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REINFORCED CONCRETE

Bending test

Final Recommendation

TC MEMBERSHIP: Chairlady: L. Vandewalle, Belgium; Secretary: D. Nemegeer, Belgium; Members: L. Balazs, Hungary;

B. Barr, UK; J. Barros, Portugal; P. Bartos, UK; N. Banthia, Canada; M. Criswell, USA; E. Denari, Suisse; M. Di Prisco, Italy;

H. Falkner, Germany; R. Gettu, Spain; V. Gopalaratnam, USA; P. Groth, Sweden; V. Husler, Germany; A. Kooiman, the

Netherlands; K. Kovler, Israel; B. Massicotte, Canada; S. Mindess, Canada; H.-W. Reinhardt, Germany; P. Rossi, France;

S. Schaerlaekens, Belgium; P. Schumacher, the Netherlands; B. Schntgen, Germany; S. Shah, USA; . Skarendahl, Sweden;

H. Stang, Denmark; P. Stroeven, the Netherlands; R. Swamy, UK; P. Tatnall, USA; M. Teutsch, Germany; J. Walraven, the

Netherlands.

1. SCOPE

This test method evaluates the tensile behaviour of

steel fibre-reinforced concrete either in terms of areas

under the load-deflection curve or by the load bearing

capacity at a certain deflection or crack mouth opening

displacement (CMOD) obtained by testing a simply sup-

Fig.1 Production method for casting the specimen.

ported notched beam under three-point loading.

This standard is not intended to be applied in the

case of shotcrete.

This test method can be used for the determination of: The standard test specimens are not intended for

the limit of proportionality (LOP), i.e. the stress which concrete with steel fibres longer than 60 mm and aggre-

corresponds to the point on the load-deflection or load- gate larger than 32 mm. The procedure for casting of the

crack mouth opening displacement curve (=> FL ) defined specimens and filling of the mould is shown in Fig. 1. It

in part 5 as limit of proportionality; is desirable that portion 1 is twice that of portion 2. The

two equivalent flexural tensile strengths which iden- mould shall be filled in one layer up to approximately

tify the material behaviour up to the selected deflection. 90% of the height of the test specimen. The mould shall

These equivalent flexural tensile strengths are determi- be topped up and levelled off while being compacted.

ned according to part 5; Compaction shall be carried out by external vibration. In

four residual flexural tensile strengths which identify the case of self compacting steel fibre concrete, the

the material behaviour at a selected def lection or mould shall be filled in a single pour and levelled off

CMOD. The residual flexural tensile strengths are cal- without any compaction.

culated according to procedures in part 5. The specimens are demoulded between 24 and 48

If the objective of the test is to calculate equivalent hours after casting the concrete. Afterwards they are stored

f lexural tensile strength, it is necessary to measure the at + 20C and RH 95% until preparation for testing.

def lection. However, if only residual f lexural tensile The beams are notched using wet sawing. Each beam

strengths are calculated, one can choose between the mea- is turned 90 from the casting surface and the notch is

surement of def lection and/or CMOD. A relation bet- then sawn through the width of the beam at midspan

ween mid-span deflection and CMOD is given in part 6. (see Fig. 2). Following the notching, the same curing

conditions for the specimens as before are continued for

a minimum of 3 days. The curing can be discontinued

2. TEST SPECIMEN not more than 3 hours before testing leaving sufficient

time for preparation including any location of measuring

Concrete beams of 150 x 150 mm cross section with devices and transducers. Testing shall normally be per-

a minimum length of 550 mm are used as standard test formed at 28 days. The width of the notch is not larger

specimens. than 5 mm and the beam has an unnotched depth hsp of

Materials and Structures/Matriaux et Constructions, Vol. 35, November 2002

capable of recording accurately the midspan deflection,

excluding extraneous deformations due to deformations

of the machine and/or of the specimen supports.

Normally deflection is measured at one side of the speci-

men (=> ) and the transducer has to be carefully moun-

ted in order to minimize the effect of rotation.

A schematic illustration of a possible measuring set-

up is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 3 Position of the load and supports of the beam specimen. The original distance between the reference points

for the measurement of the opening of the mouth of the

notch (CMOD) is not greater than 40 mm (Fig. 4). It is

125 mm 1 mm. The device for measuring the dimen- recommended that the notch mouth opening displace-

sions of the specimens has an accuracy of 0.1 mm. The ment measuring system is installed along the longitudi-

dimensions of the specimen shall not vary by more than nal axis at the mid-width of the test specimen, so that

2 mm on all sides. Additionally the difference in overall the distance y between the bottom of the specimen and

dimensions on opposite sides of the specimen shall not the axis of the measuring system is 5 mm or less.

be greater than 3 mm. The accuracy of the load measuring device is requi-

red to be equal to 0.1 kN. The accuracy of the deflection

and the notch mouth opening displacement measuring

3. APPARATUS system requires to be 0.01 mm.

constant rate of increase of deflection () or CMOD of 4. PROCEDURE

the test specimen, preferably a closed loop machine,

should be used. The span length of the three-point loading test is 500

The stiffness of the testing equipment has to be large mm (Fig. 4).

enough to avoid unstable zones in the F- (F-CMOD) The testing machine should be operated so that the

curve. Tests during which instabilities occur have to be measured deflection of the specimen at midspan increases

rejected. at a constant rate of 0.2 mm/min until the specified final

The two supports and the device for imposing the deflection is reached. During testing the value of the load

displacement are rollers with a diameter of 30 mm 1 and deflection at midspan () are recorded continuously.

mm as shown in Fig. 3. All rollers shall be manufactured When the test is executed by means of CMOD-

from steel. Two rollers, including the upper one, shall be control, the machine shall be operated in such a manner

capable of rotating freely around their axis and of being that the CMOD increases at a constant rate of 50 m/min

inclined in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis for CMOD from 0 to 0.1 mm, until the end of the test, at

of the test specimen. a constant rate of 0.2 mm/min.

580

TC 162-TDF

limit of proportionality ffct,L can be calculated using the

following expression:

3 FL L

f fct,L = 2

( N / mm 2 )

2 b hsp

where

b = width of the specimen (mm)

hsp = distance between tip of the notch and top of cross

section (mm).

The energy absorption capacity D BZ,2 (D BZ,3) is

equal to the area under the load-deflection curve up to a

deflection 2 (3) (Fig. 5). DBZ,2 (DBZ,3) consists of two

parts:

plain concrete => DbBZ (Nmm)

influence of steel fibres =>DfBZ,2 and DfBZ,3 (Nmm) .

The dividing line between the two parts can be sim-

plified as a straight line connecting the point on the

curve corresponding to FL and the point on the abscissa

L + 0,3 mm. L is the deflection at the limit of pro-

portionality. The deflections 2 and 3 are in turn defi-

ned as:

2 = L + 0.65 mm (mm)

2 = L + 2.65 mm (mm).

Fig. 5 Load-deflection diagrams.

logged with a frequency not smaller than 5 Hz; thereaf-

ter, up to the end of the test, the frequency shall not be

smaller than 1 Hz.

At least 6 specimens shall be tested in the same

conditions.

5. CALCULATION

The load at the limit of proportionality (=FL in N) is

determined according to an appropriate diagram in Fig. 5

or Fig. 6. FL is equal to the highest value of the load in

the interval ( or CMOD) of 0.05 mm. The moment at

midspan of the test beam corresponding to FL is:

FL L

ML = ( Nmm )

2 2

where L = span of the specimen (mm). Fig. 7 Stress distribution assumed.

581

Materials and Structures/Matriaux et Constructions, Vol. 35, November 2002

F2 (F3) is equal to the mean force recorded in the sha- R,3 = 2.15 mm - CMOD3 = 2.5 mm

ded area DfBZ,2 (DfBZ,3) and can be calculated as follows : R,4 = 3.00 mm - CMOD4 = 3.5 mm

FR,i is the load recorded at R,i or CMODi.

Df BZ, 2

F2 = ( N) Assuming a stress distribution as shown in Fig. 7, the

0.50 residual f lexural tensile strength fR,i can be determined

by means of the following expression:

Df BZ,3

F3 = ( N)

2.50 3 FR,i L

f R,i = .

The moment at midspan of the test beam correspon- 2 bh 2

sp

ding to F2 (F3) is:

Note: if the crack starts outside the notch, the test

F L Df BZ, 2 L has to be rejected.

M2 = 2 =

2 2 0.50 4

( Nmm )

M3 = =

2 2 2.50 4

( Nmm ).

The following average relationship between CMOD

Assuming a stress distribution as shown in Fig. 7, the and was determined :

equivalent flexural tensile strength feq,2 and feq,3 can be CMOD = 1.18 + with = -0.0416 mm.

determined by means of the following expressions: It must be stressed that this relationship is only appli-

cable in the post-peak region of the load-CMOD (load-

3 Df BZ, 2 L ) curve.

f eq, 2 = ( N / mm 2 )

2 0.50 b h 2 The beam response at CMOD 0.5 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.5

sp

mm and 3.5 mm is of special interest. The correspon-

ding values of are mentioned in part 5.

3 Df BZ,3 L In the case where CMOD is measured at a certain

f eq,3 = ( N / mm 2 )

2 2.50 b h 2 distance y (see Fig. 4) below the beam, resulting in a

sp

measurement CMODy, the following relationship bet-

Residual f lexural tensile strengths fR,i at the follo- ween CMOD and CMODy can be adopted:

wing midspan deflections (R,i) or crack mouth opening

H+y

displacements (CMODi) can additionally be calculated: CMODy = CMOD

R,1 = 0.46 mm - CMOD1 = 0.5 mm H

R,2 = 1.31 mm - CMOD2 = 1.5 mm with H = total height of the beam.

582

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