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Modul Standar untuk
digunakan dalam
Perkuliahan di Universitas
Mercu Buana
Program Tatap
Fakultas Kode MK Disusun Oleh
Studi Muka
Fakultas Ilmu Sistem MK90026 Juwarti Hafsah, SS, M.Si.
Komputer Informasi

Abstract Kompetensi
Text: about tourism The student can understand about
some specific terms in tourism

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A. Tourism, holidaymaking and travel are these days more significant social phenomena than
most commentators have considered. On the face of it there could not be a more trivial
subject for a book. And indeed since social scientists have had considerable difficulty
explaining weightier topics, such as work or politics, it might be thought that they would have
great difficulties in accounting for more trivial phenomena such as holidaymaking. However,
there are interesting parallels with the study of deviance. This involves the investigation of
bizarre and idiosyncratic social practices which happen to be defined as deviant in some
societies but not necessarily in others. The assumption is that the investigation of deviance
can reveal interesting and significant aspects of normal societies. It could be said that a
similar analysis can be applied to tourism.

B. Tourism is a leisure activity which presupposes its opposite, namely regulated and
organised work. It is one manifestation of how work and leisure are organised as separate
and regulated spheres of social practice in modern societies. Indeed acting as a tourist is
one of the defining characteristics of being modern and the popular concept of tourism is
that it is organised within particular places and occurs for regularised periods of time. Tourist
relationships arise from a movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations. This
necessarily involves some movement, that is the journey, and a period of stay in a new place
or places. The journey and the stay are by definition outside the normal places of residence
and work and are of a short term and temporary nature and there is a clear intention to return
home within a relatively short period of time.

C. A substantial proportion of the population of modern societies engages in such tourist

practices new socialised forms of provision have developed in order to cope with the mass
character of the gazes of tourists as opposed to the individual character of travel. Places are
chosen to be visited and be gazed upon because there is an anticipation especially through
daydreaming and fantasy of intense pleasures, either on a different scale or involving
different senses from those customarily encountered. Such anticipation is constructed and
sustained through a variety of non-tourist practices such as films, TV literature, magazines
records and videos which construct and reinforce this daydreaming.

D. Tourists tend to visit features of landscape and townscape which separate them off from
everyday experience. Such aspects are viewed because they are taken to be in some sense
out of the ordinary. The viewing of these tourist sights often involves different forms of social
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patterning with a much greater sensitivity to visual elements of landscape or townscape than
is normally found in everyday life. People linger over these sights in a way that they would
not normally do in their home environment and the vision is objectified or captured through
photographs postcards films and so on which enable the memory to be endlessly reproduced
and recaptured.

E. One of the earliest dissertations on the subject of tourism is Boorstins analysis of the
pseudo event (1964) where he argues that contemporary. Americans cannot experience
reality directly but thrive on pseudo events. Isolated from the host environment and the local
people the mass tourist travels in guided groups and finds pleasure in inauthentic contrived
attractions gullibly enjoying the pseudo events and disregarding the real world outside. Over
time the images generated of different tourist sights come to constitute a closed self-
perpetuating system of illusions which provide the tourist with the basis for selecting and
evaluating potential places to visit. Such visits are made says Boorstin, within the
environmental bubble of the familiar American style hotel which insulates the tourist from the
strangeness of the host environment.

F. To service the burgeoning tourist industry, an array of professionals has developed who
attempt to reproduce ever-new objects for the tourist to look at. These objects or places are
located in a complex and changing hierarchy. This depends upon the interplay between, on
the one hand, competition between interests involved in the provision of such objects and, on
the other hand changing class, gender, and generational distinctions of taste within the
potential population of visitors. It has been said that to be a tourist is one of the
characteristics of the modern experience. Not to go away is like not possessing a car or a
nice house. Travel is a marker of status in modern societies and is also thought to be
necessary for good health. The role of the professional, therefore, is to cater for the needs
and tastes of the tourists in accordance with their class and overall expectations.


1. What is the main idea of the passage above?

2. What is tourism in an opinion based on the passage you read?

3. What is the conclusion after reading that passage?

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the
world are actively promoting their 'wilderness' regions - such as mountains, Arctic lands,
deserts, small islands and wetlands - to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas
is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that
does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development recognized, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal
pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their
inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and
also in terms of the proportion of the Earth's surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and
Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions
prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including
tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year. Tourists are drawn to these
regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people.
And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of 'adventure
tourist', grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the
prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the
economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers
Rock in Australia and Arizona's Monument Valley.

Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local
community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few
weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it
is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other
members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output
and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and
irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions
have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.
In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting
animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some
inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has
led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit
behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine
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traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what
happens if these new, external sources of income dry up? The physical impact of visitors is
another serious problem associated with the growth in adventure tourism. Much attention has
focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and
impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot
showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of
fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use.

Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does
not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes
place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized.
Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the
Sherpas of Nepal's Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of
adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local
population and environment over the long term. In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided
that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy.
Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays
d'Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance
in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of
income that does not depend on outside visitors. Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have
been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of
the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour
businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. For instance, a
native corporation in Alaska, employing local people, is running an air tour from Anchorage to
Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musicians and
dancers. Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed
similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase
high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have
established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have
been similarly successful with jewellery. Too many people living in fragile environments have
lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has
penetrated their homelands. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the
imbalance, because people's desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead,
communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in
their regions; in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A
growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-
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making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm,
rather than the exception.


1. What is the main idea of the passage above?

2. What is tourism in an opinion based on the passage you read?

3. What is the conclusion after reading that passage?


Compound Nouns

A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. A compound noun is
usually [noun + noun] or [adjective + noun], but there are other combinations (see below). It
is important to understand and recognize compound nouns. Each compound noun acts as a
single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns.

Compound nouns are words for people, animals, places, things, or ideas, made up of two or
more words. Most compound nouns are made with nouns that have been modified
by adjectives or other nouns.
In many compound nouns, the first word describes or modifies the second word, giving us
insight into what kind of thing an item is, or providing us with clues about the items purpose.
The second word usually identifies the item.

Compound nouns are sometimes one word, like toothpaste, haircut, or bedroom. These are
often referred to as closed or solid compound nouns.

Sometimes compound nouns are connected with a hyphen: dry-cleaning, daughter-in-law,

and well-being are some examples of hyphenated compound nouns.

Sometimes compound nouns appear as two separate words: full moon, Christmas tree, and
swimming pool are some examples of compound nouns that are formed with two separate
words. These are often referred to as open or spaced compound nouns.

There are three forms for compound nouns:

1. open or spaced - space between words (tennis shoe)

2. hyphenated - hyphen between words (six-pack)

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3. closed or solid - no space or hyphen between words (bedroom)

Here are some examples of compound nouns:

noun + Noun bus stop Is this the bus stop for the number 12

fire-fly In the tropics you can see fire-flies at


Football Shall we play football today?

adjective + Noun full moon I always feel crazy at full moon.

Blackboard Clean the blackboard please.

Software I can't install this software on my PC.

verb(-ing) + Noun Breakfast We always eat breakfast at 8am.

washing Put the clothes in the redwashing

machine machine.

swimming What a beautiful swimming pool!


noun + verb(-ing) Sunrise I like to get up at sunrise.

Haircut You need a haircut.

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train-spotting His hobby is train-spotting.

verb + preposition check-out Please remember that check-outis at

12 noon.

noun + prepositional mother-in-law My mother-in-law lives with us.


preposition + Noun Underworld Do you think the police accept money

from the underworld?

noun + Adjective Truckful We need 10 truckfuls of bricks.


Compound nouns tend to have more stress on the first word. In the phrase "pink ball", both
words are equally stressed (as you know, adjectives and nouns are always stressed). In the
compound noun "golf ball", the first word is stressed more (even though both words are
nouns, and nouns are always stressed). Since "golf ball" is a compound noun we consider it
as a single noun and so it has a single main stress - on the first word. Stress is important in
compound nouns. For example, it helps us know if somebody said "a GREEN HOUSE" (a
house which is painted green) or "a GREENhouse" (a building made of glass for growing
plants inside).

British/American differences

Different varieties of English, and even different writers, may use the open, hyphenated or
closed form for the same compound noun. It is partly a matter of style. There are no definite
rules. For example we can find:

container ship



If you are not sure which form to use, please check in a good dictionary.
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Compound Noun Examples

The more you read and write, the more compound noun examples youll encounter. The
following sentences are just a few examples of compound nouns. Compound noun examples
have been italicized for easy identification.

A. Compound nouns can be made with two nouns:

1). Lets just wait at this bus stop.

2). I love watching fireflies on warm summer nights.

3). While youre at the store, please pick up some toothpaste, a six-pack of ginger ale,
and some egg rolls.

B. Compound nouns can be made with an adjective and a noun:

1). Lets watch the full moon come up over the mountain.

2). Please erase the blackboard for me.

C. Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a noun:

1). Be sure to add bleach to the washing machine.

2). Lets be sure to stay somewhere with a swimming pool.

D. Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a verb:

1). He always gets up before sunrise.

2). I really could use an updated hairstyle.

E. Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a preposition:

1). Checkout is at noon.

2). Please remember to schedule your dogs annual check-up.

F. Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a prepositional phrase:

My mother-in-law is the kindest person I know.

G. Compound nouns can be made with a preposition and a noun:

1). Do you believe in past lives?

2). This city is vibrant, so its hard to believe it has a thriving criminal underworld.

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H. Compound nouns can be made with a noun and an adjective:

We need a truckful of mulch for the garden.

Compound adjectives Exceptions

Note that combining an adverb and an adjective does not create a compound adjective. No
hyphen is required because it is already clear that the adverb modifies the adjective rather than
the subsequent noun. For example:

1. It was a terribly hot day.

2. It is an amazingly good idea.

In addition, you should not place a hyphen in a compound adjective if the adjectives are
capitalized, such as when they are part of a title.

Examples of compound adjectives

1. This is a four-foot table.
2. Daniella is a part-time worker.

3. This is an all-too-common error.

4. Beware of the green-eyed monster.

5. He is a cold-blooded man.

6. I love this brightly-lit room!

7. Dannys dog is well-behaved.

8. You have to be open-minded about things.

Compound adjective exercises

1. From each group, choose the sentence that contains a compound adjective:

A. Sheila was horribly moody.

B. Wed like you to be part of the decision-making process.

C.The company showed steady improvement in their stock trades.

A. This is a widely used procedure for finishing wood floors.

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B. Moths ate his woolen socks.

C.That was really generous of you.

A. Sharons adopted son is five years old today.

B. My new car has leather upholstery.

C.She was a well-known actress by the time she reached age five.

Answers:B, A, C

2. Using hyphens in compound adjectives: Which sentences are correct?

A. The group was full of rowdy 10 year old schoolboys.

B. The group was full of rowdy 10-year-old schoolboys.

A. The actress is well known.

B. The actress is well-known.

A. They enjoyed a three-year profit streak.

B. They enjoyed a three-year-profit streak.

Answers:B, A, A

3. Using ly adverbs in compound adjectives: Which sentences are correct?

A. Along the river, rapidly increasing floodwaters caused evacuations.

B. Along the river, rapidly-increasing floodwaters caused evacuations.

A. My neighbor Jim is an internationally recognized author.

B. My neighbor Jim is an internationally-recognized author.

A. The bank robbers tried to hatch their ill conceived plan and failed.
B. The bank robbers tried to hatch their ill-conceived plan and failed.

Answers:A, A, B

4. Choose the correct compound adjective for each sentence.

A. He is fond of ______________________ Scotch.


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10 year old

B. The weather has been ___________________ lately.


terribly cold

too cold

C. Babysitting these kids is like trying to manage a _____________________.

three ring circus


three-ring circus

Answers: A 12-year-old B terribly cold C three-ring circus

5. Fill in the blanks with the best compound adjective for the situation:

A. Melanie has everything she needs. She is _____________________.


very badly behaved

well-cared for

B. Louis overcomes difficulties easily. He is _______________________.



internationally renowned

C. Mr. Chan likes to hear about new ideas. He is ______________________.


two faced


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Answers: A well-cared for B level-headed C open-minded

6. Fill in the blanks with the best phrase for the situation:

A. Jesse was promoted, so he bought ________________________________.

himself-a brand new car

himself a brand-new-car

himself a brand-new car

B. The _______________________ has been going on for decades.

gun control debate

gun-control debate


C. The sound of ___________________________ always soothes my mind.

gently-flowing water

gently flowing water


Answers: A himself a brand-new car B gun-control debate C gently flowing water

7. From each group, choose the sentence containing the correct compound adjective:

A. Maria is old-fashioned. She cant quite see the words on the blackboard.
B. Maria is near-sighted. She cant quite see the words on the blackboard.

C.Maria is very shy. She cant quite see the words on the backboard.

A. She wore an old-fashioned dress to the ball.

B. She wore a deeply-rooted dress to the ball.

C.She wore a seasonal dress to the ball.

A. He works for a Texas-based pharmaceutical company.

B. He works for a rapidly increasing pharmaceutical company.

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C.He works for an American-style pharmaceutical company.

Answers:B near-sighted A old-fashioned C Texas-based

8. Creating compound adjectives: From each group, choose the sentence pair that makes the
most sense.

A. I dont like glue that dries slowly. = This is a quick-drying glue.

B. Did you know that some plants eat meat? = Did you know that there are meat-eating

C.Professor Brown has a very narrow mind. = Professor Browns mind is very narrow.

A. The price of the car was high. = It was a high-priced car.

B. The meal tasted good. = This was a tasteful-meal.

C.He likes to weigh in on political issues. = He is loud-mouthed and boring.

A. The tapeworm measured 35 inches. = The tape-worm measured 35-inches.

B. The duck has flat feet. = Thats a flat-footed duck.

C.Why not try some carrot juice? = Have some carrot-juice.

Answers:B meat-eating plants A high-priced car B flat-footed duck

9. Compound adjectives containing numbers: From each group, choose the sentence containing
the correct compound adjective.

A. The earthworms were at least three inches long.

B. He ate a 12-inch sandwich for lunch.

C.The sumo champion weighed 210-kilograms.

A. He drives a one-ton truck.

B. Our house has three-bedrooms and two-bathrooms.

C.There are nine-carrots in each bottle of juice.

A. My new chainsaw cost three-hundred dollars.

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B. I got a 300-dollar chainsaw for two hundred dollars.

C.The best chainsaws cost more than three-hundred-dollars.

Answers:B 12-inch sandwich A one-ton truck B 300-dollar chainsaw

10. Use the underlined phrase to make a compound adjective.

A. He suggested an innovative plan to save money.

B. Her brother had a sharp mind.

C. My cat died suddenly when it was ten years old.


A. He suggested an innovative money-saving plan.

B. Her brother was sharp-minded.

C. My ten-year-old cat died suddenly.

Lesson Transcript of Compound Sentences

Instructor: Mary Firestone

In this lesson, we'll cover compound sentences and how to create them by joining two or
more independent clauses together. Compound sentences differ from other sentence types,
and if you leave out their joining elements, you turn them into run-on sentences. After you
review the lesson, you can test your knowledge of compound sentences with a quiz.


A compound sentence is a sentence that has at least two independent clauses joined by a
comma, semicolon or conjunction. An independent clause is a clause that has a subject
and verb and forms a complete thought.

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An example of a compound sentence is, 'This house is too expensive, and that house is too
small.' This sentence is a compound sentence because it has two independent clauses, 'This
house is too expensive' and 'that house is too small' separated by a comma and the
conjunction 'and.'

Compound Sentences and Meaning

When independent clauses are joined with coordinators (also called coordinating
conjunctions) commas and semicolons, they do more than just join the clauses. They add
meaning and flow to your writing. First let's look at the coordinators you can use to join
independent clauses. They are:







Note that they form the handy mnemonic FANBOYS. The three you will use most often are
'and,' 'but' and 'or.'

Here's an example of how coordinating conjunctions add meaning:

'I think you'd enjoy the party, but I don't mind if you stay home.'

In this sentence, the coordinator 'but' shows a clear relationship between the two
independent clauses, in this case, that the speaker is making a suggestion that the person
being addressed isn't expected to follow it. Without the coordinator 'but,' the relationship isn't
apparent, making the writing choppy and the meaning less clear:

'I think you'd enjoy the party. I don't mind if you stay home.'

You can also join independent clauses with a semicolon (;) , which looks something like a
cross between a colon and a comma. If you join clauses with a semicolon, you add an abrupt
pause, creating a different kind of effect, as shown in the sentence below:

'He said he didn't mind if I stayed home; it soon became clear he wasn't being honest.'
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You should use a semicolon when the independent clauses are related, but contrast in a way
that you want to stand out. In the sentence above, the contrast is that the person being
talked about in the first clause sounded honest when he said he didn't mind if the speaker
stayed home, but in the second clause, the speaker is telling you that the person being
talked about was not honest. You could just as easily have written the sentence using a
coordinating conjunction:

'He said he didn't mind if I stayed home, but it soon became clear he wasn't being honest.'

The sentence still means the same as before, but using the coordinator 'but' softens the
impact of the second clause.

Comparing Sentence Types

Sentences give structure to language, and in English, they come in four types: simple,
compound, complex and compound-complex. When you use several types together, your
writing is more interesting. Combining sentences effectively takes practice, but you'll be
happy with the result.

1. The simple sentence is an independent clause with one subject and one verb. For
example: 'Katniss can survive in the forest.'
2. The compound sentence is, as noted previously, two or more independent clauses
joined with a comma, semicolon or conjunction. For example: 'Katniss can survive in
the forest, and she is a capable archer.'

3. The complex sentence combines independent clauses with dependent clauses. For
example: 'When equipped with her bow and arrows, Katniss can survive in the forest.'

4. The compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and one or
more dependent clauses. For example: 'When carrying her bow and arrows, Katniss
can survive in the forest, and she is a capable archer.'

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4. Robby Lou, English Grammar and How To Use It, E-Plus series.
5. Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar,
Prentice Hall Regent.

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