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Water & Wastewater

Treatment - Clarification
Case Story

The Evitts Creek Plant Replaces Upflow Clarifier

with the Leopold Clari-DAF System to Remove
Raw Water Algae and Manganese

Overview 9 MGD, with peaks of 13 MGD. The influent

turbidity averaged 3 NTU with influent soluble
The Evitts Creek Water Treatment Plant that is
manganese levels averaging 0.1 mg/L, but
owned and operated by the City of
peaking at 0.172 mg/L. Potassium
Cumberland, Maryland is located in Bedford,
permanganate (KMnO4) was fed regularly at
on the border of Pennsylvania near the
the intake for taste and odor control, and to
Maryland panhandle. It provides potable
oxidize the manganese for removal in the
water for Cumberland, as well as other
clarification stage of the treatment process.
surrounding smaller communities in Maryland,
The plant fed inorganic flocculent and polymer
West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Both the
for clarification, caustic for corrosion control,
states of Maryland and Pennsylvania have
fluoride, chlorine for disinfection, and ammonia
regulatory responsibility for this facility. The
to form chloramines to carry the residual
raw water source for the treatment plant
throughout the large distribution system.
influent is Lake Koon, which has a 2.2 billion
gallon capacity that feeds the 1.3 billion gallon
In 1998, in addition to the soluble manganese
Lake Gordon reservoir where the intake
problem, increased agricultural run-off and a
structure is located.
reduction in the surrounding forestry were
causing progressively higher algae blooms
during the summer months. These conditions
were creating severe taste and odor problems,
shortened filter run times, and discoloration
and staining in the distribution system
consumers homes due to manganese.

After investigating alternative clarification

technologies, the citys consulting engineer
recommended installing a dissolved air
flotation (DAF) clarification system, as well as
replacing five filters as the solution to the
problem of increased algae and to improve
manganese removal.
Lake Gordon Reservoir.
Pilot Study
In the summer of 1999, a Leopold state-of-the
Background art DAF mobile pilot plant was brought in to
The originally designed 12 MGD plant had a determine the process effectiveness and
treatment scheme with rapid mix, upflow develop design criteria. The six-week pilot
clarifiers, filters, clearwell, and a contact tank study optimized the inorganic coagulant doses
along with vacuum drying beds for sludge at 15 to 20 mg/L, and was able to achieve an
dewatering. Flow through the plant averaged operating loading rate of 7 gpm/ft2 based on
total area with an efficient recycle flow of 7.8%. control consoles to provide automatic control
The pilot DAF indicated that it could effectively and monitoring of the filter operation backwash
remove algae and manganese, as well as sequence. The new filter system also included
produce a consistent effluent quality for filter the addition of air scour to the backwash
loading, thus maximizing the filter run times procedure.
between backwashes. It would also produce 2%
to 5% sludge solids in the float, which would
reduce the sludge volume to handle and the cost
of further processing by dewatering and hauling
away the sludge solids. In addition, with the
smaller footprint, it allowed the water utility to
handle a proposed 36% increase in ultimate
plant capacity to 15 MGD in the same area for
the proposed new facility.

The Leopold Clari-DAF System

Design/Build Team
After evaluating the success of the pilot study
and visiting several existing dissolved air
flotation installations, Cumberland officials were
The Leopold FilterWorx Filter Control Console.
convinced that a dissolved air flotation system
was the best alternative for the Evitts Creek
treatment scheme. A Design/Build Team
formed between the city, F.B. Leopold, a local Pre- & Post-Clari-DAF System
contractor, and the engineering firm Performance
accomplished the final design and installation in The Clari-DAF effluent turbidity is consistently
June, 2002. The project was completed ahead below 0.2 NTU and has increased filter runs to
of schedule and under budget. It consisted of the Pennsylvania state regulatory recommended
three Clari-DAF systems (designed at 5 MGD maximum of 72 hours. Previously, with the
apiece), each with dual flocculators, basins that upflow clarifier, the filter runs were at 24 hours
are 22 ft wide by 32 ft long by 10 ft deep, and all between backwashes. The taste and odor
the required pumps, saturation tank, and problems have been resolved, soluble
controls. In addition, it involved replacing the manganese in the finished water is now below
existing filters with Leopold Type S 0.02 mg/L, and the process obtains a minimum
Underdrain, Leopold I.M.S. (Integral Media of 85% removal of the incoming algae.
Support) Cap, backwash troughs, sand and
anthracite media, and three dual filter One of the big benefits from the Clari-DAF
operation is the high-solids content of the floated
sludge. As it comes off the top of the unit, it is

The Leopold Clari-DAF system at work. Sludge blanket created by the Leopold Clari-DAF system.
actually diluted to 2% for pumping purposes, The Table below compares the actual plant
and then sent to the belt press that has replaced performance achieved by the two clarification
the vacuum drying beds. The belt press, using processes at the Evitts Creek Treatment Plant.
anionic polymer as a sludge conditioner,
produces sludge cake ranging from 16% to 22% Today, the Clari-DAF systems effluent water
solids. This compares favorably to the drying quality and subsequent filter run times are
beds that produced 5% cake solids and required exceeding expectations. Also, the maintenance
sawdust filler to be added to soak up water for and operations requirements of the Clari-DAF
hauling it to the landfill. The belt press units are less than anticipated, allowing plant
processes a one-week accumulation of sludge in operators extra time to accomplish more tasks
10 to 14 man-hours rather than the 48 to 60 during their regular shift.
man-hours previously required using the drying
Previous Current Clari-
bed. This has reduced the overall operating Parameter
Upflow Unit DAF System
costs of the solids handling and disposal
Raw Water
operation by greater than 60%. 2.0 to 5.0 NTU 2.0 to 5.0 NTU
Raw Water
0.1 to 0.17 mg/L 0.1 to 0.17 mg/L

Effluent Turbidity 1.0 NTU 0.2 NTU

0.05 mg/L 0.02 mg/L

Filter Run Length 24 hours 72 hours

Filter Effluent
0.1 NTU 0.04 NTU
Filter Effluent
0.05 mg/L 0.02 mg/L

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227 South Division Street, Zelienople, PA 16063 USA
Phone: 724-452-6300 Fax: 724-452-1377