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Ciri-ciri Model Pembelajaran 4C

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking is a students ability to move from the lower-order thinking skills of
remembering and understanding to the higher-order skills of applying, analyzing, and
evaluating (see Blooms Revised Taxonomy below).

Through critical thinking, students process information in a variety of ways for example,
through prioritizing, comparing/contrasting, and classifying/categorizing. Learning is real and
relevant, and offers many opportunities for students to discuss the content meaningfully.

Blooms Revised Taxonomy[2]


A Venn diagram is one way to challenge students to think critically about information. A
Venn diagram involves comparing and contrasting, and can be used effectively when
introducing topics. For example, students could place a vocabulary list of sports into a Venn
diagram labeled played indoors, played outdoors, or played both indoors and outdoors.

The teacher could provide the following language prompt to guide students:

Sports name : - indoor sport

outdoor sport
indoor and outdoor sport

Creativity is closely associated with critical thinking, and is placed at the top of Blooms
Revised Taxonomy as one of the highest-order thinking

skills. Creativity allows students to make new connections, to take what they have learned to
solve problems, and to express themselves in unique ways.


Problem-solving offers opportunities for students to be creative. For example, if the lessons
topic is about plants, students can be asked for ideas on how to use plants in or around
school. Students work in small groups to brainstorm ideas and draw illustrations, with the
teacher moving around the room offering language support. Then, in a whole-class activity,
ideas are listed and prioritized on the board.

Possible language prompt:


Collaboration is the ability to work with others, to share ideas, to discuss options, and to
compromise. Working in pairs or small groups is one of the most effective ways for students
to build their social language skills while reinforcing newly learned vocabulary and grammar.


Collaborative projects often involve groups of four students. Students can work together to
create a time capsule, present energy-saving ideas, or report on school news.

Possible language prompts for collaborative dialogue:

In many class activities, teachers can lead students through the following progression to build
collaborative skills:

This gives students the opportunity to first work on their own, then to share their answers or
ideas with a partner, then again in groups of three or four. As the target language is practiced
at each step, students become more able and willing to participate and contribute when the
activity reaches the whole-class stage.


Communication is the means through which critical thinking, creativity, and collaboration
reach their full potential. As students work together to analyze, solve, and create, their
receptive and productive language skills are continually challenged and strengthened.

Incorporating 21st century skills into an ELL classroom offers opportunities for students to
listen, speak, read, and write in ways that are meaningful and intrinsically motivated.
Language is learned and used to achieve individual and group goals. English becomes a
means to an end, a tool through which the world is questioned, discovered, evaluated, and
constructed. This process creates self-motivation, promotes cooperation, and encourages real
communication. Fluency is fostered each and every step of the way.