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GSM_EDGE_BSS10.

5
Nokia GSM/EDGE BSS10.5 System
Documentation Set (PDF)

EDGE technical overview

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EDGE technical overview

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Contents

Contents

Contents 3

1 Overview of Nokia EDGE 5


1.1 Benefits of EDGE 6
1.2 Required Network Changes 7

2 Network elements 11
2.1 Nokia MetroSite EDGE Base Station 11
2.2 Nokia UltraSite EDGE Base Station 11
2.3 EDGE and Nokia Talk-family Base Station 12
2.4 BTS Downlink combining options 15
2.5 EDGE and Base Station Controller 15

3 EDGE Features 19
3.1 8-ary Phase Shift Keying 19
3.2 EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes 20
3.3 Incremental Redundancy 21
3.4 Link Adaptation for EGPRS 24
3.5 Dynamic Abis 25
3.6 Software and hardware requirements of GPRS 27
3.6.1 Packet Control Unit (PCU) 28
3.6.2 Gb interface functionality 31
3.6.3 Additional hardware for GPRS needed by the other BSC models than
BSC3i 35
3.7 GPRS interoperability 35
3.7.1 System viewpoint 35
3.7.2 EGPRS network elements 36
3.7.3 Interaction of GPRS with other BSC features 37

4 BSS features that enhance EDGE 45


4.1 Nokia Smart Radio Concept 45
4.2 Multi BCF 51
4.2.1 Overview of Multi BCF 51
4.2.2 Multi BCF Control interaction with other features 53
4.2.3 Feature restrictions with Multi BCF Control 59

5 Compatibility for data solutions features 61


5.1 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution, EDGE 61
5.2 Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE (Nokia SRC) 63
5.3 Support of PCCCH/PBCCH 65
5.4 Priority Class based Quality of Service 67
5.5 Dynamic Abis Allocation 69
5.6 System Level Trace 72

Related topics 75

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EDGE technical overview

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Overview of Nokia EDGE

1 Overview of Nokia EDGE


Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a radio-based, high-speed
mobile data standard, boosts network capacity and data rates, for both circuit and
packet switching, to meet the demands of wireless multimedia applications and
mass market deployment.

EDGE uses 200 kHz radio channels, which are the same as current GSM channel
widths. From a technical perspective, EDGE allows the GSM and GPRS network
to offer a set of new radio access bearers to its core network. EDGE is designed to
improve spectral efficiency through link quality control. EDGE requires wider
transmission channel widths and features flexible time slots to mix and match all
forms of communications, including voice, data, and video.

Although EDGE boosts the GSM and GPRS network, introducing EDGE to the
existing network requires little work, since it is fully based on GSM and requires
relatively small changes to the network hardware and software. The operators
need not make any changes to the network structure or invest in new regulatory
licenses.

Related topics

.
Nokia MetroSite EDGE Base Station
. Nokia UltraSite EDGE Base Station
.
EDGE and Nokia Talk-family Base Station
. BTS Downlink combining options
.
EDGE and Base Station Controller
. 8-ary Phase Shift Keying
. EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes
. Incremental Redundancy
. Link Adaptation for EGPRS
.
Software and hardware requirements of GPRS
. Dynamic Abis

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. Nokia Smart Radio Concept


. Overview of Multi BCF
. Compatibility for data solutions features

1.1 Benefits of EDGE


Nokia is dedicated to supporting GSM and GPRS operators with wireless data
solutions that help create value in the marketplace, both now and in the future.
Using the new Nokia EDGE solution, Nokia strengthens market share by offering
a wide selection of modern 3G value-added services for network operators
businesses. The Nokia EDGE solution was created to give operators a
competitive edge, to help generate more revenues, and to strengthen market
share. Nokias aim is to protect operators existing investments, while providing a
smooth migration path to the next generation of mobile telephony.

Backed by Nokias long, solid expertise in GSM and GPRS systems and
comprehensive knowledge of 3G systems, the Nokia EDGE solution provides
standardised EDGE features from the very beginning. The Nokia EDGE solution
offers a cost-efficient evolution for GSM and GPRS to move to 3G. The Nokia
EDGE solution offers greater capacity and a higher Quality of Service (QoS)
functionality with existing site densities and frequency plans. EDGE is
compatible with GSM and GPRS equipment and services and with all new
emerging 3G services. Nokia is committed to long term GSM/GPRS evolution
and to moving EDGE forward, with the main driver being the Nokia all-IP
strategy. The design target is to deliver 3G services as cost efficiently as possible
by optimising the use of the radio resources with the existing infrastructure
platform as a basis.

For operators

The Nokia EDGE solution provides an unlimited EDGE growth path, not only for
macrocellular and microcellular solutions, but also for local area solutions, such
as indoor and picocellular. It improves operators competitiveness in those
segments with the most demanding subscribers. EDGE is especially attractive for
GSM 800, GSM 900, GSM 1800, and GSM 1900 operators who wish to offer
mobile multimedia applications at an early stage.

Compared to the data services currently available from GSM, EDGE provides
significantly higher capacity than GPRS. While GPRS offers improved data
services, EDGE provides more speed for GPRS. For operators, EDGE offers the
most cost-effective means to provide 3G services within the existing spectrum.
With EDGE, operators realise their full revenue potential through incorporating
international roaming in a convenient and cost-effective manner.

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Overview of Nokia EDGE

With EDGE, operators can offer 3G services for end users in existing GSM
frequencies. In addition, operators with UMTS licenses can offer 3G capabilities
to all end users in a cost-effective manner. Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access (WCDMA) combines well with EDGE for data intensive applications,
since EDGE is one of the most cost-effective service delivery vehicles for voice
and data applications that require data user rates up to 473 kbp/s.

Operators can look forward to:

.
Migration path to wireless multimedia services
. Movement to third generation applications.
.
Flexibility in pricing due to lower cost for data capacity for high-speed data
applications.
. Quick network implementation by building full coverage using existing
sites.
. Incremental introduction of new network elements and EDGE capability
.
Optimised network investment.
. Demand-based deployment of data capacity.

For end users

End users of current EDGE technologies can look forward to:

. Improved service quality through increased data capacity and higher data
throughput that decreases blocking and response times for all data services.
. New multimedia services.
. Lower tariffs, resulting from more efficient networks.
. A pathway to future 3G services.

1.2 Required Network Changes


The Nokia EDGE solution provides an unlimited EDGE growth path for
macrocellular and microcellular solutions, as the figure Impacts of EDGE on the
mobile network shows. EDGE technology is introduced on an existing GSM
network and does not compromise network performance and quality.

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EDGE technical overview

NMS

Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS EDGE functionality


Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS in network elements
GSM compatible
SGSN

Gn
GGSN
BTS

BSC MSC
Gb
Abis A
BTS

More capacity in interfaces


Edge capable GSM/EDGE coverage to support higher data
terminal, usage and higher user rates
GSM compatible

Figure 1. Impacts of EDGE on the mobile network (ETSI release 99


implementation)

GSM/EDGE-capable TRXs for Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS and Nokia UltraSite
EDGE BTS are compatible with GSM TRXs and fit into the same slot in the BTS
cabinets. In addition to providing EDGE services, GSM/EDGE TRXs are fully
GSM compatible and support GSM voice, data, HSCSD, and GPRS plus EGPRS.
They are also backward compatible with all legacy GSM terminals.

With the Nokia EDGE solution, switching between GMSK and 8PSK using a
time slot basis is done dynamically on the same GSM/EDGE TRX. Link
Adaptation between GMSK and 8PSK modulation happens during a connection,
based on radio conditions.

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Overview of Nokia EDGE

The EDGE capability is available with Nokia MetroSite EDGE Base Transceiver
Station (BTS) and Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS solutions as an easy unit upgrade.
Since it houses both EDGE and WCDMA carriers, Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS
also provides site evolution to WCDMA when it becomes available.

These solutions provide an unlimited EDGE growth path and full functionality
for micro and macrocellular networks. The rest of the network requires
supporting software releases and capacity expansions for higher data rates. EDGE
terminals will be available in line with the network infrastructure. EDGE
terminals continue to support all GSM and GPRS services.

EDGE support requires minimum hardware changes for existing networks. Only
GSM/EDGE TRX Radio Frequency (RF) and Baseband units need to be installed
 all other units stay the same.

The Nokia UltraSite EDGE solution offers the traditional benefits of high
capacity and coverage. It also offers complete data support with EDGE, which
enables the GSM networks of today to offer mobile multimedia services. GSM/
EDGE and GSM TRXs can co-exist, or operators can create a configuration using
all EDGE components.

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Network elements

2 Network elements

2.1 Nokia MetroSite EDGE Base Station


Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS is a microcellular solution that offers high capacity,
versatility, and ease of deployment. Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS enables high
capacity multimedia capability with the microcells. Up to four GMS/EDGE
TRXs can reside in a single BTS cabinet.

To build larger configurations for microcellular environments, Nokia MetroSite


EDGE BTSs can be chained. With chaining, operators can still easily install,
operate, and manage Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS. Chaining occurs by
synchronising the frame clock between the BTSs and extending the internal D-
bus. When the BTSs are chained, one transmission unit is saved for each
extension cabinet, and operation and maintenance functions are centralised in the
master cabinet. The operators can chain up to three Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS
for a 12-TRX site configuration.

The operators can equip the BTS with both GSM 900 and GSM 1800 TRXs for
dual band networks. This configuration also offers fully integrated transmission
interfaces for fast setup and quick integration with the network.

The Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS offers high density access at 58 GHz with the
Nokia MetroHopper Radio and Nokia MetroHub Transmission node.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

2.2 Nokia UltraSite EDGE Base Station


The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS is specifically designed, as part of a solution for
high capacity macrocellular networks, to meet the operators demands for
increased coverage and capacity, for both voice and data. As the need for capacity
grows, the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS can be expanded very flexibly and easily.

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EDGE technical overview

The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS becomes EDGE capable with the addition of
plug-in upgrades. Up to 12 GSM/EDGE TRXs can reside in a single BTS
cabinet. The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS is available for GSM 800, GSM 900,
GSM 1800, and GSM 1900, or as a GSM 900/GSM 1800 or GSM 800/GSM
1900 Dual Band base station.

The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS solution is designed specifically as a complete


site and comes with site packages for different applications, ranging from high-
capacity, dense urban environments to rural environments. Transmission is an
integral part of the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS solution. Versatile PDH/SDH
interfaces are offered over radio or fibre for future capacity and flexibility. Nokia
UltraSite EDGE triple mode BTS answers the increasing demand for higher voice
and data traffic in future networks, supporting HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE, and
WCDMA.

The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS uses the same equipment to build coverage,
capacity, or a combination of both. The operators can chain the Nokia UltraSite
EDGE BTS cabinets to provide a dense, high-capacity site. For example, the
operators could conceivably chain 36 GSM/EDGE TRXs using only three BTS
cabinets, or chain a maximum of 108 TRXs using nine cabinets. One cell, or one
segment, can only contain a total of 36 TRXs, so the TRX maximum per cell
would be reached before extending to a total of nine cabinets. The operators can
also configure the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS to provide coverage to the widest
rural area.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

2.3 EDGE and Nokia Talk-family Base Station


A Nokia Talk-family BTS site can be upgraded to EDGE functionality with the
installation of a Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS (housing GSM/EDGE-capable
TRXs) on the site as an extension cabinet. The site compatibility is achieved by
synchronising a Nokia Talk-family BTS and Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS and by
using existing antenna and feeding structures. The synchronised BTSs share a
single BCCH (per sector) and function in the network as a single cell. The site is
then seen as one object by the NMS and the BSC (Multi BCF control feature). In
this configuration, the Nokia Talk-family TRXs support voice, 9.6 kbit/s data,
HSCSD, and GPRS.

The Nokia Talk-family and Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS co-siting solution
provides the following benefits to GSM network operators:

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. Full capacity
- All GSM/EDGE TRX configurations are supported, since there are
no limitations on the maximum number of GSM/EDGE TRXs in the
Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS cabinet. Depending on the business and
network requirement, operators can use a combination of GSM and
GSM/ EDGE TRXs.
. Full coverage
- Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS offers a better link budget of 2 dB, and
since the received signals are shared in the same cell, better coverage
is achieved.
. Full functionality
- The Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS solution offers Dynamic Abis
functionality which is the efficient way to enhance Abis data
handling capacity and subscriber data rates.

The figure Co-siting of the Nokia UltraSite and Talk-family exampleshows an


example of the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS and the Nokia Talk-family BTS co-
siting.

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EDGE technical overview

8 TRX

8 TRX
8 TRX

Talk-family UltraSite BTS


4+4+4 4+4+4

BSC BSC Synchronization BSC


BTS-1

BTS-2

BTS-3

O&M Abis interface


O&M

Figure 2. Co-siting of the Nokia UltraSite and Talk-family example

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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Network elements

2.4 BTS Downlink combining options


The following list describes the different BTS downlink combining options.
These combining options only apply to the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS, since the
Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS has no internal BTS combining.

. Combiner By-Pass uses only the duplexer and no combiners. This option is
useful in rural and suburban areas where coverage is needed.
. Remote Tune Combining provides efficient, tuned 6-way combining with
built-in duplexer and Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). It only supports
baseband frequency hopping (no RF frequency hopping) and provides a
good combination of coverage and capacity. This option is useful in urban
and suburban areas.
. 2-way Wideband Combining reduces the number of needed antennas and
introduces about a 3 dB loss in the transmit path. This option is useful as a
combination of capacity and coverage for urban and suburban areas.
.
4-way Wideband Combining connects three 2-way combiners together. It
reduces the number of antennas even more and also introduces about a 6
dB loss in the transmit path. This option is useful for multiple cabinet
configurations in urban areas.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

2.5 EDGE and Base Station Controller


EDGE is introduced into the Nokia BSC by software upgrade. The new software
provides features to support higher data rates with EGPRS for packet-switched
data. To guarantee higher data throughput, the operators have the option of
adding a second Packet Control Unit (PCU).

Packet Control Unit

The PCU is a plug-in unit that controls the EGPRS radio resources. It receives
and transmits the Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) frames to the
BTS and the Frame Relay packets to the SGSN. The BSS9 level GPRS PCUs can
be used with EGPRS.

To increase the packet-switched capacity to 16+2 PCU units, a second PCU can
be added for each Base Station Controller Signalling Unit (BCSU) (8+1). The
figure BSC EGPRS hardware extension options shows the options for adding a
second PCU to the BSC EGPRS.

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PSA20 PSA20
2nd PCU for GPRS/EDGE
PSFP PSFP
GSWB extension kit (192-<256 PCMs)
SW1C

SW1C

CLOC

CLAC

ET5C

ET5C

ET5C
External PCM extensions to increase
PCMs in BSC2i from 112 to 144, ET5Cs 8 &
1 1 9, requires GSWB (256)
MCMU

MCMU

BCSU

BCSU

2 2
SD3C-S

BCSU

BCSU
OMU

LEGEND:
2 2
1. GSWB 192-< 256
Extension
BCSU

BCSU

BCSU
ET5C
ET5C

4th SW64B
Plug in Unit
2. 2nd PCU cards, 8+1
2 2 2
Extensions
GPRS/EDGE
BCSU

BCSU

ET5C

ET5C

ET5C

ET5C

3. EXTRA 2*ET5Cs
Cartridges 8 & 9
2 2 3 3

Figure 3. BSC EGPRS hardware extension options

As the figure BSC EGPRS hardware extension optionsshows, configuring a BSC


with a second PCU also requires an 8 kbit Group Switch (GSWB) extension kit,
which extends the Pulse Code Modulations (PCMs) from 192 to 256.
Furthermore, by using extra 2*ET5C cartridges, the BSC external connectivity
and Exchange Terminals (ETs) can be extended from 112 to 144 external PCMs.

This configuration means that:

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. The BSC maximum packet-switched connectivity would be 2 PCU/BCSU


x 8 BCSU x 256 channels, which equals 4096 16 kbit/s Abis channels
towards the Abis interface.
.
The Gb-interface maximum connectivity would be 2 PCU/BCSU x 8
BCSU x 31 Time Slots (TSLs), which equals 496 64 kbit/s Gb-interfaces
(31.74 Mbit/s)

The high reliability of this Nokia solution is achieved through N+1 redundancy.

You can can share the BTSs for multiple PCUs. In other words, the packet-
switched traffic load can be shared among BCSUs. You need to reserve Gb
interface capacity from all the PCUs which are connected to the BTS, from the
active PCUs. One PCU can manage up to 256 Abis 16k sub time slots that are
directly mapped to air-interface Packet Data Channels (PDCHs). The PCU
removes the unnecessary TRAU overheads coming from the Abis interface and
assembles the data into Frame Relay for the Gb interface. The BSC and SGSN
connect to each other with one or more n x 64 kbit/s Gb-interfaces. The number
of interfaces is equal to the number of PCUs. (Each PCU has its own logical Gb-
interface.)

Note

Gb-interface is a Frame Relay interface that can be configured in 64 kbit steps


from one time slot up to 31 time slots, depending on the capacity requirements.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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EDGE Features

3 EDGE Features

3.1 8-ary Phase Shift Keying


Introducing 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK), a linear, higher-order modulation,
in addition to Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) allows the data
transmission rates to be tripled. An 8PSK signal carries three bits per modulated
symbol over the radio path, compared to a GMSK signal, which carries only one
bit per symbol.

Nokia uses standardized 3pi/8 offset rotation to reduce amplitude variations with
8PSK modulation, as shown in the figure 8PSK modulation scheme. The
standard GSM carrier symbol rate (270.833 ksps) is the same as with 8PSK. The
burst lengths are the same as the existing GMSK Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA) structure, and the same 200 kHz nominal frequency spacing between
carriers is used. While GSM uses GMSK, EDGE uses both 8PSK and GMSK.

(d(3k),d(3k+1),d(3k+2))= (0,1,0)
(0,0,0) (0,1,1)

(0,0,1) (1,1,1)

(1,0,1) (1,1,0)

(1,0,0)

Figure 4. 8PSK modulation scheme

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Table 1. 8PSK and GMSK comparison

8PSK GMSK

Modulation 8PSK, 3 bit/sym GMSK, 1 bit/sym

Symbol rate 270.833 ksps 270.833 ksps

Payload/burst 346 bits 116 bits

Gross rate/time slot 69.6 kbit/s 23.2 kbit/s

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

3.2 EGPRS Modulation and Coding Schemes


Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) supports high-rate packet data
services across varying channel conditions. The table Peak data rates for single
slot EGPRS shows the peak data rates for a single slot EGPRS. As shown,
EGPRS supports higher data rates compared to basic GPRS, using several
Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs) varying from 8.8 kbit/s to 59.2 kbit/s in
the radio interface.

Table 2. Peak data rates for single slot EGPRS

MCS Modulation Code Rate Family User Rate

1 GMSK .53 C 8.8 kbit/s

2 GMSK .66 B 11.2 kbit/s

3 GMSK .80 A 14.8 kbit/s

4 GMSK 1 C 17.6 kbit/s

5 8PSK .37 B 22.4 kbit/s

6 8PSK .49 A 29.6 kbit/s

7 8PSK .76 B 44.8 kbit/s

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Table 2. Peak data rates for single slot EGPRS (cont.)

MCS Modulation Code Rate Family User Rate

8 8PSK .92 A 54.4 kbit/s

9 8PSK 1 A 59.2 kbit/s

The information contained in the table is further defined as follows:

MCS1 through MCS4 - GMSK modulated, robust against challenging radio


channel conditions.

MCS5 through MCS9 - 8PSK modulated to provide higher data rates.

Code Rate - higher coding scheme identifiers indicate higher coding and peak
throughput rates, but are less tolerant to noise and interference.

Family - MCSs are organised in families to allow re-segmentation of data blocks


in case of retransmissions. They can be accomplished on lower coding schemes,
that is if transmission failed with the original, higher coding scheme, the same
data can be re-transmitted with a lower codec within the same family.

Note

GPRS is not a subset of EGPRS. The GPRS coding schemes, CS-1 to CS-4, are
different than the EGPRS GMSK coding schemes, MCS-1 to MCS-4.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

3.3 Incremental Redundancy


Incremental Redundancy (IR) is an efficient combination of two techniques,
Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC). In the
ARQ method, when the receiver detects the presence of errors in a received RLC
block, it requests and receives a re-transmission of the same RLC block from the

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transmitter. The process continues until an uncorrupted copy reaches the


destination. The Forward Error Correction (FEC) method adds redundant
information to the user information at the transmitter, and the receiver uses the
information to correct errors caused by disturbances in the radio channel.

In the IR scheme (also known as Type II Hybrid ARQ scheme), all the
redundancy is not sent right away. Rather, only a small amount is sent first, which
yields a high user throughput if the decoding is successful. However, if decoding
fails, a re-transmission takes place according to the ARQ method. Using IR, the
transmitter transmits a different set of FEC information from the same RLC
block. These sets are called puncturing schemes, and there are two (P1 and P2) or
three (P1, P2 and P3) of them in each of the nine MCSs of EGPRS. Supporting
IR, the receiver is able to combine the necessary amount of error correcting
information. This mechanism is illustrated in the figure Incremental Redundancy
scheme. Since the combination includes more information than any individual
transmission, the probability of correct reception is increased. IR co-operates with
link adaptation which selects the amount of redundancy information transmitted
in each transmission.

The benefits of IR are increased throughput due to better and automatic


adaptation to different and varying channel conditions, and reduced sensitivity to
link quality measurements.

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Data Block

One MCS
P1 P2 P3 Transmitter

P1 P2 P3

1st transmission 1st re-transmission 2nd re-transmission


upon reception failure upon reception failure

P1
No data
Protection Level 1 recovered

P1 P2 Receiver
Stored No data
Combination: Protection Level x 2 recovered

P1 P2 P3
Stored Stored
Combination: Protection Level x 3

Figure 5. Incremental Redundancy scheme

Note

If after P3 the data still cannot be recovered, P1 is sent again and combined with
the stored P1, P2, and P3 (which reaches a protection level of about four times
P1), and so on, until the data is recovered.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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3.4 Link Adaptation for EGPRS


EDGE not only increases efficiency and speed, but also improves data protection
through link quality control. The system uses various measurements of the past
link to predict up coming channel quality. This prediction determines the relevant
protection of the information to be sent. The Link Adaptation (LA) mechanism
works to provide the highest throughput and lowest delay available by adapting
the protection of the information to be sent, according to the link quality.
Enabling LA requires accurate link quality measurements and a set of modulation
and coding schemes (MCSs) with different degrees of protection.

Accurate link quality measurements

The use of new, efficient EGPRS measurement provides accurate prediction of up


coming link quality in several propagation channels that have various speeds (for
example, typical urban and rural areas and hilly terrain). The link quality
measurements are Bit Error Probability estimates (BEP). Nokia uses a link
adaptation algorithm to work in cooperation with IR. While IR improves
throughput by automatically adapting the total amount of transmitted redundancy
to the radio channel conditions, LA selects the amount of redundancy for each
individual transmission. This helps reduce the number of re-transmissions, and
thus keeps the transfer delay reasonably low. Protection decreases

Data rates and protection levels

Nine Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs) are designed for EGPRS. When
an RLC data block is sent, the information is encoded using one of the MCSs to
resist channel degradation and modulated before transmission over the air-
interface. Since the resources are limited, the higher the level of protection for
information, the less information is sent. MCS-1 to MCS-9 ranges from a high
protection/low bit rate, to a no protection/high bit rate, as summarised in the
figure Data Rates and Protection Levels for Modulation and Coding Schemes.

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Scheme Modulation Data Rate (kbps) Code Rate Family


MCS-1 8.8 .53 C

Protection decreases
MCS-2 11.2 .66 B
GMSK
MCS-3 14.8 .80 A
MCS-4 17.6 1 C
MCS-5 22.4 .37 B
MCS-6 29.6 .49 A
MCS-7 8PSK 44.8 .76 B
MCS-8 54.4 .92 A
MCS-9 59.2 1 A

Figure 6. Data Rates and Protection Levels for Modulation and Coding
Schemes

In EGPRS, it is possible to switch between any of the MCSs, from one data block
to another, as it is in GPRS. The GPRS re-transmission would take place with
exactly the same protection as for its initial transmission. In EGPRS, however, it
is possible to change the MCS. This is useful since the level of protection needed
in a re-transmission may be different due to varying channel conditions and the
existing protection from earlier incremental redundancy transmissions.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

3.5 Dynamic Abis


With enhanced data rates per radio time slot varying between 8.8 and 59.2 kbit/s,
traditional static Abis allocation does not use transmission resources efficiently.
The Dynamic Abis feature is introduced to optimise loading, by splitting Pulse
Code Modulations (PCMs) into permanent time slots for signalling and voice,
and by providing a dynamic pool for data. The pool is shared by a number of

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TRXs. The Dynamic Abis transmission feature saves up to 60 percent of the Abis
transmission expansion cost, since it allows Abis dimensioning to be performed
closer to the average data rates instead of at peak rates. This saving also applies to
the reduced number of 2M BSC interfaces needed.

Abis channel mapping is arranged so that the standard GSM TRXs are connected
to the BSC in a conventional fashion, such as 16 or 64 kbit/s. These bits are
reserved permanently for signalling (TRXSIG) for each TCH, and 16 kbit/s are
reserved permanently for each TCH. The same applies to GSM/EDGE TRXs, but
when required, the BSC allocates Abis capacity for data calls from the EGPRS
dynamic pool for example, when MCS-3 or higher is used. Normal GPRS (non-
EGPRS) calls using MCS-2,3 and 4 can also use EDAP resources when allocated
into EGPRS territory (GSM/EDGE TRXs). The Dynamic Abis pool is usually
shared between multiple GSM/EDGE TRXs.

EGPRS and Dynamic Abis use a new type of PCU frame to connect with the
Abis L1 interface. GSM/EDGE TRXs use the PCU Master data and PCU Slave
data frames to transfer both GPRS and EGPRS data. EGPRS Dynamic Pools
decrease the number of GPRS channels by the total number of EDPRSs.

In downlink, the required EDAP resources are allocated with 16 kbp/s resolution
for the CS/MCS. In uplink, the required EDAP resources are always allocated for
the maximum CS/MCSs that can be admitted to the MS.

The figure Dynamic Abis poolingshows an example of Dynamic Abis pooling.

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Example: Data call from TRX 2 Abis PCM with 6 EDGE TRXs
(MCS<=2)
Example: Data call from TRX 6 1 BCCH TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3
(MCS<=2) EDGE TRX 1
2 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7
3 TRX 1 OMU 1 TXR 2 OMU 2
4 TCH 0 TCH 2 TCH 3
A EDGE TRX 2
5 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7
6 BCCH TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3
7 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7 EDGE TRX 3
8 TRX 3 OMU 3
9 TCH 0 TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3
Abis 10 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7 EDGE TRX 4
11 TRX 4 OMU 4 TXR 5 OMU 5
12 BCCH TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3
B BTS EDGE TRX 5
13 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7
BSC
14 TCH 0 TCH 1 TCH 3
15 TCH 4 TCH 5 TCH 6 TCH 7 EDGE TRX 6
16 TRX 6 OMU 6
17
18
19
BTS 20
21
22
23 EGPRS Dynamic
24 Abis pool
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Figure 7. Dynamic Abis pooling

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

3.6 Software and hardware requirements of GPRS


The BSC software releases from S9 onwards support GPRS.

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The hardware needed for GPRS to function in the BSC are Packet Control Unit
(PCU), Gb interface functionality between the BSC and Serving GPRS Support
Node (SGSN), GSWB extension, and ET5C cartridge (optional).

In general, the BSC S10.5 network element HW supports all existing


functionalities and their implementation principles. The BSC S10.5 does not
require any cabling or cartridge changes to the basic configurations of BSCE,
BSCi, BSC2E, BSC2A, BSC2i and BSC3i. All modifications to the HW cabling
or cartridge are related to the optional EDGE feature.

By the implementation of EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) a


new service such as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) can allow higher data rates than
current GPRS configurations. EGPRS can be implemented for the BSC with S9
level GPRS PCUs. However, a new configuration has been created for BSC2E/A
and BSC2i, with the possibility to add a second PCU (PCU-S or PCU-T plug-in
unit) per BCSU unit (8+1) to further increase the packet processing capacity. The
implementation of a second PCU also requires a GSWB extension from 192 to
256 PCMs. Correspondingly the number of ETs can be extended from 112 to 144
in BSC2s.

BSC3i has two PCU-B plug-in units in each BCSU that each contain two logical
PCUs. So in essence, BSC3i has four PCUs per BCSU.

Additional or optional hardware for EGPRS for BSC3i

Two PCU-B plug-in units.

Additional or optional hardware for EGPRS for other BSCs

. PCU-S or PCU-T PIU and DMCT2-S terminator if not already installed.


.
Two additional ET5C-cartridges.
. Fourth SW64B PIU and the SWBUS4 connector to the GSWB.
.
AS7-X replaces AS7-V and AS7-VA in new deliveries.

3.6.1 Packet Control Unit (PCU)

For GPRS the BSC needs the Packet Control Unit which implements both the Gb
interface and RLC/MAC protocols in the BSS. The Nokia implementation of the
PCU is in the BSC.

PCU functions

The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the
following procedures:

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. GPRS radio resource allocation and management.


. GPRS radio connection establishment and management.
. Data transfer.
.
Coding scheme selection.
. PCU statistics.

PCU capacity and connections

Two 2 Mbit/s PCM lines are connected through the GSWB to the Abis interface,
and one 2 Mbit/s line to the Gb interface towards the SGSN. Each BCSU has to
have equal number of PCU(s), either one or two. Refer to Enabling GPRS in BSC
for instructions on how to equip and connect the PCU, and to PCU for more
information on the plug-in unit hardware.

One PCU can handle the GPRS traffic of 256 radio time slots, and the maximum
number of connected traffic channels (16kbit/s) in GPRS use in a BSS is 2048
(that is, 8 times 256) for BSCE and BSCi, 4096 (16 times 256) for BSC2A,
BSC2E and BSC2i, and 6144 (24 times 256) for BSC3i. Furthermore, one PCU
can handle a maximum of 64 BTSs and 128 TRXs. This means that at least four
active PCUs are required to handle the maximum number of BTSs (248) of one
BSC.

The EGPRS modifications have an effect on the PCU memory demand due to the
larger RLC data block size and possible use of large RLC window size. Once a
window size is selected for a given MS, it may be changed to a larger size but not
to a smaller size, in order to prevent dropping data blocks from the window.
Therefore, if a TBF is reallocated so that the number of allocated timeslots is
reduced, the RLC window size may become larger than the maximum window
size for the new resources.

There are some limitations to the PCU:

. In one PCU, only 16 DAPs can be created.


.
In one PCU there can be only 256 channels (including PBCCH/PCCCH +
default GPRS + EDAP channels).
. Having more than 204 EDAP channels in one PCU is not recommended
(requires space for at least 1 master channel per 4 slave channels).
There are also some limitations to the radio network:
.
The maximum number of DAPs is 470.

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. The theoretical maximum number of TRXs per DAP is 20. However, since
TRXs using DAP resources must be allocated to the same Abis ETPCM
line with EDAP, the maximum TRX count for a DAP is 12 in the ETSI
environment and 8 in the ANSI environment.
. One EDGE synchronisation master channel per TRX must exist (EGPRS
limitation).
. The serving PCU must be the same for all the TRXs under one segment.

SGSN

ETs GSWB Gb
Abis ET
ETs Packets in FR
Packets in
TRAU frames

4 Mbit/s internal PCM FR: bearer channel + optional


256 channels load sharing redundant bearer (2 Mbit/s)
PCU

DMC bus

Figure 8. PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used

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SGSN

ETs GSWB
Abis
ETs
Packets in
TRAU frames

4 Mbit/s internal PCM


256 channels

PCU
IP network

DMC bus

Figure 9. PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when IP is used

3.6.2 Gb interface functionality

The Gb interface is an open interface between the BSC and the SGSN. The
interface consists of the Physical Layer, Network Service layer (NS), and the
Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). For more information, see
GPRS in BSC, section Gb interface configuration and state management in BSC
documentation.

LLC

RELAY
BSSGP
RLC BSSGP

MAC NS NS

L1 L1

BSS Gb SGSN

Figure 10. Protocol stack of the Gb interface

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The BSSGP protocol functions are BSSGP protocol encoding and decoding,
BSSGP virtual connection (BVC) management, BSSGP data transfer, paging
support, and flow control support.

The Network Service Control is responsible for NS protocol encoding and


decoding, NS data transfer, NS Service Data Unit (NS SDU) transmission, uplink
congestion control on Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC), load
sharing between NS-VCs, NS-VC state management, and GPRS-specific
addressing which maps cells to virtual connections.

The Frame Relay protocols provide a link layer access between the peer entities.
Frame Relay offers permanent virtual circuits (PVC) to transfer GPRS signalling
and data between the BSC and SGSN.

The Gb interface may consist of direct point-to-point connections between the


BSS and the SGSN, or an intermediate Frame Relay network may be placed
between both ends of the Gb interface. In the case of an intermediate Frame Relay
network, both BSS and SGSN are treated as the user side of the user-to-network
interface.

In FR, the physical link is provided by the Frame Relay Bearer channels. In the
BSC, this physical connection is a maximum of one 2 Mbit/s PCM for each active
PCU. For load sharing and transmission security reasons, one PCU can have up
to four Frame Relay Bearer channels that are routed to the SGSN through
different transmission paths. This means that the GPRS traffic from one PCU can
be shared with a maximum of four physical PCM connections. The PCUs cannot
be multiplexed to use a common bearer.

The maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate in both the ETSI and
ANSI environments is 2048 kbit/s within a PCU. This can be achieved by
combining the different PCMs so that 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic.
The step size is 64 kbit/s. The Committed Information Rate of Network Service
Virtual Connections can be configured from 16 kbit/s up to the Access Rate of the
Bearer channel in 16 kbit/s steps.

In the Nokia implementation, each PCU represents one and only one Network
Service Entity (NSE).

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BSC

BCSU 0

PCU
FR

PCM-TSL
GSWB
bearer channel
ET ID=1
name=BSC1 SGSN
time slots:1-31
access rate:1984 kbit/s

Figure 11. Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay is
used

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BSC SGSN

BCSU 0

PCU
IP IP network

Figure 12. Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when IP is used

For more information on the NS and BSSGP protocols, refer to the following
documents in BSC documentation:

. BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.


.
Network Service Protocol (NS).
. BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.
.
BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).

For more information on the configuring and handling of the Gb interface, refer
to the following documents in BSC documentation:

. GPRS Handling in BSC, section Enabling GPRS in BSC.


. Frame Relay Bearer Channel Handling.
.
Frame Relay Parameter Handling.

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3.6.3 Additional hardware for GPRS needed by the other BSC models than
BSC3i

GSWB extension (optional)

The PCU requires the GSWB extension (2 per BSC) for multiplexing the 256
Abis sub-time-slots into it. The second PCU card for the BSC unit requires an
extension of the GSWB with a third SW64B plug-in unit.

ET5C cartridge (optional)

Additional ET5C cartridges are optional as they are not needed for GPRS.
However, they are needed to increase the PCMs from 80 to 112. In the S8
optional upgrade to High Capacity BSC they have been added.

AS7-X, Adapter for CCS7 signalling

The AS7-X is a multichannel signalling link terminal for data or signalling using
the HDLC format. The capacity of the AS7-X is the same as the AS7-V and AS7-
VA. The memory architecture in AS7-X pre-processor units is based on the
SRAM .

The capacity of the AS7-X is as follows:

. 16 CCS7 links, or
. 64 LAPD channels, or
.
digital X.25
AS7-X replaces AS7-V and AS7-VA in new deliveries.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

3.7 GPRS interoperability


This section describes how the existing features of the BSC interact with GPRS.

3.7.1 System viewpoint

GPRS needs a number of new network elements and new functionalities.

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The new network elements are Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN), Gateway
GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN), GPRS backbone, and the Point-to-multipoint
Service Centre (PTM SC).

In addition, the mobile stations need to be capable of handling GPRS traffic, and
software upgrades are required in the BTSs, MSC/VLRs and HLRs, NMSs, and
the BSCs. BSC releases from S9 onwards support GPRS.

On the functionality side GPRS requires the following:

.
GPRS-specific mobility management, where the location of the MS is
handled separately by the SGSN and by the MSC/VLR even if some
cooperation exists
. the network management must be capable of handling the GPRS-specific
elements
. new security features for the GPRS backbone
. a new ciphering algorithm
.
a new radio interface (Um) for packet data traffic
. new MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.
For the full use of GPRS all these need to be taken into consideration. The
latter two radio interface and GPRS signalling are relevant to the
functioning of the BSC.
EGPRS requires the following new network elements and new
functionalities:
. new EDGE-capable TRX.
. new EDGE-capable MS.
.
software upgrade to BSC.

3.7.2 EGPRS network elements

Nokia EDGE -capable TRXs for the Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS and the
UltraSite EDGE BTS are compatible with GSM TRXs. In addition to providing
Nokia EDGE services, Nokia EDGE TRXs are fully GSM-compatible and
support GSM voice, data, HSCSD, GPRS and EGPRS. They are also backward
compatible with all legacy GSM mobiles.

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The Nokia Talk-family BTS site can be upgraded to Nokia EDGE functionality
with the installation of a Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS (housing Nokia EDGE-
capable TRXs) on the site as an extension cabinet. Site compatibility is achieved
with the synchronisation of Nokia Talk-family BTS and Nokia UltraSite EDGE
BTS and by using existing antenna and feeding structures. The synchronised
BTSs share a single BCCH (per sector) and function in the network as a single
cell. The site is then seen as one object by the NMS and the BSC (Multi BCF
control feature). In this configuration, the Nokia Talk-family TRXs support voice,
9.6 kbits data, HSCSD and GPRS.

3.7.3 Interaction of GPRS with other BSC features

The implementation of GPRS causes changes to the following existing functions


of the BSC:

. the PCU plug-in unit is introduced in Hardware Configuration


Management.
.
GPRS-related radio network parameters are introduced in Radio Network
Configuration Management.
.
co-operation between circuit switched traffic and GPRS traffic is defined in
Radio Channel Allocation.
.
GPRS traffic is monitored by GPRS-specific measurements and counters.
. the serving PCU must be same for all the TRXs under one segment.

The implementation is described in detail in Radio network management for


GPRS in BSC, Gb interface configuration and state management, Radio resource
management, and GPRS radio connection control. The GPRS statistics in BSC
introduce the new GPRS measurements.

In the BSC the introduction of GPRS means dividing the radio resourcescircuit
switched and GPRS trafficinto two territories. This has an effect on the radio
channel allocation features in which the BSC makes decisions based on the load
of traffic. For some features only the resources of the circuit switched territory are
included in the decisions. However, for most features also the traffic channels in
the GPRS territory need to be taken into consideration when the BSC defines the
traffic load, because radio time slots (RTSL) in the GPRS territory may be
allocated for circuit switched traffic if necessary. Only if there are radio time slots
that are permanently reserved for GPRS use (dedicated GPRS resources), these
cannot be used for circuit switched calls and the BSC totally excludes these in its
decisions on traffic load.

Extended Cell Range

Cell resources in the extended area of a cell are not used for GPRS.

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Note

Packet control channels cannot be used with Extended Cell Range.

Frequency Hopping

In Baseband hopping, radio time slot 0 belongs to a different hopping group from
other radio time slots of a TRX. This makes radio time slot 0 unusable for
multislot connections. If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS, radio time slot
0 of any TRX in the BTS will not be used for GPRS.

Both RF and Baseband hopping are supported in EGPRS.

Optimisation of the MS Power Level

The BSC attempts to allocate the traffic channels within the circuit switched
territory according to the interference level recommendation the BSC has
calculated, in order to allow the performing of optimisation of the MS power
level. When the BSC has to allocate a traffic channel for a circuit switched
request in the GPRS territory, the interference level recommendation is no longer
the guiding factor. Now the first GPRS radio time slot beside the territory border
is taken regardless of its interference level being among the recommended ones or
not. For more information refer to GPRS in BSC, section Radio resource
management in BSC documentation.

Intelligent Underlay-Overlay

Super-reuse frequencies are not supported for GPRS.

Dynamic Hot Spot

For the Dynamic Hot Spot feature, the possible traffic on the GPRS channels is
also meaningful. The radio time slots in GPRS traffic are regarded as busy
channels in the algorithms of the Dynamic Hot Spot feature during traffic channel
allocation. On the other hand, the BSC applies the Dynamic Hot Spot algorithm
when it allocates radio time slots for GPRS use in case the radio time slots are
above and beyond the operator-defined GPRS territory. When allocating the
default GPRS territory that the operator has defined with the parameter default
GPRS capacity (CDEF), the BSC does not apply the Dynamic Hot Spot
algorithm.

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Dynamic SDCCH allocation

The BSC selects a traffic channel time slot to be reconfigured as a dynamic


SDCCH time slot always within the circuit switched territory.

TRX prioritisation in TCH allocation

The operator can set the BCCH TRX or the non-BCCH TRXs as preferred for the
GPRS territory with the parameter prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG).
This parameter indicates whether the same or the opposite preference is used for
GPRS as is used for circuit switched traffic, indicated by the parameter TRX
priority in TCH allocation (TRP). If no preference is indicated, then
no prioritisation will be used between different TRX types when forming the
GPRS territory either.

Trunk reservation

In trunk reservation, the BSC defines the number of idle traffic channels. The
BSC adds together the number of idle traffic channels in the circuit switched
territory and the number of traffic channels in the radio time slots of the GPRS
territory, excluding the ones that are in the radio time slots that the BSC has
allocated permanently for GPRS.

TRX fault

When a TRX carrying traffic channels become faulty, the radio time slots on the
TRX are blocked from use. The BSC releases the possible ongoing calls and the
call control resources. The BSC downgrades the traffic channels belonging to the
GPRS territory in the faulty TRX from GPRS use. To replace the lost GPRS
capacity the BSC determines the possibility of a GPRS territory upgrade in
another TRX. Refer to Radio resource management for more information on the
GPRS territory upgrades and downgrades.

If the faulty TRX functionality is reconfigured to another TRX in the cell, the
GPRS-enabled TRX is also transferred to the new TRX.

If the faulty TRX is EDGE-capable, and GPRS in enabled in the TRX and
EGPRS is enabled in the BTS, the system tries to reconfigure its functionality to
another EDGE-capable TRX in the BTS.

Resource indication to MSC

In general the BSCs indication on the resources concerns traffic channels of a


BTS excluding those allocated permanently to GPRS (dedicated GPRS channels).
GPRS territory resources other than the dedicated ones are regarded as working
and idle resources.

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Half Rate

Permanent type half rate time slots are not used for GPRS traffic. Thus it is
recommended not to configure permanent half rate time slots in TRXs that are
planned to be capable of GPRS.

When the BSC can select the channel rate (full rate or half rate) to be used for a
circuit switched call based on the traffic load of the target BTS, the load limits
used in the procedure are calculated using the operator defined BSC and BTS
parameters lower limit for HR TCH resources (HRL), upper limit
for HR TCH resources (HRU), lower limit for FR TCH resources
(FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU) and the resources
of the circuit switched territory of the BTS.

High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)

If GPRS has been enabled in a BTS, the HSCSD-related load limits are calculated
based on the existing HSCSD parameters and the following rules:

.
the number of working resources includes all the working TCH/F resources
of a BTS, excluding the ones that have been allocated permanently to
GPRS.
. the number of occupied TCH/F resources includes all the occupied TCH/
Fs of the circuit switched territory, as well as the default GPRS territory
TCH/Fs, excluding the GPRS radio time slots defined as dedicated.
. HSCSD parameter HSCSD cell load upper limit (HCU) is
replaced with the radio network GPRS parameter free TSL for CS
downgrade (CSD) if the latter is more restricting; thus the one is used
that limits HSCSD traffic earlier.

The parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) defines a margin of


radio time slots that the BSC tries to preserve idle for circuit switched traffic by
downgrading the GPRS territory when necessary

If HSCSD multislot allocation is denied based on the appropriate parameters, the


BSC rejects the transparent HSCSD requests and serves the non-transparent
HSCSD requests with one time slot.

If the time slot share in HSCSD allocation is not restricted, the transparent
requests are served preferably in the circuit switched territory, and only in the
GPRS territory if necessary. If a transparent HSCSD call ends up in the GPRS
territory, the BSC does not try to move it elsewhere with an intra cell handover.
Instead it tries to replace the lost GPRS capacity by extending the GPRS territory
on the circuit switched side of the territory border.

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When the transparent HSCSD call inside the GPRS territory is later released, the
BSC returns the released radio time slots back to GPRS use to keep the GPRS
territory continuous and undivided. For more information refer to GPRS in BSC
section Radio resource management in BSC documentation.

The non-transparent HSCSD requests are always served in the circuit switched
territory as long as there is at least one TCH/F available. A normal HSCSD
upgrade procedure is applied later to fulfill the need of the non-transparent
request, if the call starts with less channels than needed and allowed. In order for
the non-transparent call to get the needed number of time slots, the BSC starts an
intra cell handover for suitable single slot calls beside the non-transparent
HSCSD call. At the start of the handover, the BSC checks that a single slot call
can be moved to another radio time slot and that HSCSD upgrade is generally
allowed.

A non-transparent HSCSD call enters the GPRS territory only in case of


congestion of the circuit switched territory. If multislot allocation was originally
defined as allowed, it will be applied also within the GPRS territory to serve the
non-transparent request. If the BTS load later decreases, so that a GPRS territory
upgrade becomes enabled, the non-transparent HSCSD call is handed over to
another location in the BTS so that the GPRS territory can be extended.

When deciding whether to downgrade an HSCSD call or the GPRS territory the
BSC checks first if the margin of idle resources defined by the parameter free
TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) exists. If a sufficient margin exists, the BSC
acts as without GPRS; that is, using the state information that the HSCSD
parameters define for the BTS, the BSC performs an HSCSD downgrade if
necessary. If the number of idle resources is below the parameter free TSL for
CS downgrade (CSD), then the actions proceed as follows:

. if there are GPRS radio time slots that are above and beyond the operator
defined default GPRS territory then these additional GPRS radio time slots
are the first target for the GPRS territory downgrade
.
if there are no additional GPRS radio time slots, the BSC examines if there
are more HSCSD traffic channels than the parameter HSCSD TCH
capacity minimum (HTM) requires and if so, executes an HSCSD
downgrade
. if the minimum HSCSD capacity is not in use, then a GPRS territory
downgrade is made to maintain the margin defined by the parameter free
TSL for CS downgrade (CSD).

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As a TCH/F becomes free through a channel release, the BSC first examines the
need and possibility for an HSCSD upgrade. If the BSC starts no HSCSD
upgrade, it further checks the need and possibility for a GPRS upgrade. The
GPRS territory can be upgraded although the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity
minimum (HTM) is not in use and there are pending HSCSD connections in the
cell. The parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) and the margin it
defines is the limiting factor for GPRS territory upgrade.

The parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) defines the number of
radio time slots that has to remain idle in the circuit switched territory after the
planned GPRS territory upgrade has been performed.

For more information on GPRS territories refer to GPRS in BSC, section Radio
resource management in BSC documentation.

For more information, see HSCSD and 14.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC in BSC
documentation.

Radio Network Supervision

Actions of the radio network supervision do not apply for time slots that have
been included in the GPRS territory. You may want to monitor the uplink
interference on time slots in GPRS use.

Radio Network Supervision does not apply to the packet control channel.

BTS testing

The BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel.

Multi BCF Control, Common BCCH Control

The Multi BCF feature introduces a new radio network object called the Segment.
Several BTS objects can belong to one Segment. Only one BTS object of the
Segment can have a BCCH. The Segment can have BTS objects which differ in:

. frequency band (GSM800, PGSM900, EGSM900, GSM1800, and


GSM1900)
. power levels (Talk-family and UltraSite base stations)
. regular and super-reuse frequencies
. normal and extended cell radius frequencies
.
EDGE capability.

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TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. An exception to this
is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the
same BTS object. In this case, GPRS must be disabled in the non-EDGE-capable
TRXs. (E)GPRS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. GPRS
and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time.
Super-reuse and extended cell radius frequencies are not supported in (E)GPRS.

There is only one BCCH /CCCH and one or no PBCCH /PCCCH in one
Segment.

Note

The operator must define GPRS territory to the BCCH frequency band in a
Common BCCH cell in which more than one frequency band is in use. Otherwise
the GPRS feature will not work properly in the cell. The reason for this
requirement is that in cases when the MS RAC of the GPRS mobile is not known
by the BSC, the TBF must be allocated on the BCCH frequency band first.
During the first TBF allocation, the GPRS mobile indicates its frequency
capability to the BSC. After that other frequency bands of the cell can be used for
the GPRS mobile accordingly.

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4 BSS features that enhance EDGE

4.1 Nokia Smart Radio Concept


The Nokia Smart Radio Concept (SRC) which enhances the radio performance of
the BTS in both EDGE and GSM modes, is an important feature for gaining the
maximum coverage for EDGE. The Nokia SRC consists of the following uplink
performance enhancement solutions:

. 4-way uplink diversity reception (4UD).


.
Sensitivity-optimised High Gain Mast Head Amplifier (UltraSite MHA).
. Interference Rejection Combining (IRC).

The downlink enhancement is accomplished with the use of Intelligent Downlink


Diversity transmission (IDD). IDD increases the coverage area of cells by
enhancing downlink radio performance of the BTS.

The uplink and downlink enhancement solutions can be used independently,


except 4UD which is used with IDD.

The SRC concept is the BSS10.5 feature, and the UltraSite BTS family supports
it. MetroSite supports IRC and IDD.

The figure Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE, one carrier per cell shows one
carrier/cell configuration of Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE with IDD and
by-pass combination configuration and MHAs.

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TRX RF units Receive Multicoupler Dual Duplex X-pol Antenna


Unit

Duplexer
TX
M2xA
RX main RX1
div RX LNA MHA MHA
DRX1
RX2
DRX2 DRX

Duplexer
Duplexer
TX

RX main
div LNA

Figure 13. Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE, one carrier per cell.

The figure Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE, two carrier per cell with all
SRC solutions shows an example of two carrier/cell configuration with IDD and
4-way Uplink Diversity in Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS.

The SRC utilises auxiliary transceivers effectively for both the UL and DL.

4-way Uplink Diversity, Interference Rejection Combining and High Gain


MHA

In the BSS10.5, the uplink performance (BTS reception) is enhanced with the
combination of Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) via 4-way diversity
reception of the BTS and sensitivity-optimised high-gain Nokia UltraSite
Masthead Amplifiers (UltraSite MHA introduced already in BSS9).

IRC which is also used together with 2-way diversity reception, tries to null
correlated noise received by both antennas.

If there is no correlated noise (interference), then IRC behaves like normal


Maximum Ratio Combining.

Gain of IRC depends on Dominant Interference Ratio and angular spread of


interference [PAR].

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In 4-way diversity reception, post Detection Maximum Ratio Combining is then


used for two IRC combined signals providing up to 3dB ideal method for dual X-
polarised antenna concept. The gain of 4UD comes from enhanced UL diversity
performance as well as enhanced energy collection surface of the antenna system,
providing capacity and coverage enhancements.

The UltraSite High Gain Mast Head Amplifier is especially designed to enhance
the UltraSite BTS site performance by optimising a noise figure of the receiver
chain including the antenna system and BTS receiver front end.

TRX RF units Receive Multicouplers Dual Duplex Antennas


Units

TX

Duplexer
M2xA
main RX1
RX div DRX1 RX LNA MHA MHA MHA MHA
RX2
DRX2 DRX Duplexer
Duplexer

TX
main
RX div LNA

TX
Duplexer

M2xA
main RX1
RX div DRX1 RX LNA
RX2
DRX2 DRX
Duplexer
Duplexer

TX
main
RX div LNA

Figure 14. Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE, two carrier per cell with all
SRC solutions.

Intelligent Downlink Diversity

Antenna diversity gain is applied in a downlink enhancement through a feature


called Intelligent Downlink Diversity (IDD). In IDD, the cell coverage area is
extended by sending the same radio time slots or bursts, with a slight delay,
simultaneously through two transmitters and antennas, regardless of logical
channel. The figure Nokia EDGE downlink diversity solution, one carrier per cell
shows an example of the EDGE downlink diversity solution.

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In IDD, the downlink signal is split


between transmitters of two TRXs.
The delay is processed between the
signals and random phase hopping is
added.
MS

Baseband
units Downlink
MHA MHA signal
EDGE
TRX
RX + TX Combined
DVxx
Uplink signal
EDGE
RX DIV. + TX DIV. TRX

Figure 15. Nokia EDGE downlink diversity solution, one carrier per cell.

One cell requires two antennas (or X-polarised antennas). The IDD boosts
downlink performance by up to 5 dB (a minimum of 3 dB) in all radio time slots,
compared to a single transmission system.

The typical configurations in one Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS cabinet are:

. 1+1+1 with combiner by-pass.


.
2+2+2 with 4-way diversity.
. 6 TRXs per cell with Remote Tune Combiners for large coverage and high-
capacity needs.

In each case, an additional TRX is needed for transmitting.

Auxiliary transmission is delayed 0-1.5 symbol periods which provides good


performance for all modulation schemes. The figure Intelligent Downlink
Diversity shows the Intelligent Downlink Diversity solution.

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BTS
TX 1
TX 1 filter

MS
TX 2
TX 2 filter

TX1 main transmitter


F-bus
TX2 auxiliary, delayed, transmitter

Abis

Figure 16. Intelligent Downlink Diversity

The IDD method provides its best gain in low-correlated channels; therefore,
phase hopping is used to change phasing between adjacent bursts, and,
consequently, to decrease correlation between a main and auxiliary transmitter.
Random or periodic phase hopping can be used.

Interference Rejection Combining

The uplink performance (BTS reception) is enhanced by Interference Rejection


Combining (IRC) through two-way diversity reception of the BTS, with
optimised sensitivity high-gain Nokia UltraSite Masthead Amplifiers.

IRC eliminates correlated interference received by both antennas. An example for


two pairs of X-polarised antennas is presented in the figure Two pairs of X-
polarised antennas.

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Spacing: 0.5WL

IRC

MRC

IRC

Figure 17. Two pairs of X-polarised antennas

If no correlated noise exists, then IRC behaves like a normal Maximum Ratio
Combining (MRC), allowing traffic to flow without requiring noise reduction. In
4-way Diversity, the combining gain depends on Dominant Interference Ratio
and angular spread of Interference Post Detection Maximum Ratio. Combining is
then used for two IRC-combined signals that provide up to 3 dB gain. This
method is ideal for a dual X-polarised antenna concept, providing capacity and
coverage enhancements. It utilises auxiliary TRXs effectively for uplink and
downlink.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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4.2 Multi BCF

4.2.1 Overview of Multi BCF

The Multi Base Station Control Function (BCF) feature allows the combination
of several BTSs into one logical cell. This combination allows operators to
increase the capacity of a cell, while maintaining maximum spectral efficiency.
The Multi BCF feature increases the Nokia Talk-family BTS cell capacity to 24
TRXs, and the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS cell capacity to 36 TRXs, while
requiring no extra Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). A maximum of six Nokia
Talk-family BTSs or nine Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTSs can be chained together
as one cell. The Multi BCF also provides an EDGE evolution path for site
expansion from Nokia Talk-family BTS to the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS.

Note

The Base Station Controller (BSC) supports the Multi BCF for Nokia Talk-family
BTS, Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS, and the Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS.
However, in the case of the Nokia MetroSite in the Multi BCF configuration,
there can be only Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTSs. In the beginning, only the Nokia
Talk-family BTS and the Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS will support Multi BCF.

The Multi BCF feature also introduces a new architecture and radio network
object called a Segment (SEG), which is essentially the same as the telecom
cell. The difference between a SEG and a telecom cell is that the SEG may
consist of several BTS objects. Operators can use a new SEG object at the BSC to
set all BTS objects to share the same BCCH. Several BTS objects can belong to
one SEG; however, only one BTS object of the SEG can have BCCH. The SEG
can have BTS objects that differ in:

. Frequency band  Primary GSM 900, Extended GSM 900, and GSM
1800 (each band contains only TRXs of the same frequency in one or more
BTSs)
. Power levels  Talk-family and UltraSite EDGE BTSs
.
Normal and extended cell radius frequencies
. EDGE capability

Note

The common BCCH feature is needed for multi-band, single-cell solutions.

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Note

The maximum number of BTSs allowed in a SEG is 32. The maximum number
of TRXs allowed in a SEG is 36.

The figure Multi BCF and Common BCCH principles for EGPRS territories
illustrates the Multi BCF and common BCCH principles for EGPRS territories.
As this figure shows, the TRXs inside a BTS object must have common
capabilities. For example, EDGE-capable and non EDGE-capable TRXs must be
configured so that the BTS objects are separated. EGPRS territory is defined for
each BTS object separately.

Ultra Site BTS Talk Family BTS

BTS 1 (sector 1) BTS 1' (sector 1)


Segment 1 BCCH EDGE TRX TRXs
other EDGE TRXs (no BCCH)
BTS 2 (sector 2) BTS 2' (sector 2)
Segment 2 BCCH EDGE TRX TRXs
other EDGE TRXs (no BCCH)
BTS 3 (sector 3) BTS 3' (sector 3)
Segment 3 BCCH EDGE TRX TRXs
other EDGE TRXs (no BCCH)

Figure 18. Multi BCF and Common BCCH principles for EGPRS territories

Note

Super-reuse and extended cell radius frequencies are not supported in EGPRS.

Operators can configure BTSs so that TRXs in different cabinets (operating on


the same frequency band) serve the same cell with a single BCCH. At the BSC,
operators use a new Segment object to set all BTS objects to share the same
BCCH.

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The figure Multi BCF configuration exampleshows an example of a Multi BCF


configuration.

Multi BCFcell (=SEG)

f1 f2 f3 Talk-family TRX group

f4 f5 UltraSite TRX group

Figure 19. Multi BCF configuration example

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

4.2.2 Multi BCF Control interaction with other features

Queueing

When the segment architecture is used, the queueing for traffic channels is a
segment level procedure including related parameters.

In a segment with several BTSs of different properties it is possible that a TCH


request cannot be served even though all the TCH resources in a segment are not
fully utilised. However, queueing can be started if permitted by the related
parameters.

The maximum number of possible calls in a queue is 32 when the segment


architecure is in use.

For more information, see Radio Resource Pre-emption and Queuing in BSC
documentation.

Pre-emption

When the segment architecture is used, the Pre-emption feature is a segment level
function.

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In a segment with several BTSs of different properties it is possible that a TCH


request cannot be served even though all the TCH resources in a segment are not
fully utilised. However, pre-emption is possible, if permitted by the related
parameters.

The candidate for the forced actions is selected among the resource types that are
indicated as reasonable in the resource request that initiates these actions. In the
candidate selection the criterion of the lowest possible priority is the most
important one. When searching for the lowest priority call the different resource
types are scanned in a reverse order than in TCH allocation.

The maximum number of possible calls in pre-emption queue is 8.

For more information, see Radio Resource Pre-Emption and Queuing in BSC
documentation.

Intelligent Underlay-Overlay (IUO)

In the segment environment the use of the Intelligent Underlay-Overlay is a BTS-


specific feature. Each BTS in a segment can have its own regular and super-reuse
layers. The super-reuse layer of a BTS can only be accessed via the regular layer
of the BTS.

The target for a super-reuse TCH request is always one BTS (a few TRXs within
the BTS) and not the whole segment as in resource requests in general. The
handover procedure from regular resources to super-reuse resources in a BTS is
the same regardless if the segment architecture is used or not.

When an IUO handover from a super-reuse TRX to regular resources of a BTS is


performed, the information on the usability of different resource types in the
segment is decided based on the values of parameter NonBcchLayerOffset
in different BTSs of the segment. As a target the BSC accepts the BTSs whose
NonBcchLayerOffset value is less than, or equal to the value of the BTS
where the handover was initiated. This is indicated in the figurePossible handover
directions on a segment with dash line arrows from the super-reuse layer of one
BTS to the regular layer of another BTS in a segment.

The child cell concept is not supported in a BSC in which the segment option is
enabled.

The direct access to super-reuse resources is possible in segments consisting of


only one BTS, and is not supported in segments with more than one BTS.

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BTS1 BTS2

Regular area Regular area

Super reuse area Super reuse area

Figure 20. Possible handover directions on a segment

For more information, see Intelligent Underlay-Overlay in BSC documentation.

Frequency Hopping

In the segment architecture the resources of different base station types are
grouped as separate BTSs. Frequency Hopping is managed by a BTS. All the
different BTSs in a segment have the hopping parameters and the hopping groups
of their own.

The segment architecture enables having BTSs without a BCCH TRX. This
reduces the number of hopping groups in the regular area of a BTS, because there
is no need for a separate group for the BCCH TRX in RF hopping. In BB
hopping, there is either no need for separating TSL0 from the other TSLs in BTSs
that do not contain a BCCH TRX. However, the separation between TSL0 and
other TSLs remain and these are regarded as two different hopping groups. The
operator gives one set of parameters for the TSL0 group and another for the other
TSLs. A similar set of parameters can be given for both.

The segment model offers the opportunity to have several hopping groups even
though there are only resources for one type in a segment. The operator can form
hopping groups by gathering the needed TRXs into one BTS and have several
BTSs of the same type. Each BTS has the hopping parameters of its own.

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For more information, see Frequency Hopping in BSC documentation.

High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)

From the point of HSCSD the effects of the segment structure appear mainly
when allocating TCHs for HSCSD requests. The basic principles that apply for
the TCH allocation in general are also valid in HSCSD cases. This means that the
HSCSD resource allocation is made considering the radio conditions and the
loads of different resource types.

Among the resource types that the BSC defines as reasonable, the TCH search is
performed in a way that an HSCSD channel configuration that best fulfills the
request is selected. Within a segment the HSCSD allocation is made in a BTS that
has no restrictions based on the HSCSD load parameters rather than in a BTS
where the allocation is restricted to include only one TCH.

The operator can control the HSCSD traffic load between BTSs of a segment by
using BTS-specific HSCSD load parameters MinHSCSDcapacityCell,
UpperLimitCellLoadHSCSD, LowerLimitCellLoadHSCSD and
UpperLimitRegularLoadHSCSD.

If necessary, in the segment environment one HSCSD downgrade per segment


per received request is made. When the received request leads to TCH allocation,
the need for an HSCSD downgrade is examined in the BTS of the allocation. In
case a free TCH cannot be found, the candidate for the HSCSD downgrade is
selected among the segment's BTSs that are defined as appropriate targets for the
request. A round robin method is used to direct separate downgrade attempts to
different BTSs in the segmant. In each BTS the downgrade decision is based on
the HSCSD parameters of the particular BTS.

For more information, see HSCSD and 14.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC in BSC
documentation.

GPRS

When comparing the TCH load of a segment's BTS with the parameter
BTSLoadInSEG, the BSC interpretes RTSLs in GPRS territory as busy
channels (excluding dedicated GPRS resources). This interpretation prevents the
GPRS territory of a single BTS from shrinking unnecessarily, if there are other
BTSs in the segment where CS calls could be transferred to from the BTS in
question.

The interactions between the circuit switched radio resource management of a


segment and GPRS are explained in detail in TCH allocation in Common BCCH
segment environment. For the effects of the segment concept on the radio
resource management of the packet switched services in the PCU see GPRS in
BSC in BSC documentation.

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Every GPRS BTS in a segment have to be connected to the same PCU.

Intelligent Coverage Enhancement (ICE)

Intelligent Coverage Enhancement features can be used in the BCCH BTS of the
Multi BCF segment.

Extended Cell and Multi BCF Control

In the segment environment only BCCH BTS can have extended area TRXs.

For more information, see Extended Cell in BSC documentation.

Dynamic SDCCH allocation

The dynamic reconfiguration of the SDCCH radio time slots is possible only in
those BTSs of a Multi BCF segment which have a negative value or value zero in
parameter nonBCCHLayerOffset (NBL) and are thus indicated to have a
signal level at least as strong as in the BCCH BTS.

Directed Retry

The Directed Retry or the Intelligent Directed Retry procedure can be triggered
even if all the resources of a segment are not completely in use. It requires that all
the resources that an accessing MS could utilise under the current conditions are
unavailable.

For more information, see Directed Retry Procedure in BSC in BSC


documentation.

Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B)

In the segment environment, the DADL/B feature can be used to direct traffic
between segments. Everything related to the feature concerns a segment instead
of a BTS. The loads are evaluated per segment, adjacency definitions are between
segments and DADL/B handovers are made between segments.

For more information, see Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band in BSC


documentation.

Trunk Reservation

The control of the feature is removed from the BTS level to the segment level.

For more information, see Trunk Reservation in BSC documentation.

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Advanced Multilayer Handling (AMH)

The BSC controlled traffic reason handover is a segment level procedure,


including the related parameters.

MSC controlled traffic reason handover

The MSC controlled traffic reason handover and the related resource indications
are segment level procedures.

In the spontaneous resource indication method the segment level parameter


BTSLoadThreshold is used when defining the need to send the resource
indication.

Dynamic Hotspot (DHS)

The Dynamic Hotspot control works mainly on the BTS level, but the adjacencies
are on the segment level. This means that all the possible BTSs of an adjacent
segment are examined, if the segment has been defined as an interfered cell. For
the decision on TCH usability in the examined segment the defined limit
parameter values of separate interfered BTSs and the numbers of occupied TCHs
in them are summed up. Based on these two results the decision of the capability
of allocating a TCH is made. The statistics related to the feature are updated for
one BTS per TCH request in the target segment.

For more information, see Dynamic Hotspot in BSC documentation.

Radio network supervision

The congestion supervision for alarm 0x07746"CH CONGESTION IN BTS


ABOVE DEFINED THRESHOLD" is monitored on the segment level since the
target for a channel request is a segment. In a segment with several BTSs, the
channel congestion supervision is made in the BCCH BTS for the whole
segment. And a possible alarm on congestion even if it is identified with the
BCCH BTS it describes the congestion level of the whole segment.

For more information, see Radio Network Supervision in BSC documentation.

FACCH call setup

In the FACCH call setup the SDCCH phase is skipped and the call is put directly
to a TCH channel. At that time, the measurement reports from the accessing
terminal are not available. Therefore the usability of the non-BCCH layer
resources based on those reports cannot be defined.

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In the Multi BCF control feature the base station type to be used in FACCH setup
is decided according to the base station site type of the BCCH BTS. If the BCCH
carrier is in a Talk-family BTS, both these and the UltraSite resources can be
utilised in FACCH setup. If the BCCH carrier is in an UltraSite BTS, the Talk-
family BTSs are left outside allocation for FACCH setup.

Adaptive Multirate (AMR)

Decisions on the need for packing AMR FR (full rate) calls to HR (half rate)
AMR calls is based on the load situation of each individual BTS also in the
segment environment. FR AMR calls in a certain BTS are packed depending on
the load of that individual BTS. Furthermore, the intra cell handovers that
perform the actual packing of calls are implemented as BTS internal events.
When an intra-segment TCH handover is made in order to decrease the load of a
BTS the number of the possible requests for AMR full rate call packing in the
BTS is decreased in order to avoid unnecessary handovers.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

4.2.3 Feature restrictions with Multi BCF Control

The use of Multi BCF feature and the segment environment causes restrictions for
the functionality of particular features.

SDCCH allocation with Multi BCF Control

With the Multi BCF feature the extent of the SDCCH search in initial SDCCH
allocation for the call setup and SDCCH allocation for the external handover
depend on the values of the nonBCCHLayerOffset (NBL) parameters in
other BTSs than the BCCH BTS. If the value of NBL in the BTS is positive, the
channel is not allocated from that BTS.

TCH allocation with Multi BCF Control

With the Multi BCF feature the extent of the TCH search in both FACCH setup
and external handover depend on the values of the nonBCCHLayerOffset
(NBL) parameters in other BTSs than the BCCH BTS. If the value of NBL in the
BTS is positive the channel is not allocated from that BTS.

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Dynamic SDCCH allocation with Multi BCF Control

With the Multi BCF feature the extent of the SDCCH search in initial SDCCH
allocation for the call setup depend on the values of the
nonBCCHLayerOffset (NBL) parameters in other BTSs than the BCCH
BTS. If the value of NBL in the BTS is positive the channel is not allocated from
that BTS. The same restriction applies to dynamic SDCCH allocation.

Extended cell range and Multi BCF Control

In the segment environment only the BCCH BTS can have extended area TRXs.

Intelligent Underlay-Overlay (IUO) and Multi BCF Control

The super-reuse layer of a BTS in a segment with several BTSs can be accessed
only via the regular layer of the BTS. Direct access to the super-reuse resources is
not supported in segments with more than one BTS.

The child cell concept is not supported when the segment architecture is used.

Cell broadcast and Multi BCF Control

User gives definitions (ECS command) only for the BCCH BTS.

Intelligent Coverage Enhancement features and Multi BCF Control

The ICE features can be used only in the BCCH BTS of the Multi BCF segment.

Multi BCF site reset by user

It is not possible to use only one MML command. The user has to give a series of
BCF site reset MML commands.

BCCH TRX

The BCCH channel is recovered only inside a BTS radio network object. In a
BCCH TRX fault situation the BCCH is not reconfigured from one BTS to
another BTS. The new BCCH TRX has to be found from the same BTS radio
network object.

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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Compatibility for data solutions features

5 Compatibility for data solutions features

5.1 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution, EDGE

Table 3. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

GSM 1900 Y

Table 4. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC Y M10

Nokia NetAct Y OSS3.1 ED2


(Enhancement
Delivery)

BSC Y S10.5 ED

SGSN Y SG2

NetAct Planner Y 4.0

Nokia 2nd Gen. N

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Table 4. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable). (cont.)

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

Nokia Talk-family N

Nokia PrimeSite N

Nokia MetroSite Y CXM3.3

Nokia InSite N

Nokia UltraSite Y CX3.3

Table 5. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI Y

BTS MMI -

Table 6. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC Y

BTS A New EDGE


capable
transceiver

TC -

SGSN -

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Table 7. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS EDGE capable
terminals

STD/OPT O

5.2 Nokia Smart Radio Concept for EDGE (Nokia SRC)

Table 8. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

GSM 1900 Y

Table 9. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC -

Nokia NetAct -

BSC Y S10

SGSN -

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Table 9. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable). (cont.)

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

NetAct Planner Y 4.0

Nokia 2nd Gen. N

Nokia Talk-family N

Nokia PrimeSite N

Nokia MetroSite N

Nokia InSite N

Nokia UltraSite Y CX3.0

Table 10. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI -

BTS MMI Y

Table 11. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC -

BTS Y

TC -

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Table 11. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).
(cont.)

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

SGSN -

Table 12. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS -

STD/OPT S (EDGE HW
required)

5.3 Support of PCCCH/PBCCH

Table 13. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

GSM 1900 Y

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Table 14. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC Y M11

Nokia NetAct Y OSS3.1 ED1


(Enhancement
Delivery)

BSC Y S10.5

SGSN Y SG2

NetAct Planner Y 3.4

Nokia 2nd Gen. Y B13

Nokia Talk-family Y DF6

Nokia PrimeSite Y DF6

Nokia MetroSite Y CXM3.0

Nokia InSite N

Nokia UltraSite Y CX3.0

Table 15. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI Y

BTS MMI -

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Table 16. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC -

BTS -

TC -

SGSN -

Table 17. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS (E)GPRS capable
terminals

STD/OPT S

5.4 Priority Class based Quality of Service

Table 18. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

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Table 18. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.
(cont.)

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 1900 Y

Table 19. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC Y M11

Nokia NetAct Y OSS3.1 ED1


(Enhancement
Delivery)

BSC Y S10.5

SGSN Y SG2

NetAct Planner -

Nokia 2nd Gen. -

Nokia Talk-family -

Nokia PrimeSite -

Nokia MetroSite -

Nokia InSite -

Nokia UltraSite -

Table 20. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI Y

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Table 20. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable). (cont.)

MMI Parameters Notes

BTS MMI -

Table 21. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC -

BTS -

TC -

SGSN -

Table 22. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS (E)GPRS capable
terminals

STD/OPT S

5.5 Dynamic Abis Allocation

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Table 23. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

GSM 1900 Y

Table 24. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC -

Nokia NetAct Y OSS3.1 ED2


(Enhancement
Delivery)

BSC Y S10.5 ED

SGSN -

NetAct Planner Y 4.0

Nokia 2nd Gen. N

Nokia Talk-family N

Nokia PrimeSite N

Nokia MetroSite Y CXM3.3

Nokia InSite N

Nokia UltraSite Y CX3.3

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Table 25. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI -

BTS MMI -

Table 26. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC -

BTS A EDGE capable


TRX

TC -

SGSN -

Table 27. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS -

STD/OPT O (Dynamic Abis is


part of EDGE
optionality)

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5.6 System Level Trace

Table 28. This table indicates which frequency bands support the feature.

Frequency band Compatible

GSM 800 Y

GSM 900 Y

GSM 1800 Y

GSM 1900 Y

Table 29. Compatibility with different network elements (Y = yes, N = no, - =


not applicable).

Network Compatible Release Notes


element

MSC Y M11

Nokia NetAct Y OSS3.1 ED2


(Enhancement
Delivery)

BSC Y S10.5

SGSN Y SG2

NetAct Planner -

Nokia 2nd Gen. -

Nokia Talk-family -

Nokia PrimeSite -

Nokia MetroSite -

Nokia InSite -

Nokia UltraSite -

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Table 30. This table indicates whether the feature has


parameters that are managed with MMI (Y = yes, -
= not applicable).

MMI Parameters Notes

BSC MMI -

BTS MMI -

Table 31. This table indicates whether the feature requires


additional or alternative hardware or firmware (Y=
additional, A= alternative, or - = not applicable).

Network Additional or Notes


element alternative HW/FW
required

BSC -

BTS -

TC -

SGSN -

Table 32. This table indicates whether


the feature sets special
requirements to mobile
stations, and whether the
feature is an optional or a
standard BSS feature.

MS (E)GPRS capable
terminals

STD/OPT S

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Related topics

Related topics

Overview of Nokia EDGE

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