a sequence of eighth notes evenly.07 1.98 UBR: 0. this crescendo enhances the tional energy from offbeat MTS3301_01. In Example expected accent.45 UBR: 0. in conjunction with this slur. Iyer has observed that “often in practice.  Additional means of producing offbeat anacrusis          Example 4). prompting a more forward focus two aspects of articulation contribute to this effect: first.indd 13 3/17/11 12:41 PM . The net effect is a modest degree of ond note of the swung pair is given a slight accent in intensity. in playing strings of 65 Indeed. First. the crescendo creates example 12.83 0.84 amplitude than the offbeats F4 and D4. 61 Narmour (1992. and the tone bearing the crescendo is heard as leading toward. as shown in Example 13(a). James Lincoln Collier has observed that “especially with 63 Iyer (2002.64 0.50 0. to accent the first of each pair at the expense of the sional jazz pianist.50 1. Durational inequality and presents a perceptual challenge. 11–15).67 0. is documented empirically by Busse. This tendency of wind players to underplay Anacrusis Motional energy Closure the offbeats in a series of swing eighth notes generates anacrusis Strong by means of what Narmour refers to as a “dynamic process”: the Moderate slight crescendo from upbeat to downbeat. This content downloaded from 192.jstor. “indicate[s] the tendency. That is. to be sure. This cumulation scale of Example 9[b]).53.18 1.81 0. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. mentation makes an important difference in this regard. See also Butterfield (2006.68      c) 44 example 13. downbeat closure an expectation that an accent will follow.61 This type of crescendo.214 on Fri.83. I have of attention toward an upcoming downbeat to settle any poten- observed that jazz musicians—particularly wind players—tend tial confusion.21 UBR: 0.188. Iyer’s claim likely emerges out of his own experience as a profes- eighth notes. an offbeat accent weakens closure on crusis through articulation. wind players. the low BURs of about 1. but the mechanical aspects of performance on wind instruments do not generally favor it. 66 On the role of accent in producing anacrusis. 6 2 Cooper and Meyer (1960. The downbeats G4 and E b4 clearly have a wider BUR: 1. it works against the customary out increasing downbeat closure (motion left on the durational strong-weak grouping we expect from downbeat to offbeat.2 generate weak mo- plied from upbeat to downbeat. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 13 a) a) Slur from offbeats to downbeats 44                    BUR: 2. 121–22).58 0.”62 In conjunction with the slur commonly ap- 12(c). of a tone or a group of tones. see Hasty’s Example 9. 64 Busse (2002.66 Second.12(e) and 60 Collier (1993.53 1.49 b) Slur with offbeat crescendo b)         44          c) Slur with offbeat accent BUR: 1. overcome the weak closure produced by durational cumulation In contrast. My own training in learning to swing on piano was second. the sec- for UBRs of around 0. ward momentum arising from durational inequality at low BUR which shows the waveform envelopes of a sequence of eighth values. write Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer. but accent the offbeats. indicating they are played more loudly. shown in Example Weak 13(b).79 0. Tables 1–4). the leading toward a goal.63 0. second.47 1. This is not to say that wind players cannot played by Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone (drawn from or do not accent the offbeats.54 0. however. as shown in to slur from offbeats to downbeats.64 is more typically used by To generate greater motional energy from the minimal for- pianists rather than wind players.93 1. 451–52. but enough to strength of anacrusis on the offbeat. The result is offbeat anacrusis. accompanying discussion (1997. 404).”60 This can be seen quite clearly in Example 14. and grouping with. which long dashed arrow that extends through each point of closure.00 2. there is a natural tendency. all other things being equal. 46). 15). although instru. the the perception of closure. producing an offbeat ana- Example 13(c). 63). downbeat and offbeat are fre- quently played at different levels of intensity. Offbeat accent has two tion right on the motional energy scale of Example 9[a]) with- complementary effects.  Motional energy vs. indicated by the if to compensate for its shorter duration.

A weak sense of 44 closure ensues on the downbeats from the realization of quar.              ter-note metrical projections.57 1. A series of straight eighth notes (i.08 e) 44 example 15.09 1.28 1.52 values.jstor. but little motional energy is con.27 1.          ties and degrees.05 1.02 MTS3301_01.22 1. BUR: 1.97 1. 14 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) a) 44          BUR: 1.53. BUR: 1. as shown in Example 16(a).00 1.  Waveform envelopes of a series of eighth notes played BUR: 1. as discussed above in connection      with Example 6(b).. Applying a crescendo to the offbeat. and generates moderate motional energy that performance.188. Again.03 1. enabling one to sustain forward momen.01 1. as shown in Example 16(b).04 1. If the offbeat eighth note is slurred to the ensuing downbeat.23 1. and vary.07 0.54 1. Povel and Okkerman found that an accent BUR: 1.47 1.23 I propose that these methods of producing anacrusis—dura- tional inequality.              tum as BUR values increase and UBRs decrease. h) ing the intensity of the downbeats and offbeats—may work 44 singly or in conjunction.  Motional energy in relation to offbeat anacrusis acquires anacrusis and generates weak motional energy that at low BUR values overcomes the weak metrical closure arising on the downbeats.67 We can extrapolate from this that an increase in the intensity of an offbeat accent can counter. slurring from offbeats to downbeats.indd 14 3/17/11 12:41 PM . producing anacruses of varying quali. BURs in the vicinity of 1.21 1.e. Example 16 shows their effects at low BUR      BUR: 1. 570).51 1. as does coupling the slur with an offbeat accent.  Waveform envelopes of a series of eighth notes played          by Sonny Clark (piano) on “Can’t We Be Friends” BUR: 1. piano performance. at which downbeat closure is minimal.24 Four eighth notes are shown here. This content downloaded from 192.03 b) 44          example 14. 44 act downbeat closure.22 1. it example 16. indicating that they are played more loudly      BUR: 1.17 in intensity on [a] could offset the interval-produced accent that g) emerged on [b] at higher ratios.53 1. wave amplitudes of upbeat pitches (G b5 and A5) are wider than those of downbeat pitches (F5 and f) 44          E5). as shown in easily drives through the weak closure on the ensuing downbeat.07 d) 44              BUR: 1. supplements the effect of the slur. indicating that they are played more loudly the ensuing downbeat.00 1.06 1.20 1.49 veyed from one beat to the next.50 1. characteristic of 67 Povel and Okkerman (1981.19 1. shown in 16(d). typical of wind instrument Example 16(c). pitch letter names and beat loca- tions shown below the diagram.18 1.06 by Coleman Hawkins (tenor saxophone) on “ ’S Wonderful” Four eighth notes are shown here with pitch letter names and beat c) locations given below the diagram: wave amplitudes of downbeat 44 pitches (G4 and E  b4) are wider than those of upbeat pitches (F4          and D4).214 on Fri.0) devoid of i) both offbeat accent and articulation from offbeat to downbeat are continuative.02 1. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.

steady. In conjunction with ing in high BUR values.04 2. 333). In conjunction with increasing durational cumulation on the downbeats. As the BUR rises (and the UBR of a walking bass line. 44              high burs in the rhythm section BUR: 2. no matter how pute this claim.  Motional energy in relation to offbeat anacrusis should employ such high BUR values in their maintenance of at high BUR values the beat. the quarter note” duced on each downbeat. soloists need to hear some- the weak closure on the downbeats. how is this to be accomplished when Similar enhancements to the strength of anacrusis apply as high BURs produce so much sense of closure on each downbeat? the BUR value rises. result- increases (as shown in Examples 6 and 7). and accents all serve to enhance the produce not just the perception of the quarter-note level. such accent becomes difficult to achieve that may be due to perceptual factors. strong downbeat clo- tion of the quarter-note beat. “suggesting a practical limit on tone duration above 2. personal communication). the offbeat eighth note on the “and” of beats values. in particular. the crescendo) combines with a dynamic reversal (i. Nevertheless. Examples 16(h) and 16(i) thing from the rhythm section that has a clear. Offbeat anacrusis. motional energy It is important to remember the functional difference be- is weak. that rhythm section players example 17.53. In this regard. At a BUR of around 1. This enhances the closure on the downbeat 70 Friberg and Sundström (2002. This enables them to bring out and an offbeat crescendo of shorter duration.06 2. differentiation between offbeat and downbeat. High BUR values thus tend to counteract forward mo- mentum. a dynamic process (i. the level at which note MTS3301_01. all other things being equal (see Example 12[c]). 404). By contrast.jstor. For if the function of the rhythm section is to generate and sustain forward propulsion and drive. the melody is in eighth notes. their figures in Example 17(b). offbeat accent will continue to counteract downbeat clo- two and four in the standard ride rhythm) for tempos above sure only with a substantial increase in intensity. show that at tempos as low as 133 bpm (a beat duration of 450 ms). Similarly. effects best achieved by means of low BURs. 71 Honing and Haas (2008. the intensity of interval-produced accent on the downbeat downbeats and inflect the offbeats more like grace notes. but power of anacrusis and to strengthen motional energy without the effect of quarter notes on every beat. for example. quarter- show the same effects at BURs around 1..14 2. to return to b) Pekar’s description. the effects of Drummers’ use of high BUR values also facilitates percep- which are strongly closural.97 pulse.indd 15 3/17/11 12:41 PM . they must keep time. Friberg and Sundström found a sure terminates the strong motional energy generated on the constant absolute duration of about 100 ms for the drummer’s offbeats.68 As a result.214 on Fri.. In order to strong motional energy that easily sustains momentum through time their eighth notes accurately. entailing an emphasis on the      slower quarter-note pulse rather than the faster eighth-note BUR: 2. a preference that helps them Offbeat slurs. Honing and Haas’s finding that the drummers in their study 68 In terms of the implication-realization model. At BURs at or about 150 bpm. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.07 1.09 2. finding instead that the second note’s duration strong. at higher BUR short ride tap (i. the non-accent that ensues). crescendos.69 When bass players play eighth notes in the context come less and less effective.e. described by Iyer (and discussed above) is especially consequen- At BURs above the 1.”70 Honing and Haas dis- and impractical to sustain. the accented downbeat and 6 9 Iyer (2002. Supplementing the slurs with offbeat crescen- ody in jazz moves at double the rate of the pulse: when the pulse dos (Example 16[f ]) or accents (Example 16[g]) then produces is in quarter notes.188. rations at moderate to fast tempos. This. In general. and high BUR values are most effective at generating this for generating and strengthening anacrusis on the offbeats be- perception. and their use leads to melodies that tend.5 threshold. as shown increases linearly with beat duration.01 It is especially curious. explains why jazz soloists since at least the their drummers’ short-tap durations were virtually all beneath Bebop era have tended to prefer lower BUR values in general. drummers have a preference for very short offbeat du- ing offbeat anacrusis while minimizing downbeat closure. that is. the perceptual grouping of swing eighth strong motional energy overcomes the moderate closure pro- notes into the “larger regular interval. about 130 ms in absolute duration—minimally longer than the Lower BURs (and the higher UBRs they engender) facilitate the 100 ms threshold identified by Friberg and Sundström.71 maintenance of forward momentum in a melody line by produc- Clearly.5.e. these various procedures tial. tween melody and accompaniment. consequently entails strong downbeat closure. emerging from both meter and duration (Narmour. Figure 3b in color plate section). an improvised mel- Example 16(e). then. Rhythm section players have Slurring from offbeat to downbeat enhances the strength of a rhythmic responsibility quite different from that of soloists: anacrusis and generates moderate motional energy.. to “chug” along rather than swing.5 (and the lower UBRs they engender) pro- 44 duce durational cumulation on the downbeats that becomes in-          creasingly difficult to overcome. This content downloaded from 192. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 15 a) BURs at or above 1. as shown in specifically. this produces greater maintain the quarter-note pulse clearly and consistently.00 2.0. I believe. as shown in Example 17(a). they tend to sustain their falls).

given two equal beats. as indicated above the staff in the example. the ringing 73 Hasty (1997. In this way. high BUR values do not attenuate serve to generate considerable forward propulsion. 74 Rollins (1956). Rather. The pattern itself. generates considerable forward pro- of that duration. induce listeners to tap their feet.. 122. Consequently. pedal:   with a dynamic accent…can also enhance expectancy for a new L S L S beginning. This content downloaded from 192.” Similarly. only weak closure produced  closed hi-hat (i.jstor. whereas the        a) ride: etc. is that because of its relative brevity. 72 MTS3301_01. bob their heads.e. Hasty proposes that in such circumstances—i.”73 The net effect. the robust anacrusis that emerges on beats two and four Despite the strong closure that arises from the use of high from the hi-hat offsets the firm closure otherwise emerging on BURs. example 18. Drummers perform the ride rhythm with high BUR values produces anacrusis on two levels. The second cymbal stroke serves as a continuation [\] with the walking bass line. creating a short.e. Here there is no durational cumulation on beats one and three..12 [d] and [e]). they facilitate perception of the quarter-note 1) the “ding-ding-a-ding” rhythm played on the ride cymbal. “providing the second tone hh.a . played with foot pedal) on these beats stemming from the realization of projected quarter-note durations. Example 18(b) presents an that exhibit minimal variability in performance in order to bring analysis of the ride cymbal pattern. beats two and four acquire a forward   hh. temporal reference for improvising soloists. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.. and the second consists of a shorter sounding tone or event that does        b) ride: etc. cial kind of continuation).ding cent. for which the offbeat cymbal stroke rhythms on the other drums and cymbals of the drum set in order serves as anacrustic continuation [/] (recall that anacrusis is a spe. to generate expressive effects above this foundation.72 That is. shown in Example 18(a). The first cymbal strike serves out the quarter-note pulse as a nearly uniform temporal reference as a beginning [|]. our attention on the emergence of a new event that would re-   duce this indeterminacy. the hi-hat generates a sort of spring-like bounce. and given a sharp dynamic ac- ding . appear to correspond to the performers’ different rhythmic func- The composite rhythm—“ding-chick-a-ding-chick-a-ding”— tions. in my opinion. closed with the foot pedal on the backbeats The divergent BURs generated by soloists and drummers thus (i. the remainder of beat 2 in Example 18[c]) “will lead to some insecurity” in the prospects for completion of that duration. pedal:   shown underneath the example. 2) the hi-hat cymbal. when the first serves as a beginning and consists of a tone or event of relatively long sounding duration. not fill its projected duration— “shortening the second sound- ing duration might enhance its potential for becoming an ana- crusis” because “silence during the realization of a projected duration” (e.74 cymbal and hi-hat at the quarter-note level. as shown. but it also functions as the beginning [|] of a pulsion. Assuming a high BUR value on beats however.g. as anyone listening to Max Roach’s ride tap through the first Example 18(c) is an analysis of the interaction between ride few choruses of Sonny Rollins’s “Blue 7” will surely recognize. Here. and “accenting and shortening combined should further intensify the potential for anacrusis. beats two and four). and “for this reason we may be more inclined to focus       c)  ride: etc. as indicated above the staff in the example.53. is short. These effects.e. and pulse without compromising the motional energy of the groove. a feeling of leap-          d) ing directed toward a landing on the next quarter-note down- ride: etc.a ding-CHICK. consists of two rhythmic layers: melody line. The strong closure produced by durational cu- “maintain a highly consistent swing ratio and performed with mulation in Example 18(b) is here offset by the strong motional little variability. and so forth— sure. Drummers employ variable comping rhythms and cross- new quarter-note duration. accented “chick” sound. hi-hat cymbal. it opens up the potential for the becoming of for the rest of the ensemble. in conjunction duration. provide mere enhancements to the motional energy two and four (and a low UBR value).214 on Fri. as   hh. beat. pedal:   anticipatory energy directed toward new beginnings on beats L S L S one and three of every bar. (473). this anacrusis generates generated by the pattern itself. other structural features of the drummer’s ride rhythm the downbeats. clipped shut on beats two and four. 16 music theory spectrum 33 (2011)   of the ride cymbal on beats one and three is long.CHICK.. as they do in a soloist’s rhythm. explicating his Examples 9. which on its own is sufficient to strong motional energy that is nevertheless met with strong clo.” this is an aid to their maintenance of a clear energy that emerges at the quarter-note level in Example 18(c).indd 16 3/17/11 12:41 PM . The ride forward propulsion in the drum part.  Motional energy in relation to the drummer’s ride rhythm The cumulative effect of the composite rhythm is shown in Example 18(d).188.” as discussed above in connection with the offbeat swing eighth note.

a substantial increase in the strength and frequency of closure at counts of the expressive consequences of differing BUR values phrase endings and a shift in emphasis from an eighth-note between soloists and drummers.  Analysis of a passage from John Coltrane’s solo (tenor sax) on “I Hear a Rhapsody” By contrast. and 7 6 Benadon (2006. they employ lower BUR values BUR/UBR values serves to regulate motional energy and clo- that often vary considerably over the course of a single phrase. ad- dressing the expressive effects of drum fills. surge. 345). tend to synchronize their offbeat anacrusis. frequently following the cussed below. however. they found.78 effects that emerge from their interaction. piano comping patterns in relation to the solo line is beyond the scope of This content downloaded from 192. these effects of BUR/UBR variability will be drummer by a considerable margin. but they in a net loss of motional energy. Rather. but weakens downbeat closure. the soloist into greater microrhythmic consonance with the ing a phrase-ending expressive device. against the steady template The model proposed in this study suggests that variation in provided by the rhythm section. respec. “create[s] both the impression of the ‘laid-back’ soloist. By con- their BUR values as a consequence of downbeat delay by the trast.jstor. Nevertheless. 80). Instead. Soloists. there are other effects of BUR variability the final chorus of John Coltrane’s tenor saxophone solo on the in a soloist’s melody line itself. producing anacrusis and closure in an improvised melody line. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.53. point of the bass line against the soloist’s melody. “tend to increase their surges. Analysis of short excerpts from three improvised jazz solos will illustrate how variable BUR val.indd 17 3/17/11 12:41 PM . offbeats. a BUR surge high BURs is “in effect ‘resolving’ from a microrhythmically often works with other aspects of melodic structure to generate dissonant state to a consonant one. which do indeed function to induce the perception of BURs at phrase endings in order to synchronize both down. Irrespective of this Example 19. Interaction between fluctuating BUR/UBR values and other pression of good synchronization. as my analyses demonstrate. In each of the passages dis- will often delay their downbeats. but not merely because they bring beats and offbeats with the rhythm section. thereby incorporat. cross-rhythms.188. shown to supplement a variety of other parametric means for pose. particularly in improvised melody lines. which explain some significant pulse to the slower quarter-note pulse that groups it.” Moving from low to drummer. resulting eighth notes with the drummer’s offbeat ride stroke. were also ana- ues in the melody line modulate the flow of motional energy lyzed briefly by Benadon (2006. the counter- 75 Friberg and Sundström (2002. resulting in a net in- tively? Friberg and Sundström explained the disparity between crease of motional energy from one beat to the next.77 which is often strived for in jazz. 77–78). they pro. an analysis of a rather simple phrase taken from interaction.”75 Benadon takes this view features of melodic and rhythmic organization serves thereby one step further to offer a possible explanation for the “BUR either to enhance or attenuate the force of motional energy. he suggests.” the common increase in BUR values toward the end of Such interaction is especially important in phrase-ending BUR soloists’ phrases. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 17 example 19. Soloists.214 on Fri. and at the same time an im. This technique. an improvised solo in a variety of very important ways. soloists are responsible for neither keeping time for analyses the ensemble nor generating and sustaining the forward propul- sion of the swing groove. across a phrase or series of phrases in conjunction with other 78 Rhythm section parts contribute to the modulation of motional energy in aspects of syntactical structure. I include them here to offer a contrasting but complementary view on the effects of the BUR MTS3301_01. sure. 77 Two of these excerpts. closure. but not enough to offset downbeat closure.”76 These are compelling ac. as Benadon proposes. movement from low BURs to high strengthens offbeat former. Movement from What expressive effects ensue from the interaction of low high BURs to low dampens the strength of anacrusis on the and high BURs between soloists and rhythm section. chord substitutions. the Coltrane and Konitz passages.

Thus. but not is generated at the second level. and the hierarchic depth it entails.g. 1–41). 1992). G + G implies continuation.”79 illustrates significant cor. however. including met. Benadon (2006.. drawing on with an intervallic process [IP] and a descending process [P] to Narmour’s implication-realization model. which in turn causes basic melodic structures either to procedures for generating anacrusis and closure in other musical combine (e. This content downloaded from 192.98 UBR indicates that ric emphasis. VRs. In the impli. By contrast. what is again gistral direction. which assess instead manipulation of motional the more comprehensive explanations of the underlying bases of the theory. which melodic nonclosure escalates—at the top of the line. where together supplementing the melodic closure achieved by reversal of re- they form the interval of a major third. reflect this phrase structure. Resolution to G4 realizes an implied where they participate in larger melodic implications and their reversal [R].81 section of this tune in thirty-two-bar AABA song form. the initial and terminal tones of the intervening Ab4. emerges here from near registral return reflects a tonal descent 3–2–1 that 80 Narmour (1990. the two G4s which are transformed again to realize a retrospective intervallic generate an implication of continued registral direction and duplication [(ID)] at the highest level. ergy. a retrospective registral reversal from E b4. and durational closure thus emerges on the downbeats this structure then transform to a third level. etc. significant here is not the specific structures themselves. and no higher-level structures emerge lodic structure—the various Ps. which leads into a combination of intervallic pro- realizations.g. the large minor seventh leap from Bb3 melodic structures “transform” to the next hierarchical level. the first complete melodic cesses [IPIP] that produce a networked process [P] through structure—the intervallic duplication [ID] shown after the near registral return [aba1b1]. two full measures. is that UBR values retrospective registral reversal [(VR)]. in MTS3301_01. The relatively large leaps intervallic similarity (i. against the underlying harmony (Cm7). IDs. Appendix 2 processes involving the implication of continuation. 18 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) jazz standard “I Hear a Rhapsody. a number of factors can prevent such closure. Melodic closure is thereby avoided for analyses. This forces the process [P] to combine ture.67 thresh- beat one of the next measure. in Example 19. 80 For the present form the PIPP chain. The BUR values for each pair of eighth chain begins with an ascending melodic process [P] through notes. and Appendix 5 (390–96) for a catalog of the basic melodic structures and combinational structures defined in the theory. points of initiation and termination of each one and the means The third segment resumes a steady rate of melodic closure whereby its closure is either achieved or deferred. However. 81 Readers are referred to Narmour (1992. for a more comprehensive Similarly. most and many changes of registral direction may have prompted the likely with another G). to Ab4 comes as a surprise. My analysis of the eighth-note two or more discontiguous tones in close registral proximity to one an- timings of this passage and the BUR values that ensue differs slightly from other—no more than a major second. Cf. Each of (370–78) for a glossary of terms. The final seg. then plays a series of quite even eighth notes through the the constituent tones of which (Bn4 and D5) are both dissonant scalar passage in the middle. What is crucial. the IPIP structure at the end of Example 19) or parameters.. The In the first segment of Coltrane’s solo (Example 19). beats. durational cumulation.82 Another reversal Those notes transform to the next level of structure. at the second level. summary of the basic theory of melodic implication and realization. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. The 0. I nevertheless refer to the older volumes for the analyses presented here. which shows the com- lodic closure. then descends to B b3. G4–F4–Eb4 motion at the end of the phrase. the critical issue is less the specific type of each me. in- Coltrane begins with relatively high BURs on the first few tervallic motion increases from major seconds to a minor third.indd 18 3/17/11 12:41 PM . The initial and terminal tones of old. which terminates on decline rapidly in the final measure to arrive at the 0. the PIPP structure in the middle). 77). and then a nonimplicative major third dyad at ment begins with a large ascending leap from B b3 to Ab4 fol. includ. level 3. exhibits weak motional energy. More recently. Ap- ing dissonance on metrical accents and various kinds of ongoing pendix 1 (361–69) for an overview of the rules of the theory. Coltrane avoids melodic closure in the mid- lowed by a zigzagging movement which zeroes in on the tonic dle segment and produces instead a long PIPP chain. given at the top of Example 19. shown beneath the staff—i.. bined effects of varying BUR and UBR values with the melodic A number of features contribute to the closure of melodic structures just discussed..e. but the overall microrhythmic profile is the same. Narmour has updated the terms and symbols used in his theory (Narmour [2003]). This is followed by a scalar passage that ascends tures.53. This at the end of the phrase. The networked process that Benadon’s. as we have seen: first. an analysis of which is shown above the staff. fails to emerge from the implicative structures shown above the staff. but These effects are borne out in the analysis of motional en- the hierarchical depth generated by their regular rate of me. the opening leap up a perfect fourth—begins and ends on G4. but that nevertheless used here is provided in the Appendix. only notes that initiate or terminate sage of stepwise motion. Following an extended pas- cation-realization model. as indicated by the (x) This segmentation is further reflected in the melodic struc. The initial ascending fourth D4–G4 structures in the implication-realization model. concluding with a BUR surge.jstor. an implication partially realized in the BUR surge here. The passage begins with pickups into the final A to form longer chains (e. [(VR)] at level 2. turns around C5. A brief overview of the basic melodic structures is significant to the overall structure of the phrase. shown beneath the staff. the first segment opens with a leap to G4 and its upper-neighbor regular rate of melodic closure generates two higher-level struc- embellishment. these tends to envelop metric accent and override its closural respondences between varied BUR and UBR values and some effects. strong resolution of dis- sonance. energy within the solo line itself.188. 82 Near-registral return [aba1] stems from a nonimplicative relation between 79 Coltrane (1958). Instead.214 on Fri. and reversal of melodic direction.e. and x above the notes. among others.—than the through this passage.

37 1. my BUR figures differ slightly 83 Cooper and Meyer (1960. italics in the original. like an echo. straight eighth notes in the middle portion of this phrase. coupled with the slur tral direction. weak mo. As closure. these fac. the dissonant b9 of Bb7.71 BUR).org/terms MTS3301_01. Collectively. then down to D4. 15). It opens with diatonic stepwise melodic motion. and intervallic processes example 20. but strengthens Example 20 presents an excerpt from Lee Konitz’s alto saxo- for a variety of reasons as the line proceeds.62 1. These fac- from F4–Eb4. retrospective registral reversal. 78). Again. the early arrival of the offbeat D5 (reflected in the low 0. an increase of motional tional energy.83 nant Bb7 harmony. as Street.89 0. energy stemming from higher BUR values and clear phrasing ing G4–Ab4–G4 figure as a result of the higher BUR value. generates moderate motional energy that easily tors collectively entail an increase in the rate and strength of overcomes the weak closure that occurs on the downbeat. but from offbeats to downbeats is unable to sustain forward mo- this is offset with strong closure on the second G as a result of mentum against three sources of closure: the abrupt change substantial durational cumulation (i. The from stepwise motion to leaps. particularly ments.jstor. motional energy weakens slightly.64 0. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 19 Motional energy: 3 (IP)(R) (R) 4 Melodic structure: P P RIP(VR)IPIP ID PIP 2 3 2 Metric projection:  = 185 E B7  4  x x   4                   x (x) (x) (x)         a b a1 b1 a 2 b 2 a b a1 P IP P BUR: 1. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.85 0.e. The line then descends with weak motional energy tonic triad and closing on the tonic itself. ascending phone solo on the classic jazz standard “On Green Dolphin melodic motion itself generates some degree of anacrusis.indd 19 3/17/11 12:41 PM . This content downloaded from 192.65 0. and the rapid decline in UBR values. Here. The energy and striving im.74 BUR at the end of the bar.48 (x) = weak dissonance P = process x = moderate dissonance ID = intervallic duplication x = strong dissonance (IP) = retrospective intervallic process aba1 = near registral return (R) = retrospective reversal 3 = 3rd interval (IP)(R) = combined retrospective intervallic process and retrospective reversal PIP = combined process and intervallic process RIP(VR)IPIP = chained reversal. which is then embellished and the slur extending from Bn4–D5–C5. First. first from F4 up to Ab4. rather than from the one preceding it. to Bn4. with its lower neighbor F 4. followed by a zigzagging. contains three fairly discrete seg- it tends to function as an anacrusis. returns to swing eighth notes. intervallic process. slurs from offbeats to downbeats. moving conjunct ones. taken from the beginning of the B section of the tune’s Because the more a tone seems to be oriented toward a goal. but the microrhythmic profile of the phrase is the same. stair- case-like descent through two very prominent chromatic dis- sonances on the downbeats (An4 and F 4) leading to G4. the dissonance of both the Bn4 and the D5. however.05 0.24 1.”84 As with Coltrane’s melody in Example 19. that follows. the more thirty-two-bar ABAC form. the UBR of 0. Cf.26 1. but the slur from offbeat to comes to an end in the final measure.214 on Fri. third of the newly arrived tonic Eb.  Analysis of a passage from Lee Konitz’s solo (alto sax) on “On Green Dolphin Street” these notes are essentially even. as a result. The net effect is a sense of In this phrase. resulting in a net loss of the fluidity and forward pro- Coltrane’s eighth notes even out in the ascending scalar passage pulsion characteristic of the middle of the phrase.68 0.15 1.93 1. The second segment begins with a large leap Four additional factors contribute to an intensification of mo. A third segment ends the passage tors produce a quasi-slingshot effect on the turn at the top of with a conventional diatonic closing lick outlining a descending the phrase.88 0. Konitz’s Cooper and Meyer explain: phrase. the middle passage stands out in vivid relief unimpeded flow and forward momentum through the series of against the more conventional melodic material that frames it. This 84 Konitz (1974). tend to become anacrustic.93 1.43). when Coltrane downbeat creates a weak anacrusis and.70 UBR: 0.53. Moderate motional energy emerges on the ensu.03 0. rising melodic lines. essentially outlining plicit in a rising line make each successive tone move toward the one the tritone interval between the third and seventh of the domi- which follows it. the zigzagging changes in regis- high 1.188. Benadon (2006.36 1. the tional energy at the top of the line: the escalation of interval size observed above..44 0. from Benadon’s. its final gesture is then to the Bb3 that begins the final measure largely on the basis of repeated.

Moreover. As trochaic slurring from downbeat to offbeat for a period of two in the Coltrane example. line despite the nonclosural effects of dissonance [(x)] on both lodic closure until the G4 on beat two of the second measure. through a projected two-bar duration (mm. drawing it out of the surrounding material in a way crosses the 50% threshold with the G4 on beat three (as indi- that produces expressive tension against an otherwise conven.indd 20 3/17/11 12:41 PM . as shown in the analysis of extended passage. shown in the analysis of scending “staircase” figure elaborating the descent 5–4–3 of F. dissonance generates a melodic increasingly inhibits the forward momentum of the melodic chain [RIP(VR)IPIP] in the middle passage. Moreover.214 on Fri. the middle passage shifts to offbeat motional energy increases from moderate to strong. values in Example 22. x. Konitz (like Coltrane) swings the to the anacrusis at higher levels of metrical structure.jstor. The prevailing BUR values One final example will illustrate in more detail the effects of through the first few beats and the iambic slurring generate off. as indicated major). Consequently. as reflected in the low 0. functions transformationally—i. 3–4). Motional energy. the harmonic status of this first G4 is initially dle is densely chromatic and dissonant. 20 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) The outer segments are both entirely diatonic. sage sustains a flow of weak motional energy even as BUR val- fectly straight in the middle. but as a continuation that serves only to complete the apparent that the zigzagging motive has come to an end. Strong durational closure thus As in the Coltrane example. however.64 UBR on In both of these passages. Finally. The G4 on beat two.e. as the BUR inconclusive. enhanced by a reversal of registral direction matic passing tone.. ment in this passage. clarified only by its reiteration on beat three. provided only by the bass. Due values beneath the staff show. simply arpeggiates a Bb6 chord and a Bø7 (IV6 and viiø7/V in F strong closure results from durational cumulation. this is met with an increase beats. Consequently. labeled motive and the switch from small intervals to large. Thus the intervallic duplication [ID] in level 1 strength of melodic closure toward the end of the phrase cor- falls within a larger combinational structure [(IP)(R)] in level 2. This motivic sal of slurred articulations. not as Not until the second G4 on beat three. Durational cumulation also it draws the phrase to a close. embellished here and there by a neighbor note or chro- by the 0. Indeed. nev. To balance sonant quality (indicated by ⊗). see Narmour (1992. ues remain around 1. cated by the 0. however—less than halfway course anacrustic because of the 1. moderate 85 The weak dissonances [(x)] on the two D4s of the last measure do not deny and strong dissonances on the downbeats (shown by the x and ⊗ over the An4 and F 4 respectively) support anacrusis at upper closure here to produce melodic combinations or chains. which defers me. this time in relation to the tonic F.26 BUR and its strongly dis. but plays them almost per. as indicated above. 86 Clark (1959).64 UBR). there is motion left toward closure on multiple flow of motional energy across this phrase. However. 2. does not provide 209–16 and 247–52). a motion reiterated at the outset of the second phrase at the Even eighth notes across the second segment and the rever. attenuation of motional energy. which changes offbeats from anacru. the C4 and D4.68 UBR. an excerpt from Sonny Clark’s piano solo on metric projection just above the staff. but the Bb4 and Ab4 on the en. The first phrase (mm. as would other- wise be expected. MTS3301_01.86 tum of Konitz’s melody line. This content downloaded from 192. is shown at the top of Example 20. crosses the 50% threshold. it does not cause a combination or chaining but ascends instead to the next level of melodic structure—with ing to resolve the accumulated dissonance which precedes it. “call-and-response” is complemented by a shift from straight sis [/] to continuation [\] as shown. as indicated above the staff in Example 21 and by the BUR sis across these several beats. In the implication-realization model. slurring from offbeat to downbeat. At this quarter-note duration of which it is a part. constituted mainly of a de- higher levels of rhythmic structure. Clearly. In These aspects of the melodic structure help to explain the other words. drop below 0. “Can’t We Be Friends.” a jazz standard in thirty-two-bar AABA lodic processes [P] offer little resistance to the forward momen. Konitz reverts to iambic slurring from offbeat to end of the bar then furthers the depletion of motional energy as downbeat and proceeds diatonically. a weak dissonance levels of structure. for structural transformation in melodic implication. it exceeds 100% with the D4 on the tional background. Durational cumulation this phrase. On the different degrees of dissonance and their potential rives amidst harmonic uncertainty: the harmonic accompani. which is seen here as UBR values also exhibits anacrusis at the quarter-note level because it ar. an analysis of which parametric scales. suggest a pronounced eighth notes in the first phrase to swing eighths in the second.0 and phrasing is momentarily trochaic. moderate motional The passage is drawn from the bridge and consists of three energy carries through the first segment. The final echo at the moment. does it becomes anacrusis. this pas- eighth notes in the outer segments. terminating only on phrases. whereas the outer segments exhibit iambic With the BUR surge in the third segment of this phrase. the abbreviated second phrase against the length of the first and suing offbeats are continuative because Konitz slurs from downbeat to offbeat. 3–4). Here. Konitz reverses his articu. varying eighth-note durations on motional energy across a more beat anacrusis of moderate strength. there is a feeling of sta. albeit weak. ertheless emerges here because of the operation of anacrusis at The second phrase (mm. whereas the mid. end of m.53. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. 1–2) the D4 at the bottom of the descending process [P]. responds to a movement beneath the threshold UBR value. It begins with 6–b6–5 of Bb. durational cumulation of 100% or more. Konitz means to highlight the central portion of in the rate and strength of closure.85 The offbeat Eb4 then emerges weakly. and thus an attenuation of motional energy.44). an increase in the frequency and this second G4. ensuing beat one (UBR 0. successive me. as shown in Example 21.50. lation in the middle. a clear articulation of an Eb harmony until late in the bar. though ostensibly serv. The Bn4 is of seems to end relatively quickly. song form. metric projection above the staff in Example 20.188.

  Phrase structure and motivic development in a passage from Sonny Clark’s solo (piano) on “Can’t We Be Friends” Motional energy: 2 VR P P Melodic structure: P P P P 3 4 P IP IP 3 2  Metric projection: B6 B7 F          IOIs: 303 224 246 220 240 223 244 211 226 250 223 102 150 210 444 193 241 217 266 158 332 106 301 431 199    4              1 2  3  4          Downbeat latency: 22 96 105 96 98 124 142 106 118 81 66 BUR: 1.  Analysis of a passage from Sonny Clark’s solo (piano) on “Can’t We Be Friends” This content downloaded from 192.03 1.53.29 1. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 21 Phrase 1 (straight eighth notes) Phrase 2 (swing eighth notes) B6   = 132 B7 F      2       4 1            3        4        x x y y Phrase 3 (straight.90 0.88 1.80 0.11 1.35 2 IP P 4 3 IP 2 PID PIDP P IDP P IP Am 7( 5) D 7( 9) G7  261 464 130 314 166 266 234 213 223 217 258 207 208 246 200 257 193 56 80 109 190 275 200 239 157 919                        4 5 6 7       (x) (x)              85 27 64 98 86 125 100 93 91 68 79 29 1.41 0.08 1.89 1.62 1.78 0. intervallic duplication.23 1.indd 21 3/17/11 12:41 PM .33 1.93 1.jstor.96 0. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about.13 UBR: 0.82 0.35 1.14 0.20 0.214 on Fri.69 0. eighth notes) Am 7( 5 ) D 7( 9) G7                   4 5 6 7                         z example 21.76 0.188.79 0.00 1. then swing.52 0.48 0.91 MTS3301_01.85 0.84  (x) = weak dissonance P = process  = strong dynamic accent IP = intervallic process = light dynamic accent VR = registral reversal aba1 = near registral return 2 = 2nd interval PID = combined process and intervallic duplication IDP = combined intervallic duplication and process PIDP = combined process.12 1.16 0.68 3.92 0.12 1.38 1. and process example 22.10 1.91 0.84 1.25 0.

indd 22 3/17/11 12:41 PM . solo. but he Clark turns to the 11 and closes the phrase there in a slightly does clearly prefer more straight eighth notes. 5. The pulse maintained in the melody line.  Timing statistics for Sonny Clark’s “Can’t We Be Friends. conse. here PIDP structure. where weak dissonance [(x)] Note 85 above. Clark emphasizes chord tones beats was calculated from the onsets of bass or drums on each on quarter-note downbeats. with melodic flow.87 The few combinations that arise emerge from labeled motive y. the final two bars of the eight-bar bridge. But Clark avoids a third registral reversal [VR] shown on level 2 of mm. In general. each phrase. It suggests instead a fairly straightforward melodic motion gins with an extended anacrusis midway through m.” figures estimated to be accurate to within ±5 ms. standard deviation. whichever attack came first. as motive z. 3. BUR and UBR values estimated to be accurate to within ±0. as indicated by the low the chord progression and the direction of the melodic line. A number of figures pertaining to Clark’s timing in this pas- tonic stepwise motion varied by a few small leaps and chromatic sage are shown in Example 23. the IOI figures provided above each note in Example 22. Instead. See only melodic chain occurs in m. The C5 which ends the first iteration of this the tendency of melodic process [P] to override the closural ef- motive is continued with the Bb4 which ends the second. the Bb4 is suspended until it is resolved by the A4 which structure of this entire passage lacks the melodic complexity of begins m.188. 1. The augment the 5–4–3 motion of m. substituting instead the figure shown as motive z as a kind emerges there following the sweeping arpeggiations down and of response to y. Motive z closes around the tonic F4. as can 87 The weak dissonance [(x)] on the G of MTS3301_01. This content downloaded from 192. lis.and upbeat-eighth notes vary widely. The melodic structure of this passage is quite simple. given rhythm section is remarkably consistent.214 on Fri. 4 does not deny closure and be seen from the analysis above the staff in Example 22. the Konitz passage or the hierarchical depth of the Coltrane It would appear from the notation that the third phrase be. clearly fects of meter (the PID structures) or from the denial of me- implying further continuation to an A4—which would echo and lodic closure on a metrical non-accent (the IDP structure). 6 (the beat.jstor. 5. By contrast.05 to fill out its duration over the static tonic harmony. The cause a melodic chain because duration cumulates more than 100%. as shown by his “Monkish” gesture that leaves the dissonance lingering through average BUR and UBR values in Example 23. as can be seen from seventh of D7) to resolve to B3 (the third of the G7).53. of course. The average IOI between down- passing tones. though there are significant differences within the third phrase clearly beginning on the “and” of beat four. at both levels. Dynamic accents combinational structures involving process [PID and IDP] at on the ascending G4–A4–Bb4 and a sudden and dramatic shift both levels of melodic structure generates a fairly unimpeded from swing eighth notes to straight set these notes apart. The C  in m. thereby generating a short echoes the last few notes in a brief motivic development. From this point on. 1–2 captures iteration that would have provided resolution to the expected the affective quality of the Ab5. the melodic quently. however. however. the melody line consists primarily of dia. 7 comes as a surprise. Clark prevents melodic closure on the D5. 22 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) example 23. 4. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. the durations of Clark’s down- teners would probably expect the C4 at the end of m. For the most part. conveying the harmony through his beat. An abundance of melodic processes [P] or simple this belongs to the second phrase. then up the Bb6 chord in m. the slight sense of surprise that A4.

thus sustaining an This content downloaded from 192. 3 or for beat The analysis of metric projection. This means that the segments with Instead. shows anacrusis on than those of m. given the relative invariance of his frequency of downbeat closure precludes its continuity and im- upbeat timings. gives way to moderate for the rest of the phrase. of course. but exhibit just enough swing to generate ergy continues through motive z. hence weak motional energy. is just short of a sixteenth note (about 113 ms at No BUR value can be provided for beat three since there is no this tempo). In the first phrase (mm. supplemented by the resolution of the double neighbor end of m. is just enough to disrupt the phrase’s flow of further postponing arrival on the ensuing C5. however.41) on beat three slurs from offbeats to downbeats (he generally employs a stac. 5 because of the rise in the on this note more than a sixteenth-note’s duration (124 ms) downbeat latency and because Clark attacks the accented Eb5 at behind the downbeat defined by bass and drums. This has significant effects on the quarter-note pulse. 3 produces mod- tency in the piano. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. a measure of how far behind the onset of erate and then strong motional energy. tency. however. most of Clark’s offbeat eighth notes despite the very low BUR I extrapolate moderate motional energy through the second it- values employed through much of the passage and the lack of eration of the y motive. Clark arrives BUR values drop below 1.88 companiment. Following this pickup. but we can extrapolate from the abso- tend to be quite closely synchronized with the upbeat attacks of lute duration of the A4 on beat three (a relatively long 301 ms) bass and drums (the short ride tap struck on the “ands” of beats that the increasingly uneven durational patterning of beats one two and four. overcome the weak closure that emerges on beat one of m.0 in m. moderate motional en- minimally uneven.53. Moderate closure emerges on weak anacrusis on the offbeats.188. The absolute durations of the E4 and F4 two levels (i. but the greater strength and his BUR values: in general. the BUR surge served as a phrase-ending motional energy quickly weakens. Here in m. generates cato attack).62). coupled with a dynamic accent on the G4. as we shall see. the substantial increase in BUR values in m. the greater the downbeat latency. 4. accent on the following Db5. ther behind the beat (142 ms) than he had been with his arrival The effect of this final BUR surge is different from those on the Ab5. with a standard deviation of 16 ms. quickly overtaken by a cumu.67 threshold.67 threshold supplemented by other parametric forms of closure. As Clark “catches up” with the pulse of his ac- only 8 ms. as indicated by the corresponding drop in UBR values. his upbeat eighth notes C5 on the “and” of three.. however. and. his eighth notes are strong closure. 1 strengthen this energy a little. The BUR surge in m. why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? 23 Of greatest interest. This produces the impression of slowing down. here limited to the first one of m. though he were actively decelerating. however. This resulted in an increase in the strength and frequency of melodic closure and inhibition of the forward flow 88 This corroborates Friberg and Sundström’s finding for a tendency among the soloists in their study to lay back on the downbeats while synchronizing of motional energy. 2 generate a slight increase in mo. tantly. most impor. 1–2). By contrast. and strong closure brings the device not merely because it brought the soloist into greater phrase to its conclusion. weak motional energy emerges largely reversal of registral direction in the melody. 2. The weak anacru- motional energy. The very low UBR (0. closure. From this. however. weak motional energy longer than the last. 87 MTS3301_01. 4. is the figure for downbeat la. I suggest.214 on Fri. but increasingly strong bass or drums Clark’s downbeat attacks begin. Downbeat delays decline bass pickup note): the average upbeat latency in the piano is here. the second phrase opens with weak because it was met with a corresponding drop in UBR values to motional energy generated by anacrusis at both the eighth-note below the 0. His average la. of m. 2.jstor. moderate In all of those cases. Clearly. but Toward the end of m. Clark manages to their upbeats with the drummer (2002. 1. 2. 3 draws the lowest BUR values tend to exert a kind of drag on the pulse emphasis away from the faster eighth-note level to the slower defined by bass and drums.e. No BUR can be determined for beat four of m. the substantial delay of the onset of the Ab5. pause. keep the UBR above the 0. 342–43). because of offbeat anacrusis generated by dynamic accents. As Clark moves into a sequence of fairly straight eighth Closure here results not from durational cumulation on the notes beginning with the accented G4 at the outset of the third downbeat. 3 or in the Coltrane and Konitz examples. Consequently. BUR value. motional energy generated across this passage. as well as the occasional offbeat snare-drum hit or and two continues on beat three. microrhythmic consonance with the bassist and drummer. but more even than those of m. as seen in m. sis generated from dissonance [(x)] on the D5 is then strength- The sixteenth notes in m. that this sequence of eighth notes is less even upper levels revealed little of significance. This little the top of the line early and sustains it slightly for emphasis. the lower the pedes the maintenance of forward momentum and drive. as though the languid stride of his first the passage. 4). eighth-note and quarter-note durations) since suggest. As the downbeat delay decreases lative durational process in which each successive note lasts from there and BUR values increase. 6.indd 23 3/17/11 12:41 PM . but not enough to figure around F4 and completion of the z motive. a phrase (the end of m. however. the F4 of beat four because of the relatively low UBR value His very slight offbeat accents on the ascending arpeggio at the (0. and quarter-note levels. ened with a rise in the BUR value and placement of a dynamic tional energy. but from other parameters: a change of harmony. as well. but it is short-lived. Listeners may feel an figures just below the staff in Example 22. and vice versa. This has an effect on increase in motional energy here. his rhythmic articulation becomes less Clark’s downbeat delay varies significantly over the course of fluid and more bouncy. as can be seen from the downbeat latency phrase yields to a little jog in the second. such that Clark arrives on the F5 even fur. he prefers to “lay back” on his downbeats attack on beat four to determine the absolute duration of the to a substantial degree.

large interval followed by identical large interval with change of registral direction    These are just three very brief examples. to be sure. its is primarily to present a theory of the expressive function of the abrupt conclusion on C 4—the dissonant 11 of the new G7 swing eighth note and its role in generating swing. syntactical and sub- a single phrase. the other structures). an effect that generates motional energy directed toward the  P Process P ensuing downbeat as a consequence. We come closer to far back on the beat as defined by the bassist and drummer. it is rather a feeling that emerges from quantifiable straight to swing eighth notes either between phrases or within processes. By subverting downbeat small interval followed by similarly small interval    with continuation of registral direction closure in one way or another. He makes his eighth notes more even by lying syntactical. both rhythmic and microrhythmic. of course. He sounds almost aloof from the appendix groove defined by bass and drums. no attenuation of its forward momentum. 24 music theory spectrum 33 (2011) unimpeded flow of moderate motional energy through the end motional qualities characteristic of each particular style. the aim of which of the phrase. simply.  R Reversal R The analyses presented above reveal ways in which three ac. specifiable quantity. to some expressive effect (as with all of upbeat swing eighth notes.53. in the manner suggested by Friberg and Sundström. either increase the rate and strength of closure to draw the For each of the basic structures shown below. Basic melodic structures may form combinations if closure is denied on the third tone by means of dissonance or some other * * * factor. I have endeavored to show how since at least the Bebop small interval followed by similarly small interval    with change of registral direction era jazz musicians have exploited the affective nuances of vary- ing degrees of durational inequality as an expressive resource. small interval followed by identical small interval with change of registral direction     This theory supplements extant research on the swing ratio with an explanation of the affective consequences of BUR vari-  IP Intervallic Process IP ability.jstor.indd 24 3/17/11 12:41 PM . At issue. If denial of closure continues. basic melodic structures Why. quite tion is either realized (as with process P or reversal R) or denied. as I have sought to demonstrate. until he moves into higher BUR values at the ends of his phrases—the resolution of A summary of melodic structures drawn from the implica- microrhythmic dissonance described by Benadon. large interval followed by small interval    with change of registral direction claimed jazz musicians vary their BUR values in conjunction with other features of melodic structure in order to regulate the  VR Registral Reversal VR flow of motional energy. 370–71 and 390–91). a systematic comparison of eighth-note tim- ings across different historical periods might illuminate the varied small interval followed by larger interval with change of registral direction  This content downloaded from 192. the first two phrase toward its conclusion. This is of the bar. Swing is not a harmony in m. mid-sized interval followed by small interval plete improvised solo might offer insight into the modulation of with change of registral direction BUR values in relation to motivic development and large-scale (VR)  (VR) Retrospective Registral Reversal   structure. while projecting a laid-back quality. is the degree of inequality between his downbeat and either fully or partially. That implica- for dramatic effect. central claim of the theory presented here is that jazz musicians swing their eighth notes to produce anacrusis on the offbeats. based on Narmour more into phase with the drummer’s higher BUR values. then. Moreover. do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes? The may form chains. jazz musicians can sustain the sense of forward propulsion characteristic of the rhythmic qual. in fact. ID Intervallic Duplication ID ity we call swing. but they do help clarify the  (IP) Retrospective Intervallic Process (IP) effects of microrhythmic nuance in the production of swing. he can (1992. This understanding this feeling when we recognize the plurality of enables him to sustain a minimal degree of motional energy sources and the variety of means for its production. limited in stylistic range and historical scope. and the analysis of a com. there is no preparation for the end beyond the scope of the present study. nor is it a quality that is precisely Clark gains considerable expressive nuance by moving from quantifiable.188. large interval followed by similarly large interval    Analysis of phrases by additional musicians would surely reveal with change of registral direction other ways in which varying BUR values helps to shape phrase   (R) Retrospective Reversal (R)   structure in terms of motional energy. The apparent stream of eighth notes in large interval followed by larger interval with change of registral direction    their respective phrases conceals underlying microrhythmic processes that either facilitate or impede the forward propulsion (ID) Retrospective Intervallic Duplication  (ID) thought to typify swing. as he does in the second phrase. As he moves tion-realization model used in the MTS3301_01. 7—is thus doubly surprising. however.214 on Fri. or tones generate an implication for a third that is more or less subvert that closure to sustain the motional energy of the phrase specific as to interval size and registral direction. 24 Mar 2017 05:14:27 UTC All use subject to http://about. as he does in the third phrase. As a consequence.

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