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edition

Problem 2-1. Derivation of Laplace transforms from its definition

st

F( s) = f ( t) e dt

0

st st

(a) f ( t) = t F( s) = t e dt By parts: u=t dv = e dt

0

1 st

du = dt v= e

s

t st 1 st 1 st 1

F( s) = e + e dt = 0 0 e =

s s 0 2 2

0 s 0 s

1

F( s) =

2

at s

(b) f ( t) = e where a is constant

at st ( s + a)t 1 ( s + a)t 1

F( s) = e e dt = e dt = e =

s+a s+a

0 0 0

1

F( s) =

s+a

i t i t

e e

st st

(c) f ( t) = cos t F( s) = cos t e dt = e dt

2

0

0

1 ( s i )t ( s + i )t

= e dt + e dt

2

0 0

1 1 ( s i )t 1 ( s+ i )t

= e + e

2 s i s + i

0 0

1 1 1 = s i + s + i = 2 s s

= + =

2 s i s + i 2 ( s i ) ( s + i ) (2

2 s +

2 ) 2

s +

2

s

F( s) =

2 2

s +

(d) f ( t) = e atcoss t

i t

+e

i t

at st at e st

F( s) = e cos t e dt = e e dt

2

0

0

1 ( s + a+ i )t ( s + a i ) t

= e dt + e dt

2

0 0

1 1 ( s+ a+ i )t 1 ( s+ a i )t

= e + e

2 s + a + i s + a i

0 0

1 1 1 = s + a i + s + a + i

= +

2 s + a + i s + a i 2 ( s + a + i ) ( s + a i )

2 ( s + a) s+a s+a

= = F( s) =

2 ( s + a) +

2 2 2 2 2 2

( s + a) + ( s + a) +

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-2. Derive Laplace transforms from the properties and Table 2-1.1

(a) f ( t) = u( t) + 2 t + 3 t

2

(

F( s) = L u ( t) + 2 t + 3 t

2

) = L(u(t)) + 2L(t) + 3L(t2)

1 1 2! 1 2 6

= + 2 + 3 F( s) = + +

s 2 3 s 2 3

s s s s

Used the linearity property.

2 t (

F( s) = L u ( t) + 2 t + 3 t

2) = 1 + 2 + 6

s 2 3

s+2 s s s+2

1 2 6

= + +

s+2 2 3

( s + 2) ( s + 2)

1 2 6

F( s) = + +

Used the complex translation theorem. s+2 2 3

( s + 2) ( s + 2)

(c) f ( t) = u( t) + e 2t 2e t (

F( s) = L u ( t) + e

2t

2 e

t ) = L(u(t)) + L(e 2t) 2L(e t)

1 1 1 1 1 2

= + 2 = +

s s+2 s+1 s s+2 s+1

1 1 2

F( s) = +

Used the linearity property. s s+2 s+1

(d) f ( t) = u( t) e t + t e t F( s) = L( u ( t) ) L e ( t) + L(te t) = 1 1

+

1

s s+1 2

( s + 1)

1 1 1

F( s) = +

Used the linearity property. s s+1 2

( s + 1)

sin t ) Then f ( t) = g ( t 2 )

2s 2s 1 1

F( s) = e G( s) = e

s 2

( s + 2) + 1

2s 1 1

s

Used the real translation theorem and linearity. F( s) = e

2

( s + 2) + 1

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-3. Initial and final value check of solutions to Problem 2-2

1 2 6

(a) f ( t) = u( t) + 2 t + 3t2 F( s) = + +

s 2 3

s s

Initial value:

lim (u(t) + 2t + 3t2) = 1 lim s

1 2 6

s + 2 + 3 = s lim

1 + 2 + 6 = 1

t0 s s 2

s s s

Final value:

lim

Check!

t s0 s 2

s

(

(b) f ( t) = e 2t u( t) + 2t + 3t2 ) F( s) =

1

+

2

+

6

s+2 2 3

( s + 2) ( s + 2)

Initial value:

lim e

2t (u(t) + 2t + 3t2) lim s

1

s + 2 +

2

+

6 =

t0 s 2 3

( s + 2) ( s + 2)

1 + 2 6 =1

Final value:

lim

1 2( s + 2) + 2

s 3 ( s + 2)

lim e

2t (u(t) + 2t + 3t2) = 0

lim s =0

1 2 6

s + 2 + +

t

s0 2 2

L'Hopital's rule: ( s + 2) ( s + 3)

lim

0 2 6t

+ + =0

2t 2t 2t Check!

t 2e 2e 2e

1 1 2

(c) f ( t) = u( t) + e 2t 2e t F( s) = +

s s+2 s+1

Initial value:

1

+

1

2 =

t0 s s s+2 s + 1

L'Hopital's rule:

1 + 1 2 = 0

lim

s 1 1

Final value:

1

+

1

2 =1+0+0=1

t s0 s s+2 s + 1

1 1 1

(d) f ( t) = u( t) e t + t e t F( s) = +

s s+1 2

( s + 1)

Initial value:

1 1

s s+1 +

1 =

t0 s 2

( s + 1)

L'Hopital's rule:

1 1 + 1 =11+0=0

lim

Final value: s 1 2( s + 1)

1 s + s =10+0=1

lim (u(t) e t + te t) = 1 0 + 0 lim

s0 s+1 2

t ( s + 1)

L'Hopital's rule:

lim 1 0 + 1 = 1

t Check!

t 1 e

2s 1

(e) f ( t) = u( t 2) 1 e 2( t2) sin( t 2)

1

F( s) = e

s 2

( s + 1) + 1

The test of the delayed fnction is not useful. Better to test the term in brackets, g(t):

Initial value:

1

s

1 =10=1

t0 s 2

( s + 1) + 1

Final value:

1 1

lim

s 2

t s0 ( s + 1) + 1

Check!

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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-4. Laplace transform of a pulse by real translation theorem

f ( t) = H u ( t) H u ( t T)

sT

F( s) = H

1

H e

sT 1

= H

1e

F( s) =

H

(1 e sT)

s s s s

Problem 2-5. Delayed versus non-delayed function ( )

t t0

f ( t) = e

(a) Function is non-zero for all values of t > 0:

t0 t0

t0 t t0

(from Table 2-1.1)

1 e e

f ( t) = e e F( s) = e = F( s) =

1 s + 1 s + 1

s+

(b) Function is delayed and zero from t = 0 to t = t 0:

( )

t t0

( )

t t0

st

(

f ( t) = u t t0 e ) F( s) =

(

u t t0 e ) e dt

0

1

Let = t t0

F( s) = u( ) e

e

s + t0

d = e

t

0 s (

s +

e

d

)

t

0 0

s+

1

t0 s t0 s

t0 s 1 e

e

e

=e = =

1 1 s + 1

s+ 0 s+

The result to part (b) agrees with the real translation theorem. t0 s

e

F( s) =

Sketch the functions: t0 := 1 := 1 u ( t) := 0 if t < 0 s + 1

1 if t 0

t0 t

( )

t t0

f ( t) := e

e

(

fd ( t) := u t t0 e )

2 2

f ( t) fd( t)

0 0

0 2 4 0 2 4

t t

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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-6. Solution of differential equations by Laplace transforms

1

Input function: X( t) = u ( t) X( s) = (Table 2-1.1)

s

d y ( t)

(a) + 2 y ( t) = 5 x ( t) + 3

dt

Initial steady state: 2 y( 0) = 5 x( 0) = 3

d Y( t)

Subtract: + 2 Y( t) = 5 X( t) Y( t) = y ( t) y ( 0 ) X( t) = x ( t) x ( 0 )

dt

1

Laplace transform: sY( s) Y( 0 ) + 2 Y( s) = 5 X( s) = 5 Y( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) y ( 0 ) = 0

s

Y( s) = = +

s+2 s s+2 s

Partial fractions:

5 5

A1 = lim = 2.5 A2 = lim = 2.5

s2 s s0 s+ 2

5 5 t

Y( s) = + Invert: Y( t) = 2.5e + 2.5 u ( t) (Table 2-1.1)

s+1 s

2

(b) d y( t) d y ( t)

9 + 18 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

Initial steady state: 4 y( 0) = 8 x( 0) 4

2

Subtract: d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 18 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t)

2 dt

dt

Y( t) = y ( t) y ( 0 ) Y( 0 ) = 0

X( t) = x ( t) x ( 0 )

Laplace transform:

2 1

9s Y( s) + 18s Y( s) + 4 Y( s) = 8 X( s) = 8

s

8 1 2

Solve for Y(s): Y( s) = 18 + 18 4 9 4

2 s r1 := r1 = 0.255

9s + 18s + 4 2 9

2

18 18 4 9 4

r2 := r2 = 1.745

2 9

Y( s) = = + +

9 ( s + 0.255 ) ( s + 1.745 )s s + 0.255 s + 1.745 s

8 8

A1 = lim = = 2.342

s 0.255 9 ( s + 1.745 )s 9 ( 0.255 + 1.745 ) ( 0.255 )

8 8

A2 = lim = = 0.342

s 1.745 9 ( s + 0.255 )s 9 ( 1.745 + 0.255 ) ( 1.745 )

8 8

A3 = lim = = 2.0

s 0 9 ( s + 0.255 ) ( s + 1.745 ) 9 ( 0.255 ) ( 1.745 )

2.342 0.342 2

Y( s) = + +

s + 0.255 s + 1.745 s

Y( t) = 2.342 e + 0.342e + 2 u ( t)

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(c) 9 + 9 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

Subtract initial steady state: d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 9 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

Laplace transform:

(9s2 + 9s + 4)Y(s) = 8 X(s) = 8 1s

2 2

9 + 9 4 9 4 9 9 4 9 4

r1 := r2 := r1 = 0.5 + 0.441i

Find roots: 2 9 2 9

r2 = 0.5 0.441i

8

Solve for Y(s), expand: Y( s) =

9 ( s + 0.5 0.441i) ( s + 0.5 + 0.441 )s

A1 A2 A3

= + +

s + 0.5 0.441i s + 0.5 + 0.441i s

8 8

A1 = lim = 1 + 1.134i

s 0.5+ 0.441i 9 ( s + 0.5 + 0.441i) s 9 ( 2 0.441i) ( 0.5 + 0.441i)

8

A2 = 1 1.134i A3 = lim =2

s 0 9s2 + 9s + 4

1 + 1.134i 1 1.134i 2

Y( s) = + +

s + 0.5 0.441i s + 0.5 + 0.441i s

Y( t) = ( 1 + 1.134i)e + ( 1 1.134i)e + 2 u( t)

Table 2-1.1:

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(d) 9 + 12 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

Subtract initial steady state: d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 12 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

Laplace transform: (9s2 + 12s + 4)Y(s) = 8 X(s) = 8 1s

2 2

Find roots: 12 + 12 4 9 4 12 12 4 9 4

r1 := r2 := r1 = 0.667

2 9 2 9

r2 = 0.667

8 A1 A2 A3

Solve for Y(s) and expand: Y( s) = = + +

2 2 s + 0.667 s

9 ( s + 0.667 ) s ( s + 0.667 )

8 4 d 8 = lim 8

A1 = lim = A2 = lim = 2

s 0.667 9s 3 s 0.667 ds 9s s 0.667 9s2

8

A3 = lim =2

s 0 9 ( s + 0.667 ) 2

Y( t) =

3

3 2

d y( t) d y ( t) d y( t)

(e) 2 + 7 + 21 + 9 y( t) = 3 x( t)

3 2 dt

dt dt

3 2

d Y( t) d Y( t) d Y( t)

Subtract initial steady state: 2 + 7 + 21 + 9 Y( t) = 3 X( t)

3 2 dt

dt dt

Y( 0 ) = 0

9

1.5 2.598i

Find roots: 21

polyroots = 1.5 + 2.598i

7

2 0.5

3

Solve for Y(s) and expand: Y( s) =

2 ( s + 1.5 2.598i) ( s + 1.5 + 2.598i) ( s + 0.5)s

A1 A2 A3 A4

= + + +

s + 1.5 2.598i s + 1.5 + 2.598i s + 0.5 s

3

A1 = lim = 0.027 + 0.022i

s 1.5+ 2.598i 2 ( s + 1.5 + 2.598i) ( s + 0.5)s

3

= 0.027 + 0.022i A2 = 0.027 0.022i

2 ( 2 2.598i) ( 1 + 2.598i) ( 1.5 + 2.598i)

3

A3 = lim = 0.387

s 0.5 2 ( s + 1.5 2.598i) ( s + 1.5 + 2.598i)s

3 3 1

= 0.387 A4 = lim =

2 ( 1 2.598i) ( 1 + 2.598i) ( 0.5) 3 2

s 0 2s + 7s + 21s + 9 3

Y( s) = + + +

s + 1.5 2.598i s + 1.5 + 2.598i s + 0.5 3 s

Y( t) = ( 0.027 + 0.022i)e + ( 0.027 0.022i)e 0.387e + u( t)

3

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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work

beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner

is unlawful.

Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-7. Solve Problem 2-6(d) with different forcing functions

2

d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 12 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

t

3 1

(a) Forcing function: X( t) = e From Table 2-1.1: X( s) =

1

s+

3

8

Y( s) =

(9s2 + 12s + 4) s + 1

3

8 A1 A2 A3

= = + +

2 2 s + 0.667 s + 0.333

9 ( s + 0.667 ) ( s + 0.333 ) ( s + 0.667 )

8 8 8

A1 = lim = A3 = lim =8

s 0.667 9 ( s + 0.333 ) 3 s 0.333 9 ( s + 0.667 ) 2

d 8 = lim 8

= 8

A2 = lim

s 0.667 ds 9 ( s + 0.333 ) s 0.667 9 ( s + 0.333 ) 2

8 1 8 8

Y( s) = + +

3 2 s + 0.667 s + 0.333

( s + 0.667 )

3

( t 1)

s

3 e

(b) Forcing function: X( t) = u ( t 1 ) e X( s) = (Real translation

1 theorem)

s+

3

The partial fraction expansion of the undelayed signal is the same:

Y( s) = 8 1

8

+

8 e s

3 2 s + 0.667 s + 0.333

( s + 0.667 )

Apply the real translation theorem in reverse to this solution:

Y( t) = u ( t 1 ) ( t 1 ) 8 e

8 0.667 ( t 1) 0.333 ( t 1)

+ 8 e

3

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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work

beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner

is unlawful.

Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-8. Response characteristics of the equations of Problem 2-6

d y ( t)

(a) + 2 y ( t) = 5 x ( t) + 3

dt

d Y( t)

Subtract: + 2 Y( t) = 5 X( t) Y( t) = y ( t) y ( 0 ) X( t) = x ( t) x ( 0 )

dt

Laplace transform: s Y( s) + 2 Y( s) = 5 X( s) Y( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) y ( 0 ) = 0

5 A 1

Solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s) = + terms of X(s)

s+2 s+2

2t

Invert using Table 2-1.1: Y( t) = A1 e + terms of X(t)

1

The response is stable and monotonic.The dominant and only root is r := 2 min

5

Time for response to decay to within 0.67% of its initial value: = 2.5 min

r

Final steady-state value for unit step input: 5 1 5

lim s = 2.5

(Final value theorem) s0 s+2 s 2

2

(b) d y( t) d y ( t)

9 + 18 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

d Y( t) d Y( t)

Subtract initial steady state: 9 + 18 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

8

Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s)

2

9s + 18s + 4

2 2

18 + 18 4 9 4 18 18 4 9 4 1

Find roots: r1 := r2 := r1 = 0.255 min

2 9 min 2 9 min

1

r2 = 1.745 min

0.255t 1.745t

Invert using Table 2-1.1: Y( t) = A1 e + A2 e

+ terms of X(s)

1

The response is stable and monotonic. The domnant root is: r1 = 0.255 min

5

Time for the response to decay to 0.67% of its initial value: = 19.6 min

r1

8 1

Final steady-state value for unit step input: lim s 2

s0 2 s

(Final value theorem) 9s + 18s + 4

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(c) 9 + 9 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

d Y( t) d Y( t)

Subtract initial steady state: 9 + 9 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

8

Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s)

2

9s + 9s + 4

2 2

9 + 9 4 9 4 9 9 4 9 4 1

Find the roots: r1 := r2 := r1 = 0.5 + 0.441i min

2 9 min 2 9 min

1

r2 = 0.5 0.441i min

0.5t

Invert using Table 2-3.1: Y( t) = D e

The response is stable and oscillatory. The dominant roots are r1 and r2.

2

Period of the oscillations: T := T = 14.25 min

1

0.441min

1

0.5min T 5

Decay ratio: e = 0.00081 Time for oscillations to die: = 10 min

1

0.5min

8 1

Final steady state value for a unit step imput: lim s 2

s0 2 s

(Final value theorem) 9s + 9s + 4

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(d) 9 + 12 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

Subtract initial steady state: d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 12 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t)

2 dt

dt

Y( 0 ) = 0

8

Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s)

2

9s + 12s + 4

2 2

12 + 12 4 9 4 12 12 4 9 4 1

Find roots: r1 := r2 := r1 = 0.667 min

2 9 min 2 9 min

1

r2 = 0.667 min

Y( t) = A1 t + A2 e ) 0.667t + terms of X(t)

1

The response is stable and monotonic. The dominant root is r1 = 0.667 min

5

Time required for the response to decay within 0.67% of its initial value: = 7.5 min

r1

8 1

Final steady state value for a unit step input: lim s 2

s0 2 s

(Final value theorem) 9s + 12s + 4

3 2

d y( t) d y ( t) d y( t)

(e) 2 + 7 + 21 + 9 y( t) = 3 x( t)

3 2 dt

dt dt

3 2

d Y( t) d Y( t) d Y( t)

Subtract initial steady state: 2 + 7 + 21 + 9 Y( t) = 3 X( t)

3 2 dt

dt dt

3

Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s)

3 2

2s + 7s + 21s + 9

Find roots: 9

21

1.5 2.598i

r := polyroots min r = 1.5 + 2.598i min

1 1

7

2 0.5

1

The response is stable and oscillatory. The dominant root is r = 0.5 min

2

2

The period of the oscillations is: T := T = 2.42 min

1

2.598min

1

Decay ratio: 1.5 min T 5

e = 0.027 Time for response to die out: = 10 min

r

2

3 1 1

Final steady state value for a unit step input: lim s

s0 3 2 s 3

(Final value theorem) 2s + 7s + 21s + 9

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes

only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work

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is unlawful.

Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-9. Second-Order Response: Bird Mobile

Problem data: M := 50gm y 0 := 27cm

Solution:

Force balance:

d v ( t)

M = M g k y ( t) + f ( t)

dt

Velocity:

d y ( t) -ky(t)

= v( t)

dt

-Mg y(t)

Subtract and substitute: y=0

2

d Y( t)

f(t)

M = k Y( t) + f ( t)

2

dt

Y( 0 ) = 0

M g N

Value of k: k := k = 1.816

y0 m

Laplace transform: 2

M s Y( s) + k Y( s) = F( s)

1 A1 A2

Solve for Y(s): Y( s) = F( s) = +

2 k k

M s + k s i s + i

M M

+ terms of F(s)

:= 0

D := 1

k t s +

Invert using Table 2-3.1: Y( t) := D sin + terms of f(t)

M

M

The mobile will oscillate forever with a period of T := 2 T = 1.043 s

k

1

Y ( t) 0

1

0 2 4

t

To more accurately reflect the motion of the bird mobile, we must add the resistance of the air. If we

assume it to be a force proportional to the velocity:

2

d Y( t) d Y( t)

M = k Y( t) b + f ( t)

2 dt

dt

With this added term the roots will have a negative real part, causing the oscillations to decay, as

they do in practice:

2 2

1 b + b 4M k b k b

Y( s) = F( s) r1 = = + i

2 2M 2M M 2

M s + b s + k 4M

Invert: 2

b b < 4M k

t k 2

sin

2M b

Y( t) = D e t+ + terms of f(t)

M 2

4M

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Problem 2-10. Responses of general first-order differential equation

d Y( t)

+ Y( t) = K X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

dt

K

Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = X( s)

s + 1

K

Y( s) =

s + 1

t

Invert using Table 2-1.1:

K

Y( t) := e

Y ( t) 0.5

0

From Example 2-1.1b: 0 2 4

t

sT

1e

X( s) = H

s

sT

Substitute: Y( s) =

K

H

1e

=

A1

+

A2

1e

sT ( )

s + 1 s

s + 1 s

K H K H

A1 = lim = K H A2 = lim = K H

1 s s 0 s + 1

s

Y( s) = K H

1

1

(

1 e sT )

s 1

s+

Invert using Table 2-1.1, and the real translation theorem: KH := 1 := 1 T := 1 H := 1

t ( t T)

Y( t) := KH u ( t) e u ( t T) 1 e

X( t) := H ( u ( t) u ( t T) )

Y( t)

0.5

X( t)

0

0 2 4

t

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Problem 2-11. Response of an integrating process

d h( t)

A = f ( t) h( 0) = 0

dt

1

Laplace transform and solve for H(s): H( s) = F( s)

A s

H( s) 1

Transfer function of the tank: =

F( s) A s

1

Response to a unit step in flow: f ( t) = u( t) F( s) = (Table 2-1.1)

s

1 1 1

Substitute: H( s) = Invert using Table 2-1.1: h ( t) := t

A 2 A

s

A := 1

10

f(t)

h( t) 5

h(t) 0

0 5 10

t

The tank is an integrating process because its ouput, the level, is the time integral of its input, the

inlet flow.

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Problem 2-12. Second-order differeential equations of Problem 2-6.

2

2 d Y( t ) d Y( t)

Standard form of the second-order equation: + 2 + Y( t) = K X( t)

2 dt

dt

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(b) 9 + 18 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

Subtract the initial steady state: d Y( t) d Y( t)

9 + 18 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

2 dt

dt

2

9 d Y( t) 18 d Y( t)

Divide by Y(t) coefficient: + + Y( t) = 2 X( t)

4 2 4 dt

dt

Match coeffients to standard form: 9 18min

:= min = 1.5 min := = 1.5

Equivalent time constants: 4 4 2

K := 2 Overdamped.

2

18 + 18 4 9 4

Find roots: r1 := 1 1

2 9 min r1 = 0.255 min e1 := e1 = 3.927 min

r1

2

18 18 4 9 4 1

r2 := r2 = 1.745 min 1

2 9 min e2 :=

r2 e2 = 0.573 min

5 e1 = 19.64 min

Time for response to decay within 0.67% of its initial value:

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(b) 9 + 9 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

2

Subtract initial steady state 9 d Y( t) 9 d Y( t)

+ + Y( t) = 2 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0

and divide by the Y(t) coefficient: 4 2 4 dt

dt

9 9min

Compare coefficients to standard form: := min = 1.5 min := = 0.75

4 4 2

K := 2

2

9 + 9 4 9 4 1 Underdamped.

Find roots: r1 := r1 = 0.5 + 0.441i min

2 9 min

rad 2

Frequency of oscillations: := 0.441 Period of oscillations: T := T = 14.25 min

min

1 1 T

0.5 min T 0.5min

Decay ratio: e = 0.00081 Percent overshoot: 2

e = 2.8 %

T 5

Rise time: = 3.56 min Settling time: = 10 min

4 1

0.5min

2

d y( t) d y ( t)

(c) 9 + 12 + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) 4

2 dt

dt

Subtract initial steady state and 2

9 d Y( t) d Y( t)

divide by the coefficient of Y(t): + 3 + Y( t) = 2 X( t)

4 2 dt

dt

Y( 0 ) = 0

:= min = 1.5 min := =1

4 2

K := 2 Critically damped.

Equivalent time constants:

2

12 + 12 4 9 4 1 1

Find roots: r1 := r1 = 0.667 min e1 := e1 = 1.5 min

2 9 min r1

2

12 12 4 9 4

r2 := 1 1

2 9 min r2 = 0.667 min e2 := e2 = 1.5 min

r2

Time for response to decay to within 0.67% of its initial value: 5 e1 = 7.5 min

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Problem 2-13. Partial fraction expansion coefficients for Eqs. 2-5.10 to 2-5.13

x

Step response, over-damped second-order differential equation: X( s) =

s

K x A1 A2 A3

Y( s) = = + +

( e1 s + 1)( e2 s + 1) s

s+

1

s+

1 s

e1 e2

K x K x e1 K x e2

A1 = lim = A2 =

1 s + 1 s e1 e2 e2 e1

s e1 e2

e1 e2

K x

A3 = lim = K x

( )(

s 0 e1 s + 1 e2 s + 1 )

e1 1 e2 1 1

Y( s) = K x +

e1 e2 s + 1 e2 e1

s+

1 s

e1 e2

Invert using Table 2-1.1: t t

(2-5.10)

e1 e1 e2 e2

Y( t) = K x u ( t) e e

e1 e2 e2 e1

Step response for the critically damped case:

K x A1 A2 A3

Y( s) = = + +

s 1 s

( s + 1)2 s + 1

2

s+

K x K x K x

A1 = lim = A3 = lim = K x

1 2 s 0 ( s + 1)2

s s

A2 = lim

d K x = lim K x

= K x

1 ds 2s 1 2 s2

s s

Y( s) = K x 1 + 1

1 1

1

2

s +

1 s

s +

Invert using Table 2-1.1:

t

Y( t) = K x u ( t) t + 1 e (2-5.11)

r

Ramp response for the over-damped case: X( s) =

2

s

K r A1 A2 A3 A4

Y( s) = = + + +

( e1 s + 1) ( e2 s + 1) s2 s+

1

s+

1 2

s

s

e1 e2

2 2

K r K r e1 K r e2

A1 = lim = A2 =

1 s + 1 s2 e1 e2 e2 e1

s e1 e2

e1 e2

K r

A3 = lim = K r

( )(

s 0 e1 s + 1 e2 s + 1 )

A4 = lim

d

K r = lim K r e1 ( e2 s + 1) e2 ( e1 s + 1)

ds ( e1 s + 1 ) ( e2 s + 1 )

s0 s0 ( e1 s + 1)2 ( e2 s + 1)2

(

= K r e1 e2 )

2 e2

2

e1 + e2

Y( s) = K r

e1 1

+

1

+

1

e1 e2 1 e2 e1 1 2 s

s+ s+ s

e1 e2

Invert using Table 2-1.1:

2

t

2

t

e1 e1 e2 e2

Y( t) = K r + t ( e1 + e2)

(2-5.12)

e + e

e1 e2 e2 e1

K r A1 A2 A3 A4

Y( s) = = + + +

1 s

( s + 1)2 s

2

s + 1

2

s+ s

2

K r K r

A1 = lim = K r A3 = lim = K r

1 s 2 2 s 0 ( s + 1)2

s

A2 = lim

d K r = lim 2

K r

= 2 K r

1 ds 2 2 1 2 3

s s s s

A4 = lim K r = lim 2 K r = 2 K r

d

ds 2

s0

( s + 1) s 0 ( s + 1) 3

Y( s) = K r

1 2 1 2

+ +

1 2 s + 1 s2 s

s +

t

Invert using Table 2-1.1:

Y( t) = K r ( t + 2 ) e

+ t 2 (2-5.13)

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x

X( s) =

Problem 2-14. Derive step reponse of n lags in series s

A0 n Ak

K x

Y( s) =

n s

=

s

+

1

k=1 s +

( k s + 1) k

k= 1

K x

A0 = lim = K x

s0 n

( k s + 1)

k= 1

t

Invert using Table 2-1.1: n k

Y( t) = K x u ( t) +

Ak e

k= 1

K x K x

Ak = lim =

1 n n n n

s + 1 1 1 + 1

s

k

s

j j= 1

j

k

k j j = 1

j

j = 1 ( j k) j = 1( j k)

n 1

K x K x k

= =

n n

1

( k j) ( k j)

1

k

n 1

k

k j = 1 ( j k) j = 1( j k)

Substitute: t

n k

n 1

k

e

Y( t) = K x u ( t)

n

(2-5.23)

k=1

( k j)

j = 1( j k)

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Problem 2-15. Transfer function of second-order interacting systems.

k1 k1

Y( s) = X( s) = X( s)

( 1 s + 1) ( 2 s + 1) k2 2

( )

1 2 s + 1 + 2 s + 1 k2

K

Y( s) = X( s)

2 2

s + 2 s + 1

k1

Rerrange interacting equation:

1 k2

Y( s) = X( s)

1 2 2 1 + 2

s + s+1

1 k2 1 k2

k1 1 2

Comparing coefficients: Gain: K= Time constant: =

1 k2 1 k2

1 + 2 1 + 2

Damping ratio: = =

(

2 1 k2 ) (

2 1 2 1 k2 )

Find the roots of the denominator:

2

( )

1 2 s + 1 + 2 s + 1 k2 = 0

r1 =

(

1 + 2 + ) ( 1 + 2)2 4 1 2(1 k2)

2 1 2

( 1 + 2)2 4 1 2 (1 k2) = 12 + 2 1 2 + 22 4 1 2 + 4 1 2 k2

2 2

= 1 2 1 2 + 2 + 4 1 2 k 2

(

= 1 2 )2 + 4 1 2 k2

This term is positive as long as 1 , 2 , and k2 are positive, so the response is overdamped.

(b) The response is stable if both roots are negative if 0 < k2 < 1.

r1 =

(

1 + 2 + ) ( 1 + 2)2 4 1 2(1 k2)

2 1 2

If 1 , 2 , and k 2 are positive, and if k 2 < 1, then the positive term in the numerator is always less in

magnitude than the negative term, and the root is negative. The other root has to be negative

because both terms in the numerator are negative. So, the response is stable.

As the response is overdamped, we can derive the formulas for the two effective time constants.

These are the negative reciprocals of the two real roots:

2 1 2 2 1 2

e1 = e1 =

1 + 2 ( 1 2)2 + 4 1 2 k2 1 + 2 + ( 1 2)2 + 4 1 2 k2

The first of these is the dominant time constant.

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Problem 2-16. Transfer function of a second-order feedback control loop

Kc Kc

C( s) = R( s) =

( 3s + 1 ) ( s + 1 ) + Kc 2

3s + 4s + 1 + Kc

K

Standard second-order transfer function, Eq. 2-5.4: C( s) = R( s)

2

+ 2 s + 1

Kc

1+ K c

C( s) = R( s)

3 2 4

s + s+1

1 + Kc 1 + Kc

Kc 3

Gain: K= Time constant: =

1 + Kc 1 + Kc

4 2

Damping ratio: = =

(

2 1 + Kc ) (

3 1 + Kc )

Ranges of the controller gain for which the response is:

2 4 1

(i) Overdamped: >1 >1 > 1 + Kc Kc <

(

3 1 + Kc ) 3 3

1

(ii) Underdamped: 0< <1 < Kc < cannot be negative for positive K c

3

(iii) Undamped: =0

Cannot be undamped for finite K c.

The response canot be unstable for positive K c. The time constant and damping ratio are always

real and positive for positive gain.

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Problem 2-17. Linearization of common process model functions.

(a) Enthalpy as a function of temperature, Eq. 2-6.1: (use subscript b for base value)

2 3 4

H( T( t) ) = H0 + a1 T( t) + a2 T ( t) + a3 T ( t) + a4 T ( t)

3

( ) ( T( t ) Tb )

2

Let ( t ) = T( t ) Tb Hd ( ( t) ) = H( T( t) ) H Tb ( )

Hd ( ( t) ) = a1 + 2a2 Tb + 3a3 Tb + 4a4 Tb

2 3

( t)

B

A

o T( t) + C

p ( T( t ) ) = e

B

A

B Tb+ C

( ) ( T( t ) Tb )

o o

p ( T( t ) ) = p Tb + e

( Tb + C ) 2

P ( ( t ) ) = p ( T( t ) ) p Tb ( )

o o o

Let ( t ) = T( t ) Tb

( ) ( t)

o

B p Tb

P ( t) ) =

o(

( Tb + C ) 2

(c) Eqilibrium mole fraction by relative volatility, Eq. 2-6.3:

x ( t)

y( x( t) ) =

1 + ( 1 ) x ( t)

1 + ( 1 ) x b xb ( 1)

( )

y x ( t) = y xb + ( x ( t) xb )

(

1 + 1 x b) 2

Let X( t) = x ( t) x b Y( X( t) ) = y ( x ( t) ) y x b ( )

Y( X( t ) ) = X( t)

1 + ( 1) xb

2

(d) Flow as a function of pressure drop, Eq. 2-6.4:

f ( p ( t) ) = k p ( t)

( ) (p(t) pb)

k

f ( p ( t) ) = f p b +

2 p b

Let P( t) = p ( t) p b ( )

F( P( t) ) = f ( p ( t) ) f p b

k

F( P( t) ) = P( t)

2 p b

4

q ( T( t) ) = A T ( t)

( ) 3

(

q ( T( t) ) = q Tb + 4 A Tb T( t) Tb )

Let ( t ) = T( t ) Tb Q( ( t) ) = q ( T( t) ) q Tb

( )

Q( ( t) ) = 4 A Tb ( t)

3

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Problem 2-18. Linearization of radiation heat transfer--range of accuracy.

4

q ( T) = 4 A T Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.

d q ( T) 3

From the solution to Problem 2-17(e), the slope is: = 4 A T

dT

Temperature range for which the slope is within 5% of the slope at the base value

K := 1.8R

= 0.05 4 A Tb

3 3 3

error = 4 A T 4 A Tb

3 3

T 1 = 0.05 Tmax = 1.05 Tb = 1.0164Tb

Simplify and rearrange: T

b Tmin =

3

0.95 Tb = 0.983Tb

3 3

For Tb := 400K Tmax := 1.05 Tb Tmin := 0.95 Tb Tmax = 407 K Tmin = 393 K

3 3

Tb := 600K Tmax := 1.05 Tb Tmin := 0.95 Tb Tmax = 610 K Tmin = 590 K

Temperature range for which the heat transfer rate is within 5% of the linear

approximation:

error = A T A Tb + 4 A Tb T Tb

4

4 3

( ) (

= 0.05 A T

4 )

4 3 4 4

Simplify and rearrange: T 4 Tb T + 3Tb = 0.05T

As the error is always positive, the absolute value brackets can be dropped. Rearrange into a

polynomial and find its roots:

4

0.95 4 T +3=0

T

Tb Tb

3

1.014 1.438i

4

1.014 + 1.438i

polyroots 0 =

0 0.921

1.108

0.95

Ignore the complex roots. The other two roots are the lower and upper limits of the range:

T

0.921 1.108

Tb

For Tb := 400K Tmin := 0.921 Tb Tmax := 1.108Tb Tmin = 368 K Tmax = 443 K

Tb := 600K Tmin := 0.921 Tb Tmax := 1.108Tb Tmin = 553 K Tmax = 665 K

So the range for which the linear approximation is within 5% of the heat rate is much wider than the

range for which the value of the slope is within 5% of the actual slope. We must keep in mind that

the parameters of the dynamic model are a function of the slope, not the heat rate.

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Problem 2-19. Equilibrium vapor composition--range of accuracy

x

y( x) = Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.

1 + ( 1)x

d y( x)

From the solution to Problem 2-17(c): =

dx

1 + ( 1 ) x

2

error = = 0.05

1 + ( 1 ) x 1 + ( 1 ) x b 1 + ( 1 ) x b

2 2 2

1 + ( 1) xb

Simplify and rearrange: 2

1 = 0.05

1 + ( 1)x

1 + ( 1)xb 1 + ( 1) xb 1.05

Lower limit:

1 + ( 1 ) x min

= 1.05 (

x min , x b := ) 1.05( 1 )

1 + ( 1) xb

Upper limit: 1 + ( 1) xb 0.95

1 + ( 1 ) x max

= 0.95

(

x max , x b := ) 0.95( 1 )

(a) x min( 1.1 , 0.1) = 0.143 (zero) x max( 1.1 , 0.1) = 0.362 0 x 0.362

(b) x min( 1.1 , 0.9) = 0.637 x max( 1.1 , 0.9) = 1.183 (one) 0.637 x 1

x

For the vapor composition: y( x) =

1 + ( 1)x

x

1+ ( 1)x

error = 1 = 0.05

xb

1 + ( 1) xb

+ ( x xb)

1 + ( 1) xb

2

1 + ( 1) xb

2

x

1 = 0.05

1 + ( 1 ) x x b 1 + ( 1 ) x b + x x b

The error is always negative, so we can change signs and drop the absolute value bars:

1 + ( 1) xb x = 0.95 1 + ( 1) x ( 1) xb + x

2 2

2

2

2 2 2

( )

x + 0.95 1 xb

2

0.95( 1 ) + 0.05 ( 1) 2 x 0.05 2 ( 1) x + 0.95( 1) = 0

x

b x

xb xb

b

Find the roots, one is the lower limit and the other one the upper limit:

(a) := 1.1 x b := 0.1 0.95 ( 1 )

2 1 =

( ) 2 0.05

( ) 0.138

polyroots 0.05 1 x b

xb 7.231

0.95( 1 )

x min := 0.138x b x max := 7.231x b x min = 0.014 x max = 0.723 0.014 x 0.723

2 1 =

( ) 2 0.05

( ) 0.444

polyroots 0.05 1 x b

xb 2.25

0.95( 1 )

x min := 0.444x b x max := 2.25x b x min = 0.4 x max = 2.025 0.40 x 1

2 1 =

( ) 2 0.05

( ) 0.605

polyroots 0.05 1 x b

xb 1.653

0.95( 1 )

x min := 0.605x b x max := 1.653x b x min = 0.061 x max = 0.165 0.061 x 0.165

polyroots 0.05 ( 1 ) 2

x

0.05

2 ( 1 ) = 0.577

b

x b 1.732

0.95( 1 )

x min := 0.577x b x max := 1.732x b x min = 0.519 x max = 1.559 0.519 x 1

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Problem 2-20. Linearization of chemical reaction rate. kmole := 1000mole

( )

2

r cA( t) , cB( t) = k cA( t) cB( t)

Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.

6

m kmole kmole

Problem parameters: k := 0.5 cAb := 2 cBb := 1

2 3 3

kmole hr m m

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2

Linearize: r cA( t) , cB( t) = r cAb , cBb + 2k cAb cBb cA( t) cAb + k cAb cB( t) cBb

Let R( CA( t) , CB( t) ) = r( cA( t) , cB( t) ) r( cAb , cBb) CAb( t) = cA( t) cAb

( )

2

R CA( t) , CB( t) = 2k cAb cBb CA( t) + k cAb CB( t)

1 2 1

2 k cAb cBb = 2 hr k cAb = 2 hr

1 1

(

R CA( t) , CB( t) = 2hr ) CA( t) + 2hr CB( t )

kmole 1

For cA := 3 2 k cA cBb 2 k cAb cBb = 1 hr

3

m (off by 50%)

2 2 1

k cA k cAb = 2.5 hr (off by 125%)

kmole 1

For cB := 2 2 k cAb cB 2 k cAb cBb = 2 hr

3

m (off by 100%)

2 2 1

k cAb k cAb = 0 hr (same as the base value)

These errors on the parameters of the linear approximation are significant, meaning that it is only

valid for very small deviations of the reactant concentrations from their base values.

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Problem 2-21. Linearization of Raoult's Law for equilibrium vapor

composition.

o B

p ( T( t ) ) A

Raoult's Law: y ( T( t ) , p ( t ) , x ( t ) ) = x( t) o T( t) + C

p ( t) p ( T( t ) ) = e

( )

o

xb p Tb

( ) p ( T( t) ) T( t) Tb + ( ) ( )

o

y ( T( t ) , p ( t ) , x ( t ) ) = y Tb , p b , x b + x( t) x b

p b T pb

( Tb ) x b

o

p

+

2

( p( t) p b)

pb

B

A B A

( )

o

T( t) + C B Tb+ C B p Tb

e = e =

T

( Tb + C ) 2 ( Tb + C ) 2

Let Y( ( t ) , P( t) , X( t) ) = y ( T( t) , p ( t) , x ( t) ) y Tb , p b , x b

( ) ( t ) = T( t ) Tb P( t) = p ( t) p b

X( t) = x ( t) x b

o o o

x b B p Tb

Y( ( t ) , P( t) , X( t) ) =

pb

p b ( Tb + C )

2 2

pb

atm

degC := K mmHg := mole% := %

760

( )

o

Let pob = p Tb B

A

Tb+ C

pob := e mmHg pob = 1177 mmHg

= 0.022 = 1.549 = 0.00102

degC pb mmHg

(

p b Tb + C ) 2

pb

2

0.022 0.00102

Y( ( t ) , P( t) , X( t) ) = ( t) + 1.549 X( t) P( t)

degC mmHg

pob x b

pb

= 77.441 % ( )

y Tb , p b , x b = 77.44mole%

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-22. Linearization of reactor of Examples 2-6.4 and 2-6.1.

d CA( t)

From the results of Example 2-6.4: + CA( t) = K1 F( t) + K2 CAi( t) + K3 ( t)

dt

Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.

=

V cAib cAb fb V k Tb E cAb ( )

( )

fb + V k Tb K1 =

fb + V k Tb ( )

K2 =

fb + V k Tb

K3 =

( ) 2

R Tb fb + V k Tb ( ( ))

3

3 m kmole

Problem parameters: V := 2.6m fb := 0.002 cAib := 12

s 3

m

Let ( )

k b = k Tb

1 kcal

Tb := 573K k b := 100s E := 22000

kmole

0 = fb cA.b cAb k Tb V cAb ) ( )

fb cAib 5 kmole

cAb := cAb = 9.231 10

fb + k b V 3

m

V cAib cAb fb

Calculate parameters: := K1 := K2 := = 0.01 s

fb + k b V fb + V k b fb + V k b

s kmole

V k b E cAb K1 = 0.046

K3 := 6

m

kcal

( )

2

1.987 Tb fb + V k b

kmole K 6

K2 = 7.692 10

3

m

fb + V k b = 260.002 6 kmol

s K3 = 3.113 10

3

m K

Linearized equation:

0.01 sec + CA( t) = 0.046 F( t) + 7.692 10 CAi( t) 3.113 ( t)

dt 3 3 3

m m m K

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-23. Pressure in a compressed air tank when punctured.

Assumptions:

Air obeys ideal gas law

Constant temperature wo(t)

p(t)

Design conditions: kPa := 1000Pa

wi(t)

V po

kg

p b := ( 500 + 101.3 )kPa M := 29

kmole

2

Ao := 0.785cm T := 70degC 3

V := 1.5m

3

kPa m

Rg := 8.314 p o := 101.3kPa

kmole K Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.

Solution:

d ( t)

Mass balance on the tank: V = wi( t) wo ( t)

dt

Bernoulli's equation: p( t) = ( t)

2

v ( t)

+ po v( t) = 2

( p( t) p o)

2 ( t)

wo ( t) = ( t) Ao v ( t) = Ao 2 ( t) p ( t) p o )

M p ( t)

Ideal gas law: ( t) =

Rg ( T + 273K)

V M d p( t) 2 M

Rg ( T + 273 K)

dt

= wi( t) Ao

Rg ( T + 273K)

p( t) p( t) p o( )

d p ( t) Rg ( T + 273K) 2 M

dt

(

= g wi( t) , p ( t) = ) V M

wi( t) Ao R ( T + 273K) p( t) ( p( t) p o)

g

d p ( t) g g

Linearize:

dt

=

wi

(wi( t) wb) + p

( p( t) p b)

b b

g Rg ( T + 273K) kPa

a1 = a1 := a1 = 65.56

wi V M kg

b

1

g Ao 2 Rg ( T + 273K) 1

( ) (2pb po)

2

a2 = = p p p 0

p V M 2 b b

b

a2 :=

Ao

2 Rg ( T + 273 K) kPa

(2 pb po)1000Pa m

2

a2 = 0.023 sec

1

2 V (

M pb pb po ) 1000Pa kPa 100cm

d P( t) 1 d P( t) a1

Substitute: = a1 Wi( t) + a2 P( t) + P( t) = Wi( t) P( 0 ) = 0

dt a2 dt a2

d P( t)

Compare to standard form of first-order equation: + P( t) = K Wi( t)

dt

1 a1

Then := K := 3 kPa sec

a2 a2 = 42.9 sec K = 2.8 10

kg

P( s) K

Transfer function: =

Wi( s) s + 1

If the compressor shuts down it will take approximately 5(42.8) = 214 sec (3.5 min) for the

pressure transient to die out, according to the linear approximation. (See the results of the

simulation, Problem 13-3, to see how long it actually takes.)

K := 1.8R

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-24. Temperature of a turkey in an oven.

Assumptions

Uniform turkey temperature

Negligible heat of cooking

Radiation heat transfer only Ts(t)

T(t)

Energy balance on the turkey:

M

d T( t )

= A Ts ( t) T ( t)

4 4

M cv

dt

Use subscript "b" for linearization base values.

d T( t ) A 4

( ) Ts ( t ) T ( t )

4

Solve for the derivative: = g Ts( t) , T( t) =

dt M cv

Linearize:

d T( t )

dt

( )

= a1 Ts( t) Tsb + a2 T( t) Tb ( )

g 4 A 3 g 4 A 3

where a1 = = Tsb a2 = = Tb

Ts M cv T M cv

b b

Let s( t) = Ts( t) Tsb ( t ) = T( t ) Tb

d ( t)

Substitute: = a1 s( t) + a2 ( t) ( 0) = 0 (base is initial steady state)

dt

d ( t)

Standard form of the first-order differential equation: + ( t) = K s( t)

dt

+ ( t) = s( t)

a2 dt a2

3

M cv d ( t) Tsb

+ ( t) = s( t)

3 dt Tb

4 A Tb

3

M cv Tsb

Compare coefficients: = K=

4 A Tb

3

Tb

( s) K

Laplace transform: =

s( s) s + 1

The input variable is the temperature of the oven wall. See problem 13-4 for the simulation.

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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition

Problem 2-25. Slab heated by an electric heater by radiation.

Assumptions:

Uniform temperature of the slab

Heat transfer by radiation only Ts

Energy balance on the slab:

T(t)

d T( t )

= q ( t) A T ( t) Ts

4 4

M cv

dt

Let C = M cv = A

q(t)

d T( t )

= q ( t) T ( t) Ts

4 4

Substitute C

dt

Problem parameters: Use subscript "b" to denote linearization base value.

BTU 8 BTU

C := 180 := 5 10 Ts := 540R Tb := 700R

R 4

hr R

d T( t ) 4

T ( t ) Ts

1 4

Solve for the derivative: = g ( q ( t ) , T( t ) ) = q( t)

dt C C

d T( t )

Linearize:

dt

( )

= a 1 q ( t ) q b + a 2 T( t ) Tb ( )

g g

Let ( t ) = T( t ) Tb Q( t) = q ( t) q b a1 = a2 =

q T

b b

3

1 4 Tb 3 R 1

a1 := a2 := a1 = 5.556 10 a2 = 0.381 hr

C C BTU

d ( t)

Substitute: = a1 Q( t) + a2 ( t) ( 0) = 0 (base is initial value)

dt

d ( t)

Standard form of first-order differential equation: + ( t) = K Q( t)

dt

1 d ( t) a1

Divide by -a2 and rearrange: + ( t) = Q( t)

a2 dt a2

C d ( t) 1

+ ( t) = Q( t)

3 dt 3

4 Tb 4 Tb

C 1 R hr

Compare coefficients: := K := = 2.62 hr K = 0.01458

3 3 BTU

4 Tb 4 Tb

( s) K

Transfer function: =

Q( s) s + 1

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