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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz

1Bachiller

Name: Date:

1. The diagram below shows some of the environmental problems caused by a demand for greater
agricultural production.

re d u c tio n o f lo n g -te rm
p ro d u c tiv ity

in c re a s e d s o il d a n g e r to lo s s o f s p e c ie s n a rro w in g o f
lo s s o f s p e c ie s
e ro s io n d iv e rs ity h u m a n h e a lth d iv e rs ity g e n e tic b a s e

e u tro p h ic a tio n h ig h n itra te re sid u e s o n h a rm to n o n - o rg a n ic p o llu tio n


c o n c e n tra tio n s in fo o d ta rg e t s p e c ie s o f fre s h w a te r
d rin k in g w a te r

in c re a s in g u s e in c re a s in g u s e
o f fe rtiliz e r o f p e s tic id e s
lo s s o f a n im a l a n d p la n t
s o il h e d g e g ro w s dam age in d o o r re a rin g
c o m p a c tio n to S S S Is * m o n o c u ltu re s o f a n im a ls b re e d in g
a n d w a lls

m e c h a n is a tio n

d e m a n d fo r g re a te r p ro d u c tio n
* S ite s o f S p e c ia l S c ie n tific I n te r e s t

[Source: Kevin Byrne, Environmental Science, (Nelson Thornes Ltd., 1997) p. 167.
Reproduced by permission of Nelson Thornes Ltd.]

(a) Explain why there has been a demand for greater food production in many societies
around the world.
(4)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(b) With reference to two specific problems from the diagram above, explain the
environmental consequences of increasing agricultural production.
(8)

(c) Suggest ways in which agricultural productivity can be increased without detrimental
effects on the environment.
(5)
Expression of ideas (3)
(Total 20 marks)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

2. (a) Forest reserves A and B, shown in the diagram below, have been designed to conserve
threatened species. Both reserves have the same area.

R ese rv e A
su rro u n d e d b y
s u s ta in a b ly m a n a g e d fo re s t
R ese rv e B
s u rro u n d e d b y c ro p la n d

Evaluate the likely effectiveness of the reserves in conserving species, with reference to
their shape and the management of surrounding land.

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

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(4)

(b) (i) State four categories used to define the conservation status of species in the Red
Data Books.

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(2)

(ii) For a named species with a small declining population, outline three possible
reasons why the population is decreasing.

Name of species: ...............................................................................................

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(3)

(iii) Predict the possible effects on the ecosystem if the species named in (ii) were to
disappear.

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(3)

(c) Explain how CITES helps to protect threatened species.

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(2)
(Total 14 marks)

3. (a) (i) Distinguish between genetic diversity and habitat diversity.

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(2)

(ii) Describe and explain how the diversity of an ecosystem might be expected to
change throughout ecological succession.

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(4)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(iii) In December 1834 Charles Darwin visited a very small island off the coast of
South America. He noted that there were many wild goats on this island, but that
in colour and appearance they were surprisingly similar to each other. Explain why
the population might have shown this degree of similarity.

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(3)

The table below gives an index of the genetic diversity (the higher the number the higher the
diversity) for the buffalo populations of four reserves in South Africa, together with the size of
each reserve, and the size of the buffalo population in each.

Buffalo Index of genetic


Reserve Area/hectares
population diversity
Kruger National Park 1 945 500 30 000 0.72
Umfolozi 47 753 8400 0.54
St Lucia 38 826 175 0.45
Addo Elephant Park 9000 85 0.48

[ORyan et al., Animal Conservation (1998), Volume 2, pages 85-94.


Reproduced by permission of Wiley-Blackwell.]

(iv) Describe and explain relationships evident in the table amongst area, population
and genetic diversity.

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

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(5)

(v) Discuss how data of this sort are important in decision-making on the size of
national parks and reserves.

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(2)

(b) Identify four factors that can lead to the loss of biological diversity in an area, giving an
example of each.

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(4)
(Total 20 marks)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

4. For selected regions of the world, the bar-chart below provides data for the total number of
native plant species (species that occur naturally in the region), and the number of introduced
species (species that have been brought in through human activities).

21 000
18 000
N u m b e r o f s p e c ie s

15 000
12 000 N a tiv e s p e c ie s
I n tr o d u c e d s p e c ie s
9000
6000

3000

H a w a iia n N ew A u s tra lia C o n tin e n ta l S o u th e rn


Is la n d s Z e a la n d E u ro p e A fr ic a

[Source: based on C B Cox and P D Moore, (2000), Biogeography, 6th edition Blackwell, Oxford]

(a) Suggest reasons for differences between the regions using the data in the bar-chart above.

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(4)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(b) (i) Define the terms habitat diversity and species diversity.

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(2)

(ii) Outline the evolutionary processes that link habitat diversity to species diversity.

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(5)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(c) Name a species of plant or animal that has become extinct since 1600, and list two
factors that help to explain why that species became extinct.

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(2)

(d) (i) Name a protected area that you have studied.

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(1)

(ii) Suggest three reasons that might explain why the area was selected for protection.

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(3)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(iii) Evaluate the success of the named protected area.

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(3)
(Total 20 marks)

5. (a) (i) Name and briefly describe an area where one or more natural or semi-natural
ecosystems occur that have been affected by human activities, or are threatened by
human activities.

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(1)

(ii) For the area named in (a)(i) above, state a human activity that has affected or might
affect the biodiversity of the area.

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(1)

(iii) Outline how this activity has affected or might affect the biodiversity of the area.

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(b) Explain the importance of CITES.

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(3)

(c) List three factors that make a species prone to extinction.

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(3)
(Total 9 marks)

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

1. (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to


better medical care;
increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes
more than they need);
economics of food production systems mean that food production
is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how
much is produced;
desire for food security in turbulent political times;
as more and more land is used for settlement and industry,
increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land;
in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency; 4 max

(b) Answer will, of course, depend on the problems chosen. [4] for each
problem. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.

e.g. soil erosion:


use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil, so soil
structure is lost;
top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion
(wind or water);
even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls)
are removed;
once top soil is lost, organic material is gone and the fertility of
the soil is reduced;
this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming
on the prairies;
leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away;
leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be
even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate; 8 max

(c) Answers may be general, covering a variety of strategies or more


specific, addressing strategies related to a particular problem.
Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.

e.g. a general answer:


use of natural fertilizers (e.g. manure) rather than chemical fertilizers;
controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess
is not washed into water bodies;
organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to
compensate for higher production costs;
biological pest control rather than chemical control;
keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost;
encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease;
agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion;
specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e.g. terracing; 5 max

Expression of ideas [3 max]

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

[20]

2. (a) reserve A would be more effective than reserve B;


reserve A has smaller perimeter than reserve B, so disturbance is
less likely/edge effects less pronounced;
reserve B has longer perimeter so edge effects more pronounced
which might increase biodiversity;
animals more likely to wander out of reserve B than reserve A
because of shape;
cropland is managed more intensively than forest;
drift of pollutants/crop sprays may affect reserve surrounded
by cropland;
in cropland, sowing, weeding/fertilizing and harvesting occur
at least once a year causing disturbance to reserve;
forest provides a better buffer zone than cropland;
forest provides wider variety of habitats/food sources for species
moving beyond reserve boundaries; 4 max
There must be at least one reference to shape and one to management
of surrounding land for full credit.

(b) (i) rare;


vulnerable;
threatened;
endangered;
indeterminate/unknown;
extinct; 2 max
Award [2] for four correct, [1] for three or two correct and
[0] for one correct.

(ii) name of species: e.g. Sumatran tiger (no mark awarded for name)

reasons:
top predator and little energy reaches top of pyramid;
loss of habitat;
large area needed for viable population;
hunted because seen as danger to humans/livestock;
fragmentation of habitat makes breeding difficult;
high market value of body parts encourages poaching;
low genetic diversity with low numbers;
introduction of diseases; 3 max
Any other valid points.
Award [2 max] if name is not given.

(iii) species at trophic level below become more numerous;


species at trophic level above become less numerous;
shortened food chain produces imbalances at other trophic levels;

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

sick/weak animals no longer culled;


less fit individuals lower down food chain survive to breed;
decomposer organisms, etc. associated with dung eliminated; 3 max

(c) CITES is Convention on International Trade in Endangered


Species (of Wild Fauna and Flora);
countries agree to monitor trade in threatened species (and
their products) at ports and airports;
illegal imports/exports are confiscated to discourage illegal trade;
if trade in organism (or parts) can be reduced, pressure on wild
population reduced;
suitable example of CITES in action;
list of threatened species is formally agreed (in separate schedule); 2 max
[14]

3. (a) (i) genetic diversity represents the range of genetic material/


variability in a gene pool/population;
whereas habitat diversity represents the range of different
habitats/ecological niches in an ecosystem or biome
(based on glossary); 2 max

(ii) diversity at initial stage is low;


species diversity increases with colonisation through pioneer
stages and later stages of succession;
as plants grow, habitat diversity increases;
as habitat diversity increases, species diversity increases;
as productivity increases;
and food chains lengthen and insects and vertebrates colonise;
so a positive feedback link exists between habitat and species
diversity;
rise in populations and immigration may increase genetic diversity;
Any other reasonable point 4 max

(iii) islands represent isolated ecosystems;


and therefore support isolated populations;
immigration/incoming gene-flow is rare;
population of goats likely to be based on a small original
or founder population;
with very small genetic variety;
mixing of limited gene pool may have led to common
intermediate characteristics;
limited gene pool may have resulted in a population which was
very similar/homogenous;
natural selection;
may have caused adaptation;
to the characteristics of the island environment (e.g. camouflage); 3 max
Any other reasonable point

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(iv) the higher the area of the reserve, the higher the population;
the higher the population the higher the genetic index;
with one slight exception (Addo);
because a large population can generally hold a greater variety
of genes/variation than a small one;
the density of population varies from 6 ha per animal to over
200 ha per animal;
the density may vary with habitat/vegetation/climate;
might reflect difference in wildlife management/conservation/
hunting;
Any other reasonable point 5 max

(v) small, isolated populations contain a very limited range of genes;


and therefore cannot vary or evolve very much;
this increases the possibility that they will become extinct;
a larger area can contain larger, and therefore more stable
population;
other factors include the greater habitat and species diversity
that can be held in larger areas;
however, some argue that a number of small reserves are
preferable to a few large ones;
as the package of genes/habitats/species will be different;
and if one reserve is destroyed, others may survive; 2 max
Any other reasonable points Be tolerant, reward understanding
of ecological and conservation principles.

(b) Award [1] for each factor plus example.


volcanic eruption (e.g. Mount St Helens/Krakatoa);
glaciations (quaternary ice advances in northwest Europe);
meteorite impact (mesozoic impact in the Americas held by some
to be responsible for a major extinction event);
deforestation (northwest highlands of Scotland: The Great Wood
of Caledon);
monoculture (West Australian wheat belt/North American prairies);
introduction/escape of non-native species (New Zealand);
pollution (River Thames/reduction of predators through use of
pesticides in 1960s);
over-hunting/collecting (extinction of passenger pigeon in North
America/thyracine in Tasmania);
Any other reasonable suggestion 4 max
When marking be tolerant. Give benefit of the doubt to any apparently
reasonable examples.
Allow [2 max] for appropriate factors but without named examples.
[20]

4. (a) number of native species in Continental Europe/Africa/Australia

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

is high because of large area;


number of native species is high in Continental Europe/Africa/
Australia because of wider range of habitats;
number of native species is high in Continental Europe/Africa/
Australia because of wider range of climate;
(Converse: NZ and Hawaii smaller range of species because
of smaller area/range of habitats/climate)
number of native species high in Australia because of isolation
throughout evolutionary history;
number of native species low in NZ/Hawaii as few species can
colonise remote islands;
islands more liable to be colonised by introduced species;
high proportion/percentage of total species in NZ and Hawaii
are introduced;
because native species may be adapted to specialized environments
and are less resistant to competition; 4 max
Any other reasonable points

(b) (i) habitat diversity = the number of habitats/ecological niches


per unit area/in a certain area;
species diversity = the number of species of organism per
unit area/in a certain area; 2

(ii) habitat diversity is an indication of the ecological variety


of an ecosystem;
and therefore the number of species it can accommodate;
complex habitats provide more ecological niches for organisms;
habitat diversity may cause isolation of populations;
natural selection ensures organisms are adapted to
environment and way of life;
as environmental pressures influence frequency of genetic
traits in populations;
reproductive barriers may arise through (divergent) evolution;
so the more environments an ecosystem represents, the
greater the possibility of speciation;
e.g. an ecosystem with several layers such as tropical
forest is likely to have a higher diversity than single
layered ecosystems such as temperate scrub/heathland; 5 max
Any other reasonable points.

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(c) name of species, e.g. dodo;

Factors will depend on example selected. E.g. for the dodo:


confined to small island/limited distribution (Mauritius);
small population;
useful source of food for visiting sailors;
extreme tameness;
large and conspicuous;
slow rate of reproduction;
habitat destruction;
competition with introduced organisms (e.g. pigs); 2 max
Any other reasonable points. Award [1] for two factors.
Note date (1600); be tolerant here. However, dinosaurs are not
acceptable.

(d) (i) name of area, e.g. Uluru (Ayers Rock, Northern Territory, Australia) 1
Always allow benefit of the doubt if you have not heard of the
protected area.
Google may be helpful.

(ii) Reasons will depend on area. For example, with respect to Uluru:
spectacular nature/aesthetic appeal of isolated monolith;
geological importance;
relatively undisturbed nature of surrounding habitats (at least
by western/European influences);
archaeological importance;
variety of organisms (plants, reptiles);
significance to indigenous peoples;
possibility of taking large areas into management without
disturbing longestablished ownerships; 3 max

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(iii) Evaluation of success again will depend on area chosen.


E.g., with respect to Uluru:
designation as a World Heritage Site;
therefore international recognition of its importance;
freehold of land transferred to indigenous (Aboriginal) people;
Aboriginal people involved in management of the area;
recreational pressure/accommodation concentrated in
limited locations;
plants/animals/landforms protected;
well drafted protective legislation;
funds from entry fees from visitors used for maintenance
of area;

some conflict between western/recreational/tourist values


and Aboriginal sacred site values;
thus climbing of Rock still allowed, contrary to Aboriginal
preference;
and has resulted in a number of casualties (some fatal); 3 max
A simple description of management does not answer the
question.
Candidates must evaluate the success, this implies at least
some comment on the management practise used.
Example: Burning and grazing by sheep are used on
some of the heathland nature reserves of the East Suffolk
Sandlings is not sufficient.
Burning and sheep grazing are sometimes successfully
used to maintain the traditional open landscape character
of the heather-dominated plant communities on some of the
East Suffolk Sandlings nature reserves, and to maintain
their characteristic biota, some species of which are
locally endangered full marks.
[20]

5. (a) (i) name and brief description;


e.g. woodland near Underwood Avenue: a fragment of urban
bushland in Perth, Western Australia; 1

(ii) name of human activity;


e.g. threatened with clearance for housing development; 1 max

(iii) effect on biodiversity:


may destroy flowering trees/shrubs (e.g. Banksias) and
nectar-feeding birds dependent on them (e.g. honey-eaters,
wattle-birds); 1

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Miss Marcilla ESS Conservation and biodiversity Quiz
1Bachiller

Name: Date:

(b) Convention on the International Trade in Endangered


Species (of Wild Fauna and Flora)/an international agreement/
treaty aimed at preventing trade in endangered species of plants
and animals;
thereby reducing demand;
and contributing to organisms conservation;
e.g. ivory/rhino horn/many marine turtle species/many
species of parrots; 3 max
Any other reasonable point.

(c) very small population numbers;


slow reproduction rate;
specialized habitat;
habitat under threat;
long/complex migration routes;
under human pressure from hunting/collecting/trade;
high in food pyramid;
appropriate example (whooping crane, Carnabys cockatoo,
Asian rhino); 3 max
Any other reasonable point.
Note: example not essential to receive full marks.
[9]

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